Belize ag report

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Belize ag report
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Belize Ag Report, Beth Roberson
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The Belize Ag Report Belize's most complete independent agricultural publication November 2017ISSUE 38 Belize Cuba Trade... pg 7 Artisan Cheeses... pg 6 CARDI Day 2017Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) December 5th 2017 pg 23 Planting Coconuts... pg12 pg. 36 'Timor Black' 'Vietnam' 'Graceful' 'Tulda' Bamboo... pg 28 Breadfruit... pg 3 Aerial Spraying... pg 24


November 2017 2 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize POR T OF BIG CREEK, INDEPENDENCE VILLAGE, STA NN CREEK DISTRICT, BELIZE C.A, TEL: 523 2003, EMAIL: Control Postbloom Fruit Drop (PFD)In Citrus Production Edwin Gomez, Raymond Arnold, David Saravia, Davilmar Avilez INTRODUCTION Postbloom Fruit Drop (PFD) in citrus is caused by a fungus identified as Colletotrichum acutatum. Based on Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide 2016, the fungus affects all species and cultivars of citrus, but severity of the disease varies based on flowering time and precipitation. Sp ore s of this fungus are produce d directly on the surface of infected petals and are dispersed by rain to healthy flowers within 24 hours S ymptoms of the disease are visible in 4 to 5 days after inoculation (N.A. Peters and M. M. D ewney, 2016). Two models have been develop ed to determine fungi cide applica tion to control PFD: t he PFD model and the PFD -FAD system ( Both model descriptions available at University of Florida Web page .) A fungicide trial was conducted at Barton Creek, Cool Shade Cayo District to control PFD from 16th June, 201 to 18th July, 201 A rea under trial were 15 acres treated an d 15 acres as control. Plant rootstock was sour orange, scion Valencia, plant density at 96 plants per acre. Grove age, 25 years. OBJECTIVE 1. Apply a Strobilurin in combination with a Triazol fungicide to control Postbloom Fruit Drop (PFD) and improv e orange fruit set at flowering 2. Elaborate an estimated cost benefit analysis after fruit set in treated area to compare with control METHODS 1. Select a problematic area with PFD 2. Choose most significant flowering period of grove (F or this trial, fungicide application was done in June for second flush. ) 3. First application done at pinhead previous to flowering with a strobilurin Regnum 25 EC at 185 cc per acre 4. Second application to be done 10 to 12 days after the first application, m ix a Strobilurin (Regnum 25 EC ) at 185 CC per acre, combine with a Triazol at 200 cc ( Difecor 25 EC ). For both applications use 300 litres of water per acre, regulate water pH with Pegador pH and a sticker Silkawet 5. Count fruit set after 20 day s of second application in 18 t rees in treated area and control area to develop an estimated cost benefit analysis RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OBSERVATION/DISCUSSION 1. Estimated yield in treated are a accounts three time more compared to control in second flush. ( 105 boxes per acre /34 boxes per acre equals 3.088) 2. Estimated revenue in treated area sum $930.14 after deducting application cost and product input cost 3. Based on results obtained, combination of a Strobilurin with a Triazol is effect ive to control PFD; the key to positive result is in line with time of application. APP PRODUCT DOSAGE (cc/ acre) COST/UNIT COST/ ACRE Regnum 25 EC 185.00 155.00 $ 28.68 $ Pegador pH 378.00 18.50 $ 6.99 $ Silkawet 378.00 6.50 $ 2.46 $ App Cost/Ac 0.00 $ 4.00 $ 42.13 $ 1 TOTAL COST OF FIRST APPLICATION APP PRODUCT DOSAGE (cc/ acre) COST/UNIT COST/ ACRE Regnum 25 EC 185.0 155.00 $ 28.68 $ Pegador pH 378.0 18.50 $ 6.99 $ Silkawet 378 6.50 $ 2.46 $ Difecor 25 EC 200.0 75.00 $ 15.00 $ App Cost/Ac 0.0 $ 4.00 $ 57.13 $ COST OF SECOND APPLICATION TOTAL 2 TRIALSAVE/BOX/ACSALE/PRICE TOTAL Treated 10514.50 $ 1,518.31 $ Control 34 14.50 $ 488.92 $ ESTIMATED REVENUE BASED ON FRUIT SET C O UNT PER ACRE TRIALS SALES/ACRE APP COST REVENUE Treated 1,518.31 $ 99.25 $ 1,419.06 $ Control 488.92 $ $ 488.92 $ 930.14 $ COST BENEFIT INCOME INCREASE PICTURE 1.4


November 2017 3 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize cultivated (more widely grown) seedless type, but occasionally a few fully developed seeds are found in usually seedless cultivars. An unpublished report of 1921 covered 200 cultivars of breadfruit 166 varieties in the region; in Fiji 70 named varieties are locally separated into 8 classes by leaf forms. Origin and Distribution Breadfruit belongs to the mulberry family, Moraceae. It is believed to be native to a vast area extending from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to Western Micronesia. migrating Polynesians; Hawaiians believed that it was brought by Europeans in the Marquesas in 1595, then in Tahiti in 1606. were loud in its praises and its fame; together with several periods of famine in Jamaica between 1780 and 1786, inspired plantation owners in the British West Indies petitioned King George III to import seedless breadfruit trees to provide food for their slaves. There is good evidence that the French navigator, Sonnerat, obtained the seeded breadfruit in the Philippines and brought it potted breadfruit plants on his disastrous return voyage is well known. He set out again in 1791 and delivered 5 different kinds totaling 2,126 plants to Jamaica in February 1793. It has been suggested that the seeded breadfruit was carried by Spaniards any reached the West Indies. Culture Young breadfruit trees are planted in well-enriched holes 15 inches deep and 3 feet wide. The trees are spaced 25 to 40 feet apart in plantations. Usually there are about 25 trees per acre. They can also be propagated by transplanting suckers which spring up naturally from the roots. One can deliberately induce suckers by uncovering and injuring a root. Pruning the parent tree increases the number of suckers and root pruning each sucker several times over a period of months before taking it up contributes to its survival when transplanted. Those grown from root suckers bear in 5 years and are productive for 50 years. Some growers recommend pruning branches that have borne fruit and normally die back, because this practice stimulates new shoots and also tends to keep the tree from being too tall for convenient harvesting. The breadfruit tree is handsome, fast growing, and long-living; it can reach 85 feet in height, often with a clear trunk Unleashing the Potential of Underutilized CropsBreadfruitBy Santiago JuanBelize has been blessed with edible landscapes. Take breadfruit, or masapan in Spanish, for example. In Belize you can see breadfruit growing in all our districts. In both northern districts you see old trees still producing well in very calcareous soils; in southern Belize large trees can be seen in low lying areas and brackish water like in Hopkins Village or along the Sittee River, a testament to the great adaptation ability of this humble plant. Most Belizeans have eaten breadfruit at least once in their lifetime; yet it is probably the most underutilized crop growing in Belize. Nowadays, it countries are making small shipments to the United States, great potential in Belize serving the growing market for visitors to our country who are gluten intolerant, vegetarian or vegan. Food Uses Like the banana and plantain, breadfruit may be eaten ripe as a fruit or green as a vegetable. In the green stage, the fruit is Sliced, buttered and pan-fried, it makes a tasty breakfast toast. When fully ripe, the fruit is somewhat soft; the interior is creamcoloured or yellow and pasty and sweetly fragrant. It can be baked whole with a little water in the pan. Some cooks remove the stem and core before cooking and put butter and sugar in the cavity, and serve with more of the same. Others may serve the baked fruit with butter, salt and pepper. Ripe fruits may be halved or quartered and steamed for 1 or 2 hours and seasoned in the same manner as baked fruits. The steamed fruit is sometimes soft, ripe breadfruits is combined with coconut milk, salt and sugar and baked to make a pudding. A more elaborate dessert is concocted of mashed ripe breadfruit with butter, 2 beaten eggs, sugar, nutmeg, cinnamon and rosewater, a dash of sherry or brandy, blended and boiled. Breadfruit is also candied, or sometimes prepared as a sweet pickle. and other essential amino acids, contains 4.05% protein 76.70% contains 1.16% protein, 83.83% carbohydrates, and 347 calories.) for breakfast. Soft or overripe breadfruit is best for making chips; these are being manufactured commercially in Trinidad and are candied by recooking for 2-3 hours in syrup, then rolled in powdered sugar and sun-dried. All parts of the tree, including the unripe fruit, are rich in milky, gummy latex. There are two main types: the normal, wild type (cultivated in some areas) with seeds and little pulp, and the Belize BambooBamboo Poles For Any Project Interior Design Construction Treated or Untreated Custom Cut Many sizes available!Call or email us to place your order (501) 622-3184 Rancho Dolores Village Continued on page 5


November 2017 4 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize NOTICE: Please feel free to share The Belize Ag Report by publishing the link to our website or sharing it with others. The Belize Ag Report welcomes petitions to reprint articles. However, please note that the PDF download and individual articles are copyright protected and permission MUST be granted by the Editor prior to reproduction. We also require that reprints indicate The Belize Ag Report as the source and that our website be referenced.The Belize Ag Report, P.O. Box 150, San Ignacio, Telephone: 663-6777 (please, no text, no voicemail) Associate: Sally Thackery Publisher: Beth Roberson Submissions as follows: Letters to the Editor, Ads & Articles to: publication. 4 Issues per year Original Site Design by Xen Wildman Website Design & SEO by Ximbalo Web Studio Mission Statement:The Belize Ag Report is an independent quarterly agriculture newsletter. Our purpose is to collect, edit and disseminate information useful to the Belizean producer, large or small. We invite opinions on issues, which are not necessarily our own. Belize Ag neither solicits nor accepts political ads. Check OutOur Revised Website!*Ag Prices at a Glance current and back agricultural products and now updated every 6 weeks *New Ag Calendar Let us post your Ag Events free service *New Ag Press Releases Let us post your Ag Press Releases free service for NGO/GOB and nominal price for others *Mailing list new issues and/or press releases INTRODUCING in 2018: A new mid-quarterly online-only issue, The Mid-Q begins in 2018 Our regular printed and online quarterly issues published every February, May, August and November will continue unchanged. Mid-Q Features:*Ag Prices at a Glance *Ag Interviews *Ask Rubber Boots (sadly booted-out of the printed issues for lack of space there) *The Treasure Crop Youth in Agriculture *More Articles *More and longer Book Reviews *Recipes using fruits and produce mentioned in articles Have you a suggestion for an article topic agriculture to share?......Be a part of the symphony of agricultural news in the Belize Ag ~ 663-6777


November 2017 5 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize TO THE EDITOR Yes, I love that you have both print and online versions and really us as far as providing information about local/medicinal plants and growing/processing methods in tropical conditions. I think my favorite part is that it includes the voice of so many people and allows them to respectfully share their opinions, information and the diverse projects that are happening in their areas. Thanks for all of your hard work and efforts to bring to light the wealth of knowledge here! Come and see the biggest and most beautiful Spice Farm in Belize. We are located at the foot hills of the Maya Mountains, 45 minutes South of the Placencia Junction and 35 minutes from Punta Gorda. We offer tours everyday 8 AM to 3:30 PM. Guests can ridein our tourmobile while seeing, smelling and touching spice plants that produce spices used in everyday cooking like black pepper, vanilla, cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, allspice and many others. Our restaurant servesBelizean, American and South Indian food using ingredients from our farm. We have a very spacious and beautiful hall ideal for parties and seminars. Golden Stream, Southern Highway, Toledo District 221 km, or approximately 3 hours drive from Belize City(501) 670-1338/6004/4906 Breadfruit...Continued from page 3to 20 feet becoming 2 to 6 feet in width and often buttressed at the base, though some varieties may never exceed 1/4 or 1/2 of these dimensions. Breadfruit is borne singly branch tips. Harvesting and Yield Breadfruits are picked when maturity is indicated by the appearance of small drops of latex on the surface. Harvesters climb the trees and break the fruit stalk with a forked stick to make the fruit fall. Even though this may cause some bruising or splitting, the fruit is eaten quickly; so very few losses are recorded due to bruising. Productivity varies between wet and dry areas. In the West Indies, a conservative estimate is 25 fruits per tree. Studies in Barbados indicate a reasonable potential of 6.7 to 13.4 tons per acre. Other Uses Leaves: Breadfruit leaves are eagerly eaten by domestic livestock; they are fed to cattle and goats, horses and pigs. Horses are apt to eat the bark of young trees as well, so new plantings must be protected from them. Latex: After boiling with coconut oil, the latex is used for caulking boats and mixed with colored earth, as a paint for boats. Wood: The wood is yellowish or yellow-gray with dark markings or orange speckles, light in weight, not very hard but strong, used for construction and furniture. In Samoa, it is the standard material for house-posts and for the rounded roof-ends of native houses. Because of its lightness, the wood is in demand for surfboards. Traditional Hawaiian drums played with the palms for hula dances are made from sections of breadfruit trunks 2 feet long and 1 foot wide. Wood rough-sanded by coral and lava, smoothed with the dried stipules of the breadfruit tree itself, and seasoned in mud is made into household articles. Malaysians fashioned it into clothing. Material for tape cloth is obtained from the inner bark of young trees and branches. In the Philippines, it is made into harnesses for water buffalo. Medicinal Uses In Trinidad and the Bahamas, a decoction of the breadfruit leaf is believed to lower blood pressure, and is also said to relieve for thrush. The leaf juice is employed as ear-drops. Ashes of burned leaves are used on skin infections. A powder of roasted leaves is employed as a remedy for enlarged spleen. The crushed fruit is used as poultice on tumors to ripen them. Toasted is used on skin diseases and is bandaged on the spine to relieve Breadfruit photos courtesy of Belize Spice Farm.


November 2017 6 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Cheese MakingBy Nadege ThomasAlmost four years ago I decided to start making my own cheese for our resort, Mystic River Lodge because of a lack of good cheeses in Belize and also because we use so much of it in our cooking that I was spending a cheese! Being French born and a great lover of cheese myself, I had a keen interest in goats and their milk; cows have never done very much for me, so goat it was! That decision lead to some amazing discoveries about goats: where to get them in Belize and most importantly how to make the cheese itself since I had not a clue; but I was willing to learn. I took a one week course on cheese making and I was off. The rest is all about learning as you go, mistakes and all; I can say in all honesty that there were a few but none that I could not eat! Over a period of a few months we put together a small herd of about 15 odd goats, mostly Saanen blood lines. Over time we started breeding only the best milkers from our herd after we learned that milking capacities are passed on from mother to kid! Overall, Saanen and local breeds produce the most milk and are the hardiest goats here. We had problems with the kids at the beginning but got that sorted out with a proper vaccination routine and proper feed. On our 25+ acres of pastures we grow Mombasa and Guinea grass which the goats will graze during the day and we also feed them a grain mixture prepared ourselves from local products, such as cracked corn, citrus pellets, soybean meal and of course multivitamins! We also grow mulberry and purple elephant grass for them to eat; mulberry is their preferred food. We keep 5 goats per acre of fenced plot (no electric fence needed) and we rotate accordingly. Our average milk production varies from 2 pints to half a gallon per goat so during milking season, we can get anywhere from 4 to 6 gallons of milk per day; it takes about 2 gallons of milk to yield one to one-and-a-half pounds of cheese, depending on the cheese being made. While Eber, our livestock manager, and I were busy putting the herd together, our construction crew built a cheese house, a special place for me to make the cheeses, et voila! La Fromagerie at Mystic River Resort was born. We have been supplying all the cheeses and yogurt for the resort ever since, and have even recently some of our creations. We offer the tasting by appointment only and it truly is a lot of fun. One of my personal favorite cheeses is our coconut cheese, which is a soft cheese rolled in shredded coconut (We have many coconut trees here!), then fried. Yummy! I add a little bit of sweet and sour sauce on big misconception about goat cheese out there. Most folks think of goat cheese as a pungent soft cheese when really you can make you use and the aging process of the cheese that determines the are lactose intolerant. Being lactose intolerant has to do with an to see folks who usually do not each cheese do so and really enjoy it! I also started going to the market every Saturday recently to sell our cheeses because we had so much milk I was having trouble eating it all! The favorite cheese at the market is our spreadable take the plunge and try it.they love it! I found that it is my best seller after all! Our cheesecake has also done very well and on a few occasions, I have run out! I also make a fabulous cheddar style cheese which is great for shredding over just about anything: burgers, salads, pasta, etc.; a little crotin rolled in vegetable ash, mushrooms! I have also tried a blue style cheese but I am not pleased with the results so will keep on trying to come up with the crumbly blue cheese. We love our goats! They are fun, each with its own personality; some of them are downright saucy! We had them in one of our Continued on pg 34


November 2017 7 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Patrick Faber, made an nd to 26th of May 2017. The objective of this state visit was to strengthen a bi-lateral He was accompanied by a delegation of ten from the Government of Belize which included ministers, Ambassador Burns had good relations but bi-lateral trade and trade agreement in place. was recently re-negotiated with a Second Protocol to amend the th to the 17th member states signatory to the agreement had indicated their approval of the Second Protocol. This means that the Secretaryheads of government, is now in a position to sign the protocol on behalf of the community. 112,000, focusing on a few products, mostly cigars and heparin, poultry and other products from the USA despite the embargo. Belize has the potential to supply high quality non-GMO products cornmeal, and juices. Most of the products in the table above are covered for duty-free market access under the trade agreement except for maize. Belize to have a presence in their trade fair, Fair of Havana. H.E. Ambassador Burns along with representatives from the met with various productive sectors to create awareness of such opportunities. In the recent past local producers have expressed willingness to trade the following products: milk and cheese; rice wholly milled; dried, shelled kidney beans, black beans and other legumes; frozen concentrate orange juice; sauces, jams and jellies. And with proper awareness and preparations, other trade opportunities are highly possible. Agro Processing & Exporting White & Yellow Corn Black Beans Red Kidney BeansCayo Grain & Agro Supply Ltd. Valley of Peace Farms Ltd.Mile 54 George Price Highway, Cayo District, Belize C.A. Tel: +501-822-2279 Gilbert H. Canton (General Manager) Cell: +501-615-0285Farming and Modern Grain Agro Processing Facility Ministry of Investment, Trade and CommerceTrade Opportunities with CubaBy John Rivero Some trade facilitation issues will have to be overcome for trade have to be strengthened or created to allow access through in this regard, offering to collaborate closely on resolving any challenges that may stand in the way of improving trade relations


November 2017 8 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Aloe: An Excellent ChoiceBy Jenny WildmanAloe vera has been revered as a healing plant for centuries and graces gardens throughout the world. The Maya called it the fountain of youth. Others know it as the immortality plant, plant, Barbados aloe, crocodile tail, lily of the desert, xabila, simple Bible, single Bible and sink am Bible, names showing to cure most ailments. There are hundreds of species of aloe but only one proudly carrying the name true ie: aloe vera or Aloe barbadensis which is thought closely related to the Aloe perryl endemic to Yemen. Aloe vera originated in northern Africa and is depicted on murals in the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs, where it was hailed as a true miracle plant. Early alchemists and health practitioners recorded its amazing capabilities and these have been passed down for centuries. The best legends imply fact though unsubstantiated, contain the element of the supernatural or magic and are often accepted as history. Yet if it da no so, da nearly so. There are 6 references to use of aloe in the Bible, the most notable John 19. 38-40, referring to the retrieval of the body of Jesus consistent in saying that Nicodemus comes to the tomb carrying myrrh, aloes and cinnamon to embalm the body for burial as was the Jewish custom. Psalm 45.8 All your robes are fragrant with which our cactus like aloe vera most certainly does not possess. This refers to Aquilaria malaccensis, aloeswood or agarwood, a very large tree whose light wood was prized for its heartwood, which, when infected with a mold, produces a dark aromatic juice used as a perfume, fragrant spice and essential oil for embalming. This was the prized aloe that early traders sought thus causing over-harvesting and near extinction. It is said that Alexander the Great was dangerously wounded in battle by an arrow. His miraculous recovery was attributed to aloe obtained from the Isle of Socotra, Yemen in the Indian Ocean. It was said to have gel in their daily beauty regimes. In Egypt, aloe vera was used to embalm and its ability to inhibit bacteria and fungus gave it the reputation of being able to bestow eternal life. The Jewish sect, the Essenes, who consumed it as a superfood, are reported to have commonly lived to 125 years of age. Whether by accidental misinformation or by its links to and Marco Polo or by its own diverse achievements, aloe vera has been acclaimed for over 5000 years, most certainly achieving evil demons and still superstition abounds and aloe is thought to protect against bad spirits. It can be seen at the doorway of many Mexican households to ward off evil and bring good luck. It is given as a gift to newlyweds to protect their relationship, after death they also plant aloe on graves of loved ones to promote safety whist awaiting rebirth and ensuring a peaceful transition. known and used in many rituals for centuries, the extent of its use began with increased research. Following the radiation exposure caused by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese scientists found that those who consumed aloe and applied its gel to their skin recovered much sooner. This led to the discovery of the powerful antioxidants that aloe contains. Aloe is known to soothing of sunburn. Today more that 250,000 gallons of gel per year are used in cosmetics alone. Yet its uses stretch far beyond skin care. Here is a short list of the ailments it purportedly treats when taken internally: constipation, stomach upsets, fungal issues, hemorrhoids, and diabetes; it is anti-bacterial and dispels parasites, improves blood circulation, cures mouth ulcers and it is also an ingredient used in commercial yoghurt, desserts, bitters and beverages. Topically it is used on bug bites, itches, rashes, as an ingredient in soaps, hand sanitizers, body gels, make up removers, for arthritis relief, and as an exfoliate and emolument. These you can make yourself. Fresh is always more potent. Raw gel is easy to harvest. Select healthy thick leaves from the lower part of the plant. Working from the base remove the side


November 2017 9 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize top and bottom of the leaf. Gently remove the transparent gel, discard the skin and yellow sap. This can be used as medicine but contains aloe in which is an irritant and is extremely bitter. Although allergies are seldom, some people who are allergic to a tingling sensation on contact with the plant. As aloe is now an ingredient in so many products such as toilet paper, band aids, chapstick and diapers this could be good advice. The gel can be made into ice cubes to use topically. For consumption to important minerals, antioxidants, sterols and polysaccharides it is best fresh not refrigerated and can be juiced or added to smoothies, salsas, dips and soups. A luxurious spa in the Yucatan touts its importance and includes aloe in their massage, beauty therapy and fabulous hydrating drinks. I surely always want to have it in my garden readily available for my guests. Aloe is slow growing but easy; yet there are some pointers to remember. It grows best in indirect sunlight in well-drained dry before re-watering. If you do not live near the sea, occasionally give it a saline drink. It can be grown in pots, preferably clay, as they are porous and afford good drainage. Remember to remove the new pups to avoid overcrowding. Never over-harvest, always leave three or four healthy leaves and the plant will survive for many years growing to as much as one metre in height. Generally the plants are pest-free but keep an eye out for bugs and changes in the plant colour indicating a problem. claims of healing but its reputation has endured since the beginning of time. The story perhaps begins with the romantic legend that tells of the banishment of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden. The angel Gabriel, feeling sorry for the pair, granted them the right to take just one thing. They chose aloe, which has since been called the shoot of paradise and as it is the plant of immortality, the story is never ending. Please send any comments or information you would like to share Photos by Belize Bamboo Belize BambooHandcrafted Bamboo Furniture Tables, Chairs, Futons Sofas, Dressers And more..... If you can dream it, we can make it!Call or email us to place your order (501) 622-3184 Rancho Dolores Village


November 2017 10 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize AgScience for Better CropsPlant NutritionBy: Felix C. CawichAll living organisms require nutrients for adequate growth, development and functionality in order to survive. Plants have the capacity to produce their own food through the conversion of light energy into a sugar (glucose), in a process called photosynthesis, which is the base of biomass formation. For this, 2, oxygen and a number of nutrients (FAO, 2006). As plant constituents, nutrients play a vital role in biochemical reactions, and the production of organic material. To obtain high agricultural yields an optimal nutrient program is required, whereby plants absorb nutrients from soil reserves or external sources, where water is the main carrier. Nutrients can be added either to the soil or leaves (foliar application) by using granular or liquid fertilizers, organic manures, soil amendments, among other sources. Plants absorb most of their nutrients through their root system; hence, it is important to develop healthy and strong roots. Nutrients are absorbed and transported to aerial parts of the importance of applying external sources of nutrients to ensure a good nutrition program, there is a chance of over applying and reaching toxicity levels. Figure 1 shows a relationship between the concentration of nutrient in tissue and the growth of plants. A critical concentration exists, which when below, signals a critical nutrient range that is the optimum level of nutrients required for plants to grow adequately. When the level surpasses this range, there is a phase of luxury consumption, followed by toxicity levels, which show visual symptoms. Therefore, a good crop nutrition program must always aim for the critical nutrient range for optimum growth. Figure 1. Growth vs. Nutrient Concentration (Salisbury and Ross, 2000) It is known that plants require at least 16 elements for growth and full development (Arnon and Stout, 1939). Plants utilize three are considered non-mineral nutrients because they are derived Figure 2. Essential elements for plant nutrition (Taiz and Seiger, 2006)It is important to understand the role of each element or nutrient in the plant metabolic functions. Below is a very brief description of the main functions of them in a plant (Salisbury and Ross, 1991). photosynthesis. Hydrogen (H) Maintains osmotic balance; important in numerous biochemical reactions; constitutes carbohydrates. Nitrogen (N) Necessary for formation of amino acids and proteins; vital for plant growth; directly involved in photosynthesis. Phosphorus (P) Involved in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer; promotes early root formation and growth; important in fruit formation, quality of seeds and fruit; increases disease resistance. nitrogen metabolism; reduces plant respiration; increases fruit set. Magnesium (Mg) Important in chlorophyll formaton; improves uniformity of maturity. Sulfur (S) Necessary in chlorophyll formation; helps develop enzymes and vitamins; promotes nodule formation on legumes. Boron (B) Essential for seed and cell wall formation; promotes maturity; necessary for sugar translocation. reproductive stages; increases sugar content; plays an indirect role in chlorophyll formation. Iron (Fe) Promotes formation of chlorophyll; acts as an oxygen carrier. Manganese (Mn) Increases the availability of phosphorus and calcium; aids in chlorophyll synthesis.


November 2017 11 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize M A R A N C O B E L I Z E W A T E R W E L L D R I L L I N G S E R V I C E S & S O L U T I O N S A division of MARRIOTT DRILLING GROUP Contact us on Tel: 823 0501/02/03 Fax: 823 0504 E mail: LOOKING FOR WATER? WE OFFER FAST RELIABLE SERVICE, MODERN EQUIPMENT, VERY COMPETITIVE RATES AND 70 YEARS EXPERIENCE WORLDWIDE Molybdenum (Mo) Aids in the formation of legume nodules; plays a role in reducing nitrates to ammonium in plants. starch formation; aids plant growth hormones and enzyme system; aids in seed formation. Silicon (Si) Increases resistance to fungal diseases. that associate with legumes. are some that are mobile, very mobile or immobile. Their mobility Figure 3 shows where in a plant and which nutrient could be and yellowing of upper leaves is sulfur. Some nutrients may present similar symptoms which require further analysis and expertise. Figure 3. Nutrient to mobility (IPNI) In a way, plants speak to us visually; understanding their environment and requirements is key in formulating a crop nutrition program. Regular soil and leaf analysis is recommended to maximize crop yields. Printing PossibilitiesOfce Machines and Document ManagementAnnual Reports Brochures Business Cards Calendars Certicates Checks Exercise Books Flyers Folders Greeting Cards Invitations Labels Magazines Menus Newsletters Ofces Stationary Postcards Programmes Rafe Books Yearbooks & more Also Offering PRINTING LTDPRINT & DESIGN# 18 Nazarene Street, Benque Viejo, Cayo District, Belize, C.A. 823-2143 | 823-3139 | 823-2750 823-3082


November 2017 12 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Establishing A Coconut PlantationBy George Emmanuel and Omaira Avila Rostant Cocos nucifera subtropical areas, the fruit of which has many uses; it has been a major ingredient in the diets of many people living on tropical islands, creating a very lucrative industry worldwide. In recent years, the demand for coconut product has increased exponentially. It was reported that from 2008 to 2014 alone the demand for coconut products increased 700%, especially has increased the demand for establishing plantations that can supply the high worldwide demand for coconuts. In Belize this opportunity has encouraged the establishment of acres of coconuts in new plantations. Here are some factors to be considered and recommendations for establishing a coconut plantation: Coconut is a long term crop. A coconut plant takes 2 to 5 years to enter in production, and can be in production from 35 to 50 years, depending on the variety planted. Therefore, it is important to plant at an adequate distance apart so plants can grow healthy and not compete for light and nutrients. Recommended spacing and patterns are shown to the right. Coconut variety vs hybrids. In Belize the more popular is recommended for the production of coconut water, while local tall is excellent for oil production. The hybrids are the recommended crosses of tall and dwarf varieties to make the plant tolerant to lethal yellowing disease that devastated the producers of water and oil. The Ministry of Agriculture and in the local industry. Best climatic conditions to grow coconuts: The coconut and needs sunlight but also needs a day and night temperature of rainfall level from 1000 mm to 3000 mm, 2000 ft. height from mean sea level, and 70% air moisture. They also require a good draining facility, sandy soil rich in humus content, in a depth of 3 meters and a soil pH from 6 to 7. For most varieties after approximately 9 months in the nursery bed, transplanting should generally coincide with the onset of rains. Proper selection of seedlings in the main nursery alone can ensure a 10% improvement in yield. Seedlings should be removed with a spade and the roots carefully cut. They should not be lifted by pulling the leaves or stem. They should be kept out of the sun and planted as early as possible after removal from the nursery. Best plants to transplant: selected from the main nursery bed should have the following characteristics: 1. Shoots should have a girth of 10 12 cm at the collar. 2. Seedlings should have a minimum of six leaves with the 3. The leaf stalk should be short and thick. 4. Seedlings should have a healthy appearance and be free from pests and diseases. and 25 feet for tall varieties and hybrids. Step 1: Prepare a well-drained, full-sun site for the coconut wood chips or compost into the planting area to improve drainage if necessary. Step 2: nursery pot/bag and twice as wide. Space the trees approximately Step 3: Lift the palm out of the nursery pot and set it in the planting hole. Add or remove soil from under the palm until it is sitting in the hole at the same depth as it was in the pot. Fill in the


November 2017 13 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Step 4: Water immediately after planting, thoroughly soaking the area to at least an 8-inch depth. Water once weekly when rainfall during the week is less than 1 inch. Step 5: Spread 2 to 3 inches of an organic mulch, such as wood chips, over the ground around the palm to help preserve soil moisture. Apply the mulch over the entire area above the root ball.Finally when planting coconuts, as a commercial enterprise or for house landscaping, it is important to keep records and the records seedlings were planted, the nursery source and if possible the source of the seed nuts from the nursery. Ref: Chan, Edward and Craig R. Elevitch. April 2006. Cocos nucifera Holualoa, Hawaii: Permanaent Agriculture Resources (PAR). Compton Paul and Evans Ramkhelawan 2016. Coconut Production Compton Paul and Evans Ramkhelawan 2016. Gaps for Coconut Type of service Sevice Details Unit Price ( BZ$ ) Notes Harrowing Acre 25.00 Ploughing Acre 55.00 Drying of corn, beans, soya, p ea n u t s an d p ep it os Po u n d 0.0 30.0 5 C or n b ea n s, so ya, p ea n u t s an d p ep it os Tr ash er / sh elle r 8 h ou rs (DA Y) 85 .00 Se rvic e on ly availab le at 25 miles aro u n d C en t ral Farm C ARD I Y C 00 1 (Yello w C or n ) Po u n d 1.7 0 N B 6 (W h it e c or n ) Po u n d 1.7 0 So ybe an S88 Po u n d 1.8 0 H ot p ep p er West In d ies Red Ou n c e 45 .00 H ot p ep p er M or u ga Red Ou n c e 45 .00 Grain an alys is Pu rit y an alys is 80 .00em ail : c ard i@ b tl.n etGerm in at ion t est 10 0.0 0P h o n e: 8 2 4 -29 3 4 L A BO R A T O R Y SER VICE S Central Farm CAYO d istrict Rep or t p er samp le Rep or t p er b at c h D ep en d in g on t h e p re viou s sc h ed u le of t h e eq u ip men t Open po ll in ate d SEED FO R FA R M ERS CARD I 2017/ 18 LIST OF SE RVICES Se rvic e on ly availab le at 25 miles aro u n d C en t ral Farm Note: All rental of equipment services is subject to $25BZ$/Hour travelling fee D ep en d in g on t h e p re viou s sc h ed u le of t h e eq u ip men t Cedar Bluff Cayo DistrictLarge Quiet HomesitesRiver & Garden 668-0749 Birds, birds, birds!


November 2017 14 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Coconut Oil StandardsBy Dottie FeuchtThe coconut oil industry in Belize recently had a big boost in terms of standards Lloyd Orellano, from Belize Bureau of Standards, assisted by Omaira Avila Agricultural Research and Cocos nucifera Linnaeus) by a process of expression (extraction by using pressure), solvent extraction or other approved method of processing. In addition to common standards, such as it must be for the three types of coconut oil: Crude: obtained from the copra (dehydrated or dried coconut kernel) by expression and/or solvent. obtained from the copra by expression and/or solvent and neutralized, bleached with bleaching earth or activated process involves a wash with citric acid to remove gum bleaching and steam-stripping or deodorizing. Virgin: obtained from fresh and mature kernel by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which does not lead to alteration of the nature of the oil. (It consists mainly of medium chain triglycerides, resistant to peroxidation; fatty acids in virgin coconut oil are distinct from animal fats which contain mainly long chain saturated fatty acids.) provides uniform level of acceptance for quality for the different from those developed by the coconut community of other regions for food additives, including colors, antioxidants and antioxidant-synergists, and antifoaming agents contaminants, including heavy metals and pesticide residues hygiene, including guidelines for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria related to foods packaging, including those for food grade quality and inert to coconut oil marking and labeling, including those for individual containers for retail, external packaging for shipping, The standard applies to the domestic as well as the commercial export market for use in the food industry, soap and cosmetic industries, animal feed and other uses. Foliar Fertilizers Soil Fertilizers Primary Nutrients Secondary Nutrients Micro Nutrients Soil and Leaf Analysis Service 670-4817 Environment Friendly Specialized in Cleaning, Packing & Exporting Beans and Other Grains PLANT LOCATION: Route 20 East Spanish Lookout, Cayo District, Belize Currently Bel-Cars main exporting products are corn meal, corn grits, and dry edible beans. It has Black Eye Beans, Light Red Kidney Beans, Black Beans, and Small Red Beans available at most times. MAILING ADDRESS: BEL-CAR EXPORT & IMPORT COMPANY LTD. Box 578, Spanish Lookout, Belize, Central America CONTACTS: Tel:501-823-0318 / 501-823-0271 Fax:501-823-0136


November 2017 15 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize to help extract the algae and can also be added into animal feed or mixed with other nutrients to make a slow release fertilizer.Slow Release Fertilizers:We are working to develop six types of slow release organic and inorganic fertilizers. The biochar is the matrix and other minerals, organic matter such as manure and/or chemicals such reacted with their matrix. These products are being developed to regenerate 250,000.00 hectares (10% of the agricultural land) of degraded land. Our goal is not only to restore degraded land but to provide incentives for reforestation in these areas. Amazon in coffee, cocoa, citrus, grape, potato growing areas. Trials will be carried out in collaboration with different national universities, government and non government institutions and farmers that want to promote sustainable development.Slow Release Fertilizers from Pyrolysis of Agricultural ResiduesCreating value out of agricultural residues to regenerate soil fertilityBy Yngrid Espinoza, Stephen Joseph, Vasco Masias, Felix FroeseThe goal of this project is to contribute to the preservation of the biodiversity that characterizes one of the most privileged places in the world. An important challenge of the 21st century is to maintain sustainable crop yield for an expanding population and reduce greenhouse gas emissions without damaging ecosystems. To achieve this goal we need to build up macro and micronutrients in using renewable energy. This project is production of healthy food (spirulina).Integrated System for the Production of Algae:Two companies have combined resources to develop both an algae technology, pyrolysis technology and a slow release fertilizer. The original design of the pyrolyser was developed by Professor Stephen Joseph and is based on Open Source Technology hr (dry feed in) design was undertaken by Russell Burnett of design and detailed design of the heat exchanger was carried out by Peruvian engineers (Samuel Encarnacin e Yngrid Espinoza). The system has 4 components: 1. Pyrolyser that can use a range of residues that are available throughout Peru 2. A heat exchanger that produces hot air for drying the algae 3. Algae ponds 4. Algae drier The pyrolysis of the biomass is carried out at a temperature of between 400-500 o is cleaned and injected into the algae pond. The hot air that is produced in the heat exchanger is used to dry the algae from 90% to 10%. The algae is used for feeding children who may be malnourished or as a feed for animals. The biochar can be used GRUPO ALIMENTA HAVE A MISSIN TO DEVELOP SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS FROM PYROLYSIS OFAGRICULTURAL RESIDUES, UTILSATION OF WASTE HEAT AND CO2 TO PRODUCE SPIRULINA Creating value out of agricultural residues to regenerate soil fertility Yngrid Espinoza, Stephen Joseph, Vasco Masias, Felix Froese GRUPO ALIMENTA HAVE A MISSIN TO DEVELOP SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS FROM PYROLYSIS OFAGRICULTURAL RESIDUES, UTILSATION OF WASTE HEAT AND CO2 TO PRODUCE SPIRULINA Creating value out of agricultural residues to regenerate soil fertility Yngrid Espinoza, Stephen Joseph, Vasco Masias, Felix Froese We thank the International Biochar Initiative and For more about Spirulina, see pg 20 this issue.


November 2017 16 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Ministry of Investment, Trade and CommerceDGFT TRADE INTELLIGENCE 2016 DOMESTIC EXPORT TRADE DATA DISAGGREGATION (07/17)Data Extracted from the Statistical Institute of Belize 0% indicates less than 1%


November 2017 17 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize KINSEYS AGRICULTURAL SERVICESsoil fertility consultant315 State Highway 77, Charleston, Missouri 63834, U.S.A. Tel: (573) 683 3880Fax: (573) 683 6227 e-mail: Web: www.kinseyag.comProblems with crop quality, poor yields?We specialize in correcting soil fertility problems of farms, ranches, vineyards, orchards, gardens and lawns... quality crop production We applied all the recommended trace elements... Had extremely good results. Best grass ever... in spite of a lousy growing season very hot and extended drought. We were the only people in the area who didnt have to feed hay in July / August. Frank Bostwick, Arkansas For More Information:Please Contact: Belcampo Belize Limited Email: Phone #: 670 1458 670 2745 or 670 5090. Farm Equipment On Sale


November 2017 18 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize


November 2017 19 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Agriculture Prices at a Glance$$$$$ A-B denotes the difference between 1st preference & 2nd preference and sometimes between wholesale & retail NOVEMBER 2017 GRAINS, BEANS & RICE T A B CL L L L L -LS L L L H S S S L SSUGAR/HONEYH S S SSPECIAL FARM ITEMSS S SCACAOS SH BELIZE CATTLE by District Provided by BLPA T H S H H L/H H L/H H/S U.S. CATTLEL HBELIZE HOGSS L/S BELIZE SHEEPL S BELIZE CHICKENS S S S L HCITRUSL HCOCONUTSS S***These prices are the best estimates only from our best sources and simply provide a range to assist buyers and sellers in negotiations.***


November 2017 20 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Mountain Equestrian TrailsCayo, Belize Homemade HealthSpirulina Ancient SuperfoodBy Marguerite Fly Bevis RN, BSN a professor at University of Victoria for 41 years. I was privileged to hear him speak and in many ways he changed my life that day. He said that his research indicates that by taking spirulina and selenium every day along with a high oxidant diet, the immune system would function properly and many illnesses could be prevented or improved. His Unfortunately, there was little interest in inexpensive treatments so the information was largely ignored. Thankfully today there are people the foundation created in his name.Spirulina is a photosynthetic algae that grows in salt and freshwater. It is considered a complete food, consisting of proteins, amino acids, and minerals. One could survive with only spirulina as food. Blue-green in color, it is a single celled organism whose job is to turn sunshine into life-sustaining energy. It has successfully survived for millions of years, providing oxygen to the planet before and more effectively than higher life-forms. Historically, spirulina has been used by the Aztecs who harvested the blue mud from Lake Texcoco. It was also eaten by the across Southeast Asia in soups and sauces.Spirulina grows quickly, and produces twenty times more protein than soybeans and delivers more nutrition per acre than any other food on earth. It has been called the Food of the Future. Immune support increases production of antibiotics. People who other illnesses. from illnesses faster. Protein supplement 62% amino acids; when used with selenium provides complete amino acids. cancer. Allergic reactions may protect against allergic reactions by stopping the release of histamines. Antibiotic-related illnesses helps restore good bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. In tests spirulina boosted the growth of L. acidophilus and other probiotics. Liver disorders may help protect against liver damage in people with chronic hepatitis. Eye diseases contains zeaxanthin, a nutrient linked to eye health; may help reduce cataracts and age-related macular degeneration; rich in vitamin A, containing ten times the amount of vitamin A concentration in carrots. Low energy improves endurance and reduces fatigue. toxins and impurities. Rich in chlorophyll, it is effective as a blood cleansing agent. It contains more than ten times the amount of chlorophyll found in green vegetables. The combination of chlorophyll and magnesium helps to remove toxins from the bloodstream while oxygenating the blood. It binds to heavy metals and radioactive therapy or for those wishing to detox from daily metal exposure. Overweight a natural appetite suppressant, can help with weight loss. Antioxidant contains four times the antioxidants of blueberries. throughout the body; contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) one of PMS can ease the symptoms of PMS in women; has 26 times the calcium of milk. anemia without the risk of constipation. (Iron, which is essential for transporting oxygen throughout the body, is the most common Mineral and Vitamin Content: A source of potassium, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium and zinc, spirulina is also rich in iron, magnesium and trace minerals. It is much easier to absorb than iron supplements. Spirulina is a good source of vitamins B-1 (thiamine), B-2 B-12 (cobalamin), vitamin E and vitamin K1 and K2. Spirulina is one of the only plant sources of vitamin B12. Caution: Spirulina may be contraindicated for those with phenylketonuria. Safety and effectiveness in pregnancy are unknown; so you should consult your physician concerning use during pregnancy. Spirulina may interact with drugs given to suppress the immune system; avoid if you have an autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. taking it. Side Effects: There are few reports of adverse reactions. However, some spirulina may be contaminated with heavy metals. internally How to Use: Available in powder or pill form, take 1 to 10 g/ day (4 6 tablets. The powder can be added to smoothies, but the See Article about making Biochar & Spirolina pg.15


November 2017 21 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize since the 16th century. It was harvested by natives of the Sahara cultivated, requiring little from the farmer. Although many foods today are labeled superfoods, spirulina is the King of Superfoods. Resources:;; http://www.umm. edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/spirulina; names : Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima; Common names : Spirulina, dihe, tecuitlatl rating: Safety rating: ...Little exposure or very minor concerns.


November 2017 22 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize BAHA Shares Cattle News:National Herd Increases 25%BAHAs Dr. Miguel Depaz shared the following report: year have already reached 4,872 heads and cattle farmers are now getting more that the accustomed .95 cents per pound live weight. Prices reached as high as 3.50 per pound live weight for export and have stabilized at approximately 2.50 per pound live seen a growth of more than 25%. The national cattle census today is at 126,129 heads. Through the hard work of the Government of Belize, Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) and the national cattle herd is free of diseases such as tuberculosis and brucellosis. Also, an animal traceability system has been implemented. These achievements have permitted cattle farmers to access markets in neighboring countries and beyond, having contribute to the economy of Belize. BAHA Rabies Update are bovine, equine and ovine, as well as wildlife a bat. For 2016 there were a total of 195 deaths of animals, with the peak of 89 deaths of animals reported to BAHA [to date of report], recommends vaccinating animals at 3 months of age, repeated at 6 months and again thereafter at yearly intervals. BLPA and Note that BAHA and the Ministry of Health work together for post-exposure vaccination of persons who have come into contact BLPA alerts its 254 members that the tentative date for the Annual General Meeting (AGM) is February 24th 2018 What is Fake Meat? Looking at the international beef news, many foresee that future ranches will be located mainly in climate regions such as ours, where year-round pasture conditions are possible. Others, such as investors Bill Gates, Richard Branson production: a clean-meat movement, in which meat is grown in stainless steel tanks. No live animals, no slaughter and an agriculture kinder and less demanding to the environment is the vision of Memphis Meats, who raise or shall we say, create, cultured beef, chicken and duck meat without any livestock.


November 2017 23 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) CARDI Day 2017 established in 1974 to serve the agricultural research and development the competitiveness and sustainability of regional agriculture. On the 5th of December CARDI Day will be celebrated. This awareness and promoting the work of the institute. A major focus impacts and success stories with the general public, partners, collaborators, public sector and other stakeholders. seminars to commemorate this day. has in the region, and how we can provide you with sound advice using good agronomic practices adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of Belize., Write us at http://ccidp. Belize BambooHandcrafted Bamboo Accessories Custom made accessories for your home or lodge. Bathroom Fixtures, Kitchen Storage, Hooks and more! If you can dream it, we can make it!Call or email us to place your order (501) 622-3184 Rancho Dolores Village


November 2017 24 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Aerial Application as a Tool for For Pest and Disease Control By Alan McCrackenThe application techniques of pesticides has unfortunately not been developed to the same extent as the pesticides themselves. It is well known and recognized that pyrethroid insecticides work by contact and ingestion action and no vapor effect, which means that for good results they must be delivered to the target insect. The alternative is to obtain poor Firstly let us examine the reason for applying agrochemicals. The answer although obvious is not always understood; it is to protect the genetic potential of the crop being grown. For this reason the chemical products may be more correctly termed plant protection products and our objective should be to deliver the chemical product to the target insect or disease in the most Modern agricultural aircraft can provide multiple services for the farmer including crop spraying, application of fertilizers and seeding in addition to other less well-known uses. Corn and soybeans: Aircraft application can be of great value in enabling the application of insecticides and fungicides at the right time, unlike ground rigs that can be restricted because of wet soil conditions which means that the product is often applied too late, thereby being in-effective. Citrus pests: psyllids that transmit huanglongbing (HLB) can also be controlled using aircraft. This technique has been utilized successfully for several years now in Brazil; an initial test was made in Belize in was novel in that (1) low spray volume was used and (2) additives were used to enhance distribution of the droplets and protect the spray droplets from evaporation. Sugarcane: Aircraft can be used to fertilize cane, apply ripening agents and to control outbreaks of froghopper. Bananas: In most of the banana production areas in the world, growers are using outdated spraying techniques utilizing large quantities of oil as a tool for the control of black sigatoka which can be devastating to the crop if not controlled. We are now at the threshold of new technology utilizing high performance adjuvants with only a minimum of oil that achieves a double objective. These additives protect the spray droplets from evaporation but even more importantly provide excellent redistribution of the spray droplets on the leaves. Locust control: For the control of swarms of locusts in Bolivia and Argentina agricultural aircraft are used to apply low spray protective barrier ahead of the swarm to cut its progress and to save the crops. Mosquito control: Several hundred aircraft and helicopters are in use every summer in the United States providing control of mosquitoes that are not only a nuisance for tourists but also Spray Volume In seeking to obtain increased spray coverage it is far more important and more economical to decrease the droplet size than to increase the spray volume. Many entomologists/ agriculturalists have always thought that higher volumes mean better coverage; this is erroneous and has led to the following: Poorer coverage of crop and pests as large droplets fail to penetrate dense foliage often due to mechanical limitation in atomization. A slower rate of work by the equipment often resulting in missing the ideal moment for application and spraying being conducted under adverse weather conditions in order to cover the area. Major problems with soil contamination especially when farmers apply very high volumes of 10 gals/acre or even more as in the case of the citrus crop. When using high volumes with ground machines, tests have proven that a very high percentage of the chemical runs -off and results in severe soil contamination. An increase in application costs, yet a reduction in the quality of the application. What are the advantages of lower spray volumes? The most important is probably that the chemical ingredient is more concentrated enabling higher kill a particular insect. We also have a comprehensive list of agrochemicals in stock for your convenience. Your application is just a phone call away! .... lets get growing! Offering Aerial Application Services Box 660, Route 40 672-0660 Spanish Lookout Airstrip 671-0563Spraying Fertilizing Seeding Continued on pg 34


November 2017 25 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize 2017 World Food DayPart of the talk given by The Honorable Godwin Hulse, Minister of Agriculture, at World Food October 20th, was the same one his father gave to him when he was young. He said that his dad told him to stop saying that he grew rice because he did not make the sun, the soil, or the rain that grows the rice; he was only the manager of what God had given him. His dad also told him not to exploit his fellow Minister Hulse said such management is the foundation of the Ministry of Agriculture. Focusing on the theme of World Change the Future of Migration, Minister Hulse admonished the young people whose goal is to live and work in the city that they should think about their food security. If the economy collapses capacity of growing their own food they will have no food security. The programs of the BHSA focus on that capacity and training for their future. He also said, We are working on our own food seeds for our own food security. A memorandum of understanding between the Ministry of Agriculture and BHSA was signed there as endorsement and support for the programs of the high school. Nicks Picks One of the younger attendees, Nick Roberson, was given the assignment of choosing his favorite exhibits. Number had an innovative display of recycled containers. Their cow mascot made a hit with all the youngsters. Number two pick by beans, blackeye peas, rice, and hot peppers, and third was The Belize promoting their courses, available country-wide. The weather was cooperative for the event; although dark clouds menaced, the rains held off. The over-all dedicated agricultural theme made wishes that the NATS (National Agricultural and Trade Show) would have similar low background noise, which enabled more personal interaction among attendees. "It is important to keep our souls clean and our boots dirty."


November 2017 26 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Berries of BelizePart 2: MulberriesBy Deborah HarderA good fruit for Northerners, mulberry is reminiscent of northern grow on a large bush and can bear abundantly without much care. Actually, up north, they are a neglected fruit, growing perhaps too abundantly and despised in favour of harder-to-grow berries like Mulberry is started from cuttings but can be purchased from your nurseryrooted and ready to plant. For a small family, several bushes should yield enough to can or freeze some. After a crop is harvested the bushes may be pruned of old growth to keep them low and stimulate new growth. Use: when ripe enough, they are excellent eaten out of hand or added to breakfast cereal, etc. When cooked with sweetener, you can also use less ripe ones that are sour. Raw mulberry juice is excellent. Just smash very ripe mulberries and squeeze in a cloth. this sweetened juice to milk (not the other way around) to make mulberry milk. Mulberries also yield our favorite pie! Mulberry Pie 4 c. mulberries c. sugar c. cassava or arrowroot starch sugar and a little water, then mash. small amount of water and add, stirring until thick. If desired, drizzle the following mixture on top: c. sour cream 2 tsp. sugar or honey Few drops vanilla Unplanted bountyUnplanted BountyBy Sally Thackery gardeners, and sometimes provides an unexpected remember ever seeing this type of squash, apparently some seeds made their way to my large compost area, because these vines began to appear almost immediately after careful planting of many varieties looking for a way to feed your entire neighborhood or town, this would be your answer. grow a hard outer shell if left to mature. The young ones are quite large area to let these vines run free, some reaching 30 feet. The beautiful yellow blooms are abundant, with vines running up and over the fence, and overtaking everything else that was beginning to grow. That is the biggest drawback, denying any cucumbers, tomatoes or other plants to survive alongside this hearty vine. It is hard to tell how many plants there are because the entire garden turned into an ocean of squash vines, leaves and blossoms, encasing the entire outside fence into a wall of green and yellow. A new gate had to be built to enter the garden, after the vines completely covered the original gate, seemingly overnight. If you know the name of this variety, please let us know at Editors Note: Could it have been a bird that dropped the seed? But from where? HILL HOUSEPrivate, Incredible Views, Semi Furnished 2 bed room 3 bath office 5 minutes from San Ignacio out of town but close to town Additional land connecting to river available$299,000 USD+501-668-0749 / 663-6777 626-9017 / 677-9658


November 2017 27 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Hemp FoodBy Karin WestdykFood from hemp for humans and animals dates back to the beginning of recorded history, and for thousands of years it was the largest agricultural crop grown worldwide. Hemp was relied on for and medicine. In 1801 Thomas Jefferson, a hemp farmer and third president of the United States, wealth and protection of the country -if people let the government decide what foods they eat and what medicines they take, their bodies will soon be in as sorry a state as are the souls of those who live under tyranny. Though in the early days, farmers were encouraged to grow hemp to help build the American economy, since 1937 the cultivation of industrial hemp, with its diverse and many resources, has all but ceased. The demonization of hemp, renamed marijuana by those who waged war on a plant, used racism as the impetus to gain support, and the campaign was fueled by special interests. Industrial hemp is not psychoactive. Article 28 of the Single worldwide) clearly states that industrial hemp is exempt from prohibition; however, since 1961, when the treaty was signed by Belize and most other countries, hemp has been perceived as outlawed throughout most of the world. And since 1961, the the wealth and growth of the pharmaceutical/petrochemical industrial alliances. We discover that in fewer than 6 decades, this shift has sent the world into a toxic quagmire, bringing ecological catastrophe that worsens with each passing year. New Interest in Hemp Nutrition In recent years there has been a growing interest in hemp, as many produced from hemp seed while thousands of other products, from medicine to fuel, to building materials, to plastics, are being explored and produced from the seeds, leaves, stalks and hurds of the hemp plant. Hemp seeds contain no cholesterol, are low in sodium and are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including zinc. According to studies published by the they are 30% oil and contain the perfect 3 to 1 balanced ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids. Hemp seeds are also considered a perfect protein food, containing all 20 amino acids, including the 9 our bodies cannot produce on their own. Hemp seed has exceptionally high levels of the essential amino acid arginine that helps the body get rid of waste and synthesize proteins. The two primary proteins are albumin and edestin (the Greek word for edible). Albumin assists in maintaining tissue strength, while edestin, found only in hemp and no other plant, aids digestion, promotes a healthy immune Shelled and hulled hemp seeds can be found in most natural food stores or online. They are known as hemp hearts, shelled hemp, or hemp nuts. They can be eaten raw, added to smoothies, salads, primarily unsaturated fat, hemp oils (and seeds) should be stored away from light and heat, preferably in the refrigerator. Hemp seed can also be made into a nut butter. Not unlike natural peanut butters, which have no additives, hemp butter needs to be stirred to mix the oils for use, and needs to be kept refrigerated. Hemp oil is used primarily as a supplement and has a stronger and most oils commonly used in blended drinks and salad dressings. It can be used in any recipe calling for cool oil, as it should not be cooked or used for frying and is best kept refrigerated to maintain freshness and balance. Hemp protein powder can be added to blended smoothies or mixed with milk, yogurt, or juice. Unlike the whole hemp seeds and oils, the protein in hemp powder has been isolated, so it is fat-free. Hemp tea made from industrial hemp leaf is rich in antioxidants, An article in Hemp Today, an online voice for hemp industries Africa as an agricultural system working to bring fresh, quality produce, grown by local farmers, to the community. The collective is also working to develop two new functional food products based on hemp and moringa, a tree that thrives in Belize. Moringa has phytonutrients that are effective in supporting natural immunity in the prevention and cure for the most common diseases of today, including cancers and diseases of the central nervous system, blood, respiratory system, kidneys, blood sugar disorders, high cholesterol, hypertension, and breathing issues, as well as obesity. There is little doubt that a food blending 2 of the most highly functional foods would go far in the quest to solve problems associated with poor nutrition plaguing millions of people worldwide. Ironically, there is a company already marketing a blended powder made of hemp and moringa. However, the cost is prohibitive for most, as it is per ounce. But this could change. As restrictions are being recognized as archaic, senseless and based on misinformation, more and more farmers are opting to grow industrial hemp a plant that requires no expensive, toxic pesticides or herbicides, and provides support and nutrition for their families as well as the soil, a medicine that paper, textiles, rope, plastic and other building composites, as well as fuel to run the farm, and is ready for harvest in only 120 days. The US Government holds 2 patents on hemp and there are many were granted patents for hemp products and processes, many of The great Greek physician Hippocrates is often quoted, Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. He also said, There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter ignorance. If we are to survive, we are faced with the task of shifting once again, but instead of moving backward, moving forward to a place where we can blend our technological creativity with the natural world, with knowledge, balance, respect, appreciation, and grace. The cultivation of industrial hemp could prove a viable long-term solution to not only world hunger, but the need for safe alternative renewable fuel, for addressing the climatic challenges resulting from deforestation, while providing safer natural medicines to cure many diseases, and cleaning compromised soil damaged by toxic agrichemicals, and eliminating the need for using them.


November 2017 28 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Bamboos For BelizeBy Marquita Stanko and Taylor Walker Tropical Agro-Forestry Ltd.Bamboos are some of the most useful plant species on earth. There are over 1000 species of bamboo distributed throughout the world that have been used for many practical purposes throughout history such as building shelter, making everyday tools and utensils and even as a food product. Bamboos originate from tropical, subtropical and temperate climates and grow on bamboo species thrive right here in Belize. Ltd. Our desire was to introduce new varieties in Belize that exhibit exceptional characteristics for use in furniture making, landscaping and interior construction. We began working with Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) to conduct a pest threat to the ecosystem here in Belize. After twelve years of growth, our bamboo is the largest and most diverse bamboo collection in Belize. We are now focusing on bamboo furniture production, crafts, treated bamboo poles, landscape projects, and bamboo divisions for interested growers, farmers and landscape designers. We specialize in clumping varieties that do not possess the aggressive, invasive capabilities of their cousins, the running growing plants, making them an excellent candidate for regenerative production. When a bamboo plant is set in the height, which varies with each type of bamboo variety. Hereafter, the clump continues to spread outward until it grows into its running varieties have no particular set footprint and can spread to overtake acres of land over time. Of the twenty varieties of bamboo growing on our farm, we have selected some of our favorite varieties and highlighted some of their uses in this article. Bambusa malingensis very tough and adaptable bamboo. It can reach a mature height of thirty-to-forty feet with a two-to-three inch cane. Research has shown that bamboo is the ultimate windbreak for farms and orchards and Seabreeze excels in this capacity as it is one of the fastest growing varieties, producing many shoots in a dense and nearly impenetrable clump with a thirty-to-forty foot tall cane. It has many heavily foliated lateral branches along with a very bushy top growth that aids in the diffusion of wind. These qualities also make it an excellent choice for privacy screening and noise reduction and an essential selection when landscaping an ecolodge, resort, estate or housing development. Another excellent and underutilized function is for use as livestock shelter. Several clumps of Seabreeze placed together strategically throughout a pasture is an inexpensive and natural solution for animal protection. Dendrocalamus brandisii or so-called the ultimate specimen bamboo. This landscape giant adds an aweinspiring, prehistoric feel to your landscape. This is the largest bamboo grown on the farm reaching a colossal height of sixty feet with a culm diameter While all bamboos make their own beautiful music, furniture making, crafts and construction. It has a very majestic appearance with minimal lower branching giving it a more open growth habit exposing the beautiful, towering culms at eye level. Dendrocalamus minor beautiful variety featuring light yellowish culms with a powdery whitish wax giving rise to its common name Angel Mist. It is a standout in the landscape as it is a very showy variety offering a neat and tidy appearance. Reaching a feet with culms of two-tothree inches it is perfect for a grand entrance, privacy screening or landscape specimen.


November 2017 29 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Bambusa textilis gracilis bamboo is one of the most popular landscaping bamboos and is unmatched in its ability to provide a very dense but more compact screening. Reaching a height of twenty-five-to-thirty feet, it is ideal for smaller spaces in comparison to some of our other large varieties. Graceful also has very straight culms making it an excellent source for Bambusa tulda or ultimate furniture and construction bamboos on our farm. With a tensile strength just below steel it is used in Asia to reinforce concrete. Its adaptability and usefulness makes this one well worth growing for anyone interested in a fast growing, replenishable timber. It has a thickwalled culm and clean, long internodes with limited side branching. Bambusa lako, or our beautiful ornamental varieties with distinctive black culms. They can reach heights of 30 feet with a culm diameter of around 2 inches. If you would like more information about these or other bamboo varieties or are interested in our bamboo products please call us at 622-3184. We would love to help you select the right plants for your project or work with you to create unique bamboo furnishings. Editors Note: Marc Ellenby has been growing tropical fruits and tropical clumping bamboos in Florida since 1980. He is the owner of Belize Bamboo and Tropical AgroForestry, Ltd. in Belize. Marcs passion to ensure food security in Belize and throughout the world has lead him to launch a new venture with the help of Marquita Stanko and Taylor Walker who are managing a new organic farm in Stann Creek using a multi-species cropping system with the main crop being breadfruit. While introducing several new breadfruit varieties to Belize, their purpose is to create an extended season for Belize and beyond and to trial perennial crops and various tropical fruits as citrus farming alternatives. Belize BambooBamboo Nursery Plants 10+ Varieties Tropical Clumping Bamboo -Landscape Specimen -Privacy Screening -Orchard Windbreak -Fast Growing Timber -Livestock Shade We can help you select the right plant for your projectCall or email us to place your order (501) 622-3184 Rancho Dolores Village


November 2017 30 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize White Flies Gardeners Nightmareby Mary Loan (Thialeurodes vaporariorum) comprise the family Aleyrodidae. They are typically 1/16 inch long, somewhat triangular shaped, moth-like white insects which are closely related to aphids and mealy bugs. More than 1550 species of all accounts, they are all considered to be one of the most bothersome, destructive and challenging garden pests to control and, as a result, cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses yearly due to stunted growth and low production of crops and other plant losses world-wide. observing the undersides of plant leaves in the garden, green house and plant nurseries. If you note thick swarms of small white moths when plants are disturbed and the undersides of leaves of the plant are covered with tiny lice like nymphs, eggs appear to be withered and deformed with yellowing leaves as the plants unable to carry on photosynthesis. After sucking the juice as honeydew which attracts black mold that makes plants weak and susceptible to disease. By the time honeydew and black mold cucumber, pepper, sweet potato, okra, cabbage and hibiscus are some of the most commonly affected plants. easier it is to try to control them. there are many means of combat. Yellow sticky traps and strips are often placed in greenhouses and gardens to help reduce adult may try an easy home recipe as follows: Start with yellow poster board, cut poster board in quarters, fold the top over a rope and staple, then cover the front and back of the poster board with a mixture of petroleum jelly mixed with dish washing liquid. (You might start with cup of each). Attach the ropes to posts at, well ahead of planting is said to help. It is recommended to place and eggs to be helpful. A good squirt of dish washing or special garden soap may be added to a gallon of water and used with the spray. A small battery operated hand-held vacuum can be used in greenhouses to suck insects from infected plants. Neem oil or a special horticultural oil, can be sprayed on vegetables, fruit trees ounce neem oil with one gallon water and spray all leaf surfaces Coconut Coir Production in Cayo at Belize Botanic GardensBy Gayle ZentzIn April of 2016, the Jungle Lodge and Belize Botanic Gardens, Judy duPlooy, decided to convert a local waste product, coconut husks, into something useful coconut coir. For centuries, many mulch and a soil amendment. empty coconut husks from coconut water coconuts have been harvested and drained of their coconut water. Their Merry Mac commercial chipper can process about 1600 coconut husks per hour. There is no waste as everything is used. The coir from their facility is either used at the resort and gardens grounds or sold at the Belize Botanic Gardens Shop at 37 Far West Street, San Ignacio. retains moisture and reduces watering rich in carbon and is excellent for compost piles and helps to balance nitrogen-rich materials like grass clippings and kitchen waste. It has a near neutral pH level (5.5-6.8), unlike peat which is highly acidic (3.5-4.5). A 3 to 4 inch layer is adequate potting mediums. It can be very useful on clay soils; it prevents compaction, allowing freer movement of nutrients and moisture. Editors Note: Coconut production in Belize is rising steeply as the world learns more about coconut heavily in regional Caribbean coconut projects, which are overseen in Belize by CARDI and the Ministry of Agriculture. until saturated. It is best not to spray plants before the heat of the day; spray later in the day instead. A non-stinging tiny parasitic wasp, lady bugs and lacewing larvae are natural predators of It is believed that using worm castings in soil which are absorbed Organic Gardeners, for more good advice. ideas and remedies for information.


November 2017 31 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize A Natural History of Belize Inside the Maya ForestBy Samuel BridgewaterReviewed by Chris HarrisLiving in Belize, we hear and read much about the living Mesoamerican reef which lies wildlife. This is rightly a major tourist attraction and occupies most of our attention when natural beauty and complexity. This is largely because of its easy accessibility. However another world class natural beauty exists in Belize which does not get the same level of publicity. At 177,000 hectares, one can forest as hidden away, although its lack of accessibility is one of the reasons it has remained relatively undisturbed over the and be shown for what it is: a world class centre of natural diversity, not matched by many countries around the world. This then is a book that casts a broad light on a little known great credit for their perseverance in what is a pretty hostile environment. It is not for nothing that a member of the British Army (BATSUB) told me that this dense forest full of insects, animals and even plants which do not welcome the casual visitor is the toughest jungle training environment in the world. This is a reference book with two major differences. Firstly it is extremely readable, and secondly it gives detailed explanations of a multitude of aspects of life in Belize. Because the book was only to fellow scientists. Not a bit of it. This book explains, as well as details, animal and plant life, exposing many aspects of the complex interactions between various aspects of life in the deep forest. with the history of the geology of Belize as a landmass, long before man arrived. The development of the country and the genesis of the forests which historically covered much of to be here, are dealt with in a very easy-to-understand way. But for the enquiring mind wanting a more detailed explanation, that is in the book too. Although the book does focus on the Maya Forest, and upon specialization. The Maya Forest is one of the very few areas of of agriculture and expanding populations. As such it offers us all kinds deep in the forest.WHITE ROCK FARM FOR FINE CHEESE CHICKEN, EGGS, GOATS' MILK, PORK, BUTTER, MARMALADE AND MORE15 mins south of Belmopan 669 3165 or 667 5502 Because Belize famously has one of the lowest population densities, and one of the highest proportions of its land mass under control of national parks and forest reserves in the world, much of the forest area is largely untouched and retains a vast wealth of plants, animals and trees. This has attracted scientists from all over the world and the Royal Botanic their centre for research. The book is lavishly illustrated with color photographs of plants, animals, insects, trees, rivers and the natural rock formations which over millions of years have formed the familiar landscape of the Belize we know and love today. Many mysteries of the private lives of animals that make their homes deep in the forest are laid bare. Who knew, for by a tiny insect called a thrip which lives its whole life inside The author is not afraid to point out the ecological damage caused by illegal logging, hunting and border incursions from Guatemala, affecting many animal and bird species as well as the environment itself. The author also explores the negative for endangered species such as tapirs and scarlet macaws, and even of pollution from wind-born pesticides from southern strength and resilience to repair the damage made primarily by man, given time. Even the huge destruction wrought by major hurricanes such as Hurricane Hattie in 1961 is, over time, being repaired by nature. Yes, this is a reference book, one into which the enquiring reader can dip to seek explanations of what is going on around us day by day. And for the many immersed in a largely metropolitan life, this book is a very welcome spotlight on just one aspect of the beautiful and unique country we live in. Personally, I really enjoyed reading this book, so much so expensive, but can be found for less on Amazon. For that money however, you are getting a treasure trove of things you did not know and explanation of at least some of the puzzles Nature has laid before us. An important book which belongs on the bookshelf of any self-respecting Belizean family: A Natural History of Belize-Inside the Maya Forest by Samuel Bridgewater, published by the University of Texas Press, PO Box 7819, Austin, Texas 78713 7819, ISBN 978-0-292-739000


November 2017 32 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize AG BRIEFS Neal Kinsey Soil Fertility 3 day course will be held the week of August 27th 2018. This will be a repeat of the very thiessenliquid@gmail. com. Limited registration. Yucatans state fair, Feria Yucatan, will be held at XMatkuil from 10 November through 3 December, 2017. The cattle opening ceremonies will be on 10th November. Beefmaster judging starts on 14th Nov, followed by Brangus & Suizo Europeo (brown swiss) on16th Nov; Simental and Simbrah on 18th Nov; Brahman on 19th Nov; Nelore on 21st Nov; Guzerat on 22nd Nov; Gyr and resena de Sindi on 23rd Nov. Horse classes will be 3rd information contact: CARDI Day th information page 23. Acres USA will host its 42nd annual Eco-Ag Conference and Trade Show in Columbus, Ohio, From Dec 5th-8th, 2017 More information at Belize Livestock Producers Association (BLPA) has tentatively announced the date of their AGM which will likely take place on Saturday 24th February, 2018 at BLPA complex at Mile 47 George Price Highway, Belmopan. Email or phone 822-3883 closer to the event for more information. Spanish Lookout will hold their Bi-annual Commercial and Industrial Show on March 2 & 3rd, 2018 Information: Local and Regional Fuel Prices Cayo, Belize Quintana Roo, Mexico Peten, Guatemala REGULAR $10.23 Bz/Gal $6.60 Bz/Gal $8.00 Bz/Gal PREMIUM $12.01 Bz/Gal $7.29 Bz/Gal $8.31 Bz/Gal DIESEL $9.73 Bz/Gal $6.96 Bz/Gal $6.46 Bz/Gal For Information on the status of the IGUANA CREEK BR I DGE waters rising or falling, out of water, under water, go to The Iguana Creek Bridge crosses the Belize River near Black Man Eddy Village, off the George Price (Western) Highway. IICA Celebrates 75 Years of Service to Agriculture in the AmericasOn 7 October 2017, the Inter-American Institute for governments, organizations, and farmers in its member states. sector in the Americas. We owe our success to our ability to adapt the actions of the institute to the ever-changing challenges in agriculture, even three key areas of action national, regional, and hemispheric, of productivity and competiveness in the sector, contribute to rural areas, promote adaptation against the effects of climate change, provide integrated management of natural resources, and ensure food security. To overcome the challenges that this sector faces requires the cooperation of all actors linked to agriculture: producers, public and private sectors, social organizations, and academic and research institutions. A society with a stake in agriculture will be a prosperous society, stated Villalobos. Americas and spans more than seven decades of experience and the member states attach to international cooperation, and the importance they attach to the development of agriculture and well-being in rural areas. More information: General. Website: BELIZE LIVESTOCKPRODUCERS ASSOCIATION SameContinued on pg 33


November 2017 33 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Find all the Belize news sites linked from one site, including the Belize Ag Report.LIVE LAMBS AND SHEEP WANTEDPAY $1.75 TO $2.50 PER LB LIVE WEIGHT PRICE DEPENDS ON QUALITY 602 7070 THOMAS 824 4014 MEAT SHOP The Coconut Fest, aka El Festival del Coco and Tu Fedu Faluma has been rescheduled for 11 November 2017 at Eldrid Martinez Park, opposite the Coca Cola distributors in Dangriga, Stann Creek District. Original be: UNITED AND STRONG: TOGETHER WE GROW, REAP AND PROCESS. The Festival opens at 9 AM; opening ceremony at 9:30 AM and the fun lasts until 5 PM. On 14 September 2017, at a forum held in San Pedro Belize National Cacao Committee was formed. This group is tasked with moving the cacao industry forward in an organized and consultation with stakeholders, and lobbying the government to secure policies to support those goals. Those elected to form the committee are as follows: Ministry of Agriculture represented by Briefs... Continued on pg 34 Land is our language TM Farmland & Riverland Specialists Court Roberson +501-668-0749 P.O. Box 150, San Ignacio, Cayo District, Belize C.A., Continued on pg 34 Ag Briefs... Continued from pg 32 On 6 October 2017, the CARICOM Secretariat in Georgetown Guyana announced that Belizean poultry producers, Quality Poultry were approved for export of poultry products into other CARICOM countries. This is a long awaited milestone for our poultry producers, and should stimulate more local grain production to feed the expanding poultry industry. Michoacan, Mexico plantain producers supported by 2 companies, Frutas Finas Arbol de la Virgen and Frutas del Valle Michoacano, enable export of 50% of yields to the USA, Servia, Italy, England, Spain and Germany. Another 21% of their production goes to the states of Guadelajara and Monterrey. The 78,600 ha of plantain in Mexico Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Narayit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz and Yucatan. In 2016 SAGARPA reports that in 2016 plantain exports to 17 countries yielded over US$197M. Several young farmers in the Monte Plata region in central Dominican Republic have been converting lands formerly growing sugarcane, to pineapple plantations. been doing so well that one grower has trademarked her brand due to their reliable sweetness, attributed to their climate and soils. With USDAs Exporting Quality Program has assisted these pineapple their local associations.


November 2017 34 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Honduran beef returns to Taiwan: After several years of interruption of beef sales from Honduras to Taiwan, in August of 2017 the trade resumed with a shipment of two 40-ft containers of beef to the island. Plans are for 4 containers of beef every month from Honduras to Taiwan and for sales of melons, shrimp and coffee to begin shortly. The FIRA International Forum of Agricultural Robotics will have its 2nd forum on 29th & 30th of November 2017 in Toulouse, France. The event is being organized by NAIO Technologies and will be livestreamed in English and French on a dedicated YouTube channel. For more information: Gwendoline Legrand of Naio Technologies gwendoline@naio-technologies. com or phone +33 688 87 1711. For a depressing article on our Caribbean Sea being choked by plastics go to news/2017/10/26/shocking-photo-shows-caribbean-seachoked-death-human-waste/ The article focuses on the sea around Roatan, and in summary, Once the trash is in the ocean it is incredibly remove. The key is to stop the trash before it enters the ocean. Think on that the next in stryofoam with a plastic fork, in a plastic bag. Remember humans will ingest an increasing amount of plastic via seafood. Another fun fact: the average useful lifespan of a plastic bag is 12 minutes. The Belize Ag Report regrets the following errata in issue 36, page 12 : Roughly 12,000 (100 lb bags) of corn were harvested Cheese Making... Continued from pg 6 Aerial App... Continued from pg 24 pastures recently and one of them managed to escape under the fence to eat all my dragon fruits! Our herd now numbers over 45 animals and has some of the best looking goats in Belize. Overall, the goat and cheese making businesses have been a lot of fun and I am proud of what our team has accomplished in a very short period of time. So proud in fact that morning at 7.30 and learn a little bit more about being a goat shepherd! Higher productivity of the aircraft as less time is wasted Higher productivity in terms of acres covered; spraying is usually less-favorable. A much larger area per hour than ground machines under ideal spraying conditions. Any questions or comments to: Editors Note: During the past 2 years Alan McCracken has been providing technical support to AIRMAX located at Spanish Lookout Airport. The objectives are to obtain better results with with more precise control of all aspects of the application.


November 2017 35 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize Mile 63 George Price Highway, Cayo District, Belize C.A. 824-2126/2765 824-3522 RUNNING W Brand Meats It is important to know where your food comes from and to know that it is being produced in a safe, healthy, and ecologically friendly manner.


November 2017 36 Harvesting Ag News from All of Belize