FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
NEILL RHODES, COMMISSIONER
JULY 1, 1954 TO JUNE 30, 1956
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO. COMMISSIONER
505 WEST ADAMS STREET
Letter of Transmittal
Florida State Marketing Bureau
State of Florida
To His Excellency
Honorable LeRoy Collins
Governor of Florida
have the honor and pride of submitting
herewith the Twentieth Biennial Report
Florida State Marketing Bureau for the
Period July 1, 1954, to June 30, 1956.
State Marketing Commissioner
July 19, 1956
In the buying and selling process of agricultural production, all financially
interested parties should be promptly, accurately and equally well-informed.
Florida farmers place their production into our diversified marketing system which
consists of thousands of individual firms, and market information for those
growers can be the most effectively collected and economically distributed by
State and Federal agencies. They should not, however, replace private initiative
in the marketing process.
Our economy is expanding, its growth involves consideration of an increas-
ing population and a rising standard of living. Our system develops new products
requiring new markets, and markets also for an additional volume of the regularly
The last two-year period has seen notable changes in the marketing of farm
products, not only in the development of new products and methods of processing
them, but in distribution practices. At the same time marketing problems of
farmers have been intensified by rising surpluses and falling prices of their
There is more need than ever for further development in market information,
as substantiated by demands of the Florida cattle industry in the latter part of
1955 for direct cattle sales market reporting, and the poultry industry for full-
time market news poultry and egg reporters for the Tampa and Miami markets, and
poultry and dairy marketing specialist for statewide field service.
Market information is a cornerstone of modern agricultural enterprise.
Everything in everyday use is bought and sold at prices displayed or advertised
competitively except products at the farm. No segment of industry has greater
need for factual data as to the current value of products than agriculture. The
small farmer particularly has neither the finances nor facilities for obtaining
such vital information.
Surplus agricultural production has become one of our major national
problems; often the day-to-day surplus moved in food distribution channels be-
comes of grave concern to the grower and shipper. He cannot afford to move his
products below cost; he cannot actually determine such factors as supply and
demand, movement, distribution, nor evaluate market prices and other conditions
without readily available, reliable market news information.
Official market information offers the grower the means whereby he can dis-
tribute his products so as to avoid market gluts and seek the most favorable
market at any time. It also provides a ready check as to consignment returns.
Consequently, the Florida State Marketing Bureau has gone all out to
provide our farmers such indispensable information as rather detailed comment will
show in the text of this, our Twentieth Biennial Report.
For comparison with current volume, turn page
Shipment of Florida Fruits and Vegetables
By Rail, Boat and Truck
Oranges and Tangerines 13,248 31,1C
Grapefruit 3,913 22,lL
Strawberries 35 8E
Watermelons 6,895 6,66
Other Fruits and Melons 200 33
Mixed or Miscellaneous Vegetables
Total Value to Florida
* 360 boxes per carload
A- Included in mixed or miscellaneous Vegetables
--x- Slight commercial importance but included in mixed or miscellaneous vegetables
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL VALUES OF PRODUCTION 1954-55
ACREAGE DISPOSITION 1954-
1'Trus 497,400 aores, Vegetables 308,450 acres, Other Fruits & Melons 106,650 acres
Pecans 13,000 aores, Tung 30,500 acres
General Crop Land 964,800 acres, Replanted for Pasture 1,133,500 acres
Woodland Pasture 7,278,000 acres, Other Pasture 4,382,000 acres
Crop Land not Pastured 659,000 acres, Woodland not Pastured 1,761,000
Other Land Used (house lots, roads, waste land etc.)
TOTAL LAND USED ACCORDING TO U. S. DEPARtmENT OF AGRJDULTURE CENSUS
Woodland and Other Land not used in Agriculture
TOTAL LAND AREA OF FLORIDA
CITRUS ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
"Oranges Acres 356,400 Garloads 176,472 Units Used 87,900 000
Grapefruit 117,100 69,111 34,640,9000
Tangerines 23900 9 982 4,800,00
MISCELLANEOUS FRUIT ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
Watennelons Acres 18,000 Uarloads 28,425 Units Used 14,500,000(pkg 2 melo:
Strawberries 3,600 503 306,000
Other Fruits 15 050 1847 1201,000
TOTAL 0 166,0 775 516,007,000
VEGETABLE ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
"Beans Aores 67,500 Uarloads 11, 318 Units Used 7,999,000
Celery 9,100 15,668 6,873,000
Potatoes 37,600 18,360 10,070,000
Tomatoes 56,500 29,583 14,442,000
Others 137 750 47 811 21,822,000
TOTAL 38, 61,266,oo66
ALL FRUIT AND VEGETABLE ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE 1954-55 SEASON
TOTAL Acres 912,b50 Uarloads 414,080 Units Used 204,553,000
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA (Jan. 1, 1955) Head Unit Value ,Farm Value G
SCattle 1,737, $ 54.00 $ 3,78,
Beef Cattle and Calves -
Dairy Cattle and Calves -
Hogs and Pigs 436,000 22.20 9,679,000
Others (Including Sheep and Lambs, Goats and Kids, Meat for dog meat, circuses, etc.)
POULTRY, EGGS AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (MILK) FOR 1954
-UTickens Produced. 49,046,000 lbs. fryers-hens-roosters) @ 25.60
Turkeys, Produced 3,397,000 lbso hens-toms-fryers) @ 36o4o
Eggs 42,083,000 doz. (white and brown) C 49.50
Dairy Products 638,000,000 lbs. of milk 6 7.10
TOTAL POULTRY, EGGS AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
GENERAL FIELD CROPS ACREAGE,
Sugar Cane and Seed
Cow peas for peas only
PRODUCTION AND FARM VALUE 1954
$ 14 500,0
ROSS INCOME 19
$ 37,218 10
1 700 0
45 507 0'
MISCELLANEOUS CROPS AND SPECIALTIES 1954
Pecans 13,000 acres
Tung Nuts 30,500 acres
Honey & Wax(238,000 colonies) 17,894,000 lbs.
Gladiolus 10,680 acres
Other Nursery Products
TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS CROPS AND SPECIALTIES
lbs. @ $0.304
tons 0 61.00
AGRICULTURAL GROUP SALES
Citrus Fruits 497,400 acres 255,565 carloads
Miscellaneous Fruits and Melons 117,950 30,775 "
Vegetables 309,500 122 740 "
TOTAL FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 924,850 407080 "
LIVESTOCK;POULTRY,EGG MILK SALES;GEN.FIEID CROPSMISCELIANEOUS CROPS & SPECIALTIES
GRAND TOTAL FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL GROSS VALUE - - - - - - - - - - -
232 228 OC
$ 17 /377,
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
If our Twentieth Biennial Report merely combined the last two Annual Fruit
and Vegetable Reports of the Florida State Marketing Bureau, it would require 282
closely lined pages. Some additional 86 pages would be necessary to reproduce the
two most recent Marketing Florida Citrus Summaries. The seasonal summaries cover-
ing all products included from all Federal-State field offices releasing them
would swell the total another 162 pages. Thus a grand total of 530 pages.
Obviously only the highlights of Bureau service during the last two years, with
due regard to the reader, can appropriately be reviewed in this report.
In writing a resume of a two-year period of service, I prefer to minimize
rather than exaggerate our scope of activities. The report will not be glamor-
ized nor comment slanted to draw favorable attention upon the work and responsi-
bilities of the Commissioner. Instead the pitch of the contents will be to credit
the efficient staff and clerical force of the Bureau with its accomplishments.
Having the utmost confidence in the Specialists assigned, I have delegated an
exceptional degree of responsibility to them. The Commissioner has made no at--
tempt to play all positions on the team, and will not herein claim to have "won
the ball game."
Efficiency of the Bureau personnel, office and field, has been a major ob-
jective: Selection of younger employees, in both replacements and additions, who
may be trained and obtain by practical experience the fundamentals for continuing
the high standard of service established and maintained under the administration
of my beloved father, L. M. Rhodes, and myself- long after the day of my retire-
Another worthy objective has been expanding the Bureau facilities for service
along conservative and strictly essential lines, in conformity with demands from
the agricultural industry. For example, the Florida Agricultural Council urgently
requested the employment of an Assistant Market News Specialist for devoting full
time to quoting poultry and eggs on the Tampa market, and an Assistant Poultry
Specialist in Bureau headquarters for statewide coverage. The request and recom-
mendation were approved by the West Coast Poultry Producers Association (four
counties) and concurred in by resolution of the Florida State Poultry Producers
Association, Highlands County Farm Bureau and Florida State Farm Bureau. These
assignments naturally required additional stenographic help.
The 1955 Legislature provided the necessary funds and the representative for
the Tampa market was assigned Sept. 19, 1955. The representative added to the
Bureau staff reported for duty Sept. 1, 1955. An extra stenographer was employed
in the Bureau main offices August 15, 1955.
By supplementary provision in the Cooperative Agreement between the UoSo
Department of Agriculture and the State Marketing Bureau, a full-time Federal mar-
ket news representative was placed in the Bureau offices for quoting the ;Jackson-
ville poultry and egg and the Northeast Florida poultry market daily. The assign-
ment was completed Oct.) 17, 1955. The first official Northeast Florida farm sales
prices on broilers and fryers were reported by the Bureau April 4, 1955o
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Evidence that the demand for Bureau service increases faster than funds are
appropriated to provide it was shown by the request of the Florida Interim Poultry
Committee to assign a full-time Poultry and Egg Market News Reporter for quoting
the Miami market. Since Bureau funds were insufficient, the Committee requested
Commissioner Mayo to transfer from the Poultry Division salary and expense allot-
ments for starting the service in 1956. Commissioner Mayo cooperated whole-
heartedly, arranged for the fund transfer, and the representative was selected, re-
ported to Jacksonville offices for preliminary training May 28, and to Miami
Attaching significance to proper accounting of State funds, I mention here
rather than at the conclusion of this report that the Bureau has kept within
appropriation limits. Detailed-beyond-requirement budget requests have been sub-
mitted. An itemized inventory of all Bureau property has been kept currently re-
vised. Fire insurance on equipment and plate glass insurance on windows and letter-
ing has been continuously in force. The Bureau has promptly, legally and minutely
accounted for all receipts and disbursements. Competitive bids were obtained on
general purchases of supplies amounting to $100 or more.
The departure from direct limited handling of products in the early pioneer-
ing days of the Bureau has been justified and confirmed as wise decision by agri-
cultural demand for service which falls outside competitive, commercial endeavor.
For example, at the mid-year meeting of the Florida Cattlemen's Association this
resolution was adopted, pertaining to market reports:
WHEREAS the only official market news available in Florida comes
from auction markets, and
WHEREAS thousands of cattle are sold directly to packers and do
not go through an auction market,
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the State Marketing Bureau and the
University of Florida are hereby asked to set up machinery for
securing reports of direct sales from packers, ranchers, or both.
The Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association in Annual Convention, Miami, Fla.,
Sept. 29, 1954, passed this resolution: "We respectfully request the $5000 item
included in the appropriation of the Florida State Marketing Bureau in the general
Appropriation Act as provided by the Legislature of 1953 for Association expendi-
ture in connection with tariff and other similar duties."
An illustration of how one segment of Florida agriculture is served through
the market news project of the Bureau is ably pointed up in the December 1955
issue of The Citrus Industry magazine by Mr. Herb Mosher. Quoting in part from
the article on Federal-State Market News Service:
"What does Willson (Note: In Charge Lakeland Citrus Market
News offices) do for the citrus industry today? Well, for one
thing, there is that 'daily citrus report' which tells as
much about the markets as it is possible to know.
"Almost everyone in the industry gets this report.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
"Willson's 'daily report', issued 5 times weekly, includes
such information as rail shipments to leading markets from
Florida, Texas, California, Arizona, Louisiana also truck
movements from Florida, California, and Texas. There is a
breakdown on 'rail' for 'east, west, south' also a breakdown
on rail shipments, Indian River section of Florida. The num -
ber of boxes of fruit 'processed' each day, and to same date
this year and last year.... will be found, easily, on the
bulletin. There is much auction data. This is sub-divided into
'interior' and 'Indian River'. These 'weighted averages' on
the ten (10) auctions are furnished to the industry through
the cooperation of Florida Citrus Exchange, and this arrange-
ment has continued right down through the years. The daily
sheet is one of the most important items to arrive each day,
in the citrus sales rooms of Florida.
"The 'weekly auction summary', with prices for l's and 2's,
covering the terminal markets completely, is Florida's
'citrus history' of great importance to sales managers. The
'daily sheet' also tells about car arrivals, by states of
origin, for the terminal markets. Number of cars on track,
cars unloaded... on 16 cities 'arrivals and number of cars on
track', plus 'truck receipts on 12 leading markets' all this,
and much more data are included. There are jobbingg prices'
for Atlanta and New Orleans.
"There are two completely new ideas of information on Willson's
daily citrus report sheet this year.First, Fred Motz and Don
Rubel of the U.S.Department of Agriculture's foreignn agricul-
tural service' are furnishing Willson with weekly data on the
European fruit auctions. Typical: London, Antwerp, Hamburg,
and Rotterdam report on fruit received from such places as
South Africa, Surinam, Florida, Brazil, Honduras, Israel, Cali-
fornia, and other exporting areas.
"Secondly, there is now the consolidated report of rail-truck
receipts, car lots and car lot equivalents, in 29 markets. 'We
hope to increase this from the present 29 to around 75 cities,
Mr. Willson told me, late in October, as this little article
was being finished up for The Citrus Industry magazine.
"Willson's daily sheet also gives, once a month, a report on
unloads (rail) for 100 cities in the United States, plus 5
"The 'CND Service' (Commercial News Dispatch) goes out from
time to time, each day, by telegraph, to most of the citrus
sales offices of Florida, and to many other interested parties.
As fast as market news of importance is received... out it
goes! There is a 'nominal rate' on this sort of telegraphic
service. There is complete auction information by CND. Also,
the Associated Press is a subscriber to this service and
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Willson's data are thereby circulated through the newspapers,
via AP, to all points carrying such news about Florida citrus.
The Federal-State office calls a number of citrus offices
collect, each day, by pre-arrangement, as quickly as the im-
portant market news comes to Lakeland.
"Who pays for this Federal-State citrus service which has
served the industry so long? Well, it is divided 50-50 be-
tween the U.S.Department of Agriculture and the Florida State
Marketing Bureau. Neill Rhodes is Commissioner of the Florida
Bureau, while Si Smith, Director of the Fruit and Vegetable
Division (USDA) and C.D.Schoolcraft, head of the market news
branch... figure prominently in the Federal setup."
The following summaries of activities of several Federal-State Market News
Stations for the 1955-56 season were prepared by the Federal represent atives in
Plant City Section Federal-State Market News
The Plant City operation is divided into two parts. The first concerns
STRAWBERRIES & MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLES, and the second deals with Watermelons.
Actually, there is some overlapping during the last half of April until the office
closes around May 20. Nevertheless, even during that period two separate reports
are issued daily and are sent out on separate mailing lists.
The first report Strawberries & Miscellaneous Vegetables is principally
designed for the intensive use on Florida's Gulf Coast. The mailing list con-
sists of 230 names, but many more use the report in other forms. The two large
Tampa newspapers, The Tribune and the Daily Times, publish the shipping point
information covering all West Coast commodities. That is furnished the Tribune
by collect Western Union message each night. The Times, being an afternoon paper,
obtains the information by mail. WFLA, the Tampa NBC radio outlet, uses the re-
port on a noon broadcast, and their coverage is extensive. We send our f.o.b. out
on the leased wire as well as by Western Union collect to the Translux Crispo
Corporation for national dissemination.
To publish the Plant City report requires contacting about 10-20 shippers
or others vital in the shipping point markets. The number varies according to
the intensity of the activity along the West Coast. Our area extends from
Webster to Immokalee including Wauchula, Plant City, Dover, Ruskin, Palmetto,
Bradenton, Sarasota, Ft. Myers and surrounding areas.
The daily report contains the shipping point markets which are originated
by this office as well as those received over the leased wire from offices cover-
ing commodities of interest to growers and others on the West Coast. Other
information includes the carlot shipments and Florida outbound truck passing
which we show for the past week by days for the items considered important to the
area we cover. We also include the Tampa vegetable market. The report contains
various markets received by leased wire from large northern and midwestern
cities, and in addition to vegetables and strawberries, the New York City gladiolus
market. A report showing track holdings and arrivals in 16 principal cities as
well as truck receipts in 12 of those cities is shown in addition to a new report
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
called "Consolidated Report of Rail & Truck Receipts in 31 Markets." We have this
year added to our report a summary of the pounds of strawberries packed by pro-
cessors by week, and the seasonal total to date.
A strawberry seasonal summary is published each year covering a review of
the marketing of that crop.
Leesburg Section Federal-State Market News
The WATERMELON report deals with that commodity only and reports begin in
Plant City around April 20, and continue at Leesburg, Fla., from May 20-June 20.
Generally, it takes about 10-15 calls to obtain the market, but a heavy
traffic of incoming calls too numerous to count- causes a multitude of inter-
ruptions. Most telephone requests are for local prices and shipments, but there
are some inquiries for 16 cities, and prices at terminals, principally the New
York City auction. Several members of the trade call in person at our office
daily to obtain latest information, but the biggest help in getting the informa-
tion out fast is the B & 0 railroad freight solicitor, who picks up 50-75 copies
of the report daily just as soon as the report is off the mimeograph and dis-
tributes them to hotels and to shippers' offices so that they do not have to call
in for information in the afternoon.
The mailing list has about 1000 names generally with an extra 200 or 300
during the circularization period. The Tampa Tribune, Leesburg and Gainesville
daily papers all publish the f.o.b. and shipments in their papers. In addition,
the United Press picks up the f.o.b. from the Atlanta Office of Information
Services, as it comes from the leased wire, and they in turn release it to
numerous radio stations throughout the Southeast. We also call Crispo collect in
New York each morning and supply them with the f.o.b. as well as put it on the
leased wire. In addition to this, there has been an average of about 5 daily
collect telegrams to individuals released each morning.
We publish in the report the daily shipments by rail and the Florida out-
bound truck passings for a week back as well as the totals to date compared with
last season. There is also a shipper's service temperature bulletin showing
future temperature outlook at various terminals which is received over leased
wire. Watermelon consumption fluctuates considerably according to temperatures
so this report is considered quite important. There is also a report of destina-
tions of rail cars as they pass important junctions which we receive by Western
Union from railroads supplemented some by leased wire. This passing report has
been very effective in enabling shippers to keep markets from being clogged with
supplies during periods of slow demand. The second page of the report contains
the various terminal markets, as well as 16 cities and 12 cities truck. No doubt
this year we will add the Consolidated 31 city report.
A seasonal summary is published each year covering a review of the marketing
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Belle Glade Section Market News
The mailing list of the Belle Glade office will average about 350 for the
season. 25-50 reports are picked up or delivered daily.
Daily telephone calls to obtain market conditions in the shipping point
areas covered by this office include 25 in the Lake Okeechobee area, 5-8 in the
Homestead area December through April, 3-5 in the Fort Pierce area during the
fall and spring tomato season, 3-5 in the Fort Myers-Immokalee area in the fall
before Plant City opens, 2 in Pompano during November and April, and 1 in Wauchula
during the fall cucumber season. Approximately 15 personal calls, including 3-5
long distance calls, are answered daily to furnish shipping point and terminal
market data. A copy of the daily f.o.b. market, originated in this office, is
wired to Translux Crispo in New York. Practically all large shipping concerns
use this Crispo service and the information is on their teletype early the next
Weekly interviews with reporters for the Packer,and Miami, West Palm Beach,
St. Petersburg, Tampa, Belle Glade, and Pahokee newspapers provide information
for weekly articles in them.
A daily radio release, sponsored by the Kilgore Seed Company, is voiced over
the Belle Glade station, WSWN. This release consists of shipping point conditions
in the areas covered by this office, the Pompano f.o.b. market, and as much other
Florida shipping point information received by teletype as the allowed time of
5-7 minutes permits.
During the last two years in the Lake area, each shipper's daily outbound
package count by commodity has been collected in addition to the usual information.
Since each shipper is called daily, when the calls have been completed, the pack-
age count is totalled and converted to carlot equivalents. This gives an accu-
rate estimate of the movement from this particular area, and is of considerable
interest to the local vegetable industry. Since it is only an estimate, it is not
published on the daily report, but provides added interest to the radio release
and newspaper articles.
The mimeograph report, as much as space permits, contains all information
relevant to marketing the commodities grown in the areas covered by this office.
Other than the information acquired by telephone, all is received on the teletype
connected to our leased wire system. This information includes daily national
rail and boat shipments; intrastate daily truck shipments from Florida, Texas,
and California; consolidated report of rail and truck receipts in 31 markets;
16 cities rail track and arrivals; 12 cities truck receipts, shipping point
information from various field stations throughout the country; individual ter-
minal daily releases that include weather conditions, track holdings and arrivals,
truck receipts and selling prices of the commodities in which there is the most
interest. The aim of the entire report is to inform interested individuals and
firms of the national marketing situation and broaden their supply and distribu-
A summary of each season's marketing is compiled and published in book form
at the end of the season. It includes information from the Belle Glade, Plant
City and Pompano offices and covers most producing sections in South Florida.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Each commodity is indexed separately and each category includes growing and mar-
keting highlights, packaging and grading techniques, varieties, acreage and pro-
duction statistics, weekly shipment and arrival data and weekly selling price
ranges in producing sections and terminal markets.
New services added during the past two years include the consolidated report
of arrivals and receipts in 31 markets and California truck shipments. The
format of the report has been changed to provide readability in accordance with
the theory that the many details contained in it need to be easily distinguish-
able from each other. Other new services previously mentioned include the col-
lection of local carlot equivalent movement and voicing the local radio broadcast.
Pompano Beach Section Market News
There are approximately 90 reports issued for the active season at the
Pompano Beach State Farmers Market. The report contains the daily volume moved
by truck and rail from the market, which is obtained from the market manager's
office. Florida truck passing and total U.S. shipments obtained from the leased
wire are also contained in the report. Shipping point prices for commodities at
Belle Glade and Plant City are carried on the report in addition to the prevailing
prices at Pompano Beach. The back of the report contains current prices at termi-
nal markets of the same commodities shipped from the State Farmers' Market. The
second side of the sheet also contains the arrivals by truck and rail at 12 and
16 of the major cities respectively. A recent new addition is the consolidated
report of truck and rail receipts at 31 major markets which is also carried on the
back side. This is broken down by commodities and States of origin.
There are 290 names on the mailing list at present which is continually
growing. In addition to the above mailed reports, there are about 175-200 reports
distributed daily to the trade on the shed. All of the contacts for market in-
formation are personal and not by phone. There are several calls nightly by a
few growers and shippers who request early market information. A daily wire
containing market information is sent to Crispo via Western Union. An average
of about 30 trade contacts is made every night for the securing of market infor-
mation. The U.S.D.A. Market Reporter at Belle Glade broadcasts the Pompano Beach
State Farmers' Market prices during the noon farm program over WSWN. The Ft.
Lauderdale Daily News publishes the daily prices at the State Farmers' Market.
The newspaper reporter secures this information from this office every morning
Sanford Section Market News
The report issued is primarily a CELERY report, but information is carried
during the season on cabbage, cauliflower, corn and escarole in addition to the
celery information. The report carries shipment information, both rail and truck,
and a breakdown of celery shipments from Florida by districts. It also carries
f.o.b. information of competing areas. Also prices, arrivals and track holdings
in important markets, together with 16 cities track holdings and arrivals, also
arrivals by truck. This is the only CELERY report issued by the Market News
Service in the United States. This perhaps is due to the fact that Sanford is at
the center of what used to be the most important celery district in the country
and the largest grower and shipper in the State has headquarters in the San-0-Zell
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Number on mailing list 155-160. In addition h0 reports delivered personally.
Phone calls 15 firms daily to give shipment and price information, 12-20
firms call in the afternoon for price information on celery and other commodities.
Some of these calls are made in person. h calls daily to Hastings to get and give
information on cabbage from January to April. h calls daily throughout season to
Oviedo for information on celery and other commodities. One call daily to SAL
Railway Agent at Oviedo to get shipment information from him and to give him the
shipments on a number of commodities which he in turn gives to shippers in that
area making this information available to them early in the day without additional
LD calls. In addition a number of calls are received from persons interested in
some market or shipment information throughout the season.
Buyers or other interested persons call at the office in person for various
types of market information either on the local situation or some particular
As a proof of the fact that the Sanford market reports are wanted regularly
I cite the fact that at the close of last season we had 152 on the mailing list
and practically all of these replied to the circularization notice sent out this
year at the beginning of the season and some new names have been added during the
Hastings Section Market News
The outstanding feature of the Hastings Market News Office on potatoes is
its geographical location in the heart of the producing area, and the type of
work entailed thereby, which differs from many other market news operations.
Potatoes are produced in the Hastings district largely in the Counties of
Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns. This includes an area roughly triangular in
shape, bounded by St. Augustine and Tocoi on the north, Palatka on the west,
going into an apex at Bunnell on the south. Hastings is about in the geo-
graphical center of this area. Many of the larger shippers have their head-
quarters there, and most buyers and many brokers are either located there, or
make it a base of their operations.
With the market news office located in Hastings, it thus is in the midst of
shipping and marketing. Many of the shippers and brokers are within a compara-
tively few yards of the office, or a few minutes' walk. Thus the work of the
market news office is largely on a personal basis, by visits, rather than by
telephone as is common in many market news offices. As the information from
other markets is received, it is available within minutes by anyone interested
in making a visit to the office.
The outstanding service rendered to shippers and growers from the Hastings
office is a delivery service of the current day's market report each afternoon
about 3 P.M. About 50 reports are so delivered around the town. Thus fresh
marketing information is available long before mail delivery the following day.
At the same time, the f.o.b. prices are secured, and this method is more satis-
factory in the form of personal visits by the local representative than by
limited telephone conversations. While it is necessary to phone a few shippers
in outlying districts, such calls are at a minimum, and most of the f.o.b.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
information is secured by personal visits while delivering the reports. In most
cases, receivers of these reports immediately scan them eagerly, and many times
interested parties are waiting in the market news office for the printing.
The number of names on the mailing list as of April 26 was 191. Of these,
115 were for Florida delivery. One night telegram is sent daily to the Trans-
Lux Crispp Corp. of New York City, where the f.o.b. material therein is wired
over their telegraph circuit to subscribers the following morning. Incoming
telephone calls average 8 to 12 daily. These are of varied nature, mostly re-
quests by shippers outside of Hastings wishing current f.o.b. information, or by
some of the trade in Hastings not wishing to make a personal call, and requesting
information from city markets or from competing shipping sections. There has
been an increase in long-distance incoming calls. One interested party calls from
Chicago practically daily, and sometimes twice daily. Another factor has called
from the competing shipping section of Bakersfield, California.
A rough daily average of personal visits to the office might be set at 15.
Most of the personal calls are made by the local Representative to the trade,
personal calls to the office are numerous.
A new service started this season is the broadcasting of f.o.b. prices and
marketing conditions daily by radio station WWPF at Palatka. These are included
daily each noon with other market reports, originating elsewhere. There is no
radio station in Hastings.
The mimeographed report issued five times weekly consists of running tables
of shipments of new potatoes for the past 15 days, with the totals to date this
season and last, and the grand total last season. Carlot rail shipments for about
the same period for each billing station within the entire Hastings area, with
the same totals, are included. Estimated truck shipments from the Hastings area,
with similar totals, are included for about a 15-day period. Other running
tables include truck shipments and passing from the new potato states, such as
California, Florida and Texas for about a 10-day period; truck receipts in 12
leading markets for about 12 days; arrivals and cars on track ih 16 cities for
about the past 9 days.
Other information on the report includes carlot rail shipments of potatoes
for the preceding day; consolidated report of rail and truck receipts in 31 mar-
kets for the most recent day available, and f.o.b. information in competing
shipping sections for the preceding day. The latter, during the entire Hastings
season, usually includes Dade County and Lake Okeechobee sections of Florida,
Foley, Ala., and Bakersfield, California.
City markets, covering early morning arrivals, cars on track and prices of
new potatoes are included daily, also the market tone, cars on track and arrivals,
but not prices, of old stock. These markets include Boston, New York, Philadel-
phia, Baltimore, Atlanta, New Orleans, Birmingham, Dallas, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati,
Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City and Minneapolis.
Weekly notes from New York, Chicago and Philadelphia pertaining to potatoes
are published. About once a month information, largely of a production nature,
as issued by the Crop Reporting Board, is included.
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
From the opening of the office, and continuing about three weeks, informa-
tion on cabbage, very much like that outlined for potatoes, is included in the
daily mimeographed report, and f.o.b. information is likewise secured. Shipment
of cabbage is usually finished from the Hastings section by the end of April, or
shortly before, then this information is dropped. There is not as much interest
locally in the cabbage information as in potatoes, but enough to warrant the
operation of the service.
Some brokers,shippers and buyers operating in the Hastings potato deal are
likewise interested in watermelons. As considerable watermelon information
comes in over the teletype, they are furnished with such as is available. No
watermelon information is published or secured locally, however.
In connection with the mailing list and distribution of the potato reports,
it should be added that one broker, buying largely for potato chip manufacturers,
secures 33 copies of our report daily, for mailing out under postage to his
customers. This adds to the distribution of the reports with very little added
work or cost on our part.
Fruit and Vegetable Specialist Bureau Offices
There are two phases of work of the Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Specialist
in the Bureau's Jacksonville office: (1) collecting factual price information on
agricultural commodities, (2) compiling market news reports and preparing the
annual agricultural summary. In the process of price collecting, this reporter
covers the fruit and vegetable market prices on the local wholesale market, co-
operates by replacing the Jacksonville Federal Poultry & Egg Reporter while he is
on field trips and collects direct livestock sales from the local packers each
Thursday afternoon. Before mid-October 1955 the Fruit and Vegetable Marketing
Specialist also was directly responsible for obtaining the poultry and egg market
price data in Jacksonville. These duties have now been taken over and expanded
by a full time Federal-State Poultry & Egg Marketing Specialist.
In a somewhat broad sense the Jacksonville fruit and vegetable market work
goes like this. Each morning the reporter spends one to two hours collecting and
editing market price information on the local fruit and vegetable items. During
the more active trading days of the working week it is advisable to contact the
trade personally as more exacting information may be secured through personal
interview. On the local market we are primarily concerned with prices of Florida
grown produce which is of value to the fruit and vegetable industry of the State.
There is some Florida produce that is used principally within the State such as
broccoli, greens of all types, green peanuts, green onions, cantaloupes and man-
goes, also a large portion of the avocados, limes, Iceberg lettuce, okra, and
cauliflower. These Florida items and many more are followed currently for the
benefit of interested growers. Nine leading State newspapers offer excellent
dissemination of these market quotations. Good market news data not only give
the industry daily current information but also give a historical price series
for future reference which is so vital when thinking of possible expansion or
diversification of acreage.
The Jacksonville wholesale dealers, who have recently made heavy financial
investments in a new produce terminal, have requested for a number of years mar-
ket news coverage on 7-10 out-of-state commodities. It has not been possible to
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
honor this request until recently when a Federal-State Poultry and Egg Market News
Reporter was added to the Bureau's staff, thereby freeing the Fruit and Vegetable
Market News Reporter of the poultry and egg market news work.
During this past biennial period, as previously mentioned, some of the Fruit
and Vegetable Reporter's time was devoted to the Jacksonville poultry and egg
market news work. It was one of the most enjoyable tasks that I performed be-
cause of the immense amount of interest in price information by all segments of
the poultry and egg industry producer, dealer, wholesaler and buyer. At the
time of market advances and declines there generally always exists controversy
about the reported price. Actually this is a healthy market news situation as it
keeps a reporter alert to all conditions of the market, helps him to be truly the
"eyes and the ears" of the industry which he is serving. Frankly, stable market
conditions are the most difficult to keep posted on as you can't cross-check in-
formation as easily due to lack of controversial trade talk. Likewise, if a
stable market always prevailed you wouldn't need a market newsman to cover such
The routine for reporting the Jacksonville egg market was briefly as fol-
lows: (Poultry had a somewhat similar routine) My first obligation to the State
of Florida and to the egg industry was to quote the market as it existed in
Jacksonville. The value of any agricultural product is determined by those who
buy and sell that product. As a special service to the trade, the Bureau issues
a preliminary egg market on Monday at 9 A.M. in order that interested persons
can familiarize themselves with the trend of the local situation. Each afternoon
after 3 P.M. Monday through Friday, there were an average of twelve calls made to
collect and cross-check market price information. On Wednesday to further cross-
check out information, a certain number of retail store managers were contacted
by phone for their demand and store price data. On Friday eighteen to twenty
calls were made to collect the weekly quantity of Florida and shipped-in eggs
arriving in Jacksonville as well as the prices. Once a month, the reporter made
a trip to Nassau County to interview large producers and dealers who could not be
contacted by phone. After thoroughly canvassing the trade each day the reporter
could then assure himself that the market data he released represented the cur-
rent day's trading. When a reporter is writing an unbiased opinion of the Jack-
sonville market or any market, it is necessary to show the prices as a reporter
finds them whether the prices are higher or lower on any particular day.
The article published in the Florida For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin,
"Objectives of the Federal Market News Service for Dairy and Poultry Products"
May 15, 1954 by Mr. L. M. Davis, Chief, Market News Dairy and Poultry Branch,
USDA, Washington, may have been dull reading for many poultrymen, but it should
impress upon them that there are many technical angles and local situations which
they must consider to make market news information workable for all segments of
the poultry and egg industry operating in a democracy. The Florida For Sale,
Want and Exchange Bulletin editorial "Jacksonville Egg Marketing" by this report-
er gives many facts regarding the local trading situation.
At the request of the broiler industry members, a Northeast Florida broiler
market was established in April of 1955. This market price to the growers covers
over 95 percent of the broilers produced in Northeast Florida. Each day all com-
mercial processors were phoned for their daily receipts and prices paid by the
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Federal-State Quoting Jacksonville Poultry and Eggs
To further aid the poultry and egg industry, market-newswise, Commissioner
Rhodes and Assistant Commissioner Risher through their efforts of the past
several years were able to set up a Federal-State Market News Agreement for Jack-
sonville poultry and egg market news. Mr. J. M. Doris of the U.S.D.A. Dairy and
Poultry Market News Service was assigned to our office, and he comes to us with
five years of experience as the Poultry and Egg Market News Reporter in the city
Federal-State Poultry-Egg Quotes
The following report by Mr. Doris summarizes and explains the Federal-State
reporting of the Jacksonville and Northeast Florida poultry and egg market since
It is my belief that any Dairy and Poultry Market Reporter looks to
his job as being one of pleasure, satisfaction, and indeed involving
many interesting conversations and experiences. Undoubtedly, the most
important duty is in editing the egg and poultry report which covers
the Jacksonville and Northeast Florida area. First of all, as is the
requirement for reporting a market on any type of product, information
must be obtained. This is accomplished after competing 25-30 phone
calls each day to various trade contacts including dealers, producers
and retailers. After this information is compiled, it is arranged into
readable form for publication. Currently, approximately 700 names are
listed in our active files to receive the Semi-Weekly Report which is
mailed Tuesday and Friday of each week. Monday through Friday copies
of the market reports are distributed to all disseminating agencies. In
turn, press associations relay this news to the other users in the
State, such as newspapers and radio stations. An example of this kind
of news coverage can be witnessed by viewing the morning and afternoon
shows of a local telecasting company. These programs list prices on
most all types of local farm commodities.
The most recent addition to our service is the ready-to-cook poultry
market. Initiated February 15th, its popularity continues to increase
throughout the trade. Up to now, Jacksonville is one of only nineteen
cities in the country reporting this type of information.
Butter and cheese markets carried on the local reports is an example
of some of the news available to local dairies and other dealers
handling these products.
Since most of the market information is obtained by use of telephone,
incoming and outgoing calls are numerous. Without the slightest doubt,
it is conceded that at least half the hours in the average working day
are consumed in conversation. Some nineteen to twenty of what may be
termed as service calls are completed to producers and dealers whenever
a price change occurs. Depending on the importance of a particular
market day, eight to fifteen requests primarily for price information
are received daily. An average of fifteen to twenty telegrams are re-
layed each week to receivers located in different parts of the State.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
In concluding this intended brief report, a part time function of this
office is well worth the mention. It has been a pleasure, but most of
all a worthwhile experience to stand in as a substitute Fruit and Vege-
table reporter. This flexibility in use of personnel clearly indicates
the close cooperation attained between these two departments.
Tampa Poultry and Egg Quotations
Since mid-September 1955 one of our Tampa Market News Specialists has de-
voted full-time to quoting the Tampa poultry and egg market. Of all products
included in our extensive Market News Service, none are subjected to as critical
scrutiny as egg quotations, and in no section has the quote been under more "fire"
than the Tampa area. The daily quote is the most widely used, yet the task of
arriving at the daily quotation the most thankless of any public service dis-
charged according to my analysis. For performing a difficult assignment so
thoroughly and competently in a relatively short time,the.Specialist is given
credit due by the Bureau. Briefly the following report outlines his service in
the last eight months:
Upon release from the United States Air Force on September 17, 1955, I
went to Jacksonville on September 19, 1955, for special training to pre-
pare me for the job as market news reporter (eggs and poultry products)
in Tampa. In Jacksonville I trained under the very able guidance of
Mr. E. F. Scarborough, a specialist in market news, fruits and vege-
tables, and at that time also in eggs and poultry products.
Much of my work the first few months at Tampa was done in getting
orientated into the city and surrounding areas in regards to what
dealers and producers were here, and who was there, and the part or
significance each was to play in our market news work. Also much
study was given to the specific problems confronting our Tampa market.
Mr. F. L. Lothamer, the reporter prior to me, was most helpful espec-
ially in the orientation, and in introducing me around to the local
While the problems of the local marketing situation are still many, and
there is much work to be done in eliminating these problems, I do feel
that some progress towards a more stable market has been made. A great
deal of my time has been spent in getting acquainted with people
(producers, dealers, retailers, feed dealers, Extension Service per-
sonnel, radio and T.V. announcers, and newspaper men) who are directly
or indirectly connected with the poultry and egg industry. Seldom
have I missed an opportunity to attend local producer and association
meetings. Public relations work along these lines will be continued.
It is the aim and purpose of any good market news reporter to report
the market, at any time on any given product, as the situation actually
exists. In Tampa the actual situation has been rather difficult to
determine at times due to the unwillingness of many dealers to take
the initiative in establishing a price. Not only has this been a
problem in Tampa, but also at one time or another many markets over the
country have experienced the same difficulty. This is the greatest
single problem confronting the Tampa market today.
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
In collecting market news information for daily market releases there
are twenty to twenty-five egg producers, retailers, jobbers and whole-
salers contacted. Some of these are not contacted very often because
their volume is small, and their outlets are through sources that are
contacted regularly. Ten to twelve of the dealers are contacted daily,
or at least every other day. Information concerning prices, supply
and demand,and the general feeling of the market is received through
these contacts. The information is then put into readable form and
released for public dissemination. The reported prices serve as a
basis for trading for many, and affect everyone from producer to ulti-
mate consumer. Nine copies of the report are made up and sent to the
following agencies: one copy to WFLA adio, WFLA T.V., Radio Station
WHBO,- newspapers Tampa Daily Times, Tampa Tribune, St. Petersburg
Times, and United Press, one copy is sent to the State Marketing
Bureau Office in Jacksonville, and the other copy is retained in the
Tampa office. Each time there is a price change fourteen telegrams
are sent collect to those who want the information as soon as possible
after a change is made.
As an added service for the egg industry of the local area, the Tampa
office started in January of this year to issue a weekly inventory of
total receipts for the week, and the number of eggs the dealers have on
hand each Friday when the report is issued. Also carried is a summary
of the market conditions and activities for the week. To some degree
the report acts as a barometer in keeping current with the market
trends and conditions.
To conserve space I will only say that the poultry market news and
information is gathered in the same manner, and disseminated through
the same channels as the above routine on eggs.
It is indeed a pleasure to work for the State Marketing Bureau and
with the growing poultry industry of the Tampa Bay area.
General Service, Market News Specialist, Bureau Headquarters
Most of the activity of the Bureau's general market news specialist concerns
the Fruit and Vegetable Market News Section. However, in this office it is nec-
essary to overlap into other fields of agricultural marketing in order to be of
greatest value to the Bureau and help to the industry. The phase of the Fruit and
Vegetable Marketing Specialist work dealing with market price collection was
previously mentioned. The other phases of market news is covered here.
One of the most important releases we issue in the Fruit and Vegetable
Section is the daily four-page Fruit and Vegetable Report during the commercial
truck crop season from about November 1 to June 30. This report carries rail
and truck shipments in tabular form with seasonal comparison. The "16 cities rail
and 12 cities truck" serves as a barometer of trading as does the new "Consoli-
dated Rail and Truck Arrivals in 31 Cities". These show the flow of fruits and
vegetables in major markets. and indicate surpluses and shortages when they exist.
Other pages of the report show prices in leading Florida terminal markets, prices
at shipping points, and prices in leading Eastern, Midwestern and Southern cities.
At the beginning and the closing of the season we are developing line graphs
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
to use in our report which will give the growers a supply and demand story at a
glance for the various types of truck crops. Each month at the request of a large
growers' association, we show weekly Florida fruit and vegetable rail and truck
shipments and imports through Florida ports. This has been a popular addition.
The one-page Avocado-Lime-Mango Report is released daily from June 15
through October 31. Since avocados, limes and mangoes are principally consigned
to terminals, the daily market prices in the various cities and shipments from
Florida are especially valuable to this South Florida industry. During the com-
ing season we will be able to add receipts in all the 20 out-of-State markets on
which price information is shown.
The Florida Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report, which also carries Livestock,
Field Crops, Poultry and Eggs, and other phases of the State's agriculture,has
been an outgrowth of the numerous requests and anticipation of requests. The
statistics for the annual report are obtained from 20 different State, Federal,
and industry sources as well as some of our own original data. The annual report
is an off and on job the whole year around with the summer and fall months fill-
ed in with a lot of days of tabulating and stencil cutting.
The tabulation of the Florida truck passing of vegetables and non-citrus
fruits is a Federal-State cooperative undertaking. Each day the five Road Guard
Stations handling the heaviest volume phone us the total packages passed for
twenty-two commodities at their respective stations. Data from the other sta-
tions is received by mail. All information is edited and prepared for disseimi-
nation in the Bureau's office. Because shipment information is vital to the
trading picture during the growing seasons, the Florida truck shipment data is
one of the few priority items sent on the national agricultural leased wil e sys-
tem. Mr. L. P. Hickman, in charge, Florida Road Guard Stations, has been most
helpful in this work. Mr. Hickman has extended the courtesy of perm-itting us to
mail directly to the Road Guard Stations suggestions for keeping our container
information current, which in turn aids in the accuracy of the Florida truck
The routine phone, wire requests, personal interviews were handled elso. Dur-
ing the past year our Fruit and Vegetable Specialist spent several months intro-
ducing new staff members to our poultry and egg, and fruit and vegetable market
news work. Several field trips were made to visit cooperative Florida fruit and
vegetable market news field stations, Agricultural Economists, Crop Reporting
Statisticians, Citrus and Vegetable Associations, and others. Advised the newly
formed Florida Tomato Committee as to the data that were available from the
Federal-State Market News Service and its possible value and use to them. Attend-
ed the Florida Agricultural Outlook Conference, trade association meetings such
as the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Conventions and the Florida Gladiolus Conven-
tion, and the meeting of the newly formed "Florida Economy Committee" initiated
by the Florida Budget Commission. Prepared several articles for the Florida For
Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin.
Tampa Market News Fruits, Vegetables, Livestock
The Bureau's senior Market News Specialist on the Tampa market has a twenty-
year period of loyal, efficient service. He has quoted regularly fruits, vege-
tables, several livestock markets, and poultry and eggs until September 1955
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
when an additional market news reporter was assigned full-time basis for quoting
poultry products. He has also handled Federal-State Dairy and Poultry Products
inspection, given marketing service to growers using the Tampa market, and prepar-
ed numerous statistical tabulations. His hours have been long and weeks gener-
ally included Saturdays without ever any complaint. His two-year resume of
activities consequently omits more than it mentions:
Contacted fruit and vegetable markets for prices each day, as well as
dealers and producers for egg and poultry prices. This latter activity
stopped when taken over by P. E. Glasscock. Until December of last
year, covered one Livestock Auction at Lakeland each Thursday, when I
started reporting Arcadia Market each Wednesday. Also covered several
sales at Lakeland (mostly FFA).
Last October, at the request of the Cattlemen's Association, started
contacting packers in an area that now covers about 75 miles, for in-
formation on the better cattle slaughtered and U. S. graded, that were
bought direct (not sold through the auctions) and this information is
published weekly in the Press and distributed over-radio and television.
Each week made at least-one examination on some of the following items -
butter, cheese, poultry, eggs (Nat'l Shell), frozen whole eggs, frozen
egg whites, mostly in ampa,but quite often in St. Petersburg. These
were consigned to Veteran's Hospital at Bay Pines. Called to Bay Pines
V.A.Hcspital on several occasions to re-check eggs which were shipped
from out of State and time limit had expired, or had been shipped
without V.A. inspection.
Made several inspections on eggs shipped to various dealers in area for
a USDA Egg Grading Certificate wherein a question of product not being
of quality nor size invoice called for,
Made trip to Jacksonville last December for one-day conference on
livestock, and again in April of 1956 went to Atlanta for a two-day
conference of USDA Livestock Market News Reporters.
Miami Quotations Fruits, Vegetables, Poultry, Eggs
Through cooperative arrangements with the State Department of Agriculture
and the Extension Service, several Florida markets are quoted for the Bureau at
considerable saving to the State. The market news coverage of the Miami market,
including the daily fruit and vegetable, and poultry and egg quotations, has
been provided by the local Inspector of the Department of Agriculture. His
summary of collecting the important information for those needing it in Miami,
Dade County, Florida and other States relates to the current biennial period:
I quote prices for Florida fruit as well as fruit shipped in from out
of state; and I also quote vegetable prices for vegetables from with-
in Florida as well as those that are shipped into Florida,
We have a very large Farmers' Market here which is divided into large
or small stalls, as desired, for the use of farmers as well as produce
men of wholesale and retail trade. Every day I cover these markets
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
ascertaining the various quotations for all types fruits and vegeta-
bles. The information does not come from one, but any number of men
who sell produce and in my opinion is almost a perfect quotation.
Relative to eggs, we not only quote Dade County locally-produced eggs
from the producer to the retailer, but we also quote from the distri-
butor to the retailer. This is done because the producers of this
County and the nearby Counties feel that eggs going from the producer
to the retailer get to the consuming public at least two days quicker
than those going to the consuming public from the distributor to the
retailer. Therefore, their quotations are higher than those from the
distributor to the retailer. Then, too, from the producer to the re-
tailer is strictly Dade County-produced eggs, whereas those from the
distributor to the retailer can be from adjoining counties as well as
from Dade County.
We also quote a shipped-egg price, and this we get from the leading
dealers of shipped eggs. This I secure in my rounds daily as an in-
spector for the Department of Agriculture, and verify the figures
supplied me to be certain they are being correctly quoted to me.
Relative to the poultry, the quotation supplied on Florida poultry
from your office is followed closely. As to the shipped poultry,
which is by far the greater amount of poultry being used in this
area, we try to secure the quote from several of the wholesalers, then
I check on those quotations as I do on the egg quotations on my visits
around on my inspection work.
We supply this information to the two leading newspapers in Miami, which
is the Miami Daily News, an afternoon paper, and the Miami Herald, a
morning paper. Each of these newspapers has a radio station of their
own and broadcasts the information at specified times daily.
The reason for supplying the shipped quotations is that it gives the
man in business an idea of what his competitors are doing and is of
much benefit not only to the businessman, but also to the consuming
The Orlando, St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Tallahassee and Palatka areas are
given market news coverage for poultry and eggs. Same procedure and policy
followed as outlined in foregoing reviews of the Jacksonville, Miami and Tampa
market news service. Requests for Pensacola-West Fla.service are being considered.
Marketing agreement and order programs are in effect in Florida which apply
to avocados, citrus, limes and tomatoes. Indispensable in the hearings and
formation of, and in the orderly functioning of such agreements is the informa-
tion gathered from the Federal-State Market News Service. In Statistical
Bulletin No. 1 of the Florida Tomato Committee the most recent of the Marketing
Agrements in Florida all the data as to Florida fresh market shipments; com-
peting sources, domestic and foreign; 16 city rail arrivals and track holdings,
and 12 city truck arrivals; rail and truck arrivals in 30 cities; and all such
data are accredited to the Federal-State Market News Service. At this writing a
cucumber marketing agreement is under consideration. We received an emergency
request from the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association for four copies of each
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
daily miscellaneous vegetable market bulletin for the 1955-56 season to date. The
request was received at 4:20 P.M., May 25; the reports were mailed at 5:00 P.M.,
Five pages of a recent Growers Administrative Committee weekly citrus sta-
tistical bulletin carry essential data and accredit the Federal-State Market News
Service as the source.
The Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report of the Bureau is primarily a summary
of market reports, market news, market service. Some 2000 persons request the
report each year.
Statewide Livestock Market News Service
The following summarizes the activities of the Livestock Market News Spec-
ialist of the Bureau which activity has expanded so rapidly and beneficially
under his direction in the past two years. Worthy of repeating here is my comment
in reporting upon the direct cattle sales market news to Commissioner Mayo,
March 21, 1956: "I know of no service of such magnitude ever provided by any
State department being accomplished with so little expense."
Chief Livestock Market News Specialist
The duties and activities of the Livestock Market News Service are varied.
Application of Federal Livestock Standards and market reporting procedure to
Florida conditions and strict adherence to those, in cooperative Federal-State
Livestock Market News work, comes under this phase of Bureau work.
Livestock Market News Specialist's work necessitates considerable time both
in the office and in the field. Reporting livestock sales and maintenance of
market statistics and related livestock information, other than specifically
market information, briefly describe this service.
A fairly thorough knowledge of U. S. livestock specifications, and consider-
able proficiency in grading live cattle by U. S. grades, is necessary. This re-
quires several years of constant practice and experience, and is essential for
meaningful, consistent and accurate market reports.
During the past two years, considerable live grading was done on selected
lots of cattle on which U. S. carcass grades were obtained after slaughter, for
grade correlation purposes. Occasional checks such as this are beneficial and
important to insure reasonable consistency in live grading.
For published market information to be most useful to livestock producers,
the producers must have a knowledge of livestock grades and of the Market News
Service. The methods and functions of this phase were discussed by the Special-
ist in scheduled talks to three County Cattlemen's Associations, the newly
formed Cattlemen's Institute at Lake Placid, and at the Herdmen's Short Course
Grading demonstrations to help acquaint producers with grades, and grading
on producers' ranches, are related but additional to actual reporting. Some of
this was done but unfortunately this very beneficial phase is necessarily limited
STATE IIARKETING BUREAU
due to time required by actual reporting.
The Livestock Market News Specialist served on several grading committees
at fat stock shows, one pu-pose being to "sift" or eliminate those entries not
measuring up to strict requirements as established by the Show officials. It
can easily be understood that this is no popular task.
Advising officials prior to and the actual sorting of cattle at Feeder
Sales was another committee activity by the Specialist Suggestions on rules
were submitted, and at the sale cattle were separated into uniform groups for
selling, which helped return higher prices to the producers.
In addition to talks and actual grading sessions, three livestock articles
for the State's leading livestock magazine, and five articles on livestock mar-
keting were carried in the "For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin".
Suggestions to producers in personal contacts at auctions are weekly
occurrences, and very often buyers and sellers are brought together through mar-
ket reporters. Recently, as example, one cattle feeder sold a group of steers
for about $180 more than the highest offer made up to that time, by contacting a
buyer suggested by the Specialist.
Considerable livestock statistical information, not only pertaining to
Florida markets but general U.S.D.A. data as well, is maintained for reference
and distribution, and for answering requests.
Most of the livestock information in the Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report is
assembled, combined, and edited by the Livestock Market News Specialist.
Considerable correspondence is necessary in supplying statistical data, and
in making suggestions, such as to prospective citizens from other states, etc.
Some examples of information furnished or supplied:
1. Livestock grade, market and statistical information to University Animal
Husbandry classes, Herdsmen's Short Courses, grading schools, etc.
2. Florida livestock market price and weight data to USDA, BAE,Orlando, for
official livestock estimates.
3. Various types of information to other USDA agencies for analysis and
h. Official livestock price data to legal firms, Department of Justice, Univer-
sity of Florida Extension Economist, meat packers, etc.
5. Various livestock statistics to magazines, State Chamber of Commerce, banks,
Director of State Farmers' Markets, livestock auctions, etc.
6. Mail requests for information published by other (particularly USDA) agen-
cies, requiring considerable research and assembling. Along this line, worthwhile
USDA livestock articles and situation and outlook reports are condensed and re-
printed for distribution.
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Out-of-state travel is kept to a minimum for economic reasons. Only three
such trips were made, two to Georgia, one to Louisiana, during the 1954-56 per-
iod; one for comprehensive cattle grade correlation work, live versus carcass
grades; one to attend a Federal-State southeastern livestock marketing conference;
one to attend a Federal-State southeastern livestock market reporters' conference.
These activities are in addition to regularly reporting 11 auction markets
four days each week, and assembling and reporting direct(non-auction) cattle
sales in 5 areas of the State.
Probably the most significant aspect of these past two years in Florida
livestock market news is the newly formed direct cattle sales quotations begun
in late 1955. Since auction markets handle only half of the State's total cattle
sales; since most of the higher grade cattle are sold "direct" to packers rather
than through auctions; and since the Federal-State Livestock Market News Service
was based entirely on auction prices, direct sale information on higher grade cat-
tle was needed for more complete reports. Through the cooperative efforts of the
State Cattlemen's Association, the University and Extension Service of Florida,
the packers and slaughterers, and the Federal-State Livestock Market News Service,
direct cattle numbers and prices in five large producing and slaughtering areas
of the State are now being reported; as a result of this, the volume of cattle
now covered by official market reports in Florida has almost doubled. This has
been accomplished with no increased appropriation; but rather by increased efforts
of already existing personnel.
It has been said by officials of the USDA Livestock Branch that Florida had
more complete livestock market news coverage than any other State, before the
recent inclusion of direct sales to packers.
A calendar of our Livestock Market News services July 1954 June 1956:
June 17, 1954
Sept. 16, 1954
Sept. 23, 1955
Dec. 2, 1955
Dec. 7, 1955
Started Blountstown livestock quote, Tri-County Market (by
Started separate Weekly West Florida Livestock Market reports.
(USDA, AMS, Thomasville, Georgia).
Revised form of Weekly Summary for listing cattle prices at
various auctions in manner to be easily compared. (USDA, AMS).
Attended conference in Tampa with livestock trade re direct
cattle sales with Prof. W. K. McPherson, June Gunn, F. L.
Lothamer, Milton Plumb.
Accompanied Prof. W. K. McPherson in attending Southeastern
Marketing Conference, New Orleans, La.
Supervised issuing the first direct sales Florida cattle report.
In conference with Mr. James Hartnell, Chief, Market News Branch,
Livestock Division, U.S.Department of Agriculture, Washington;Mr.
Harry Larson, Market News Representative, U.S.Department of Ag-
riculture, Thomasville; Mr. W. K. McPherson, Professor of Agri-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Feb. 24, 1956
cultural Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville; Mr. V. D.
Stark and Mr. F. L. Lothamer, Livestock Market Reporters of the
State Marketing Bureau; Mr. Neill Rhodes, Commissioner, State
Marketing Bureau, in Bureau offices re direct sales, etc.
Direct Cattle Sales reports added for Quincy, Marianna, Jack-
sonville, Monticello, Madison.
With Mr. Harry Larson, Market News Representative, U.S.Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Thomasville; Mr. W. K. McPherson, Professor
of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville;
Mr. June Gunn, Secretary, Florida Cattlemen's Association,
Kissimmee, Dr. Harry Roberts, Assistant County Agent, Miami,
visited Miami packers to make arrangements for direct sales data.
Received first direct cattle sales reports, Miami area.
With Mr. F. L. Lothamer, Mr. Harold Howze, Mr. V. D. Stark,
et al., attended Atlanta conference, Livestock Market News
Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Service West Florida
The Bureau's Livestock Market News and Dairy Specialist stationed at Talla-
hassee has a wide territory and a broad field of activities. During the current
biennium he has, in addition to covering the Graceville and Marianna markets
regularly and Live Oak periodically, helped with North Florida annual fair at
Helped promote and assisted in judging the annual Leon County 4-H Dairy Show.
Helped coach Leon County's 4-H judging teams and accompanied them to both
the State Fair at Tampa and the annual 4-H Dairy Show at Orlando, acting as one
of the judges at the latter. Attended local 4-H meetings average once a month.
Helped to organize local D.H.I.A. in interest of dairy farmers.
Helped with grading of steers for cattlemen's feeder steer sale at Monti-
Served on screening committee for annual fat stock show at Quincy.
Helped County Agent with annual agricultural fair at Marianna.
Assisted with State Jersey Breeders' sale-- worked as ringman.
Averaged attending six poultry meetings per year at Graceville.
Served on planning committee, screening committee, also as one of the
judges at annual West Florida Dairy Show at Chipley.
Represented Marketing Bureau at the annual convention of the Florida Dairy
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
Helped with promotion and judging of annual fair at Panama City; appeared
before seniors of Panama City high school on Career Day to discuss marketing as
Arranged for weekly livestock market summary of West Florida to be published
in Panama City Sunday paper.
Helped conduct survey on feasibility of establishing a market in Panama City.
Arranged for Marketing Bureau to receive quotation for weekly market at
Began first quotation of direct sale of cattle in West Florida, which is now
published once a week.
He took over reporting and quoting of daily Tallahassee poultry and egg mar-
kets; has held meeting of local poultrymen at least once per month.
He has endeavored to meet every County Agent from Tallahassee to Pensacola
and become familiar with their marketing problems that he might be able to render
every marketing assistance possible in his territory.
Livestock Market News South Florida
The Livestock Market News Specialist of the Bureau, located at Wauchula, re-
ports on a regular weekly schedule the year round the Belle Glade, Okeechobee,
Kissimmee, and Wauchula livestock markets. He spends as much time among cattlemen
and ranchers as time permits. Special tabulations for the Jacksonville headquar-
ters offices are prepared regularly. This four-market reporting and compiling of
essential statistical data in connection therewith requires long hours of hard
work. He has, however, graded cattle for various ranches.
Helped grade at the Ocala Fat Stock Show.
Graded for the Tampa State Fair and Tampa Livestock Market.
Grouped cattle for special sale at Lakeland.
Helped the Range Cattle Station on Field Days, and graded cattle for the
Range Cattle Station.
For important duties performed without criticism from any source, this
Specialist deserves the commendatory reports we have received about his service.
Market News Service State Farmers' Markets
and Extending Southeastern Circuit
To further broaden our release of market information, the State Farmers' Mar-
kets at Wauchula aid Fort Myers were added to the southeastern leased wire circuit
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and teletype service provided from mid-
October through May 1955-56. To provide the important West Coast section with
poultry and egg, livestock and other product information, and better serve our
two market reporters for that area, leased wire facilities were extended and
Tampa added to the circuit February 1956, The leased wire from U.S.Department
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
of Agriculture, Washington, to Bureau offices, Jacksonville, was operated full
twelve months instead of Nov. 1-June 30 previously. This enabled the release of
the daily Federal-State Miscellaneous Vegetable Market bulletin from Bureau
offices on 18th of last October, and to continue the service as far into July as
may be necessary. It also expedites and reduces the cost of receiving informa-
tion required fcrthe daily lime-avocado-mango report issued July through Octo-
ber each year.
Special daily watermelon report was furnished the Seaboard Railway in
Jacksonville for relaying over their circuit and bulletin posting at Bell,
Florida, in June each season, data credited to Federal-State Market News Serv-
Market news for Florida pecans has not been as complete as for fruits, vege-
tables, poultry and eggs, and livestock. We joined with other Southeastern
States March, 1956, in requesting our Congressional representatives to obtain
Federal matching funds of $7000 for a Southeastern Pecan Market News Service.
Senators Holland and Smathers gave us every cooperation. Commissioner Rhodes al-
so on March 20 discussed the project in person with Mr. C. D. Schoolcraft, Chief,
Market News Branch, U.S.D.A.
Equaling requests for expanded market news service, the Assistant Com-
missioner and our other Marketing Specialists have received calls for assistance
resulting in very crowded schedules, sometimes impossible to fill all demands ex-
cept under postponement.
Services of the Assistant Commissioner
The Assistant Commissioner during the past several years has devoted more
and more time to serving in the field of public relations, doing much of the leg
work for the Bureau in general, and the Commissioner in particular cases.
The Assistant Commissioner has represented the State Marketing Bureau at two
conventions of the National Association of State Marketing Officials, represent-
ing practically every State, and appeared on the program at each meeting. The
1954 convention was held at Purdue University. The 1955 convention was held in
Madison, Wisconsin, at which he was distinctly honored in being elected Vice-
President of the Association. At the Southern Commissioners of Agriculture meet-
ing in Nashville, Tenn., in 1955, the main topic for discussion was improving
markets. He was placed on the panel to discuss and consider this subject.
The District Marketing Officials Organization is composed of the Atlantic
Seaboard States. The Assistant Commissioner has represented the Florida State
Marketing Bureau in this organization, serving as Secretary one year and Presi-
dent one year.
The Bureau was represented by the Assistant Commissioner in discussions
with the Dairy and Poultry Market News Division of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, which resulted in our switching from State poultry and egg
market quotations in Jacksonville to cooperative Federal-State Market News Serv-
ice with a full-time Federal reporter, half of the expense being provided by the
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
USDA and half by the Bureau.
The Assistant Commissioner has also served as Federal-State Supervisor of the
grading and inspection of dairy and poultry products in Florida and issuing joint
Federal-State grade certificates. We also have contracts with poultry and egg
dealers to supervise the grading and candling of eggs, and license their employ-
ees as Federal-State graders. During the biennium more than 12,000,000 dozen eggs
and several hundred thousand pounds of poultry have been inspected and graded,
also many thousand pounds of cheese and butter have been inspected, under the
Assistant Commissioner's supervision.
He met with the State Poultry Association officials in 1954 and discussed
improving the market reporting service at Tampa covering poultry and eggs. These
discussions pointed up the need of a full-time reporter for Tampa. The Associa-
tion requested such employment and secured the cooperation and aid of the members
of the Legislature in providing sufficient increase in Bureau funds for that pur-
pose. The Poultry Association, through its affiliation with the Agricultural
Council and the State Farm Bureau, had their support in requesting necessary
funds which were provided by the 1955 Legislature, and the reporter was assigned
in the fall of 1955. Similar request was made by the State Poultry Association,
along with the State Farm Bureau and the Florida Agricultural Council, for a full-
time Marketing Specialist in Poultry and Dairy Products to be added to the Bureau
staff in Jacksonville, and funds were provided by the Legislature for this posi-
tion which was promptly filled.
The 1955 Legislative Session created an Interim Committee to be composed of
members of the Legislature and poultrymen, to conduct hearings, study the needs
of the poultry industry and report to the 1957 session of the Legislature. The
Assistant Commissioner has punctually and creditably represented the Bureau at
these hearings and given essential information about poultry and egg marketing
conditions in Florida. So far hearings have been conducted at Callahan, Miami,
Tampa and Pensacola. At the Miami meeting the Committee reached the conclusion
that because of the increasing importance of this market and the large local pro-
duction, there was an immediate need for a full-time market news reporter. The
Committee requested Commissioner Mayo to provide funds by transfer for this emer-
gency which he has done, and the reporter started on a full-time basis in June
Much of the Assistant Commissioner's time is spent in the field supervision
of our market news poultry and egg and fruit and vegetable stations, located in
Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Orlando, Palatka, and Tallahassee. Since the
poultry and egg price quotations are taken so literally and used as the sale or
contract price by producers in the daily marketing of their eggs and poultry,
such supervision must be continuous and thorough.
In organization work the Assistant Commissioner has assisted in promoting
several County Poultry Associations; has judged at two State Baby Chick and Egg
Shows, 40 local Fairs and two State Fairs. He has attended 52 meetings of
poultrymen, 3 Farm Bureau meetings, and two Poultry Institutes at Camp McQuarrie.
He has appeared on many radio and two TV broadcasts; spoken to two Kiwanis Clubs,
all in relation to marketing, in the current biennial period. He prepared a
half-dozen articles for the Florida Poultryman Magazine, and two editorials for
our For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletins
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
More than 2,000 letters have been written by the Assistant Commissioner in
response to inquiries for information about Florida agriculture and the marketing
of our products. Not all pertain to dairy and poultry subjects. For example,
he recently received a letter from the Director of the Division of Markets in
Vermont proposing that Florida and Vermont do some joint market promotion on
maple syrup and grapefruit in that part of the country. Maple syrup is said to
be tops in good eating when used on grapefruit for breakfast. This matter was
turned over to the Citrus Commission for further consideration,
The Assistant Commissioner in 1929 started service with the Bureau as Mar-
keting Specialist in Dairy and Poultry Products. He has given more than a
quarter-century of marketing assistance to Florida producers. Much credit is
due him for the progress and rapid advancement of the State's dairy and poultry
industries. Better than anyone else, I know of his undying interest and his
untiring efforts in behalf of Florida producers, and laudatory in full measure
is his remaining loyally with the Bureau for so long a period of time. His
counsel has been sought by individuals and cooperatives, by special Committees
studying and proposing legislation, and his tact and good judgment have placed
his services in strong demand by producers and officials representing them.
Livestock and Field Crops
The Bureau's Marketing Specialist in Livestock and Field Crops has cooperated
with and coordinated his work in many ways with other Florida agencies and serv-
ices. Some of these: Florida State Agricultural Extension Service, State Depart-
ment of Vocational Agriculture, State Forestry Service, all Purebred Livestock
Associations, Florida Federation of Fairs, Florida State Seedsmen Association,
Florida State Cattlemen's Association, Florida State Beekeepers Association, the
National Agricultural Editors' Association, Florida State Fruit and Vegetable
Growers' Association, Florida State Markets,-the Farm Bureau, and others. This
group served is evidence of the Livestock and Field Crops Specialist being in
wide demand, and his admirable spirit of cooperation and willingness to serve
in every marketing capacity requested,- some far beyond his line of specialty.
He planned and worked with others in organizing the West Florida Livestock
Association, an organization comprising Calhoun, Gulf, Bay, Liberty, and Franklin
Counties, and a unit of the Florida State Cattlemen's Association. These five
Counties were in the position, cow-wise, of having too few cattle and cattlemen
in each individual county to support an association. In organizing together it
has given them numbers and strength and has made it possible for the five-county
group to continue with a live-wire organization.
He originated the idea of a farmers' retail-wholesale curb market for
Panama City. Many have cooperated and done much work toward creating this mar-
ket since the suggestion was made and the plans laid. This farmers' market has
become a reality with present facilities valued at some twenty to twenty-five
thousand dollars, and opened in May 1956.
He has appeared many times before cattlemen's associations, vocational
agriculture groups, and others, and made talks on marketing.
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
He was the first to survey the cattle feeding industry in Florida, publishing
a detailed report giving name, mailing address, size and type of feeding operation
of the cattle feeders in Florida. This report proved to be very accurate in fore-
casting Florida's cattle feeding situation for 1955-56 and has gained much favor-
able attention. There is a demand for this forecast to be repeated from year to
The National Farm Editors Association held its annual tour this year be-
ginning at Atlanta, Georgia, on April 23rd, and ending in Miami, Florida, on
Friday, April 27th. Those Farm Editors from all parts of the United States and
Canada were observing Georgia and Florida agriculture and he was invited along
with the group to help entertain them and assist in answering questions pertain-
ing to Florida farming and livestock raising. On this tour he passed out copies
of the Marketing Bureau's annual report as well as copies of the Florida State
Department of Agriculture's "Know Florida". These publications met with much
favor and on request additional copies were later mailed to those on the tour.
He has assisted in giving market news coverage on thirteen livestock auction
markets in Florida.
Agricultural fairs and expositions have attained widespread coverage in
Florida. He has assisted in working with those and helped in the livestock
judging on occasions,
He worked with the Future Farmers of America in Florida in giving beef
cattle demonstrations at various schools. He judged their farm products at the
Tampa Fair and acted as official judge at some of their contests during their
State Convention in Daytona Beach as well as at district contests.
The Livestock Marketing Specialist: has supplied cattlemen in Florida with
USDA data relative to cattle marketing outlook material and personally visited
with many of them on their ranches, to discuss their marketing problems. He has
visited Florida's purebred swine men in pushing the "meat type" hog, and will
continue work with the hog producers along this line.
He has given time and thought in writing for the Marketing Bureau's For
Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin, with a circulation of more than 73,000, reach-
ing all forty-eight states, as well as thirty-eight foreign countries,-- a media
through which diversified SELLING has been accomplished. Some of the articles
written were: "Sweet Potatoes Now and Then", "Pecan Trees in Pastures", "Corn
in Florida" "Big Pine Little Pine", "A Beef Letter to Mrs, Florida Housewife",
"A Look at Florida's Cattle Feeding Business", "Pass the Hone Sonny", "Shall We
Pay the Fiddler", "Acres for Defense Farmers for Defense", 'Down witathe Fat -
Up with the Lean", Where space did not permit further detailed information, the
reader was given reference to Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension Service,
State Department of Agriculture, and U.S.D.A. free publications which might be
obtained for the asking.
The Livestock and Field Crops Marketing Specialist, partly no doubt as a
result of some of the above mentioned Bulletin articles, has received many letters
from people both in-state as well as out-of-state some from foreign countries.
Most of the inquiries were seeking information, one type or another, on Florida
farming and livestock production. In answering such mail, a true picture of
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Florida conditions was painted, and a welcome hand extended to potential residents
who wished to come to Florida to enjoy sharing our Agriculture and our Climate.
Has assisted in cooperative marketing of pecans in Florida as well as helped
on the pecan auction at Starke, and helped in the marketing of field and miscel-
The Livestock and Field Crops Marketing Specialist has assumed leadership
in trying to get Florida's tobacco market opening dates set at a time more
appropriate to the growers' needs. He was invited by North Carolina's Agricul-
tural Commissioner Ballentine to attend a meeting in Richmond, Va., June 28,
1956, for the purpose of working with the Bright Belt Warehouse Association
in setting Florida's tobacco market opening dates at a more suitable time.
The above while not covering in detail all phases of the work, gives a
general picture of the work of the Marketing Specialist of the Florida State
Marketing Bureau, his goal being to try to make every thought, every spoken and
written word SELL something for Florida.
Dairy and Poultry Products
Our Marketing Specialist in Dairy and Poultry Products, aiding Assistant
Commissioner Risher, has in the comparatively short time since becoming a member
of the Marketing Specialist staff of the Bureau, covered the principal producing
sections of the products in his field. Reports from the areas in which he has
served have been highly creditable and very satisfactory. His knowledge of agri-
culture in general, particularly in North and West Florida, has been useful and
helpful to the Bureau in providing a balanced service to all phases of our agri-
culture. He has been modest in making the following report:
My work with the Florida State Marketing Bureau presents a challenge.
I realize that the information assembled and the marketing assistance
provided every day for farmers is effective and in fact indispensable.
Yet, we are only a small part of a tremendous agricultural industry.
My objective is that my work be so applicable and fruitful as to best
serve those people who are trying to sell their farm produce.
During the year, my job has included a variation of many different tasks.
Although my work has pursued various courses, the purpose has remain-
ed the same, to gather market information, help farmers secure mar-
kets, and encourage and promote the sale of agricultural products. I
am indebted to Mr. Rhodes, to Mr. Risher, and other members of the
staff for their guidance and training. I sincerely appreciate their
efforts and shall strive all the harder that their time spent in my
orientation and counsel in field work will not have been in vain.
One of my first duties was to make a study of the Orlando market area,
and the poultry industry in that particular locality. While working
in Orange County and gathering the data desired, I worked with the
County Agent, Mr. Ross Copeland, Mr. Lou Mazourek and the poultry pro-
ducers in organizing the Orange County Poultry Producers Association.
I became acquainted with many farmers in Orange County. Several market-
ing problems were presented to me. The solution of one resulted in our
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
changing the Semi-Weekly Poultry and Egg Report to clarify the quotes
on fryers on the Orlando market. The Orange County Poultry Producers
Association is one of the most successful and active associations in
Florida has many County and State Fairs. It was my privilege to assist
Mr. Julian Moore and Mr. Lester Katch in judging the poultry exhibits
and eggs at many of these fairs, among them the fairs at Callahan,
Jacksonville, Chipley, DeFuniak Springs, Ocala, Dade City and Talla-
hassee. In each area I became acquainted with the producers and the
market conditions. Fairs offer an excellent opportunity for creating
a demand for our poultry and dairy products.
Recently I completed a study of the poultry and egg markets in the
Pensacola area for Mr. Risher. This study preceded the meeting of
the Legislative Poultry Interim Committee meeting in Pensacola. The
study included a survey of the local stores, warehouses, packing com-
panies and wholesale egg and poultry distributors. The survey includ-
ed grades, prices, and the volume of shipped and Florida eggs. Local
producers were visited to secure information on local production,
Ninety percent of the eggs sold on that market are unclassified eggs
shipped in from the midwest. The consumers seem-'A lack a thorough
understanding of the various grades and the difference in quality of
Many poultry meetings were attended during the year. Market informa-
tion and statistics were presented to these groups, altogether some
thirty meetings were attended.
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture have been very cooperative with our
department. I have visited many schools in the State and spoken to
the agricultural classes on marketing problems. I attended the National
FFA Convention at Kansas City and helped with the poultry judging con-
test sponsored by the National Association.
The Bureau headquarters offices receive many inquiries from northern
poultrymen concerning the Florida poultry industry. Mr. Rhodes has
passed many of these letters to me for answering. In each case I have
tried to describe our situation so that the reader would have a true
mental picture of our industry. Both the advantages and disadvantages
of operating poultry enterprises in our State have been emphasized. A
few of our letters have come from as far away as Cuba, and Columbia,
Many local poultrymen have been contacted in the State during the
year. As a result of these visits, I believe the people have a better
understanding of our reports. In many instances I have worked with
poultrymen in securing a market or better outlet for their eggs and
poultry. Individual attention to market problems has been given upon
request throughout the year. Many recommendations have been made to Mr.
Rhodes as a result of these personal contacts. Some of the recommenda-
tions are as follows:
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
1. That changes in procedures be made in reporting the Tallahassee
2. That the Orlando fryer market be quoted so as to carry the words
"small lots" in order to clarify the prices.
3. That a "full-time" reporter be placed in Pensacola.
4. That the Semi-Weekly Report be speeded up by postal authorities.
5. That we quote a "frozen egg" price.
6. That a law be passed prohibiting the sale of unclassified eggs.
7. That a "full-time" reporter be placed in Miami (this was already
in the making).
In many instances Mr. Rhodes, Marketing Commissioner, was already
familiar with the problems, and in other cases prompt action was taken
to improve our service.
My duties have also included the following assignments:
1. Handling Market News service in Orlando and Jacksonville during the
absence of the regular reporter.
2. Writing marketing articles for the "For Sale, Want and Exchange
3. Working with radio stations in following standard terminology in
reporting market prices by radio.
4. Attending Bureau conferences.
5. Giving information in response to telephone requests on crops com-
mon to North and West Florida.
6. Writing articles for "Florida Poultryman" and cooperating with Mr.
Ross Copeland in the effort to have this magazine provide the
poultry industry of Florida with the most helpful information
I do not wish to prolong this summary, but may I add that though my
accomplishments be short of my goal, I am proud to be one of the links
in the chain of service so important to our agricultural industry.
The above resumes of activities of the Marketing Specialists and staff of the
State Marketing Bureau require the finishing touch of favorable mention and
liberal credit to the clerical force of the department: Secretarial, stenographic,
accounting, statistical, copy writing for Bulletin, telegraphic.The volume of
typesetting, printing, folding, assembling and mailing accomplished by the four
men in the mailing room could be accomplished only by highly experienced and
TWENTIETH BIENNIAL REPORT
conscientious employees. While the clerical force seldom 3ome in contact with
the public they serve,and their labors are unheralded, without their service all
other work would make miserably poor showing. May credit which might be directed
to the Commissioner be diverted instead to the "working force" of the Bureau.
Miscellaneous and Administrative
The foregoing has been devoted largely to mentioning some of the services
rendered the citrus, vegetable, poultry, livestock and major lines of Florida's
agricultural industry. General service has been provided all phases of agri-
culture, the little farmer particularly receiving prompt and careful consider-
Producers of "field" crops corn, hay, syrup, honey, tobacco, pecans, etc.,-
have been given market quotations, been advised of market conditions, and given
marketing service. Growers and shippers of bulbs, ferns, cut flowers, medicinal
plants and miscellaneous products too numerous to mention here have been served
at every opportunity.
Of particular help to the small producers has been the extensive claim work
in their behalf. Information as to relief under the Florida Agriculture License
and Bond Law for intrastate transactions, and handling procedure under the
Federal Produce Agency and the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Acts involving
interstate shipments, has been given to a large number, by correspondence and
through personal interviews in our offices. The Commissioner's experience of
nearly four decades in handling claims, his knowledge of law, his acquaintance
with top level State and Federal enforcement and administrative officials has
proved to be an asset to Florida agriculture. Such important work as in 1955
preparing amendments for repealing obsolete sections of the 1917 Statutes creat-
ing the Bureau Law could be handled by the Commissioner without outside assist-
Rating guides and directories of dealers of agricultural products, of manu-
facturers of all products throughout the United States, all lines of trade,
brand names, sources of supply and the like are carried to help and protect
farmers who have occasion to patronize such sources,
Sales facilities for many products of the farm, some as used equipment for
which the farmer has no further use, are provided by the useful, popular For
Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin issued twice monthly the year-round. The mail-
ing list carries at this writing 73,193 names and the Bulletin is read or re-
ferred to by probably 150,000 or more persons each issue. Ornamental and farm
and grove seeds and plants, livestock, poultry and eggs, farm equipment and
machinery, farm and grove products, farm lands, miscellaneous and. wanted listings
are carried regularly for 450-500 persons each issue. The editorial page is
devoted to timely agricultural subjects. Notices of purebred sales and shows of
beef and dairy cattle, h'ogs, etc., are given space requested. Land sales notices
appear in each issue for State- and Government agencies. Special notices are made
for the State Plant Board, the Board of Forestry and other public agencies. It
is doubtful if Florida has a more generally patronized or appreciated public
service than the For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin.
Young men of today attending our agricultural colleges will be tomorrow's
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
farmers, County Agents, Vocational Agricultural Teachers or otherwise usefully
and prominently identified with our vast agricultural industry. We have employ-
ed a number of graduates of the University of Florida for Marketing Specialist
service. It has been our pleasure to have the Marketing and Economics Classes
of the University of Florida with their Prof. W. K. McPherson visit the Bureau
to become more familiar with the Bureau's activities and services, particularly
market news. In the current biennial period classes visited with us July 1954;
May, August, December 1955; and April 1956. The May 1955 group was introduced
by Prof. McPherson as his "international" class, since a number of foreign
countries were represented.
Representatives of other countries have visited the Bureau to obtain
practical information on our marketing system, market news, inspection, and
other features. The most recent was a two-day visit by Mr. Yong Tanpairojana
from Thailand, arranged by the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Wel-
It is only natural that most official interviews are held with the Commis-
sioner,- and they are many. However, the small farmer, regardless of his
problem, has the same consideration and courtesy extended him as the large
operator, or top officials of private or governmental agencies. The Commission-
er's desk is placed among those of the Bureau's Specialists and clerical force.
Anyone desiring to see the Commissioner may do so promptly, and any time every
day of the working week, without appointment or waiting.
Going to the extreme in seeing that the smallest detail is promptly, effi-
ciently and courteously performed, the Commissioner has handled much "chief clerk"
work which normally would be delegated to others,-- sorting and opening of mail
and answering the larger proportion of it immediately, taking telephone and tele-
graphic requests for information, proofing Bulletin copy, preparing budgets for
the Bureau, lending sympathetic ear to co-workers in solving their problems, dis-
patching information and assistance requested by any method, seeing there is no
slip-up in performance, small or large assignment,-- this spells out the secret
of the Bureau's PROMPT SERVICE.
In addition to performing the administrative duties of office, the State
Marketing Commissioner is also the third member of the State Agricultural Mar-
keting Board, is Collaborator (without pay) of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, and has served as Member of the Committee acting under Senate Bill 302
upon all applications for State matching funds (limit $20,000 for any city,
county or fair association) for the construction of agricultural and livestock
The volume and value of Florida agriculture, and the numerous products -
DIVERSITY require administration of the marketing division on fundamentals of
ability, integrity, judgment, tact, experience and diversity of knowledge and
talent. I have humbly and gratefully endeavored to fill the shoes of such a
Commissioner, and submit the Twentieth Biennial Report in testimony of the last
two years of my stewardship in office.
Neill Rhodes, Commissioner
Florida State Marketing Bureau
FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Expenditures from July 1, 1954 to June 30, 1955
Appropriation for Year ending June 30, 1955 . . . .... . . .$171,140.00
Federal Allotment Special Livestock Market News . . . . . 2,200.00
Credit, Cooperative Dairy Agreement . . . . . . . .. 104.83
USDA Overcharge Market News billing . . . . . . . . 4. 29.04
TOTAL AVAILABLE $173,873.87
SALARIES . . . . . . . . . $94,673.83
NECESSARY AND REGULAR EXPENSES:
Communication and Transportation $9,705.94
Repairs and Maintenance . . . 778.12
Travel . . . . . . .18,861.82
Utilities . . . . . .. 576.37
Other Contractual Services . . 14,460.66
Heating Supplies . . . . .. 40.09
Maintenance Materials and Supplies .1,476.48
Motor Fuels and Lubricants . .. 8.85
Office Materials and Supplies. . .1,519.12
Paper for Printing . . . .. 13,416.74
Insurance and Surety Bonds . . 111.43
Rental of Buildings . . . 5,776.00
Dues, Commissions, etc. . . 30.00
Agricultural Equipment.. . . 34.35
Office Furniture and Equipment 2,540.52 $69,336.49
FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Expenditures from July 1, 1955 to June 30, 1956
Appropriation for Year ending June 30, 1956. . . . . . .
Federal Allotment Special Livestock Market News. . . . . .
Credit, Cooperative Dairy Agreement . . . . . . . .
Department of Agriculture transfer,for reporting Miami Poultry-Egg
Addressograph refund Coupon Book . . . . . . . . .
1100 SALARIES . . . . . . . .
NECESSARY AND REGULAR EXPENSES:
2100 Advertising . . . . . . .
2200 Communication and Transportation. .
2300 Printing Services . . . . .
2400 Repairs and Maintenance . . . .
2600 Travel . . . . . . ..
2700 Utilities. . . . . . . .
2900 Other Contractual Services . . .
3300 Heating Supplies . . . . . .
3600 Maintenance Materials and supplies .
3700 Motor Fuels and Lubricants . . .
3800 Office Materials and Supplies. . .
3900 Paper for Printing . . . . .
4100 Insurance and Surety Bonds . . .
4300 Rental of Buildings .
. . $105,553.41
Dues, Commissions, etc. . . . 20.00
Books . . . . . . . .. 12.50
Office Furniture and Equipment. . 2,238.21
BALANCE CARRIED FORWARD TO 1956-57
. . . . "