Title: Belize ag report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094064/00006
 Material Information
Title: Belize ag report
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: Belize Ag Report, Beth Roberson
Place of Publication: San Ignacio, Cayo, Belize
Publication Date: April 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094064
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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The Belize Ag Report

Belize's most complete independent agricultural publication

p ^ 3


from All of Beiz

Belize Ripe for a Farmers Credit Union?
By Marcelino Avila, PhD
Project Director BRDP
I was asked: "What do you think of a Farmers Credit
Union?" Well, after some thought, I think this is a timely
question because:
1) There are an estimated 1o,ooo small and medium size
farmers who do not have the land titles or other commercial
assets to qualify for a bank loan; perhaps a small minority of
these belong to any credit union.
2) Most commercial banks and even DFC in Belize are
reluctant to lend directly to the small farmers as they are too
far away from their target group (minimum loans of
$1o,ooo) and they represent a high risk factor. Banks also do
not have the appropriate know-how to deal with these
clients. In addition, they estimate that the poor cannot fulfill
the bank's requirements to access credit such as collateral,
managing capacity, repayment rates & schedules...
Continue on page 22

* Nutritious Vegetables page 12

* Jatropha Curcas in Belize page 18
* Corn Trade Update, Belize Guatemala page 26
by Beth Roberson
Many of us remember Petrojam's brief venture in the energy
business in Northern Belize in the late 90's. Are conditions
favorable now for us to reconsider the potential of biofuel
from sugarcane? It's a natural tendency to study the actions
of those who are are our major trading partners for us,
North America. However, in the instance of biofuels, tropical
Belize should be looking south, to tropical Brazil for vision
more applicable to us. (The U.S. leads the world in
bio-ethanol production, using corn. Brazil is second, using
sugarcane.) The U.S., due to its prevailing temperate climate
and its strong corn lobby have failed to give cane ethanol the
attention it deserves. At long last though, cane ethanol
facilities are operating or under construction in Louisiana,
Florida, Hawaii, Texas and California. Continue on page 20

Ko-ox Han-nah
Meat Shop
San Ignacio

1 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com


Tourist Information

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Although headquartered in
the lush hill and river valley
region of the Cayo District,
we work with AREBB brokers

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-P Cedar Bluff Riverfront
P The Gardens at duPlooy's
P Olde Mill

John C. Roberson
Beth Roberson
Sandra Roberson
662-5263/662-5700 / 664-7272

Plans, Renderings, Roads,
Residential & Commercial Construction
TEL:O0-50 1-662-5263
wwwv I Obelize.com

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 2 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Liquid Fertilizers
By David Thiessen

David and John Thiessen are the owners of Thiessen
Liquid Fertilizer handling the Agro-Culture Liquid
Fertilizers products thru their facility located in Spanish
Lookout. They started in the fertilizer business in 2005
where their first year sales were $250,000 BZ and in the
years since they have had very good growth averaging 40+%
growth each year. David and John work with growers who
use the Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers product on their
crops; one of the reasons for the success is that the products
fit the growers' very diverse nutrient needs. The soils in
Belize are very productive but can be very variable. With the
Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizer's product line Thiessens can
custom tailor a nutrient blend for each individual grower
and his crop's and soil's specific nutrient needs. At the heart
of the Agro Culture Liquid Fertilizer line of products is
higher quality fertilizer manufacturing that allows the
nutrients to better be absorbed into the grower's crops giving
higher usability thus giving better crop feeding and better
results with higher yields.

At Thiessen Liquid Fertilizer they import the fertilizer in
large bulk tanks, so they have the fertilizer on hand to meet
their customer needs. One of the benefits of liquid fertilizer
is the ease of handling, and the ease of how the grower can
apply his specific liquid blend to his crop. Nutrient solutions
can be planter applied, foliar fed, applied through the
irrigation, or banded over the row. With so many options
Thiessens' customers find it is easy to feed their crops the
nutrients needed. And with a large amount of storage in
different locations and delivery equipment Thiessens are
able to supply their customers the products they need
throughout the country of Belize on a timely basis. Some of
the growers are starting to have storage tanks of their own so
they have a supply of what's needed for their farm at all

Agro-Culture Liquid has a strong foundation in research in
the U.S. with over 20 years of commercial and independent
research on over 50 different crops. In Belize the Thiessens
have done several years of trials taking the knowledge
gleaned from findings in the U.S. and then taking the unique
climate Belize has and developing use rates that have shown
their customers good returns on the dollars invested.
Agro-Culture Liquid is one of the most researched fertilizers
on the market today; so growers know when they invest in
their high quality, high usability nutrient solutions they will
get the results needed in today's ag economy.

John and David work with most of the crops grown in Belize.
Their business is divided up 12% banana, 5% papaya, 23%
rice, 18% beans, 27% corn, 6% citrus, and sorghum,

AM WWffW Tih$essen Liquid Fertil r
Box 208, Route 3 Wet
Spanish Lookout Beliz
wEmrilm: I uid3panishalo8icu bz
__ Tel: 670-4817 or 72-2404


Crop N rent

Soil and folkr application

l e0r% Ad"




Clean Green,
and no Chlorine

Easy to us

vegetable crops, potatoes, and sugarcane making up the
other 9% So you can see they have the experience to work
with the crops that growers in Belize have. Their customers
who use the Agro-Culture Liquid products report things like
better uniformity, more kernels per ear, better fruit quality,
more tonnage, higher test weights, and higher yields.

Thiessen Fertilizer's bottom line is to prosper the farmer,
and they look forward to visit with you about the
Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizer products that they offer in

You can contact them at


Ko-x Han-nah Meat Shop
Quality Meat and Dairy Products
at reasonable prices. Across
the slreel from Ko-ox Han-nah
Restaurant, San Ignacio.
Tel: John 824 4014

3 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

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Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com



Dear Editor,


Estimates of between 12,000 to 16,ooo people made the ef-
fort to visit the First Annual Spanish Lookout Commercial/
Industrial Expo, held as a one day event on February 27th, at
Countryside Park, Spanish Lookout, Cayo District. Close to
1oo businesses, most but not all Mennonite owned, set up
booths and exhibits to showcase their wares and services.

The Belize Ag Report salutes the main sponsors of that show:
Farmers Trading Center, Universal Hardware,
Western Dairies, Quality Poultry, Westrac and Belize Tire
Depot. We understand that the turn out was so successful,
that organizers are considering making this a two-day event
next year, and may include more agriculture crops, horti-
culture and even livestock. Well done, and all will look for-
ward to next February's Second Annual Expo. Where would
Belizean agriculture be if the Mennonites had not chosen to
migrate here in 1958? Their 'competition with cooperation'
business philosophy distinguishes them from mainstream
Belize. Well done Spanish Lookout; The Belize Ag Report is
ready to reserve our booth for next year.

We have realized our first year in print, with issue #6.
Enormous thanks to all our advertisers and all the writers
who continue to raise the profile of the newsletter. We are
now being read from Malaysia to Mexico ( and receiving
feedback) from many of our online as well as printed copy*
readers. Over 8,000 unique readers visit our website every
month. What more can we say than an old fashioned,
THANK YOU! And, we look forward to your continued
support you are all vital to our continued growth and
success. We look forward to hearing from more readers.
Please tell us what you would like to read; suggested topics
or contributed articles are always most welcome.

*Note: the main distribution channelsfor the printed edi-
tions are via our advertisers. Quarter page clients receive
25 printed copies, half page-5o, etc. Additional copies are
delivered to ag NGO's, embassies, and agribusinesses.
Ministry ofAgriculture receives over loo for its country-
wide offices, Foreign Affairs floats afew around the globe
on their travels, and over 150 copies are distributed in
Southern Mexico, by gracious assistance of the Mexican
Embassy in Belize. The Belize Ag Report appreciates all
these efforts by advertisers and friends of Belizean agricul-

Mission Statement:

The Belize Ag Report is an independent bi- monthly agriculture
newsletter. Our purpose is to collect, edit and disseminate infor-
mation useful to the Belizean producer, large or small. We invite
opinions on issues, which are not necessarily our own. BelizeAg
neither solicits nor accepts political ads.


In the past people from Belize had asked me for
information on my program on micro-budding.

I gave an invited talk at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Sub-
tropical Plant Science Meeting, Weslaco, TX, January 25,
2009. My topic was "Learning to Live with HLB." It was a
situation analysis and options available to the citrus industry
for HLB management. I would like to share it with you. It is
14 minutes, flash video you can watch or download from


Link to the video is also posted at the Florida Citrus Mutual
greening news.aspx

Please feel free to share it with people you think may like to
watch it.

Mani Skaria, PhD
Professor& Plant Pathologist
Texas A&M University-Kingsville Citrus Center
Weslaco, TX 78596
E-mail: MSkaria~(ag.tamu.edu
Continue on Page 5

Belize Ag Report, P.O. Box 150, San Ignacio, Cayo,
Belize, Central America

Phone: 663-6777 & 664- 7272

Editor: Beth Roberson
Assistant Editor: John Carr
Special editor: Dottie Feucht
Technical Manager: Jane Beard

Submissions as follows:
Ads: ads@belizeagreport.com
Letters to the Editor: editor@belizeagreport.com
Deadline date-l2th of month prior to printing
Printed by BRC Printing, Benque Viejo, Cayo, Belize
Website maintained by affordable Web Design
Distributed in Belize; Peten, Guatemala & So. Mexico
Find printed copies at our advertisers businesses and at
Ministry of Agriculture offices countrywide.

Subscription information
Belize Addresses: 6 issues (one year) $24 Bze.
Receive your newsletter in a flat envelope by first class mail.
Kindly send check to Belize Ag Report
P.O. Box 150, San Ignacio, Belize
Please call or email for rates to other countries.
663-6777 or 664-7272 editor@belizeagreport com

4 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com

continued from page 4


Dear Editor,
Recently some copies of the Belize Ag Report magazine were
distributed in Playa Del Carmen. I was quite impressed to
see how Belizean agriculture has evolved in the last couple of
years and the variety of Belizean products that are available.
I became interested after reading about agreements between
Belize and Mexico of opening the market for live cattle. I
hope this is the beginning of an increased agricultural trade
between Belize and the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The
most attractive parts of this agreement are: short distance,
reduced transport cost and the increasing quality and com-
petitiveness of Belizean agricultural products. It seems that
at this time the conditions could be in place to actually make
it possible for Belize to export and for Mexican businesses to
import produce and agricultural products. However, some
of the legal requirements and fine tuning between Govern-
ments and the private sectors are essential for this to hap-
pen. We need the cooperation of both governments to suc-
ceed. This may require the forming of a commission be-
tween Belize and the State of Quintana Roo to review the
current situation, with the intent of helping customs and
sanitation (animal health) protocols to become more fluid.
Price information plus product availability and supply capac-
ity are necessary. The Belize Ag Report can play a part in
this process, acting as a shopping catalogue and information
exchange for Mexican buyers and Belizean producers. We
would respectfully like to request from the Editor, a small
amount of magazines for distribution among the business
community on a regular basis.

Already by showing the magazine to some of my clients I
have received questions on fiscal implications and custom
tariffs on specific agricultural imports from Belize. I have
begun the process of looking into those details of importing
and exporting; so questions on the Mexican side can be an-
swered, and hopefully this exchange between Belize and
Quintana Roo can be facilitated. Reading the magazine has
made me aware of the extensive possibilities that exist on
this level between our two countries and I would like to
thank the editors for their efforts in creating this magazine.

Sincerely Yours,

L.C. Pedro Escobedo Vaquez

Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico

HiBeh, -------------
Hi Beth,

Your Belize Ag Report reached as far as Malaysia! I was sur-
prised and delighted to receive an email from Les
Thorogood, who is the CEO of Complete Commerce Sdn.
Bhd. in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He had read my article on
pitayas in the Belize Ag Report [issue 4] and had several
questions about pitaya production in Belize and other Cen-
tral American countries. He is helping Malaysian farmers
become more productive through effective farm manage-
ment practices on the 950 hectares of "dragon fruit" in the
country. He sent articles dealing with pests and stem rot,
including current research by Dr. Alberto Valencia Botin, at
Guadalalara University in Mexico. Because of the Ag Report,

pitaya growers in Belize have access to valuable expertise
from international sources.

Best Regards, Richard Rasp
Belize Pitaya Growers Assc.
Dear Editor,

The write-up on "bissey nuts" aroused my curiosity, since I
had never heard of them before. One day while browsing
through an encyclopedia (an old-fashioned, but relaxing pas-
time), I found it! World Book Encyclopedia under Kola Nut:
"They are also called cola, guru, and bissey nuts by the peo-
ple of Africa, who chew them. The nuts contain twice as
much caffeine as coffee beans do." Wow! That explains its
powerful effect. Just thought I'd pass that on for other
"health nuts" out there.

About the same time, I happened to read some pretty con-
vincing information on caffeine research. I'd be glad to pass
that on to anyone who contacts me.

Thanks for BELIZE AG REPORT. Keep up the good work!

Lyn Routhe toshawb(&excite.com

Colloidal Silver
Lyn also dropped by our office to loan us her book about
colloidal silver as follow up on question in issue #4 regard-
ing 'natural methods of raising livestock' posed by a reader.
The Routhes use colloidal silver for parasite control with
their horses. The book is interesting from both historical and
scientific perspectives. Putting a silver dollar in the milk
pitcher in pre-refrigerator times, and putting drops of silver
solution in newborn's eyes to prevent infection remind us of
times when silver's reputation as a germicidal agent
was common knowledge. NASA chose a silver water system
for the space shuttle, and many international airlines use
silver water filters for passenger drinking water. Studies
from sources such as UCLA claim colloidal silver kills over
650 types of germs- bacteria, viruses and parasites in min-
utes by attacking a vital enzyme, while remaining harmless
to the host person or animal.
Natural health proponents claim that the pharmaceutical
industries downplay colloidal silver medical potential be-
cause it is un-patentable. Also in 1938 when the antibiotic
industry was nascent, colloidal silver was very costly to pro-
duce. We include in the ONLINE ANNEX an article from
Note: colloidal silver (CS) is NOT to be confused with colloi-
dal silver proteins (CSP), which can result in Argyria. CSP
products are silver compounds produced by the pharmaceu-
tical industry.






5 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com

Organic Production
By Greg Clark
The After-Life of a Chicken...

Poultry in Belize is more of an integral part of the agricultural
systems than most realize. The chickens consume the corn
grown in Belize, thus reducing the levels of corn in the silos of
the feed mills. The chickens are also the most consumed
meat-based protein in the country. This "consume and be
consumed" process has developed into a steady agricultural
loop that maintains a balance of one of the biggest
agricultural revenue streams in Belize. The chicken actually
can do more for Belize than most realize. In the organic
world of limited sources of nitrogen, the chicken can play a
key role. The chicken manure, after a composting process,
can supply adequate supplies of nitrogen for the soils. The
manure is being utilized for this process, mostly on grazing
fields to increase the growth rate of forage.
A secondary source of nitrogen, which is being overlooked in
Belize, is the utilization of the feathers. The feathers contain
protein that will release nitrogen when tilled into soils. This
form of nitrogen release is deemed a slow release fertilizer.
Over a year period, the nitrogen will steadily be released for
utilization by the crop. Standard nitrogen fertilizers will give
an instant burst of nitrogen release into the soils, and
typically after a 3 month period, are depleted. Currently, the
feathers from the processing of poultry are treated as a
nuisance, and are burnt to remove the accumulation.
Farmers all over Belize have to pay premium prices for
nitrogen fertilizers, or choose to waive the cost of the nitrogen
at the cost of yield decreases. One of the best utilizations of
the feathers would be in the nitrogen intensive crop, sugar
cane. Cane quality is very dependant on the input of
nitrogen. Looking at the availability of the feathers,
increasing the quality of the cane could occur at a reasonable
cost, and would relieve the nuisance of the poultry
processors. If you would like to see the results of the feathers,
stop by anytime to see the results of our sunflower crops.
In closing, I would like to state that this is only one of the
efficiency gains that are available in Belize; there are many,
many more. For Belize to remain agriculturally viable, we all
must be looking at the value streams of any resources.



Tel: 501 823 0358
cool across the jewel'

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com



P.O. Box 248
# 3 Shopping Unit
Belopan City
Belize, C. A.
Tel.: 822-0069
Fax: 22-3744

Mioer RATA & BA

x Sol Nuts 1

Sol Nuts are Organic Certified Peanuts
flavored In the following flavors:
Bun-Yo-Nuth abanero Flavored
Bar-B-Nut Barbeque Flavored
Jerk Mi Nuth Jerk Flavored
Cinnabun Nuts Cinnmnon & Brown Sugar
Sowah Nuth Lime & Salt Flavored
Brittle Nuts Penut Brittle
Salty Nuth Salt Roasted
Naked Nuth Roased
Sol Nuts are available at most retailers and
fine Resorts throughout Belize, or online at
Organic eCatifiation by OneCet
Private Labhing for Rsfrta and Retalln Is Available.
QGwn ad Mah.eduWndl b7 Sol Fnrmso LM
aMie 2 1 WF5tern HigTtkea VuA, CVa, Biae
wwwH twh Ag n rm Al-6 lfe-

6 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

It 1 9 -

Organic Certification
by Matthew James
With due deference to Wm. Shakespeare this simple question
lies at the heart of the development of organic agriculture in
Belize; "whether 'tis nobler" to use increasingly expensive
chemical inputs or to revert back to using simple soil
management and biological control techniques. The latter
determine Belize's ability to compete in the increasing organic
market region wide. The Caribbean production of certified
organic produce represents 28% of the total certified farms
worldwide with 16% of regional land dedicated to organic
production (IICA 2008-Mr. Pedro Cussianovich).
A visit to Dangriga's market this weekend illustrated the
confusion or knowledge deficit, common to the introduction
of organics in Belize. Crops grown using other than certified
organic seed on uncertified as organic soil without chemical
inputs ARE NOT organic. One vendor was selling "organic"
squash and vegetables which, to the writers certain
knowledge, were not grown using organic certified seed on soil
not certified for organic production and as such would not
meet any recognized organic standard anywhere.
Crops grown using organic seed, during the three year
qualifying period for organic certification without chemical
inputs does qualify as organically grown using organic
methods but are still not organic. This may appear to be
simple 'sour grapes' to readers until one accepts that trying to
'pass off such produce as organic could easily result in the
rejection of Belize as a reliable certified supplier of organic
produce before the farmers have a chance to compete for the
estimated $US 38.6 Billion dollar world market, a market
growing at 15% per annum (IICA-2008).
In May last year Canada and the U.S. ratified organic
standards allowing increased trade between each other and
further trade within the European Union. The only logical way
forward is to adopt existing standards as used in the U.S.,
Canada & European Union. This would ensure Belizean
farmers and growers meet international requirements. Trying
to reinvent the wheel by creating separate Belizean standards
would cost Belize dearly as whatever standards Belize
introduces itself must meet these international standards or
be worthless; therefore the adoption of either U.S., Canadian
or European Union standards is quicker, easier and just plain
common sense.
A company specializing in organic certification will be in
Belize early this year; certification by this group will enable
certified farms to plant crops knowing they have a market for
the produce. Farms 'in transition' can market produce as
organically grown during the three year qualification cycle.
Organic production is not easy; it requires diligence and
effort; however the effort is rewarded with better prices,
better market opportunities and a healthier nutritious lifestyle
for both Belize and its potential customers. Organic methods
allow small and medium farmers the chance to compete with
larger growers who can afford costly chemical inputs.
Every single developing country began their growth by
focusing on small/medium farmers..............so must Belize.
Interested farmers should contact gscstanncreek@gmail.com
for further information.

Better Coverage

In More Places


Weh yoIu @ II .

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 7 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

The Importance of Insect Pollination to Crops
by Dottie Feucht

The importance of insect pollination, primarily bees, to
improving the quality and production of cultivated crops is
not new information. B.N. Gates in 1917 warned the grower
that, "he may fertilize, and cultivate the soil, prune, thin and
spray the trees; in a word, he may do all of those things
which modern practice advocates, yet without his pollinating
agents, chief among which are the honey bees, to transfer the
pollen from the stamens to the pistil of the blooms, his crop
may fail."

In 1967 J.H. Girardeau and D.B. Leuck produced a
significant 6 to 11 percent more peanuts grown in open field
than from plots caged to exclude bees. The vicinity of a
forest with native pollinators near agricultural crops, such as
pitayas or coffee, can improve their yield by about 20%.

S. E. McGregor, retired apiculturist from the Agricultural
Research Service in Tucson, Arizona, says that worldwide
there are more than 3,000 plant species that have been used
as food, but only 300 are now widely grown, and only 12
furnish nearly 90 percent of the world's food.
Wind-pollinated or self-pollinated crops are primarily
barley, corn, oats, rice, rye, sorghums and wheat, grass hay
crops, sugar beets, sugar cane, potatoes, sweet potatoes,
cassavas or maniocs. Crops that may receive some benefit
from insect pollination but are largely self-pollinating are
beans, peas, soybeans, and coconuts. However, most fruits,
vegetables, and nuts are dependent upon insect pollination.
In addition to bees, butterflies and moths, flies and beetles
pollinate plants such as cucumbers, squash, melons, okra,
cilantro (coriander) and peppers. Fruit and nut trees
dependent upon insect pollination include sapodilla, mango,
custard apple, star fruit, mammee, avocado, and cashew. The
on-line version of the Belize Ag Report contains a table that
lists the cultivated crop plants that are dependent upon or
benefited by insect pollination.

N.P. Guidry, of the US Dept of Agriculture reported in 1964
that more than half of the world's diet of fats and oils comes
from oilseeds including those found in Belize: coconuts, oil
palm, peanuts, soybeans, and cohune nut. Many of these
plants are dependent upon or benefited by insect pollination.
When these sources and animal products are considered, it
appears that perhaps one-third of our total diet is depend-
ent, directly or indirectly, upon insect-pollinated plants.

In addition, the insect-pollinated legumes have the ability to
collect nitrogen from the air, store it in the roots, and
ultimately leave it to enrich the soil for other plants. Without
this beneficial effect, soils not fertilized by processed
minerals would soon be depleted and become economically

There are ways a grower, with little or no intimate knowl-
edge of the life and habits of pollinating insects, can measure
the effectiveness of the pollination of his crop. For example,
adequate pollination is indicated by two or more musk
melons near the crown or base of the vine. In a watermelon
field, adequate pollination is indicated by a high percentage
of melons that are symmetrical, completely developed
throughout, and of satisfactory weight.

There's no doubt about the importance of bees to
agriculture. However, what may not be as well known is the
danger of losing bees and pollinating insects because of weed
sprays, a reduction in cultivated crops attractive to bees,
destruction of nesting places during cultivation, new dis-
eases and parasites of bees, clear-cut logging, decline of
beekeeping, and removal of hedges and other habitat from

The aesthetic value of pollination to ornamentals, wild
flowers, and forest and range plants in terms of beauty of the
landscape is recognized for specific plants but it cannot be
measured. Nor can we measure the related ecological value
in terms of seeds, fruits, and nuts produced, which are used
as food for various forms of wildlife, but this value, too, is
doubtless considerable.

Note: You can access the table of cultivated crop plants
benefited by insect pollination in our ONLINE ANNEX of
issue 6 at www.belizeagreport.com

Q: Where can you get your printed copy of
The Belize Ag Report?

A: From any of the fine business establishments
advertised in the newsletter.

Homes from $99,000 to $250,00US

8 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com



Through a series of coincidences I was able to meet Beth
Roberson, publisher of the Belize Ag Report and read sev-
eral issues of the magazine. I shared them with other
businessmen in Playa del Carmen and we were so im-
pressed with the agricultural information in this maga-
zine that we as a small group of Mexican businessmen
have decided to start a testing program trying different
Belizean products in various businesses in the Riviera
Maya over the next couple of months. From the ads we
already have an idea of what is available and have picked
products for testing.

The magazine for us is essential to facilitate communica-
tion between Belize producers and Mexican buyers. We
hope to see more ads of what is available and that the Be-
lize Ag Report continues to evolve helping us in this way.

In the first phase we will be testing Belizean products for
the Riviera Maya market by acquiring samples from dif-
ferent producers as well as querying Mexican buyers what
their interest is in terms of products. Several restaurants
are requesting information on organic produce. We have
inquiries from Mexican businesspeople if Belizean prod-
ucts can be specially packaged for their restaurant or ho-

The section, Agricultural Prices at a Glance is exquisite
information for us and allows us to analyze feasibility of
importing. We are discussing with the editor to open a
page where we can request products. Gourmet and or-
ganic of anything is of high interest.

In the second phase we will explore legal procedures and
complications of importing/exporting. We will analyze
and publish our findings and hopefully can work with
both governments to alleviate any difficulties.

The third phase ideally will then be to start importing ag
products into Mexico on a more regular basis. We would
like to thank the editors for their publication and are
looking forward to a continuing relationship.

Mr. Henning Bartsch, a dual German/Mexican national
resident in Mexico since 1969, (and in Quintana Roo since
1992) has his business headquarters in Akumal, Q.R. We
welcome a regular column from Mr. Bartsch and his in-
vited commentators, in From the Mexican Side.

9 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com


The Air Potato

I was shown a strange looking tuber by an avid gardener.
The attractive vine with pretty patterned green leaves,
climbed high on a tall old tree and displayed an abundant
crop of fascinating brown nubby looking potatoes.
He said his pigs happily fed on them and that they are
easy to grow. "Well how about for people?" "Never tried
one." Everyone likes to grow unusual exotic
plants, especially edibles. So armed with a couple of
samples I head home eager to try this intriguing
vegetable. However I first decided to google air potato
and see if it was truly edible. Imagine my surprise to find
an onslaught of information. On the one hand the
promoters selling the plants and then on the other the
harsh warnings such as DO NOT PLANT or let anyone
else plant air potatoes; they are aggressive ,dangerous and
could destroy the ecosystem.

Not being sure what variety of Dioscorea I had in my
hand, alata the winged yam, or bulbiflora the air potato.
I checked pictures and libraries to find out more. I am now
sure this tuber from Toledo is a winged yam Dioscorea
alata sub classification Enantiophyllum since the stems
are square with winged corners and twine clockwise and
the leaves are opposite each other. In contrast the air
potato twines left counter clockwise and leaves are
alternate. Both have heart shaped leaves and the alata
here does not grow so high. The position of leaves could
be important as the potentially poisonous ones have
alternate leaves. The informaion at forestry shows that there
is an amazing variety of these vines. So perhaps my potato is
another variety. It did not much matter which one, as the
advise on the internet is simply not to grow it; I decided to
just follow the warnings.

But I am curious about these vines. The innocent looking
vine of the air potato rapidly spouts new shoots and invades

the countryside. It spreads
just like kudzu, another invasive species. Looking at
pictures of how it engulfs whole buildings, it looks very
dangerous. We also have such vines everywhere in Belize
and have not heard anyone here raging. Some gardeners
in hot dry climates reported not being able to grow these
vines at all. Florida seems to be the most excited about the
nuisance and they have a climate similar to here. They
have put the air potato on the Noxious Weed List. Is this
another controversial topic like global warming?
I do not want to have a battle with my neighbours if the
vine creeps over the fence and eats his hibiscus and I do
not want to be a potato farmer. So I am thinking I will just
avoid it. The only way I could see that it is worthwhile
growing dioscorea is IF you intend to use it. Experiments
have proved that kudzu and potato vines have an
excellent potential as a source of fuel. The weed can grow
a foot a day and every bit of it is useable. We have seen
lands bared to make way for papayas or citrus only to be
chopped down again to make way for a more lucrative
crop. Wouldn't it be wonderful to put the so-called pests, air
potato or kudzu, to good use.

We have a particularly annoying strangler vine around
Belize that locals call God's Bush. I am always fascinated
with names and how and why they came about. Now
Dioscorea could be God's Dance. Divine and vine also
from God Jasmine, another attractive, yet invasive vine, is
from the Persian name meaning God's gift-Divine order.
Now if "all is for a purpose", are we not getting the
message? Should we be using this gift? Initially the potato
was considered potentially dangerous and nutritionally
useless by most of the world. Yet it has had a long run as the
king of the crops.

Now the US potato industry has serious competitors for land
leasing to grow bio fuel. They are prepared to pay higher
prices for land leases which means the price of potatoes and
corn could rise dramatically. Growing potatoes in the air
would seem to be a good option. Maybe the reason the edible
variety has not caught on before is that they have not
been offered for sale.
Continue on page 11

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Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 10 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize


Continued from page 10


We get sold on ideas...white sugar better than brown, marga-
rine better than butter, formula better than breast...only to
later switch to the other side of the argument. I quizzed some
villagers about all this. The reason that the imported type of
potato is not so popular with them is that it is not indigenous
and hard to grow in this climate. They tend to eat what they
farm rather than purchase expensive imported items. The
Maya favour rice, coco and yams and, yes, they do use the air
potato. They plant it in April to May and it grows about 30
feet and they do not consider it invasive. I guess if you are
using it rather than letting it spread its bulbis then it is quite
controllable. It is particularly good in stew, soup, pigtail and
boil up or just cooked plain. I could not find any local name
here except air potato.
Now about the vegetable:
Time for the test run on this new-to-me "potato".
I have had one sitting on the window sill for 2 months and
it is still hard, not rotting. So it definitely keeps well and it
grows here. I am hoping it is an culinary delight like the da-
sheen which has become a favourite in my household.
I peel it and it feels sticky like coco. A potato feels wet by
comparison. Firstly I cut a wedge off and put in a pot to boil
and set timer for 15 minutes (but they become soft sooner).
It tastes like a cross between a potato and a yam. The
water turns orange but the potato looks pale like a potato. It
tastes very good so I try it buttered and mashed, both
good. Then I cut some more into strips like fries put them to
dry and drop them into hot vegetable oil; they fry quickly-
EXCELLENT, a good consistency, a slight bitter taste.
So I am glad I gave this vegetable a chance and will most
certainly add it to my menu. I am also not so scared of grow-
ing it. I do think it is wise not to jump on band wagons you
never know where they will take you. We should be careful
what we introduce to the environment and research and
question what we are told before we commit and find
ourselves in irreversible situations.
Have fun growing and send any information you would like
to share to Jenny Wildman at spectarte@gmail.com

Sirmoor Hill Farm

Bed and Breakfast

Comfort and quiet, rolling hills,

jungle views

www. sirmoorhillfarm. com

New Road, Punta Gorda


That's our maxim at The Belize Ag Report.
Our distribution is mainly via our advertisers. We
now offer to advertisers and members of the public,
purchase of them in lots of 25. Orders must be
made/paid by/before, 20th of month prior to

The price is $2Bze per issue. Contact editor as per
Contact: Elias Lopez information on page 4.
00- 50 '1623 993 SHARE THE GOOD BELIZE NEWS!

00-50 1804-4536

elias@10 I Obelize.com

11 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com

MSc. Agriculture, Plant Pathologist (Ret.)
From time to time we hear of Belizean children suffering
from calcium deficiency and/or malnutrition. This should
absolutely not be! Considering the wealth of nutritious vege-
tables that could and should be readily available all over the
country, Belizeans should be able to stave off such nutrition
problems. Perhaps the problem is due partly to lack of
knowledge of the food value of these vegetables and of the
proper ways of preparing and cooking them.
While most vegetables possess some nutritive value, there
are some that are outstanding in terms of their high content
of some of the minerals and vitamins that we require for
good health. On the other hand, some of the vegetables we
regard highly are relatively low in food value. The vegetables
listed in this article have outstanding nutritive value and, the
best part, they are some of the easiest and cheapest to grow.
Some actually grow as weeds. Below are listed some of these
vegetables in decreasing order of their food value.
1.) The Brassicas: called collard greens; kale; broccoli; cauli-
flower; turnip greens; mustard greens- these are some of
the vegetables with the highest nutritive value.
2.) Calalu: amaranth; calaloo; pigweed grows as a weed in
some places, so seeds can be obtained free.

3.) Spinach: there are three kinds- regular spinach; Malabar
spinach; and New Zealand spinach.

4.) Beet Greens: beet leaves; Swiss chard.
5.) Okra: easy to grow; seeds readily available; the more
you harvest the more it bears.
6.) Sweet potato (young shoots): although the roots are quite
nutritious, the young shoots are also quite nutritious as a

7.) Cassava: the young tender leaves are high in protein
among other nutrients.
8.) Purslane: called pusley. The vegetable with the highest
available iron, suitable for those with high iron require-
ments. This vegetable usually grows as a weed in some gar-
dens. Propagate by cuttings and by seeds.
9.) Coco shoots: malanga; taro; dasheen the young, un-
opened, leaves of these Aroids are very nutritious and are
used in a dish called calaloo in the West Indies. Propagative
material is readily available and they are easy to grow.
lo.) Chaya: the leaves are nutritious, but possess little hairs
that are irritant to skin and need to be parboiled first to get
rid of hydrocyanic acid. (Caution: never eat this vegetable
11.) Nopal: tuna; scagineal; prickly pear the fleshy "leaves"
are nutritious and a favourite in Mexico. They grow wild.
12.) Cho-cho (chayote): very good in soups. "Seeds" are read-
ily available at the markets.

13.) Cabbage: the coloured ones are more nutritious than the
green ones.

14.) Lettuce: the leaf lettuces are more nutritious than the
head lettuce.
Selecting from this group, the vegetables that should be most
accessible to villagers, small farmers and gardeners are:
calalu, coco shoots, purslane, cassava shoots, sweet potato
shoots, chaya, okra, cho-cho and nopal. Apart from the lack
of knowledge, acceptability of the foodstuff is sometimes a
problem. The way a food is prepared and cooked may be an
important factor in the acceptability of that food by the con-
sumer. It is a strong recommendation to those agencies in-
volved in educating consumers, that they teach them not
only how to grow these vegetables, but also how to harvest,
prepare and cook them. Next time, we will go into more de-
tails about these vegetables: their botanical names, their
relative food values, etc.

Cedar Bluff Ranch


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Stallion Breeding Service


John C. Roberson Tel: 664-7272 crbelize( gmail.com

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 12 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

The Wonders of a Goat
by Collette Gross-Vergriete

Some people will regard the goat as the worst animal to have
around a homestead. The goat, constantly wandering around
loves to eat on fresh buds and barks of freshly planted trees,
leaving a trail of destruction. The foresters treat them, in most
countries, as their number one enemy and resent them for
their ability to eat just about everything. But in fact, these
"vagabonds" are incredible "milking machine" working with a
high source of energy.

From their milk we create good cheese; their meat creates sa-
vory meals; their hides and manure are also useful products
with commercial value used in many parts of tropical coun-
tries. Manure has high content of nitrogen and phosphoric
acid and urine is rich in nitrogen and potassium.
The pastor or goat keeper is the key factor to the health and
behavior of a goat. His responsibility lays with feeding, habi-
tat, reproduction, hygiene and economy.

The more technical qualities of goat milk:
Goat milk is a valuable source of amino acids, rich in histidine
aspartic and tyrosine and has a larger amount of non-protein
nitrogen compared to cow's milk. Sodium, copper and iron
contents of goat's milk are relatively high.

Like most things in life, these vitamins and minerals are good
for your health when consumed in moderation.

There is limited processing of goat milk in the

are milked by hand usually by small farmers and the milk is
used for domestic consumption or distributed for sale locally
(such as Mexico and Venezuela). Cheese making is conducted
on small scale too, a soft cheese being produced.

Here in the "bush" of Cayo District, we have been working for
the past thirty years planting hardwood trees among other
things. As trees grow tall, my children, born here, grow as
well. The new generation comes up with new ideas: raise goats
to keep the bush down on our plantation. Great idea! So we
got goats, named them all and learned how to manage
them. They love to roam under the shade of our big trees and
we love the new life style they provide for us.
We milk the mother goats so we drink the milk for our good
health and strength of our bones. We make cheese to add fla-
vor to our food and create gourmet meals. We slaughter our
males and preserve the meat in bottles for wonderful dinners a
la "Cordon Bleu". We use the hides at home and the leftover
meat to feed our dogs.

We are what we eat! So we planted corn that we grow organi-
cally to feed our goats. This is especially beneficial during the
dry season when the goats have less browse to choose from
and can be supplemented with more corn. We also taste the
various leaves of our fruit trees in the milk and the cheese has
different flavors depending on what the goats eat.

The herd is growing and producing more milk that we can
consume. A small "fromagerie" will be built on the plantation

for the cheese to be processed and aged. Goat cheese will be
Tropics. Goats available to consumers this fall in San Ignacio. It is time that
we enjoy the wonderful quality of this cheese and restore the
names of the "wonders of a goat".

For any suggestions or comments, please e-mail to:
labelizeana @hotmail.com

Tel#: 620-8022 Text messages only please.

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 13

Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Westrac Ltd


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Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 14 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

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Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize


Light Rein
by Marjie Olson

Backing up. Uh huh. Seems simple enough. We all back our
cars, our motorcycles, our pedal bikes, ourselves. But why do
so many people not teach their horses to back up? BECAUSE
IT IS NOT EASY! Natural instinct for a horse is to 'roll on its
haunches' and flee. The only time in the wild a horse will
back up is if it has been going down a narrow gorge/cut/path
and it comes to a dead end, such as a rock slide, blocking the
way. And normally it will turn around, roll around, (rear up a
little and roll back over its haunches) or if truly needs to,
step back. So by rights...it is not a natural thing. They very
seldom NEED to back up.

So...it is a man-made thing for them for to do. BUT! It is a
great thing for them to be able to do! They flex their backs;
they work their buttock muscles, the hocks, the gaskins, the
stifle and the croup...all in a manner they do not do other-
wise. It is physically a great thing for over-all muscle tone
and body balance. UNLESS! You do it incorrectly. If you
'force' a horse to back and its head is in the air, fighting
against a bit and its back is 'hollow' you have defeated the
purpose and created a painful situation for your horse. A
true, correct back is with head in a correct position, back
lifted, not hollowed and loin up and rounded, not flat. Hocks
come deep underneath and body weight is distributed to the
back end.

Once the horse can do this balanced and without stress, we
can now do a roll back, a figure 8 back, a flying lead change,
come out of a trailer safe, get off the lead rope, the barb wire
you just found on the ground or maybe your foot, or have a
strong halt (stop). Without a strong backside, a horse will
become sore and weak and agitated. And for trail riding, log-
ging, plowing, jumping, carrying a load, these all weigh into
how good a horse's back and loin muscle tone are. So it is
not just about doing fancy maneuvers, but every day work.
HOW IS YOUR HORSE'S BACK? Does he have one? Will he
do it?

Resenting a back up command, at first, is normal. "It is not
natural". But if taught correctly, and rounded, head level or
slightly lower, and balanced, the back will be so helpful safer
on a ride or in a carriage, or from the ground, no matter
what you are doing.

Okay, so are you getting the idea a back on a horse is a good
thing? YES IT IS. It should be taught from the time they are
weanlings. Right along with leading. I teach hip movement
as well when they are weaners.

So...how do you teach a horse who sets his hind feet, locks
his hips, and raises his head and says "NO WAY DUDE!

Okay, I never said it was easy. It is time, persistence and the
right handling. Stay tuned for next issue, or check out my
blog, or call me. But think about it; do not back a horse with
his head in the air, from the ground or from the saddle. It
'hollows' his back and is no help for strengthening at all.

"Enjoy the ride"

Marjorie Olson (no longer Henley, thank you very much)
Light Rein Farm, 5 Mile Mtn Pine Ridge Rd. Cayo Dist,
Belize, C.A.

All comments are of the opinion ofMarjie Olson and are in
no manner expected to be the only way to train a horse, but
have proven to work for her.

EITHER ISSUE #7 or #8.

If you have any information, experiences or suggestions
on how to combat this that, you would like to share with
us, please email editor(@belizeagreport.com
or call Beth at 664-7272 or 663-6777. Thank you.

"M. Olson Farrier Services"
to tt i CopT IcI
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Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 16 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Promefrut; Sweating It Out over Delicious Tropical
by Maruja Vargas
The Belize Regional Fruit Policy Formulation National
Workshop conducted on January 20 in Belmopan was one of
seven such working sessions concluded in the seven partici-
pating countries of Central America: Panama, Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Belize.
Funded by the InterAmerican Development Bank, the pro-
ject aims to develop a common regional policy aligned by
regional cooperation in production, quality control and mar-
keting in the fruit sector.
Opening remarks by Mr. Gabino Canto, CEO of Ministry of
Agriculture and Fisheries, set the mood of the day. By effect-
ing a 70% reduction in imported agricultural products used
in the tourism sector in 2010, the Ministry is committed to
promoting the Belize agricultural sector as the source of
these purchases with emphasis on tropical fruits.
Over 40 enthusiastic participants labored the entire day on a
series of well prepared survey sheets delineating the needs,
strengths and potential for the fruit sector in Belize. Within
60 days, the results of the seven national surveys will be
The information generated will lead to the formulation of a
Cooperative Regional Strategic Plan and Policy on national
and regional level for the promotion of tropical fruits and
fruit products.
Continue on page 20


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Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 17

Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

by Graham Herbert

This article is not to educate anyone about the plant
JATROPHA CURCAS as being the perfect tree for the
production of oil seeds, as there is more than enough
educational sites on the web that can provide that
information. We're simply out to present the activities
related to this plant here in Belize and the opportunities that
are available on the ground floor, so to speak, at this time.

It is generally accepted by all that the JATROPHA CURCAS
plant originates from right here-in this segment of Central
America. Growing conditions, soil qualities, rain fall,
humidity, labor experience and production costs are all
perfect for the successful production of bio-oil here in

There are approximately 900,000 hectares planted in
Central & South America, with just 300-400 acres of
productive trees planted on a commercial basis in Belize at
this time. Without doubt there is a lot of interest in the tree,
and the Government of Belize has announced that they are
pursuing heavy incentives in this agriculture segment of the

Our operation here is in the second year of build up, with a
first year crop from plantations already harvested. The initial
growth market has been to sell the seeds outright as there is
a proven global demand for seeds to set up new plantations
of this tree type. However, our own focus is on in-country
bio-fuel production for use in local agriculture and over the
highway vehicles.

Listed is the performance data related to trees here in Belize.

Jatropha Products & Benefits
Fuel Oil for Diesel:
Jatropha oil is an environmentally safe, cost-effective renew-
able source of non-conventional energy and a promising sub-
stitute for diesel, kerosene and other fuels. Jatropha seed oil
was used in engines in Indonesia by the Japanese during
World War II. These are the uses where interest is highest
and most research is being conducted. Biodiesel refers to oil
which has been trans-esterified to produce methyl ester
(biodiesel) and glycerin. (The process involves combining an

alcohol such as methanol with sodium or potassium hydrox-

Seed-cake or press-cake is a by-product of oil extraction.
Jatropha seed-cake contains curcin, a highly toxic protein
similar to ricin in castor, making it unsuitable for animal
feed. However, it does have potential as a fertilizer, dis-
cussed in the next section below on markets. It can also fuel
a steam turbine to generate electricity.

Soil Improver:
Press cake cannot be used in animal feed because of its toxic
properties, but it is valuable as organic manure due to a ni-
trogen content similar to that of seed cake from castor bean
and chicken manure. The nitrogen content ranges from 3.2
to 3.8%, depending on the source. Tender branches and
leaves are used as a green manure for coconut trees. All plant
parts can be used as a green manure.

Erosion Control:
Jatropha has been used in many locations worldwide in ero-
sion control.

The oil and aqueous extract from oil has potential as an in-
secticide. For instance it has been used in the control of in-
sect pests of cotton including cotton bollworm and on pests
of pulses, potato and corn. Methanol extracts of jatropha
seed (which contains biodegradable toxins) are being tested
in Germany for control of bilharzia-carrying water snails.

The glycerin that is a by-product of biodiesel can be used to
make soap, and soap can be produced from jatropha oil it-
self. In either case the process produces a soft, durable soap
and is a simple one, well adapted to household or small-scale
industrial activity.

Potential Conservation Benefits
The primary conservation benefits to be derived from pro-
duction of jatropha relate to improved soil management. In
Africa and Central/Southern America the tree's most wide-
spread use at present is as a live fence.

Continues on page 19

Liat PLqrt nilratE"ln PIMufn oR V1tI
LitlC.t PIwiflg IVrttiooctloa

It~endy To PInnt' JnuorplII S edliJut VIor Suic

Apr-May 2010oo BelizeAgReport.com 18 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Ltl gro V to gSthVf

Continuedfrom page 18
In addition to protecting crops from livestock, this use re-
duces wind erosion and pressure on timber resources and in-
creases moisture retention. The qualities that make jatropha
especially desirable as a live fence include:

Rapid growth rates from both seed and
Low maintenance and drought resistance.
Relatively low rates of natural spread (i.e., it
tends to grow where it has been planted,
without colonizing neighboring land).
Unpalatability to livestock, making it a
particularly effective barrier between live-
stock and either crop fields or homesteads.

Jatropha's drought tolerance makes it a suitable species for
reclamation of eroded and degraded areas. Moreover,
although higher rainfall and fertilizer inputs can substantially
increase its yields, it is an attractive species for resource-poor
farmers since it will survive in drought and with little or no
fertilizer input. Jatropha does not compete with food produc-
ing land, as sub-prime land is generally utilized.
As can be seen from this outline, what we have here in Belize is
the 'perfect' location for the establishment ofjatropha
Graham Herbert is the owner of B-Oil Belize, in Cayo District.

76 Western Highway, Santa Elena Town, Cayo District, Belize
Let us help you find that perfect piece of Paradise Today!
Specializing in great deals on Riverfront, Farmland,
Oceanfront and Investment Properties.
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E-mail: ceibarealtv gmail.com
Website: www.ceibarealtvbelize.com

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Tel: 82 1 F: 82 270
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Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 19 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize


Continuedfrom page 1


Why is cane ethanol superior to corn ethanol? Firstly, using
cane eliminates a step in the processing. Corn (being a
starch) has to go through the process to convert its carbohy-
drates into sugar. Sugarcane requires only milling for its
sugars to be ready for the fermentation process. The energy
balance (energy return over energy invested) is extremely
high for cane ethanol between 8.3 to 10.2 compared with
corn ethanol's 1.5 Also, the technology is underway to im-
prove cellulosic ethanol production- using biomass such as
sugarcane bagasse and forestry waste. In existing technol-
ogy, bagasse (sugarcane waste), is used to create steam-based
power. The OAS recommended last year that it might be
prudent for Belize to begin cane ethanol production, which
they see as advisable for its own sake, as well as envisioning
that it would ease our entry to the cellulosic ethanol field in
the coming decade.

Environmentally, for GHG (Green House Gas ), cane ethanol
shines too, being the cleanest biofuel now commercially pro-
duced. If land use is not altered, (forest land not cleared),
there is a 'zero net contribution' of CO2 ( the growing of the
cane absorbing more CO2 than the burning of its ethanol pro-
duces). A 2009 U.N. report found that cane bio-ethanol can
even result in a 'negative emission' cleaning the atmos-
phere more than polluting. Corn is not able to zero-out, al-
though it is more environmentally friendly than fossil fuel.
(Each hectare of sugar cane removes approx lo -28 tons of
CO2 /year from the atmosphere, while corn removes approx
2-4 tons.)

Brazil's 3.7 M acres of cane is mainly in the central and
southern tropical areas, on lands formerly cattle pasture.
(The Amazon is less suitable than the drier southern regions
for cane production. Amazon production is for local sugar
and energy use only.) Less than 3% of Brazil's arable lands
are used for sugarcane production, yielding an estimated
24.9 billion liters (6.58 billion U.S. gallons) of cane ethanol
in the 2008/2009 harvest. Brazilian facilities integrate pro-
duction of ethanol, sugar, and energy to be sold back to the
grid, all in one plant. Efficiency in the process has increased
from 2000 liters/hectare in 1975 to nearly 6,000 liters/
hectare in 2004. Projections are that 9000 liters/hectare will
be attained within the next decade. Although direct subsidies
to the producer have ceased in Brazil, the agricultural re-
search wing of the government, EMBRAPA, continues serious
research to: 1. Develop new varieties of cane with increased
sugar content, 2. Improve fermentation efficiency, and 3.
Increase efficiency in sugar extraction. Over 500 varieties of
sugar cane are cultivated there, in efforts to match variety to
the field conditions. Currently in Belize less than 20 varieties
are grown commercially. Other conditions Brazil has used to
encourage the industry have included guaranteed purchases
by their state owned oil company, low interest loans, and
fixed gas and ethanol prices.

Since cane ethanol does not produce the equal energy output
as gasoline, to be economically feasible cane ethanol must
be 25-30% cheaper per gallon than gasoline. Brazil has ad-
dressed the fluctuating prices of cane ethanol through vehi-
cles in which drivers can similarly vary the % of ethanol, even
each time they fill up. Ninety percent of the new cars sold in
Brazil are flex fuel vehicles and biofuel motorcycles, buses/
commercial use is up too.

Additionally attractive to us as Caricom members: the CBI
(Caribbean Basin Initiative) allows member states to export
anhydrous cane ethanol, produced in Brazil in the hydrous
state, into the U.S.A., without the .54 usd/gallon tariff that
would apply if the ethanol was exported directly from Brazil
into the U.S. This tax is circumvented by the Caricom mem-
ber doing the value added procedure of refining from hydrous
(7% water content) to anhydrous (.7% water content). There
is a ceiling limit of 7% from CBI sources, based on previous
year's consumption. Ethanol produced in a Caricom state
would also be exempt from this tariff, making Belize a very
attractive location for anyone including Brazilian companies
to invest in cane ethanol production.

Ballpark figures for a modern facility is 150 M USD, and esti-
mates for acreage of cane to service same is roughly 30,000
hectares, or 74,131 acres. Current figures indicate 65,000
Acres of sugarcane were harvested 2007/08 (MAF).

Jobs and income creation, reduction of GHG, decreasing
reliance on imported fossil fuels all are excellent reasons
to seek investors, local or foreign, for sugarcane ethanol pro-
duction in Belize. Estimates are that Belize uses approx.
2,600 to 3,000 barrels per day of imported fossil fuel. Even
with our growing home fossil fuel industry, branching into
cleaner and sustainable biofuels just makes sense.

Note: The Belize Ag Report thanks the Brazilan Embassy
who supplied informationfor this article. Other sources
include Wikipedia.

Continued from page 17

Promefrut; Sweating It Out over Delicious Tropical

Within the year, the Ministry has committed funds to engage
personnel and vehicles to implement this strategy.

Among the many benefits of regional cooperation will be
technical training, exchange of genetic materials, supported
marketing, regional database, and timely brokering of com-

For further information call Francisco Tzul, Belize Represen-
tative for Promefrut.

20 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com

4Icono Liesel

Full line of diesel engine parts! BOSCH

Prices on

SOO and Retail



Eml~ One Hmrmwam
Ie 4 4 Ngihvr Hmwy
Td (501) 2234445

Garrett TC O A DENSO

ID uh19e rglhl plant Irt your p1ea
,C "I~ftRmdKy for a dB m LIandampe l ar myourarIPt
r ^CmO VMUI Ie irortve us a Call
MacdlwtI I EquHM.ifntSeioe;

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FPMT MamgEmrnt on ucarUac

onlday t Frlry
SO am fb Vl* t m ;14 pmI to 0pM A w*t tortmtd orf wn mental FlnaWB
3a90da (Varkul is MRl)
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.d"o 4k Sk- i6-ambeO-,1 Phl ce r,,.L-)
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46FL As u I-V Awl" a 8 wra I


Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 21 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Continued from page 1 Weaknesses

Belize Ripe for a Farmers Credit Union?

3) There are excellent investment opportunities in the rural
sector that are bypassed or neglected simply because produc-
ers have no access to credit. Such opportunities include for
example: farming, processing, storing, transporting,
marketing and vending in the agriculture and food indus-
tries, and significant increase in fresh and processed foods.
We import too much food, about $160 million every year.
Furthermore, there are multiple opportunities to establish
linkages with the growing tourism sector; for example, feed-
ing them with delicious, organic, fresh and safe food; and
providing the cultural, natural and social attractions and
tour/ hospitality services. Tourists pay big bucks for such
services of high quality.

4) I would estimate that the volume of business that could
be generated in the rural economy is in the range of $50 mil-
lion to $80 million per year, probably with more than half of
this business going to farmers and producers who have a
potential to offer quality products and services at
competitive rates For example, small farmers in Orange
Walk demonstrated that they can produce the best yielding
and quality papayas ($ 40,000 per acre) provided they are
properly trained and have the capital to invest in the
required land preparation, equipment and inputs.

5) Belize has approximately 30 functioning credit unions,
and some ten of them are fairly large operations with signifi-
cant growth rates in recent years; however, they are known
to prosper in urban areas where the population has a larger
proportion of salaried employees, and the economic activi-
ties are essentially commerce, construction, light industry
and services. Credit unions generally do not service the rural
areas and the agricultural sector, except for the Toledo
Teachers, St Francis Xavier (Corozal), La Inmaculada
(Orange Walk) and St Martin's Credit Unions, who have a
significant and increasing portfolio on the agriculture and
rural sectors. The outstanding example of success is the
Blue Creek/ Spanish Lookout Credit Union. However, they
serve only the Mennonite Communities.

To decide how to move forward with the establishment of a
credit union for farmers and rural producers, an analysis of
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT)
would indicate what are the key issues and priority actions to
consider in planning, initiating, building, managing, moni-
toring and evaluating such a credit union A preliminary
SWOT is presented below.


* Credit unions have track record in Belize
* Central Bank is the regulatory institution
* Lowest interest rates are charged due to low
management & overhead cost
* Flexible payback arrangements
* Expertise and mentoring available
(through Belize CU League)

* Members must built up savings to borrow
* Borrowers must have technical & financial
services for success


* Government ready to support institutions that can
reach small & micro producers
* Several donors have resources to invest, such as
* Food security and agricultural competiveness is
important, hence direct & complementary support is


Leadership & management of CU take time to develop
* Markets generally do not work for small producers
* Natural disasters & emergency.

Dr Marcelino Avila is from Orange Walk Town, has a PhD
in Agricultural Econmicsfrom the University of Missouri in
USA. Dr Avila's wide experience includes 5 years of
lecturing in St John's College, 20 years as a scientist in
international agricultural research in Latin America and
Africa, o1 years of experience with agricultural and rural
development with Goverment ofBelize, and has produced
over 80 scientific and technical publications.

Mailing address:
BRDP, P.O.Box 107
Belmopan, Belize
Office Location: Belmopan Agricultural Showgrounds

- a

Notice to Readers of
the Printed Issues:

Please thank The Belize Ag Report
advertiser, in whose business you found
your copy.
Their ads are what make this all possible.

m -i

22 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Continuedfrom page l


Apr-May 2olo BelizeAgReport.com

The Secret s in the taste
Processing Plant-Blue Creek
Tel: (501) 832-0 Belze City
(501) 3283452 6290 Park Street
Fax: (501) 3230067 Button Wood Bay
Tel: 228-6378
Corner of 5th St
South & 71th Ave.
Tel: 422-2862
OQrane Walk
8 Guyana. Sbet
Tel: 322-3814
San Ignaclo
Esperanza Village
Tel: 82420251


Tel:- 501

SExport & Import
Company Lhited

rrently Bel-Car s main exportn
dible beanslt has Black Eye Ba
ey /Bea ack Bea2ns, and Sm.
Wa _la at int times.

otbe a

x:- 50118S
ail:- bel-ce


&B cek* 0cyge, VQ WCiDs, -

Bete, trdArea

Phonc 33 E-mail: PcOirpnxluvhiorn aifl.u m
Mailing: P.O. Box L. Orange WA: Disticr

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 23 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize




2010 Central American Ag Calendar


NATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND TRADE SHOW(NATS), April 30-May 2, National Show Grounds, Belmopan, Cayo
District, Agriculture, Livestock, Trade exhibition, Dog show, Rodeo, Tel: 822-2241/2242, www.agriculture.gov.bz

Toledo CacaoFest Friday 21st to Sunday 23rd May 2010
Join us over the Commonwealth Day holiday weekend for a family weekend celebration of cacao,
culture, and the rich flavours of the Toledo District.
This year's Festival sees the return of old favourites, including our signature opening Wine and Choco-
late evening, Taste of Toledo cookery and craft fair, Sea Toledo marine activities, and our inland Cacao
Trail tours, alongside exciting new additions such as a special performance of the Monkey Dance at the
Maya site of Lubaantun.
Use our contact form if you have any questions about the Festival, email us at
info@ToledoChocolate.com, or call the Festival Office on 722-2531. www.toledochocolate.com

EXPOFERIA GUADALUPE, Apr 22-June 22, Ciudad Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon, Tel: (81) 8337-8823, Fax: (81) 8337-8508
www.unionganaderanl.com.mx, Salazar(unionganaderanl.com.mxLivestock, trade, crafts and gourmet food
EXPO SONORA, Apr 29-May 16, Hermosillo, Sonora, Tel: (662) 259-6919/ 254-0268, Fax: (662) 254-4978
www.expogansonora.com, expogansonora@prodigy.net.mx Livestock, industry, craft, cultural and trade exhibition
FERIA NACIONAL DE SAN MARCOS, Apr-May, Tel: (449) 915-8620 Fax: (449) 915-8609
www.feriassanmarcos.gob.mx, feriaags(aguascalientes.gob.mx Trade, industrial, livestock, agroindustrialfair
EXPO OBREGON, May 13-30, Cuidad Obregon, Sonora, Tel: (664) 413-6621/ 415-1808, Fax: (664) 415-1153
www.expoobregon.com.mx, direccion(expoobregon.com.mx The largest trade, industrial and agricultural expo in northwest
of M6xico
juato,Tel: (461) 618-4809/ 618-4810www.feriasdecelava.com, feriacelava@prodigy.net.mx Exhibition and products derived
from the goat, cheese, caramel and crafts
FERIA TABASCO, April-May, Villahermosa, Tabasco, 993) 310-9700 ext. 5244, Fax: (993) 316-7246
www.expotabasco.com.mx, palomarives@tabosco.gob.mx/ Livestock, trade, mechanical rides, cultural activities, palenque,



Stanley Lopez, aka- Snake.

We paint for the best-We fill all of the Belize Ag Report's painting needs.


Tel: 602- 1960

Congratulation Belize Ag Report on completing year 1!

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 24 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Classified prices
2-3 lines = $22, 4-5 lines = $30, 6-7 lines = $38
Would you like your ag related events publicized
on our FREE online Ag calendar?
Call: 664 7272 or email: editor@belizeagreport.com
YOUR HELP PLEASE..... Trying to compile a complete list
of people and businesses countrywide that are involved with
RECYCLING and GREEN SERVICES send information to
PROPERTY: Even Farmers Need Some R & R..... 50 x50
Beachfront Lot, San Pedro, $95kusd. .N. San Pedro
PROPERTY: 30 acres, Camalote, large year-round pond, close to
capital city of Belmopan, priced to move at $45kusd. Holdfast Ltd
PROPERTY: MAGNET HILL, magnificent 16 acs on
Hummingbird Hwy. Mile 28. Creek + All Yr River, bounded in back
by Nat'l Park. Elec line. Hills, Road to bldg. site, bearing fruit trees.
Waiting for your resort or luxury estate. Must see to appreciate.
INCREDIBLE panoramic views.
$98kusd, 662-5263
PROPERTY: Horticulturalists dream-home on 1 acre, feels like
more, in Bmp city limits, On west side of Hummingbird Hwy.
Extensive gardens and groves. Asking $295kusd call Sandra or Beth
at Holdfast 664- 7272 or 663-6777
Town, all utilities, gated, LARGE .6 ac+ lots, w/0ooft riverfront
,large trees, high bank, owner financing. GARDEN LOTS, row
2, with river access. Good birding area, home of the mot mots,
toucans, aurependula...2 resident homes done. Come build yours.
$68kusd +, riverfront.$ 50k Garden lots. CEDAR BLUFF
662-5700 or 664-7272.
PROPERTY: 99 acs. Banana Bank Area, Cayo, riverfront,
North Side of Belize River, great soil, massive trees and hills,
80% cleared. You can grow anything you like here. $ 249kusd
Holdfast Ltd 662-5263,664-7272
PROPERTY: Bullet Tree Falls Village, Cayo Lot on Mopan
River, $ 45k usd. 662-5263
PROPERTY: RENTAL, RURAL, Cristo Rey Rd, 10 mins
from San Ignacio. internet, 1 luxury bdrm, + 2 full baths, deck,
barbq, views, breeze, maid and yard sevice and security on
working farm. $750usd/month. 6 mths min.
Holdfast 664 7272, 662-5263
FOR SALE: MORINGA PLANTS, $10 per plant Belize-
Michigan Partners (Dr. Chris Bennett) tel 223-0404
GROW YOUR OWN DIESEL Jatropha seedlings 'Ready
To Plant', harvest in the first year! Process seeds as biodiesel.....
1,ooo 20,000 seedling supply. Sliding scale pricing. Great
opportunity to help the planet, make & save money!
Tel: 501-621-3432 Location: Mile 63
Western Highway. (Central Farm Airstrip).

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
Major agricultural production 2009, Estimates only:

propagation method, saves $$$$ in nursery, planting, time &
labor. Pre-filled sterile peat bags with pH loaded. All tree, plant
and vegetable types available. Mile 63, Western Highway (Airstrip)
501-621-3432 www.b-oilbelize.com
TRES CABALLOS MOWING & HAY: Variety of baled grasses
for horses and cattle. Plan ahead for the dry season. Will custom
cut/bale your grass or ours. Cayo District. Delivery available. Call
600-2853 between 6 am and 6 pm.

WANTED: Old wooden Bol (platters used for making tortillas),
Chicle Pots, Chicle Spurs, & Interesting old stuff -wood, metal or
stone. Email: srbelize@yahoo.com or call 662-5700
WANTED : secondhand wicker or rattan sofa and chairs
523-8019 spectarte@gmail.com
WANTED: BUYER for fresh BEEF HIDES, 20 to 40 avail.
wkly. tels: 824-2126 & 610-4524

WANTED: Please call with information on purchase of
African Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf or Kinder Goats.
Nadja: 667- 9481(if no answer call back)
or email: nadjablz@hotmail.com

BELIZE BIRD RESCUE is dedicated to the care, rescue and
rehabilitation of all bird species in Belize, especially parrots.
822-1145/ 610-0400/ 602-4291 info@Obelizebirdrescue.com

Wholesale and Retail
Gasoline & Diesel
We Deliver


Santa Elina

24 irtSa

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 25 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

and to concentrate on providing a high quality corn in order to
compete with the U.S corn. It still appears we have some 400,000
or 500,000 bags of corn to export to somewhere. I am displaying the
U.S export record to Guatemala as an order of encouragement to the
Belizean corn producers that there is a market with our neighbor we
just have to think quality andbe patient. We also have to keep working
on ways to lower our production costs so that we can compete. This
always leads us to genetics, soil preparation, weed and insect control
and drying procedures.

Citrus Products of Belize Ltd. began test runs of their new
Feed Mill to produce pelletized livestock feed, CITRAPULP,
from the solid citrus waste stream, in late 2009.

Commercial production of the feed commenced in January
2010. This 5-6% crude protein and high-energy feed is
available at their facility at Mile 14 1/2 Stann Creek Valley
Road, Stann Creek District. Two by-products of feed
production are delimonene and 'citrus molasses'.

The molasses is produced by evaporating the liquid contain-
ing residual sugars that was pressed from the solid waste
stream. Forty percent of the molasses produced is added
back to press cake that will be made into feed pellets, but
60% is not, and is available for separate sale. This is a wel-
comed product especially for southern livestock producers,
they being the most distant from sugarcane molasses sources
in northern Belize. Farmers countrywide are anxious to try
this relatively reasonably priced, and local cattle feed.

It is expected that over 80% of this product will be exported
to Dominican Republic until the Belizean market expands.
The feed is being sold on the local market for 14centsBz/
pound in 100 pound sacks at CPBL. Price for the citrus mo-
lasses was not available at press time.

Source: USDA/FAS/Export Sales

This agreement has been in process for about 3yrs. We are very grateful to the Ministries
of Finance, Foreign Trade, Agriculture and our Guatemalan counterparts on the other
side. This means a 15% tariff on Belizean corn to Guatemala willbe removed. There is still
a 12% E.VA. tax but I understand the buyer can get credit like GST in Belize. Guatemala
imports 26 times more corn from the United States than we have to export, so our
competition is cheap corn from the U.S. We hope to be able to furnish corn continuously

Corn exports from USA to Guatemala

Source: USDA/FAS/Export Sales

I Weekly Accum.
Date Exports Exports
Metric Tons
09/03/2009 0 617,850
09/03/2009 0 0
09/10/2009 18,859 18,859
09/17/2009 34,845 53,704
09/24/2009 0 53,704
10/01/2009 25,623 79,327
10/08/2009 6,149 85,476
10/15/2009 6,748 92,224
10/22/2009 0 92,224
10/29/2009 27,198 119,422
10/29/2009 27,198 119,422
11/05/2009 0 119,422
11/12/2009 0 119,422
11/19/2009 18,092 137,514
11/26/2009 15,221 152,735
12/03/2009 0 152,735
12/10/2009 42,692 195,427
12/17/2009 0 195,427
12/24/2009 9,787 205,214
12/31/2009 0 205,214
01/07/2010 17,127 222,341
01/14/2010 18,500 240,841
01/21/2010 14,000 254,841
01/28/2010 9,504 264,345
02/04/2010 24,747 289,092
02/11/2010 0 289,092
02/18/2010 0 289,092
02/25/2010 16,500 305,592
6,721,044 bags
Metric tons converted at 22 1001b bags


"The Belize Ag Report can play a part in the process, acting as a shopping catalogue and information ex-
change for Mexican buyers and Belizean producers."
L.C. Pedro Escobedo Vaquez, Playa del Carmen, Q.R. Mexico (see page 5, Letters to Editor).

"The section of AGRICULTURE PRICES AT A GLANCE is exquisite information for us and allows us to
analyze feasibility of importing."
Henning Bartsch, Akumal, Q.R. Mexico, FROM THE MEXICAN SIDE ( see article page 9 )

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 26 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

E Offering a wide selection of:
1NNW MB Fresh Cuts and Processed meat products
Beef and Pork
6 Fjor thls Holiday Se' n stop-In-and
get your quality & elicious RunningnW
"U Hams & Pic L
Visit our RunnlnaiW-Store atMilW 63, Westeoi Hghway

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 27 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Ii-/ I I

GenCoratrinc Pac of Mind with SANDY POWER GENRATION
From 8 KW 2a K[W I ..a a-,mm t r-

Plant & TrC Stulppor

a/9 DA I i/Y / Ak/WNfl
Spanish Lookout
Tel' M23-f(H T, 'ax: Z.-O24H
info@qu~ I itypou Itry prod ucts.com
www.qua Iitypou Itrypro d ucts.com

Apr-May 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 28 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize

Table of Contents

Additional Articles/Information
Insect Pollination 30-32
Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries 2009 Production
Statistics Estimates Only 34-36
Colloidal Silver, Nature's Antibiotic by K. Adachi 38-40

Cedar Bluff Riverside Community 33

The Importance of Insect Pollination to Crops

Table of Plants Pollinated by Insects

The following table was extracted and modified to reflect plants and trees grown in Belize.

Common name




Custard apple


Latin name

Allium cepa


Annona squamosa
Apium graveolens

Beta vulgaris


Honey bees (incl. Apis cerana),
Solitary bees (Halictus)
Honey bees, Solitary bees
Honey bees, Stingless bees,
Bumblebees, Solitary bees (Centris
tarsata), Butterflies, Flies,
Nitidulid beetles
Honey bees, Solitary bees, flies

Honey bees, Stingless bees

Hover flies, Honey bees, Solitary









Chinese cabbage

Chile pepper, Red
pepper, Bell
pepper, Green



Coffee arabica,

Cola nut

Brassica oleracea
Botrytis Group
Brassica oleracea
Capitata Group
Brassica rapa


Carica papaya

Citrullus lanatus

Citrus reticulata
Cocos nucifera


Cola nitida, Cola
vera, Cola

Honey bees, Solitary bees

Honey bees, Solitary bees

Honey bees, Solitary bees

Honey bees, Stingless bees
(Melipona), Bumblebees, Solitary
bees, Hover flies

Honey bees, Thrips, Large sphinx
moths, Moths, Butterflies
Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary
Honey bees, Bumblebees
Honey bees, Bumblebees
Honey bees, Stingless bees
Honey bees, Stingless bees, Solitary


1-little (pollinators
important in green
houses to increase
fruit weight, but less
in open fields)








Cantaloupe, Melon Cucumis melo L.

Honey bees, Solitary bees


Honey bees, Squash bees,
Bumblebees, Solitary bees (Ceratina 4-essential


Squash (plant),
Pumpkin, Zuchini
Oil palm


Cucumis sativus


Daucus carota

Honey bees, Squash bees,
Bumblebees, Leafcutter bees (in
greenhouse pollination), Solitary
bees (for some parthenocarpic
gynoecious green house varieties
pollination is detrimental to fruit

Honey bees, Squash bees,
Bumblebees, Solitary bees
Flies, Solitary bees, Honey bees

Elaeis guineensis Weevils, Thrips





Honey bees, Stingless bees,
Bumblebees, Solitary bees (Halictus 2-modest
), Hover flies

Glycine max,
Glycine soja

Helianthus annuus

Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary

Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary


Litchi chinensis Honey bees, Flies


Mangifera indica


Medicago sativa


Honey bees, Stingless bees, Flies,
Ants, Wasps


Alfalfa leafcutter bee, Alkali bee,
Honey bees


undatus or

Passion fruit.


Lima bean, Kidney
bean, Haricot bean,
Adzuki bean,
String bean

Passiflora edulis

Persea americana


Solitary bees

Carpenter bees, Solitary bees,
bumblebees, Humming birds

Honey bees, Stingless bees, Solitary

Honey bees, Solitary bees




















Honey bees, Solitary bees (Halictus,
3 -great
Exomalopsis Ceratina )

Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary
bees (Osmia cornuta), Flies

Pimenta dioica

Prunus dulcis,
amygdalus, or

Psidium guajava

Rubus idaeus




2-modest (pollinators
important in green
houses, but less in
open fields)

Hog plum




Broad bean

Cowpea, Black-
eyed pea


Honey bees, Stingless bees
(Melipona )

Theobroma cacao Midges
Vanilla planifolia Solitary
or pompona


Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary

Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary
Vigna unguiculata bees







Honey bees, Stingless bees,
Bumblebees, Solitary bees
(Lasioglossum )
Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary
bees, Hover flies (Eristalis)

Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary




ees (incl. Apis dorsata)


Birder's Paradise, Large Trees
Garden Area, Edge of ToIbwn
San Ignacio, Cayo
Mile 1.2 Cristo Rey Rd.
662-5263 / 662-5700

estimates only
CEREAL GRAINS Total Total Percentage
PRODUCTS Corozal Owalk Belize Cayo Stn Creek Toledo 2009 2008 Change
CORN YELLOW 10,000,800 23,455,000 95,000 54,782,575 3,817,000 7,147,200 99,297,575 65,273,938 52.1%
Production (Ibs) 95,000 203,275 3,545,000 7,147,200 10,990,475 7,988,738 37.6%
Acres hanrested 50.75 229 2,998 4,764 8,042 4,691 71.4%
Average Yield (Ibs) 1,872 888 1,182 1,500 1,367 1,703 19.7%
Production (Ibs) 10,000,800 23,455,000 54,579,300 272,000 88,307,100 57,285,200 54.2%
Acres harvested 8,334 6,290 15,024 120 29,768 24,263 22.7%
Average Yield (Ibs) 1,200 3,729 3,633 2,267 2,967 2,361 25.6%

RICE 35,428,000 0 5,220,700 0 4,800,000 45,448,700 25,970,825 75.0%

Production (Ibs) 3,500 1,500,000 1,503,500 1,169,125 28.6%
Acres Harvested 4 1,000 1,004 791 26.9%
Average Yield (Ibs) 875 1,500 2,375 1,478 60.7%
Production (lbs) 9,128,000 1,050,000 3,300,000 13,478,000 4,950,750 172.2%
Acres Harvested 2,415 402 1,320 4,137 2,382 73.7%
Average Yield (Ibs) 3,780 2,612 2,500 8,892 2,078 327.9%
Mech. Irrigated
Production 26,300,000 4,167,200 30,467,200 19,850,950 53.5%
Acres 4,820 1,350 6,170 5,200 18.7%
Average Yield (Ibs) 5,456 3,087 8,543 3,817 123.8%

WHITE CORN 7,338,000 420,000 40,000 5,361,420 621,000 13,323,000 27,103,420 16,409,984 65.2%
Production (Ibs) 40,000 243,620 621,000 13,323,000 14,227,620 12,510,550 13.7%
Acres Harvested 22 254 564 8,785 9,625 7,051 36.5%
Average Yield (Ibs) 1,818 959 1,101 1,517 1,478 1,774 16.7%
Production (Ibs) 7,338,000 420,000 5,117,800 12,875,800 3,899,434 230.2%
Acres Harvested 6,115 100 2,087 8,302 2,869 189.4%
Average Yield (Ibs) 1,200 4,200 2,452 1,551 1,359 14.1%

TotalProduction (lbs) 2,537,500 16,048,200 1,974,300 20,560,000 23,567,100 12.8%
Acres Harvested 1,015 11,463 716 13,194 13,325 1.0%
Average Yield (Ibs) 2,500 1,400 2,757 1,558 1,769 11.9%


R.K. BEANS 2,538,100 449,000 36,000 2,459,600 279,000 112,000 5,873,700 5,532,700 6.2%
Production (Ibs) 36,000 42,000 279,000 112,000 469,000 409,900 14.4%
Acres Harvested 40 40 238 112 430 513 16.2%
Average Yield (Ibs) 900 1,050 1,172 1,000 1,091 799 36.5%
Production (Ibs) 2,538,100 449,000 2,417,600 5,404,700 5,122,800 5.5%
Acres Harvested 5,500 898 2,736 9,134 9,464 3.5%
Average Yield (Ibs) 461 500 884 592 541 9.4%

BLACK BEANS 501,100 18,000 166,860 351,000 1,880,000 2,916,960 2,472,050 18.0%
Production (Ibs) 501,100 18,000 4,000 201,000 724,100 442,000 63.8%
Acres Harvested 1,055 40 5 212 1,312 442 196.8%
Average Yield (lbs) 475 450 800 948 552 1,000 44.8%
Production (Ibs) 162,860 150,000 1,880,000 2,192,860 2,030,050 8.0%
Acres Harvested 146 200.0 1,880 2,226 2,182 2.0%
Average Yield (bs) 1.115 750 1.000 985 931 5.8%

Total Production (lbs) 810,000 480,000 1,290,000 54,000 2288.9%
Acres Harvested 450 300 750 45 1566.7%
Average Yield (lbs) 1,800 1,600 1,720 1,200 43.3%

Total Production (lbs) 25,000 9,000 102,000 3,650 139,650 218,750 36.2%
Acres harvested 12.5 9 85 2 109 242 55.1%
Average Yield (lbs) 2,000 1,000 1,200 1,825 1287 906 42.1%

Production (Ibs) 120,000 7,977,700 8,097,700 6,761,700 19.8%
Acres Harvested 200 6,445 6,645 6,842 -2.9%
Average Yield (Ibs) 600 1,238 1,219 988 23.3%

Production (Ibs) 327,500 102,200 429,700 725,000 40.7%
Acres Harvested 717 146 863 711 21.4%
Average Yield (Ibs) 457 700 498 1020 51.2%

Production (lbs) 38,200 60,000 1,095,900 1,194,100 351,000 240.2%
Acres Harvested 131 150 990 1,271 394 222.6%


Production (L.Tons) 409,169 508,559 917,728 980,114 6.4%
Sugar(L. Tons) 92,338 92,338 78,305 17.9%
Sugarcane (L.Tons) 409,169 508,559 917,728 980,114 6.4%
Acres Harvested 60,000 60,000 60,000 0.0%
Yield (L. Tons)
Production (L. Tons)
Molasses (L. Tons) 28,188 28,188 40,033 29.6%
Yield(LT)/Acre (Sugarcane)
Yield (LT)/Acre (Sugar)
Yield (LT)/Acre (Molasses)

Total Total
PRODUCTS Corozal Owalk Belize Cayo Stn Creek Toledo 2009 2008

BANANA (Exports bs) 4,505,631 4,505,631
Production (40 lb Boes) 3,751,697 3,751,697 3,750,593 0.03%
Acres harvested 6,524 6,524 6,280 3.9%
Yield (Ibs)


CITRUS (Production)
Orange (bxs) 5,617,576 5,617,576 5,866,265 -4.2%
Grapefruit (bxs) 1,169,979 1,169,979 1,493,186 21.6%
CITRUS (Export)
Orange (I s)
Production (90 lb Boes) 5,519,620 5,519,620 5.661,295 2.5%
Acres 1,250 2,561 10,909 20,284 2,782 37,786 39,361
Yield (Ibs)
Grapefruit (Is)
Production ( 80 lb Boxes) 1,124,231 1,124,231 1,440,893 22.0%
Acres 50 62 1,053 5,315 185 6,665 6.769
Yield (lbs)

PAPAYA (Production)
Production (Ibs) (Export) 54,299,217 50,000 54,349,217 59,476,829 8.6%
Acres harvested 649 10 14 1 674 1,057
Average Yield (Ibs) 56,269
Local Papaya Consumption 116,500 2,250 118,750 100,500

Total Total
LIVESTOCK Corozal Owalk Belize Cayo Stn Creek Toledo 2009 2008
LARGE1RTIMINANTS 7,961 8,401 5.2%
BeefPopulation (Heads): 2,327 40,998 4,860 30,426 3,554 8,964 91,129 81,328
Heads Slaughtered: 498 3,482 72 2,712 137 207 7,108 8,401
Liveweight (Ibs) 7,164,900 7,560,900 5.2%
Dressweight (lbs) 3,582,450 3,780,450 5.2%
Heads Exported 2,518 1,323 3,841 4,224 -9.1%

Dairy Population (Heads): 200 1,250 623 1,500 10 294 3,877 3,592
Total Production (lbs) 325,806 1,889,881 5,908,305 152,867 8,276,859 6,437,593 28.6%
Processed plants 5,273,305 5,273,305 4,463,261 18.1%
Small Scale Processing (ONLY) 325,806 1,889,881 635,000 152,867 3,003,554 1,935,133 55.2%

Sheep population (heads) 3,662 3,800 996 3,241 632 687 13,018 9,911 31.3%
Heads Slaughtered: 48 482 27 212 89 28 886 1,494 40.7%
Liveweight (Ibs) 66,450 112,050 40.7%
Dressweight (Ibs) 39,870 67,230 40.7%

No. of Bird Slaughtered By Processors 201,334 1,694,298 4,840,158 6,735,790 8,314.376
Noof Bird slaughtered by Others (ONLY) 1,682,271 10,550 1,692,821 14,635
Total birds slaughtered 201,334 3,376,569 4,850,708 8,428,611 8,329011 1.2%
Liveweight by processors 947,981 7,384,446 20,955,887 29,288,314 18,839,266
Liveweight by Others 7,557,221 63,750 7,620,971 83,746
Total liwweights 947,981 14,941,667 21,019,637 36,909,285 35,348,891 4.4%
Dressweight by processors 758,385 5,902,090 16,386,965 23,047,440 14,812,049
Dressweight by Others 5,481,603 48,039 5,529,642 61,656
Total Dress weight 758,385 11,383,693 16,435,004 28,577,082 27,767,402 2.9%
LAYERS Population
Eggs (Doz) 291,654 588,966 2,546,820 3,427,440 3,373,885 1.6%

No. of Turkey (Slaughtered) 4,851 35,897 40,748 28,939 40.8%
Live weight 82,619 523,454 606,073 473,985 27.9%
Dressweight (Ibs) 67,999 418,100 486,099 288,431 68.5%

13. SWINE Adjusted 21,953 19,602 12.0%
Pig population (heads) 1,203 8,898 1,596 3,662 735 944 17,038 13.146
Heads Slaughtered: 692 11,179 378 6,144 197 500 19,090 19,602
Liveweight (Ibs) 1,228,800 4,390,600 3,920,400 12.0%
Dressweight (Ibs) 737,280 2,634,360 2,352,240 12.0%
Heads Exported

Total Production (lbs) 10,080 59,000 8,860 44,115 7,280 1,010 130,345 63,315 105.9%
No. ofHives 624 645 110 1,379 1,692
Pollen 275
Average Yield (lbs/Hive)

Source: District Agriculture Offices, BGA, CGA, BSI, TCGA, Quality Poultry, Homestead, Wetern dairies, Tropical fruits
Ministry fo Agriculture, Fisheries and Cooperatives Policy Analysis and Economic Unit
Livestock: Cattle Estimated Liveweight =900*lbs, Carcass weight =450*lbs; ** Pig- Estimated Liveweight =200 lbs, Carcass Weight= 120*lbs
Banana Domestic Consumption estimated 12.5% total production
Papaya Domestic Consumption estimated 2% of total production
Orange Domestic Consumption is 5% total export
Grapefruit Domestic Consumption is 1% of total export
Marine Domestic Consumption is estimated 4% of total export
Pineapple Note: Heads were reported in the past and now (2003) it's being converted to pounds.
Note: Livestock Statistics are from DAC Report


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The following article has been extracted from:

Colloidal Silver, The Forgotten Antibiotic, Volume I

By K. Adachi, published May 1998


The Universal Antibiotic Nature's Antibiotic

Prior to 1938, Colloidal Silver was considered to be one of the mainstays of antibiotic treatment. It is
still considered to be the most universal antibiotic substance that is nontoxic in its micro-concentrations
of 3 to 5 ppm. It has been proven to be useful against over 650 different infectious conditions, as
compared to traditional antibiotics, which are effective against 6 to 7 conditions. (1)

The comeback of silver in medicine began in the 1970's. The late Dr. Carl Moyer, chairman of
Washington University's Department of Surgery, received a grant to develop better treatments for burn
victims. Dr. Harry Margraf, as the chief biochemist, worked with Dr. Moyer and other surgeons to find
an antiseptic strong enough, yet safe enough to use over large areas of the body. As a result of their
efforts, and that of other researchers, hundreds of important new medical uses for silver were found. (2)

Colloidal Silver, is the only form of silver that can be used safely as a supplement. It is absorbed into the
tissues at a slow enough rate that it is not irritating to the tissues, unlike silver nitrate which reacts
violently with body tissues because of its caustic action. The colloidal particles diffuse gradually
throughout the blood and give prolonged therapeutic action. (3)

Many forma of bacteria, fungus, and viruses utilize a specific enzyme for their metabolism. Silver acts as
a catalyst, effectively disabling the enzyme. It is toxic to all tested species of fungi, bacteria, protozoa,
parasites and many viruses. (4) To primitive life forms, silver is as toxic as the most powerful chemical

There is no known disease-causing organism that can live in the presence of even minute traces of the
chemical element of simple metallic silver. Based on laboratory tests, destructive bacteria, virus, and
fungus organisms are killed within minutes of contact. Larry C. Ford, M.D. of the Department of
Obstetrics and Gynecology, UCLA School of Medicine, Center For The Health Sciences, reported in a
letter dated November 1, 1988 that silver solutions were antibacterial and fungicidal for Candida
Albicans and Candida Globata. E.M. Crooks has stated that Colloidal Silver kills pathogenic organisms in
three or four minutes or less... and there are no side effects whatsoever from the highest

Colloidal Silver is effective against infections, colds, influenza, and fermentation. Parasites are also killed
while in their egg stage. It is tasteless, odorless, and non-toxic. It's effective with meals as a digestive

aid, as it slows down fermentation of undigested food in the intestines: allowing greater freedom from
flatulence and gas pains.

A.B. Searle has pointed out that one advantage of using colloidal silver is that is has no recorded side-
effects. It also does not stain the skin, unlike certain pharmaceutical preparations of silver that do stain
the skin quite strongly. (6)

Dr. Leonard Keene Hirchberg, A.M.M.D. of John Hopkins concluded that from a therapeutic point of
view, only the electrical colloid metals present the necessary homogeneity, minuteness of granules,
purity, and stability for maximum health benefits.

Colloidal Silver has been well documented to be the best broad spectrum antibiotic available. The
reason that it has not been more widely used in the past, is because of the high cost of production.
Retain prices have ranged as high as $100-200 per ounce, even during The Depression era of the 1930's!

With advancements in the manufacturing process in recent years, the average person can afford to take
advantage of this wonderful product. Colloidal Silver is now an economical and effective resource for
maintaining good health and preventing many illnesses.

Silver kills over 650 different disease-causing germs. IT is tastelss, odorless and non-stinging to sensitive
tissues. All harmful bacteria, fungi and viri are killed within 6 minutes of contact with silver. When
antibiotics were discovered in the 1940's, clinical uses for Colloidal Silver as an antibiotic were
discarded, until now.

The following is a list of some of the (pre-1938) documented uses of silver, particularly in the colloidal
form, for the treatment of various conditions and pathogens:

Acne, Arthritis, Athlete's Foot, Bladder Inflammation, Blepharitis, Blood Poisoning, Burns, Cancer,
Cholera, Conjunctivitis, Cystitis, Dermatitis, Diabetes, Diphteria, Dysentery, Ear Infection, Eczema,
Eustachian Tubes, Eye Drops, Feminine Douche, Fiboisitis, Gargle for Throat Conditions, Gastritis,
Gonorrheal Herpes, Impetigo, Intestinal Trouble, Influenza, Keratitis, Leprosy, Lupus, Lymphagitis,
Malaria, Menier's Symptoms, Meningitis, Neurasthenia, Ophthalmology, Parvo Viris (canine), Pleurisy,
Prostate, Pruritis Ani, Rheumatism, Rhinitis, Ringworm, Scarlet Fever, Seborrhea, Septicemia, Shingles,
Sinus Disorders, Skin Cancer, Soft Sores, Staph and Strep Infections, Syphilis, Tonsillitis, Toxemia,
Trachoma, Trench Foot, Tuberculosis, Ulcers, Viral Warts, Whooping Cough, Yeast Infections.

NASA researched 23 different methods of water purification and selected a silver system for the space
shuttles. Not only does NASA use the silver system, but half of the world's airlines use silver water
filters to guard against waterborne diseases. There are many practical uses for silver including Colloidal
Silver as an all-natural antibacterial alternative.

Colloidal Silver was widely used in the U.S. 60 to 70 years ago as an antibacterial. Although silver had an
excellent reputation as an effective infection fighter, its utilization was limited due to cost. Currrent
dollars would put the price of Colloidal Silver in the 1930's at nearly $100 per ounce.

1.South, James, Electro-Colloidal Silver: The Amazing Anti-Microbial, lecture given at Natural Products
Epo West, Anaheim, 3/10/94

2.Powell, Jim, Science Digest, March 1978, Our Mightiest Germ Fighter

3. Hartman, R.J., Colloidal Chemistry, Houghton Mifflin, Co., Boston, 1939, p 359

4.South, James, op.cit.

5. Crooks, E.M., Metals and Enzyme Activity, Cambridge at The University Press, MA 1958, pp 15-18

6. Searle, A.B. The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease, E.P. Dutton & Co., N.Y. 1919, p. 75

Note: The Belize Ag Report is neither promoting nor prescribing treatments for health conditions. We
are merely giving voice to a formerly well known and according to many, quite effective treatment that
has been overlooked in recent years. All persons should investigate and discuss with their health
professionals before making medical decisions. Editor.

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