Report of L. M. RHODES, Commissioner
Florida State Marketing Bureau, to Hon-
orable Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of
the State of Florida.
L. M. RHODES, Commissioner
Moses Folsom, Secretary
Neill Rhodes, Assistant Commissioner
R. H. von Glahn, Market Agent
Floyd M. Houser, Telegraph Operator
Howard Mueller, Stenographer
W. L. Jackson, Multigrapher
0. C. Edrington, Assistant Multigrapher
There is no branch of economics receiving as much
attention today as that of marketing. The hundreds of
millions of dollars spent for advertising attest the impor-
tance of placing products on the market. The millions of
people engaged in buying and selling the materials of life
emphasize the magnitude and importance of marketing.
This, the Sixth Biennial Report of the Florida State
Marketing Bureau, sets forth the great progress made in
this State in this field of economics. Extensive as the activ-
ities of the Marketing Bureau have been, there are prob-
lems yet unsolved, and the complexities of modern distribu-
tion and marketing constantly create new problems, diffi-
cult of satisfactory solution. While I commend the splen-
did, faithful, efficient services rendered by the Bureau in
the past, I feel that there are great possibilities for benefi-
cial service and extended activities by this Department.
The work of the State Marketing Bureau and of a number
of private organizations is directed toward more economic,
efficient and profitable marketing.
I commend this report to all who are interested.
Commissioner of Agriculture.
SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Florida State Marketing
The Sixth Biennial Report of L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner
Florida State Marketing Bureau, a Division of
the Florida Department of Agriculture,
respectfully submitted by
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner Florida Department
L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner Florida State
To HON. DOYLE E. CARLTON, Governor of Florida:
During the past two years the Florida State Market-
ing Bureau has continued its work according to the require-
ments, and has endeavored to meet conditions as they have
There have been increased activities in each line of the
work and all phases have been constantly expanded. Mar-
keting problems have continued to increase in number
and volume, and we have rendered every service possible
with the funds and facilities available for the improvement
and advancement of growing, distributing and marketing
the agricultural products of the State.
Shipping approximately ten per cent of the carlot
movement of perishable crops of the United States, Florida
is confronted with many difficult marketing problems;
selling conditions are such that the duties and activities
of the Marketing Bureau are so varied and numerous that
it would be next to impossible to report all of them in detail.
6 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Market News Service
Since the carload shipments of fruits and vegetables
have increased three and one-half times as rapidly as the
population during the last decade, and competitive areas
and surpluses have become one of our greatest marketing
problems, Market News Service has become one of the
most vital factors in marketing Florida produce, and has
been greatly increased. One new station has been estab-
lished since our last report, making a total of six. We hope
to eventually have eight stations.
This is a Cooperative Federal-State Service beginning
with and continuing through the shipping season, covering
the leading Florida products in the large receiving centers
as well as some of the smaller markets. This service gives
prevailing prices, supplies, whether light or heavy, market
conditions whether strong or weak, number of cars on
track, passing, destinations, unloads; arrivals by rail and
express from this country, and by rail and boat from other
countries; weather conditions, market demand and ten-
dencies, and other necessary information. Numerous re-
ports are made daily to marketing agencies, associations
and shippers, also special reports for radio and the press.
Practically every person in Florida can get these reports
the same day prices are made, either by wire, phone, radio,
or the following morning in the press. Special reports are
always issued when there is a special need.
There is a Market News Station at Winter Haven for
Citrus, at Sanford and in the Everglades for Vegetables, at
Hastings for Potatoes, at Leesburg for melons, tomatoes
and cukes, and at Jacksonville during the entire shipping
season a miscellaneous vegetable report covering season
offerings from the State is furnished. The daily price list
of poultry and eggs, and fruits and vegetables on the Jack-
sonville market is published in the Jacksonville papers.
This service should be made available on staple crops,
livestock, dairy and poultry products. The value of this
source of information as to conditions and prevailing tone
of the market can hardly be over-estimated.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 7
Cooperative Federal State Shipping Point Inspection
Shipping point inspection in Florida is a joint service
by the Florida State Marketing Bureau and the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics at Washington, D. C. It involves
an examination of the products and the issuing of a cer-
tificate as to grade and condition. It determines' the qual-
ifications of products for certain markets, or their lack of
qualifications for others, and enables the shipper to know
what grade he is shipping, and the receiver to distinguish
intelligently between the commercial value of different lots
Receiving point inspection is also given in Jacksonville
through this cooperative agreement. This shipping point
service was started in Florida by the Marketing Bureau in
1922. All Federal-State inspection is carried on coopera-
tively. There are forty-one States cooperating. There
were 210,832 carloads of fruit and vegetables inspected last
season in the United States, and only 174 reversals. It is
a modern, important commercial service that is rapidly
coming into universal use and is available to the producers
and shippers of the State. This service has been self-sus-
taining and maintained without State appropriation.
Grades and Standardization
Grading consists of separating products into groups' or
grades of uniform sizes, kinds and quality. Standardiza-
tion which must follow grading, establishes the permanency
of these grades' and defines the nature and character of the
commodity included in the grades, or the defects which
exclude them from these grades. There have been Federal
grades established on five different nuts, eight miscellan-
eous articles, twenty-five different fruits and fifty-one dif-
ferent vegetables. The proportion of agricultural products
sold under grade is increasing in leaps and bounds. The
Marketing Bureau has been instrumental in establishing
official U. S. Grades on many Florida products, and in hav-
ing the U. S. Grades adopted as official for Florida fruits
and vegetables. The basis of successful merchandising is
grading and standardization.
8 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
The Bureau is in constant daily touch with the growers
and shippers of the State by personal conferences, letters,
telephone, telegraph, bulletins, radio, newspaper quotations,
marketing charts, giving them advice and information cov-
ering plantings, competitive areas, domestic and foreign
competition, cold storage holdings, assembling, grading,
packing, inspection, processing, standardization, transpor-
tation, containers, routing, refrigeration, precooling, di-
versions, classification, passing, unloads, deterioration,
seasonal offerings, shipments, storage, shrinkage, financ-
ing, quality, supply, -demand, foreign demand and supply,
market preferences, embargoes,. quarantines, health regu-
lations, drying, canning, advertising, how and when to ship,
who to ship to and every other phase of preparation, trans-
portation, distribution and marketing.
Information As to Financial Standing and Commercial
Status of Dealers
The Bureau supplies information as to financial rating
and commercial responsibility of produce merchants, com-
miss'ion men and other buyers in all parts of the United
States, Cuba, Canada and some parts of Europe, to the
growers and shippers of the State upon request. This serv-
ice has been extensively demanded, cheerfully given and
widely used. A revised list of these dealers' in various
lines is ready at all times for distribution, and the names
of reliable buyers in all markets are available to growers
For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin
This Bulletin going to 17,000 people twice a month,
carrying free advertisements of all kinds of agricultural
produce, livestock, poultry and poultry products, farm im-
plements, plants, seeds, shrubs, etc., has rendered a val-
uable service, listing over a period of nine years approxi-
mately $40,000,000 worth of various farm commodities and
causing the sale or exchange of more than $30,000,000
worth of them. At a rate of one per cent commission, these
sales would have cost more than the total appropriation
for the Bureau for the twelve years since it was created.
Many letters in our files testify to the worth of this service.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 9
Marketing Charts, Handbooks, Etc.
Marketing Charts, growers and shippers handbooks,
records of carload movements, booklets containing grades,
mimeograph reports giving various kinds of marketing in-
formation, have been published and widely circulated and
furnished to all who desire them. Information about the
State and its' crops, soils and other resources has been sent
out by the Bureau to every State in the Union and foreign
Collecting and Adjusting Claims
Claims have been collected or adjusted, differences
arbitrated, controversies between shippers and receivers
have been settled to the amount of thousands of dollars an-
nually. There is scarcely a community in the State that
has not been benefited by this service.
The Bureau acts in an advisory capacity for producers,
shippers, and distributors, when requested, and assists'
them in every possible and practical way to locate markets,
as to prospective sales in all domestic and foreign markets'.
No time or effort is spared in trying to arrange ready sales
for all Florida offerings, and we do all we can to improve
the relations and services among producers, distributors
and consumers of Florida produce.
The Bureau has endeavored to bring about a closer co-
operation of growers, shippers and marketing agencies in
the regulation of shipments, standardization of grades and
quality, to broaden, extend and improve in every practical
way the distribution and sale of Florida products in all
market centers; to encourage cooperation and business re-
lations between producers and distributors in the interest
of the general public; to seek new markets, ascertain con-
sumptive capacity of various markets for Florida produce;
to find out the possible expansion of undeveloped markets,
especially in small towns and cities; to increase the con-
sumption of Florida products by Florida people; to promote
economic and efficient distribution and. marketing of all
agricultural and horticultural products grown in the State
of Florida; and to function so as to be of the greatest pos-
10 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
sible service in the production, distribution, marketing and
consumption of our soil products.
Cooperative Marketing has extended its operations
until a total of approximately 11,000 associations transact
a volume of business amounting to $2,500,000,000 in mar-
keting their crops. The law requires' the Marketing Com-
missioner to act in an advisory capacity in the forming of
such organizations and to foster cooperation among the
farmers of the State. In performing this duty, some 1,200
addresses have been delivered, hundreds of them published;
advice has been given in person and in bulletins, pamphlets
and through the press; thousands of advisory letters have
been written, and no opportunity has been lost to place co-
operative marketing on a sound basis in the State. The de-
mand has been so great for lecture service and advice in
marketing meetings, conferences and other kindred gath-
erings, that if the Commissioner should answer every call,
he could spend no time in the office.
The Marketing Bureau is maintained by a portion of
the fund derived from the sale of fertilizer stamps, which
is paid indirectly by the producers on the farms of the
State who use the fertilizer manufactured or sold in the
State. This tax was paid long before the Bureau was in ex-
istence. The Bureau is not maintained by general taxation.
Until transportation facilities and the use of refrig-
erated cars made all markets within the United States and
some foreign countries accessible, markets were supplied
largely with homegrown cold ground or hothouse products'.
Competition in the fruit and vegetable industry was lim-
ited. With improved carrier schedules and refrigerating
systems, constantly increasing distant shipping areas
placed various fruits and vegetables on the larger terminal
markets. Consequently a very rapid change from the old
marketing methods was inevitable. Problems confronted
producers and shippers that without federal and state aid
they were unable to solve.
Thus in 1913 a Federal Bureau of Markets was created.
In its path came more accurate crop reporting, market re-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 11
porting, grade and standardization work, terminal and ship-
ping point inspection service and other kindred develop-
ments. However flexible the Federal Bureau might make
its activities they could not be elastic enough to properly
conduct and expand the services in the different states.
The demands of shipping interests set into motion state
marketing machinery to cooperate with the federal depart-
ment and to apply the established services, aid in their con-
tinuation, and foster the creation of other needed channels
of service. Now at least four-fifths of the states have some
kind of marketing bureaus or divisions. And shortly all
states' will of necessity establish such departments, which
serve their own respective states, cooperate with other
states and with the federal departments.
Thus in Florida a Marketing Bureau was created and
this is its twelfth year of service No student of market-
ing, even casual may have been his observation, can deny
the rapid transition almost revolutionary indeed that has
come about within the last ten years, nor fail to have seen
the most remarkable improvements within the last five
years. And while no state or government agency would ac-
claim credit for all these gains, it is a matter of history
they were indispensable in the realization of these accom-
plishments. Without them consistent, disinterested, uni-
form grades and standards, inspection, market news work,
cooperative organization and hundred of related duties
could not have or would not have resulted.
Yet, with this immeasurable stride in marketing, the
goal is still far in the distance. In Florida we have hardly
more than two-thirds the market news stations we need,
and the present means of disseminating the information
needs expansion; only two years ago did we adopt any kind,
of official grades for Florida; only a few years have we
taken advantage of inspection work; only a comparatively
short time have grades been utilized; only two years' have
we had any kind of legislation on poultry and eggs and as
yet no grades or standards whatever on these; the livestock'
and dairy interests are just beginning organizational work
and need assistance; the export trade is one that is just
forming for Florida citrus fruits; cooperative organizations
are just beginning to function advantageously; only one
12 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
season has the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House
operated, and to aid it the Florida State and Federal Bu-
reaus have given daily market news almost indispensable
to its efficient manipulation of distribution; and not until
these services and many others were available did the
small shipper have any protection or information as to
markets or reputable buyers or disinterested, authentic in-
formation as how to ship, to whom to ship, or how to deal
with these factors; and neither did the larger independent
interests have any agency that could also serve them and
the grower equitably, fairly and without jeopardizing either
the interest of grower or dealer. If agriculture continues as
it of course must, production will continue along lines com-
mensurate with market requirements; if production con-
tinues, it can do so profitably only through continually im-
proved marketing conditions; and marketing may be con-
tinued along the present efficient lines and gradually im-
proved only by the constant aid and assistance of the full
services of both state and national Bureaus.
We realize that we stand only at the threshold of
achievement in. distribution and marketing, that we are
blazing trails toward successful development, that there
remain unmeasured opportunities and unlimited possibili-
ties in economic activities, but we are ready in the future as
we have been in the past, to meet every requirement un-
flinchingly and labor willingly and unceasingly, looking
ever toward a successful goal.
The services of some state or government departments
are not always utilized to the fullest because the functions
are not well known. No effort has been made by the Flor-
ida State Marketing Bureau to advertise itself, or to un-
necessarily expand beyond the scope of requirements that
may be met economically and efficiently. Yet our work has
progressed steadily, basically and in the directions from
which the greatest demands for service have originated.
Not through intent to flatter the offices, but instead to
demonstrate the services of this department are known
and have been advantageously used, a few of the numerous
commendatory letters are reproduced:
From D. E. Roberts, Worthington Springs, Fla:
"During 1927 I shipped 2791 cases of eggs for the farmers and
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
through your cooperation I lost only one account. During 1928 so
far I have handled about 1800 cases of eggs, this besides a lot of
chickens, and through your cooperation with me, why I haven't lost
one penny on accounts. I just mention this to let you know that I
really do appreciate what you are doing for me and others, and if
a fellow will go by what you say he is safe."
From L. D. Powell, Pierson, Fla.:
"The above bill ($20.00) has been paid in full and am convinced
that I could never have collected. Thanking you for your prompt
From W. F. Ward, Sebring, Fla.:
"Advertisements of good marketable stuff in your bulletin cer-
tainly bring results and is doing the farmers and truckers a world
of good. My ads in two issues brought inquiries for over a MILLION
Missionary strawberry plants, and I have completely sold out."
From Alachua County Cooperative Association, Gainesville, Fla.:
"At a regular meetifig of our Board of Directors, the undersigned
was instructed, by unanimous vote of the Board, to convey to you
our very deep appreciation of the very efficient and very valuable
service you have rendered us through your daily telegraphic market
report on Cucumbers. This service has made it possible for us to
intelligently market this crop and we know has been worth many
dollars to us and the many farmers composing our organization. In
fact we wou'd be very materially handicapped without this service
and feel that we could not successfully operate without it."
From R. F. Clark, Starke, Fla.:
"Please accept thanks for prompt and efficient service in han-
dling my misdeal with I will not take trouble to in-
vestigate his story about shipment. It is very plain that without the
strong arm of the Marketing Bureau my $3.00 was gone. Etc."
From L. P. Doss, Sebastian, Fla.:
"I will thank you to put me on list of those desiring vegetable
reports. This service will help the farmer and shipper more than
any other one thing that has been done in his behalf."
From Gunn and Turner, Kraemer, Fla.:
"Do not see how we could get along without these reports. Very
valuable to us."
From B. Hahn, Ocala, Fla.:
"I wish to say that your Bulletin is a very efficient advertising
medium and one of the best in the State as it covers more territory
than any other medium. I placed a small want ad in the February
1st issue and received over fifty replies."
From Flowertree Nursery, Eustis, Fla:
"- Permit us to thank you and Dr. Albrecht for your co-
operation. We suppose it is infra dig. for a state institution to wear
a slogan on its letterhead, but if it were to suggest one for you it
would be: 'The Livest Thing in Florida'."
14 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
From Prevatt & Company, Seville, Fla:
"In this connection we wish to express our sincere thanks and
appreciation for the splendid service that your bureau has given us
this season. It has been very valuable to us during our shipping
period, and again expressing our thanks to your bureau for this
service, we remain."
From E. M. Campbell, Vero Beach, Fla.:
"Shipping peppers and would appreciate grade booklet. Also a
list of reliable produce merchants. Receive the market news and it
is fine service."
From Gregg Maxcy, Sebring, Fla.:
"We are now through shipping for this season and will ask that
you discontinue wiring us daily shipments. We take this opportun-
ity to thank you for your daily telegrams reporting shipments, which
have been of great benefit to us."
From W. H. Thomson, Lloyd, Fla.:
"I am in receipt of your letter July 25th enclosing check for
$95.76 in full settlement of my account against
Without your services this account would have been an entire loss as
I had done all I could to collect this account before asking your aid.
You are serving the farmers efficiently and should the occasion ever
arise when a farmer can serve you, I am yours to command."
From the Hastings Potato Growers Assn., Hastings, Fla.:
"We have received and studied the Graphic Charts of Commodity
Prices prepared by your department in conjunction with Mr. Rhodes'
office. This is one of the most comprehensive and useful studies the
writer has ever had the privilege of reviewing and we find it to be
a very valuable adjunct to our distribution charts."
From J. C. Graham, Graceville, Fla.:
"With compliments of the season I extend to you congratulations
for your good work with the Bulletin during the year now passing
out. It has been a source of much benefit to me in my agricultural
efforts in finding a market and getting good customers. Don't think
I could get along without the semi-monthly edition of the Bulletin.
The writer wishes to sincerely compliment you in the
work you are doing for the benefit of the agriculturalists."
From the Bagnall Poultry Farm, Midway, Fla.:
"While we do not write you each time or acknowledge your wires,
we want you to know how very much we appreciate the splendid
attention you give us in the matter of advising immediately of an
advance or decline in the market. We will gather, candle, grade and
ship between fifty and sixty cases today. These eggs will be paid
for on the basis of your latest quotation; whereas if we waited for
the newspapers in the outlying districts, the loss to our members
would be considerable without the service you are rendering."
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 15
Expenditures of the Florida State Marketing Bureau
July 1, 1927, to March 1, 1929
FOR PERIOD July 1, 1927, to July 1, 1928
Appropriated per annum ....................
SALARIES: ........................................ 19,460.00
MULTIGRAPH : ..................................
Maintenance of equipment and
supplies such as paper, envelopes,
Upkeep and supplies.
POSTA GE : ..........................................
General office, semi-monthly bul-
letin, special reports, etc.
TELEGRAPH : ....................................
General office, leased wire main-
tenance, special reports.
STATIONERY AND OFFICE
SU PPLIES: ......................................
Office equipment, typewriters, sta-
tionery, pencils, ink, stencils, wa-
TELEPHONE : ...................................
TRAVELING EXPENSES: ..............
Commissioner and office personnel
traveling expenses, auto upkeep,
RENTAL: ............................................ $ 1,860.00 $33,595.00
16 SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT
FOR PERIOD July 1, 1928, to
Appropriated per annum ....................
SA LA RIE S : ........................................
M ULTIGRAPH : ..................................
POSTAGE : ..........................................
STATIONERY AND OFFICE SUP-
March 1, 1929
TELEPHONE: .................................... 156.24
TRAVELING EXPENSES: .............. 1,099.24
RENTAL: .................................... ........ $ 1,240.00
BALANCE for remaining four
m months ............................................
(March through June inclusive)