vestm A gll f Bi
from All of Beliz
THE SUN SHINES FOR THE AGRICULTURE
SECTOR IN BELIZE
By Dr. Gabriel Rodriguez Marques
Representative, IICA Office in Belize
Agriculture in Belize has an extraordinary potential and a
great future. Belize agriculture is like a jewel unpolished
with their sub-sectors growing and getting ready to reach
new markets. The recent agreement between Belize and
Mexico opened the market for live cattle, the shrimp from
the aquaculture reached France, one of the most important
markets in the world, commodities such as maize is going to
be exported to Guatemala, the developing of an horticulture
sector using high technology (greenhouses, irrigation and
good IPM systems) could give the opportunity to this
country to be the backyard of the Caribbean. There are more
examples too numerous to mention.
Continues on page 7
Oil Palms page 20
Why We Need a Seed Bank page 23
The BASGroup-Who are they? page 15
S Increasing Citrus Production and
by Dr. Stephen Williams
As any citrus grower knows, producing
.. . citrus in Belize is a costly venture.
S i.p \However, although grove inputs are
expensive, growers can significantly increase their profits by
increasing production: production costs are high mainly
because average yields are low. Fruit processing costs are
also high in Belize: this is partly because the factory does not
have the volumes of fruit it needs to achieve maximum
efficiency. Both grower and factory need more fruit to
reduce costs and increase profits.
This article presents data from the Citrus Research &
Education Institute (Citrus Growers Association) that shows
how growers can reduce costs (per box) by increasing
production. The data also demonstrates how, if less than
one quarter of citrus growers increase their production to a
relatively modest minimum of 250 boxes (cxs)/acre for
orange (and a similar proportion for grapefruit), the
industry's total production will increase from the current 6.5
million cxs and exceed 10 million.
Continues on page 13
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 1 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Belize's most complete
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The LAND ROVER people in Belize
SALES SERVICE PARTS
Engine Parts for Ford 2.5 Ranger & Chevrolet 610 Diesel
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 2 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Alfredo and Yvonne Villoria from Dem Dats Doin
Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata) has strong fragrant
chartreuse/yellow droopy 3" to 5" flowers which produces an .
aromatic essential oil. The leaves are long, smooth and
glossy. This tall, fast growing tree prefers full or partial sun B \
and the acidic soils of the rainforest.
The exotic sounding name Ylang-ylang is derived from the
Tagalog language of the Philippines meaning "flower of
flowers". It is native to the Philippines and Indonesia and ,
can now be found growing throughout Belize.
The essential oil of ylang-ylang is obtained through steam
distillation of its flowers and is a major ingredient in the
production of most exotic and expensive perfumes. It is used
in aromatherapy and recommended for anxiety, depression, k
insomnia, treating high blood pressure and skin conditions .. t.
Essential oils are part of things we use everyday such as
soap, toothpaste, shampoo, medicine and food (chewing I .
gum, candies, confectioneries). When extracted from fruits, L
flowers and spices, essential oils are as close as one can get
to the good scents of nature.
At Dem Dats Doin about a half dozen trees are growing
throughout the property. The first two trees were planted
from seeds in 1984; three years later it blossomed into a '
profusion of fragrant greenish yellow flowers. These flowers
bloom throughout the year but not as much during the cool
months of Nov/Dec/Jan. At Dem Dats Doin the mature
flower petals are placed between sheets and towels to keep Tourist Inform action
them smelling fresh. The scent is stronger as the flower
dries. The original trees are still producing flowers and
berries and have reached a height of about 6o'. We suggest
you not plant this tree near your house due to its very strong
fragrance which can be very overwhelming especially at
night. Birds consume the pulp surrounding the seeds
leaving the remains to fall to the ground and germinate
many small plants. As a source of income, we export
thousands of seeds annually, wholesale, to one catalog W i
company. The extraction/distillation of Ylang-ylang flowers
to produce perfume for our enjoyment is one of our many trO IC
Great Bird Watching
Procedure simplified... Walk in our Garden tW151
1) Harvest fresh mature flowers. Come check out our Gift Shop Local Speciall
well as Burgel
We're only 2 & 1/2 Miles West Soups, Salad:
2) Pack flower petals into a glass container (with cover) of the Belize Zoo And lots mor
4) Add 3-4 tablespoons of melted animal lard All at very rea
5) Allow lard to absorb fragrance; turned over several times; Mile 31 & 1/4 We have Cab
for several days Mon -Sat 6 a
6) Add one fluid ounce of 100oo% proof rum; shake vigorously esternl Highway Sun7 am-7
7) Process by steam distillation using coiled copper tubing Bellze Phone, 501-822-8014
8) Add a fixative cohune oil. E-mail. anita@cheersrestauran
More information in our ONLINE ANNEX
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 3
Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
FROM THE EDITOR
As we end the year, upbeat agricultural news has continued to
flow, with the GOB and the private sector working together in
harmony as never before. The strongest example of this new
joined effort is the fact that each has realized the need for the other
to move forward in export marketing. Export markets have
developed and expanded, and agriculture seems more in the
limelight here at home.
One of the limiting obstacles agrarians face in Belize is the lack of
affordable capital. Hopes had been for procedures to be in place
already for applications for CDF (CARICOM Development Fund)
monies, as the clock is turning already for phase 1, a 4-year cycle
focusing on 'disadvantaged' countries (Sept 09-Dec 2013). CDF
is still working on how to process loans to the productive sector,
which includes farmers at the forefront. We need to act quickly to
maximize the opportunities available to us. Monies will be
available both as grants (max 400,000USD) and as loans. One of
the liveliest items discussed at the consultation with the private
sector was who would be processing these applications for funds,
which might originate at 3% interest. We are informed that all
favor maintaining the interest as low as possible, and that it will be
Belize addresses: price for 6 issues (one
year, at current rate of publication) is
U.S./Central America/Caribbean: price for 6
issues, as above, is $36.oo(thirty-six)Bz$, or $18. US$
U.K./Europe/South America/Africa: price for 6 issues, as
above is $44.oo(forty-four)Bz$, or $22US$
Other regions, contact us for rates please. Payment should
be sent to Belize Ag Report, PO Box 150, San Ignacio, Cayo,
Belize. Payment should be in BZ$ or International money
Due to postage constraints, only Belize subscribers will
receive inserts (if any), inside the magazine.
IN THE LOOP BELIZE DIRECTORY
A Directory of Ag Assn's, Ag Ngo's, AgriBusinesses, Farms,
snail mail, email, telephone, website, contact persons
look for us January 2010.
CHECK OUR WEBSITE- Some articles in Spanish,
FREE POSTINGS OF PRESS RELEASES, NOTICES &
MORE PAGES ONLINE!!
The Belize Ag Report is an independent bi- monthly agriculture
newsletter. Our purpose is to collect, edit and disseminate
information useful to the Belizean producer, large or small. We
invite opinions on issues, which are not necessarily our own.
Belize Ag neither solicits nor accepts political ads.
consistent for all countries. Current discussions seem to advocate
applications being made directly to CDF in Barbados. Good work
GOB, and let's keep the ball rolling so farmers can apply for and
receive some of this low interest funding early in 2010.
It's time again to think and plan for NATS 2010. With all the
expansions in agriculture, might it better suit the ag community if
the fair was split and farmers have their own NAS, a National
Thank you to the writers, advertisers, and readers who have
contributed to the success of the Belize Ag Report. We highly
value all of you!
Best Wishes for Agricultural Success in the New Year,
Beth Roberson, Editor
Inquiries have been made to us, as to why an ag publication
devotes space for the Belize National Youth Chess
Foundation (BNYCF). Simply put, chess is nutrition for the
brain for Belize's most valuable crop, the next generation of
Belizeans. BNYCF, in our view, is one of the most effective
and valuable programs in the country. Since its founding in
2007, BNYCF now has over 700 students participating in
chess clubs. Improved learning habits and behavior of
students involved in chess clubs is remarkable, say teachers
and parents. The growing list of schools waiting for chess
clubs to be established attests to the success of BNYCF. Two
factors are adversely affecting growth: funds to sponsor the
chess clubs and volunteers to assist in teaching and
monitoring activity. If you are interested in helping BNYCF
contact the director, Ella Anderson,
belizechess(C)cavesbranch.com or visit the BNYCF web site
www.belizechess.org. In each issue we plan to introduce one
of many selfless, enthusiastic volunteers who have
contributed to so much of the success of BNYCF. David
Martinez, from Belize District, is featured in this issue. His
passion for the game and what it taught him drives his
untiring effort to volunteer at chess camps, chess clubs, and
Belize Ag Report, P.O. Box 150, San Ignacio, Cayo,
Belize, Central America
Phone: 663-6777 & 664- 7272
Editor: Beth Roberson
Assistant Editor: John Carr
Technical Manager: Jane Beard
Submissions as follows:
Letters to the Editor: firstname.lastname@example.org
Deadline date-15th of month prior to printing
Printed by BRC Printing, Benque Viejo, Cayo, Belize
Circulation: 2,500 Printed Copies & Approx. 8,000
Visitors per month
Distributed in Belize; Peten, Guatemala & So. Mexico
Find printed copies at our advertisers businesses and at
Ministry of Agriculture offices countrywide.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 4 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Farm Neighbors in Action
A very heartwarming experience was carried out at Kitty
Bank near Saturday Creek recently. The Ben Penner family
of Spanish Lookout has been going through some very heavy
medical pressure the last couple of years. One member is
fighting renal failure and the expense has been enormous for
dialysis and other medical costs both local and foreign.
A local church pastor got an idea of volunteer support and
Harvest Day happened at Kitty Bank. Thirteen John Deer
combines varying from 6020's, 7720's and 9500's gathered
to harvest 200 acres of corn in six hours.
This Pioneer variety of 3oF35 yielded right at 6ooo
pounds per acre (an above average yield). Truckers and
grain haulers brought their equipment to the field and
delivered the 22% moisture corn to the Spanish Look Out
dryers. The dryer folks worked at a discount. In the end, the
harvest project that would have taken several days and
several thousands of dollars was all minimized by a good
One of the contributors stated that what would be
considered work, turned out to be an exciting experience
that resulted in tears and swollen hearts. In this time of
economic chaos and a great deal of negativism, this Harvest
Day demonstrated love and neighbors helping neighbors in a
true spirit of giving.
By John Carr
Banana Bank Ranch
76 Western Highway, Santa Elena Town, Cayo District, Belize
Let us help you find that perfect piece of Paradise Today!
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Visit us today to Buy or Sell all your Belize Real Estate
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E Rmail: circlerproducLs@homrail.com
^' Mailing: P.O. Box 2,. Orange Walk District
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 5 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
By Greg Clark
How to Raise Whiteflies and Nitrogen
If I wrote this article on how to raise Whiteflies, the article
would be very short, so I will be more long winded with the
ways to combat the Whitefly. Whiteflies are a continuous
threat to the crops of Belize, especially vegetable production.
The fly is most damaging to the vegetables due to being a
carrier host of viruses. When a fly bites an infected plant, and
then moves on to bite a healthy plant, the virus is introduced.
The Tomato Yellow Leaf-Curl Begomovirus is one of the
prevalent issues with growing Tomatoes in Belize. The fly
began to develop immunity to most commercial insecticides
in the 1980's, and has required a broad spectrum approach to
combating the pest. Millions of dollars are being spent for
shelters, and increased insecticide use to make cocktails of
chemicals, to combat the fly. In the organic process, there are
plants that, if made into a spray, will assist in the fight against
the fly. The extracts from the Stinging Nettle has shown
promising results when applied as a spray. The spray should
be applied every two weeks. The other extracts are Neem Oil
and Garlic Oil. The Garlic is mostly used as a deterrent.
The next item I would like to cover is the cost and
application of Nitrogen. Due to the ever-increasing cost of
Nitrogen, we are seeking other methods to reduce the cost per
acre of addition. In working with the USDA in the United
States, we are testing a new crop for nitrogen introduction as
a cover crop. The test crop is Sunn Hemp and will fix 200lbs
of nitrogen per acre in 60 days. A research scientist in Hawaii
has been conducting testing on the plant for many years. It is
a legume and also produces long fibers. In the US, the plant
is sought to be used after a cotton crop to give the free
nitrogen back to the soils. In Belize, the plant can be used
after Corn or Sugarcane to provide the nitrogen for the next
crop. After 60 days of growth the plant is cut into the soil to
provide the nitrogen and organic material. As the crop
progresses, we will keep you informed of the viability for
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Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
mIF a mot
P. 0. Box 248
# 3 Shopping Unit
Belize, C. A.
The Sunshines... Continues from page 1
In general terms the conditions are in place to have a
successful agriculture sector. However, some requirements
should be completed and one of the most important is that
the farmers of the different sub-sectors need to work
together as a real team. The private sector plays the main
role in the development of agriculture, and they need to
learn to assume their own risks and not always wait for
Government funds. The world with globalization changed
the rules for agriculture and farmers need to manage their
land and production as a business enterprise.
As it was said before the livestock sector of Belize
will start shortly their exportations to Mexico, and
for this reason we will analyze how the beef exports
of Uruguay reached the most important markets.
The meat sector has always been for Uruguay the leading
export sector, and nowadays solid work is being done to
reaffirm the hegemony of the sector by applying projects
and programs in search for the most demanding
certifications concerning international quality.
400 years ago, in July 16o8, Hernandarias defined the
Uruguayan territory as one of great use for farming and
cattle rearing, owing to the excellent quality of its land.
Ever since that moment, the origin of cattle raising the meat
has been the country's main economic resource. 400 years
later this product is accompanied by all the information
allowing it to tell its own history, from nature to consumer.
Meat production in Uruguay is supported by the ability and
expertise of all links of the agro-industrial chain, as well as
by the Institutions that ensure animal health, meat safety
and the commercial quality required by customers.
Uruguay has had a traceability system for over 30 years and
more recently, it has implemented individual traceability
mechanisms that make it possible to trace animals from
their origin up to slaughter plants.
At processing plants, by combining the information
provided by the double ear-tag with the electronic
information system for the beef industry, it is possible to
identify each beef cut and the animal that it came from. The
combination of both systems turns Uruguay into the only
country in the world capable to have records of its entire
cattle herd, and of all its beef exports. This, whose main
strength is to offer guarantees as to cattle health controls
and meat safety, also allows the country to ensure the chain
of custody, meaning it is possible to know about changes in
ownership of products during production, transport,
processing, storage and trade, i.e. from calfs birth to the
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com
Uruguay ranks second worldwide in beef consumption per
capital with 53 kg. per person per year. It produces about 6oo
thousand tons of beef a year. 150 thousand tons are consumed
in the domestic market, and 450 thousand tons are exported.
In 2008, nearly 1.5 million head were sent to the abattoirs and
the average price paid to farmers was US$ 2.25 kg. Uruguay
exports beef to over loo countries, however 80 percent of the
volume goes to United States, Mexico, Canada, European
Union, Russia and Brazil.
Accessing the most demanding markets requires a lot of work
in safety measures. Therefore, meat certification allows
Uruguay to ensure that products obtained throughout a series
of stages are under control. Certification allows processing
plants to meet specific commercial requirements from
From the beginning, certifications have been issued for final
products. Towards this end, for 30 years Uruguay has been
guaranteeing a minimum level of commercial quality for all its
meat exports through the official certification of quality
control. Product certification requirements are becoming
more and more demanding as to the industrialization process
itself, which made the traceability system, both for cattle and
beef, and indispensable tool to grant these kinds of
The highest consumption of beef in the domestic market
makes the monitoring fundamental to help establishing a
public policy that ensures access to animal protein for the
greatest number of people.
After this brief overview of the meat sector in Uruguay, the
question is if Belize is ready to export live cattle to Mexico.
The reply is YES, once the requirements of the Mexican
authorities are fulfilled. This won't take long as by the end of
this year Belize will have implemented their National
Livestock Registry, the first step of the traceability system and
a sweep of the livestock at national level will take place in the
following months to put ear-tags and ensure the health
conditions of the herds.
Taking into consideration the current situation, bright
prospects for the future of the agriculture sector in Belize are
Note: Dr. Rodriguez Marquez is the Country Representative
of IICA, ( Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on
Agriculture), one of the main agriculture NGO's in Belize.
7 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
ification in Belize
TAIWAN Mitylene Bailey
Rice is the second most important cereal grain for majority of
the world's population and is cultivated primarily in the
tropics and subtropics. It is also hypoallergenic and versatile
because of the relatively mild flavor. As the world population
increases it creates a demand on basic foodstuffs such as rice.
Since the rice stocks are being depleted faster than it can be
replenished the cost of rice has been on a sharp incline since
2007 as dictates the command of supply and demand (FAO).
The Government of Belize is armed with the purpose of
increasing food security in Belize and is currently sustained in
A quality rice seed is the basis of productive rice plants which
can not only satisfy the country's need for this basic food crop
and improve food security but provide a means of foreign
exchange. Before the advent of mechanized farming and
superior techniques, the Milpa System prevailed among the
indigenous Maya people. According to Mr Manuel Trujillo,
National Crops Coordinator at Central Farm, Cayo, this system
of rice planting was first introduced to the Maya by the British
through the Toledo Rural Development Program (TRDP) to
supplement and diversify the corn based diet. While this
system is the oldest practice in Belize it is by far the least
productive approximating about 1,500 pounds per acre.
More quantifying practices such as the Upland Mechanized
technique for higher land elevations used in Blue Creek in the
north and Spanish Lookout which utilizes the power of
advanced machinery and rainfall to produce 4000 to 6ooo
pounds of rice per acre. There is also Lowland Mechanized
technique for lower, naturally inundated areas, which presents
the same yields as the Upland Mechanized technique. This is
mostly practiced in Toledo the largest area for commercial rice
production. These systems depend on the natural cycle of the
wet and dry season for planting and harvesting and it is for
this reason there are limited crops per year. Conversely, there
is the Irrigated Mechanized System which uses a water source
rather than the chance of rain to irrigate the fields and is by far
the most fruitful with up to two (2) crops per year. This system
allows continuous production throughout the year and is
practiced in large scale areas such as Poppy Show farm
producing about 4000 pounds of rice per acre as well as the
experimental acreages in Central Farm while areas further
north experience similar yields.
Objectives of ROC in Rice Seed Production
The Republic of China Taiwan Technical Mission (ROC TTM)
has provided Belize with various assistant services. The
objectives and purposes for rice seed production are outlined
1. Assist the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) to
provide rice seeds and thereby solve the reduced rice
seed availability in the Toledo District. Also, the Mission
intends to expand acreage and increase production of
quality seeds to provide enough food for the country and
stabilize the price of rice.
__ Rice Pur
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 8 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
2. Assist MAF to establish the rice seed production as well
as provide training for 12 technicians to aid in the rice
3. To introduce and guide the irrigation system and
management. This will be most beneficial to farmers
since they will have two (2) crops per year and the
increased opportunities for good yield and quality rice
seeds at an affordable cost.
4. Support MAF in Central Farm to produce small quantity
of quality stock seeds for multiplication in Poppy Show
for use as commercial seeds.
5. Contribute to the production of upwards of loo,ooo
pounds of quality rice seeds to the farmers of Toledo in
6. Expand the commercial seed production annually to
940,000 pounds to supply to the entire country from the
Blue Creek (Toledo) area.
7. Guide MAF in the organization of the "Rice Production
Association" and set up seed production with an eclectic
group of farmers (~30o%) for stock seed production only
while the other 70% focus of rice for food production.
The aim is to expand acreage yearly to 500 acres of
prime land in Blue Creek (Toledo) with the use of high
8. Purification of rice varieties for the stabilization of
quality and quantity in Central Farm.
Rice Seed Purification Procedure.
For the purpose of purifying a variety, more than a
hundred rice plants are first selected from an impure variety for
desirable traits (Picture 1,8) such as: height, disease and pest
resistance, drought tolerance higher yield and genetic stability.
These plants are harvested singly and are each collected in
separate paper bags, labeled and sealed. Later the rice seeds are
threshed by hand with great care to keep seeds from another
plant from mixing. The seeds from each plant are then
transferred to separate zip-top plastic bags and punctured with
tiny holes to allow water to pass through. These bags are soaked
overnight to induce germination. (Picture 2) The seeds are then
drained and left covered for another day. Each bag is then
planted in a tray with soil media composition one parts each of
sand, peat moss and sandy loam, in single lines. (Picture 3)
Insecticide is used to control insects and small rodents while the
young seedlings develop. After ten days urea is applied for
fertilization before transplanting in the fields. When the
seedlings are about 15 to 21 days old they are transplanted in the
field by single lines one foot apart from each other in both
rows and column. (Picture 4) Here they are observed for any
differences; single plants may be removed at any point in the life
cycle of the rice: Seedling, flowering, milk and mature
stages. (Picture 3,6,7,9)The even or like plants are collected at
harvest time and are mixed together to either run another
experiment to further purify the variety or for use as stock seeds
for multiplication. This is a very important process which is
performed periodically to keep the variety stable with uniform
height constant yield, continued pest and drought resistance.
(Find Photos in Online Annex) Continues on pagel8
Non-Chemical Mosquito Control
Ed Boles, Aquatic Ecologist
Mosquitoes and the diseases they carry, such as malaria
and dengue fever, are a serious concern in Belize. The wet
season is particularly troublesome when mosquito breeding
sites are far more abundant. When mosquito biting rates
and incidents of diseases are high, spray trucks belch out
plumes of malathion and other insecticides over the urban
landscape. Sometimes this strategy may be effective, but
many other insects, including mosquito predators and honey
bees, are also killed by these chemicals. Besides that, people
throughout towns and villages where spraying is conducted
are exposed to pesticides and that can impose health
consequences. However, there is an alternative first choice
control strategy that involves targeting mosquito larvae and
does not rely on chemicals.
Non-chemical mosquito control strategies offer several
advantages to spraying chemicals. The larvae or wigglerss'
are the target, killing mosquitoes before they turn into adults
and become a problem. Non-chemical methods are much
cheaper that chemical control tactics. Interested local
youths can be trained and employed on a part-time basis as
mosquito control technicians within their respective
communities. This approach helps to reduce the use of
chemicals, thus reducing exposure of the people and
ecosystems to proven carcinogens while saving money.
This also minimizes exposure of mosquito predators
(dragonflies, damselflies) and pollinators (bees, flower flies,
moths, butterflies) to pesticides. Eliminating routine use of
chemicals reduces the chance of pesticide-resistance build-
ing up in mosquito populations. This helps to ensure that
those chemicals will be effective during emergency outbreaks
of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases.
Effective non-chemical mosquito control strategies are
based on an understanding of the biology and ecology of
local mosquito populations and other organisms sharing
their habitats. Different species of mosquitoes have different
breeding habitat requirements, flight ranges, behavior
patterns and disease vector potential, thus requiring
different control strategies. The first job is to cleanup the
neighborhood, encouraging people to remove old drums,
bottles, cans and appliances from their yards to the roadside.
A good neighborhood cleanup can remove most of the Yellow
Fever Mosquito breeding sites, the same mosquito that
carries Dengue Fever.
The next job is to walk through the neighborhood, covering
all streets, vacant lots, parks, school yards and drainage sys-
tems and map out all standing water areas found. Each wa-
ter body is sampled with a long handled dipper or a kitchen
ladle and examined for mosquito larvae. All clogged drains
are cleared of trash and sediment and allowed to flow. Leaky
septic tanks and poorly constructed out houses that contami-
nate local water bodies create ideal sites for Southern House
Mosquitoes. These areas should be addressed and sewage
pollution issues corrected.
Permanent water areas that are growing mosquitoes and
have no fish are stocked with mosquito fishes and mollies
from nearby water bodies, where these fishes usually occur
Low areas that hold water in the wet season and other tem-
porary water bodies where mosquitoes are growing can be
treated with a commercially available formulation of a bacte-
ria (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) that specifically kills
mosquito larvae but does not harm mosquito predators. All
water areas where mosquitoes are found growing are rou-
tinely checked (every one to two weeks) and treated when
mosquito larvae are found. One gallon of the liquid bacteria
formulation will often last a small community for a season
and is much cheaper than conventional pesticides.
Mosquito control is not a one time effort, but must become a
continual service, from season to season and year to year.
One of the most important elements of a successful non-
chemical mosquito control effort is educational outreach and
public support. Outreach to local schools is offers a way to
connect with the larger community. Mosquito awareness
activities provide an avenue to introduce applied concepts of
biology and ecology into classrooms. Besides that, future
mosquito control technicians may be discovered during out-
reach efforts. Involvement of informed and active local com-
munity members of all age groups is essential to creating a
successful long-term control program.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 9 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
ASK RUBBER BOOTS Corn Production Considerations
I have a helpful hint for your readers. A couple of months ago
I received a really bad bum on my leg. I used man-made
remedies to try to heal it, but it was taking a long time for it to
heal. My friend told me to try unrefined honey, which I did.
Once I started using the honey it was incredible how fast it
works. Just spreading over the wound every day you will see
Bullet Tree Falls
Honey has many marvelous qualities besides its tantalizing
taste. Bacteria cannot live in its high concentrated sugar, and,
because it is hygroscopic, it draws liquid out of the wound (so
the infection moves out of, and not deeper into the flesh.
Thought you might enjoy reading and also for the Ag Report
Mariam Roberson, San Ingacio Resort Hotel
Attached article from economist.corn, "IF WORDS WERE
FOOD NOBODY WOULD GO HUNGRY" NOV. 19th, 2009
Find article in our ONLINE ANNEX
Belize is a great place to grow corn. The temperatures
are 80 degrees or higher every day and we get 80 to
90 inches of annual rainfall. Our acres are increasing
and through better farming practices and more
adaptable genetics, our yields are increasing. Most
corn farmers feel that we can double our production to
2,000,000 bags in maybe 5 years if:
1. We can export.
2. We can find credit at some side of 8%.
3. We get some tax break on fuels and other
inputs. (Cane farmers get a fuel tax break-
Why not us?)
4. We have an abundance of black clays and
minimum amounts of brown sandy loams.
Farmers have to learn to like and deal with
black clay soils, even if it means planting only
once a year.
By getting the GOB and other stakeholders on board,
this train will take us on an exciting ride.
By John Carr
Banana Bank Ranch
For more on corn cost see article on page 26
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Box 581, Spanish Lookout, Belize
Tel: 823-0131 Fax: 823-0270
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 10 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
ASK RUBBER BOOTS
Corn Production Considerations
BRAKE, C %
LUBE, etc. M Cf
PARTS & SERVICE
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 11
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nl.i fr. c.,,.. ifr.
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* Efrlcr~nh \'cwr Nfor\Vddtin, Phnuu Lnp] andtuiifl I'erru
Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
BEYOND THE BACKYARD
CULANTRO; A GARDEN ESSENTIAL
BY JENNY WILDMAN
Having a lime tree in the yard is very very necessary,
especially if you like to make ceviche. Another ingredient you
will need is cilantro unless you have the wondrous cilantro
readily available. So many times when I mention this people
say what is that !" Those who do know may be under the
impression it is the poor man R cilantro The appearance of
the two plants is quite different but the aroma is similar ,a
bit more pungent and can be used as a substitute.
With the influx of ethnic groups introducing their native
tastes CULANTRO is becoming widely popular in North
America and Europe. Even chefs of the Food Network have
this included this in their recipes. It is a good export crop for
Trinidad and Puerto Rico. Even for home use we should
grow more. Culantro or ERYNGIUM FOETIDUM
(translation stinking sea holly!!) is a member of the same
family as parsley carrots and celery, a biennial or short
lived perennial. Owing to its curative properties it is also
called FITWEED plus ngo gai, alcanate, recao, herbe a fer ,
and Mexican coriander in other parts.
It grows well in moist sandy loam and shaded areas
throughout the tropics, Caribbean Islands and Asia.
Supposedly indigenous to this area, it must have been very
popular with the ancient Maya as it is often found growing at
the foot of temples Perhaps they kept it close in case of
emergency. Apart from being a delicious accent to any dish
its uses are:
TEA for FLU..............(with swine, equine, avian et al ,we
most certainly could use this)
CALMING OF FEVERS MALARIA AND PNEUMONIA
TONIC FOR DIABETES
RELIEF OF CONSTIPATION
and eating ground root is good for SCORPION STINGS
As a dietary supplement it is rich in calcium ,carotene, iron
and riboflavin. When growing you may want to add nitrogen,
a bit of your chicken manure and such to promote its leaf
growth but it is relatively disease free. In fact if you plant it
around your vegetable garden it may keep away little pests
such as aphids.
Give it some space plant 6 inches apart Its germination
time is about 3 weeks but after it flowers the leaves get tough
so for home use stagger the planting a few per week so as not
to get everything at one time.
Use it in salsas, sambals, ceviches, seasoning for soup, beans
and meat dishes Make SOFRITO which is a bit like pesto
and is used in the same fashion for pasta or stir fry or like a
chutney. Very easy just blend garlic, chopped onion, green
pepper, mild pepper, cilantro and culantro put in a clean jar
and it will keep well for months That 19 the green version
but if you prefer the red add chopped tomatoes .
So get growing and experimenting and please send any
comments or your favourite Culantro recipes to the editor or
11 .- 2>Ci
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 12 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Notice to Readers of
the Printed Issues:
Please thank the Belize Ag Report
advertiser, in whose business you found
Their ads are what make this all possible.
Citrus- Continues from page 1
This is the amount that the processing factory, Citrus
Products of Belize Ltd., says it needs,
As orange production per acre increase, costs of
production fall and profits increase.
Orange~~~~ *rdc osto r- Pof
175 cxs/acre $6.34 $373
275 cxs/acre $5.27 $880
375 cxs/acre $5.72 $1,030
cxs: abbreviation for 90 Ib box
including costs of harvesting and haulage
2Based on current price of $8.47 / cx
Dec 2009 figures in Bz$
in order to maximize the efficiency of its operations. The
article ends by providing some tips to growers on the
things they should consider doing in their groves to
The table below presents figures that were collected by a
group of Belizean citrus agronomists and growers and
compares the costs of production and the expected profit
at four farms with levels of orange production that range
Current orange cxs/acre production in Belize vary greatly from
grower to grower U. If growers follow simple steps to increase
production to a minimum of 250 cxs/acre orange production would
increase by at least 3.5 m cxs @.
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E;ch Lar i'aprsoni sonQ owa,-r with rthr tImhn S. acts
from low to high.
At the lower levels of production, such as 175 exs/ acre,
cost of production is around $6.34/cx. With the current
prices for orange, which are fairly good, a profit of $373 /
acre could be expected at this low level of production.
By increasing production to 375 cxs/acre, however, the
cost of production per box falls to $5.72 and profits
increase substantially to just over $1,ooo/acre. Readers
will notice that there is a slight increase in costs of
production from 275 to 375 cxs/acre. This is because of
increased harvesting costs (due to increased production)
and increased levels of fertilizer application in this range of
production, but profits per acre can still be seen to have
increased substantially. At low levels of production,
harvesters will charge more for harvesting fruit (it takes
longer to find enough fruit to fill a bag) and weed control
costs tend to remain constant for each acre (weeds grow at
the same rate regardless of the amount of fruit on the tree).
This is why at low levels of production; costs per box are
relatively high but become lower as production rates
increase, followed closely by profits!
So, how do these production levels relate to production on
an industry scale? Each black bar on the graph (right)
represents the current production (0) for each of the 121
growers (there were 467 growers who delivered citrus to
the factory in 2008) that have more than 50 acres of
orange grove. The reader will see that there is one grower
producing an average of just over 450 cxs/acre, a small
number of grower's producing above 250 cxs/acre but that
a significant number of growers are producing less than
150 cxs/acre. The grey bars ( ) represent the potential
increase in production if each of these growers could
produce at least 250 cxs/acre. If this could be achieved
this would increase orange production from the current
5.0 million boxes to over 8.5 million boxes. If similar
increases can be achieved for grapefruit the 10 million box
target will be exceeded.
How should growers go about increasing production? In
January 2008, CREI Extension staff conducted a survey
amongst 45 small, medium and large-scale citrus growers
to find out what their farm practices were and to relate
those practices to levels of production in their groves. The
survey showed that those growers who have the highest
citrus production levels, as would be expected, apply lime
if their groves are on acid soils (to adjust the pH of their
soils to 6.0), apply granular fertilizer in split applications
three time a year, apply higher amounts of fertilizer than
those with low production and regularly implement
programmes to control the fungus Phytophthora, and to
control wee wee (leaf cutting) ants. These findings might
not be surprising to many but just underline the point that
regular inputs at the correct quantities are required if
farmers are to maintain high yields.
The box on the right summarizes some of the tips that
growers should follow for maximizing citrus production.
If citrus is grown on acid soils it is important that the soil
pH is adjusted to 6.o.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 13
Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Light Rein #3
Scenario: You are focusing intently on something, maybe
enjoying something tasty, and then your spouse/friend
pokes you in the ribs. Reactions: You may ignore them, react
by moving over a little, or possibly overreact and jump
sideways or get angry. But if you did not know what the poke
was for, you may not react in the manner your spouse/friend
was hoping for and maybe even make that person respond
back in a poor manner as well.
Now, if your spouse/friend poked your ribs EVERY time, in
the same manner, when she did want you to move over, you
would figure it out and eventually just do it without any
hassle. It would just become a routine thing, and unless you
are extremely dense, the pokes could get lighter and lighter
and you would possibly even sense when they were coming
due to the spouses/friend movement. But, the key here is
that it was consistent, routine behavior asked in the same
manner, every time. Hence forth, it became second nature.
Ya got it!
Now some of us may be more stubborn in nature and we
may have to ask our spouse to modify the procedure of his/
her asking a little, or he/she may just have to push the issue
a little harder to get the point across, but within a mild
moderation, the consistency and repetition will get through.
Generality: A horse moves away from pressure. Honestly, a
lot of horses push into pressure. That's what I referred to in
the last article about being squashed. If you have ever
'pushed' a horse over in a stall or horse trailer, only to have
them flatten you against a wall, you know what I mean.
A 'poke' is usually a more defining point. My thumb in your
ribs gets a better response then my flat palm, or my shoulder
into your shoulder. A 'dead' push, or a 'dead' pull usually
gets you very little response. (My idea of a dead push/pull is
to just put weight into a flat hand, hip or shoulder as you
lean in to a horse, or just hang on a lead rope or rein.) But a
bump-bump, or poke-poke, maybe several repeats, will cause
a reaction. Of course, there is always that "HAPPY
MEDIUM"!!! What's too much, what's not enough? That will
depend on your horse and your personality.
Remember, try to start out soft and light, you can always get
stronger. Once a horse has gotten the general command,
then every time I ask it, to reinforce, I usually go for a three
to four count in triples. I ask soft... soft...soft, hmmm...
Trigger had it yesterday. Ok I'll ask again, a tad firmer...
firmer... firmer, okay, Trigger has had a memory lapse... ask
a little stronger yet, maybe hold the ask a little, but not a
dead weight, oh, there it is! Now reward and don't make the
memory lapse an issue. Start the procedure again and see if
ol' Trigger's memory is a little quicker now. As for a reward,
that can be as simple as just stop asking, or a verbal "good
boy," to a verbal and a pat on the neck. If the horse responds
on the first or second ask, great, do it one more time, then
Know when to stop as well. If you have gotten the correct
response three times, fabulous, go onto the next project. If
you ask later in the session and Trigger says "NO", be ready
to start over. Don't ever end with the horse winning. But that
certainly does not mean 'demand the correct response at all
costs, it means back to square one and repeat it till it is there,
and that my friend can be time-consuming and frustrating.
As a result, sometimes small victories can be great! Keep in
mind, horses can get very bored with training.
There will also be times when an hour and half, a lot of sweat
(both you and Trigger) and some down right arguing, will
take place. That's ok. Just settle for a small victory and go
back to it later. There will be days when you can expect it to
be hard to give yourself enough time, enough daylight, to
really get the training done. Then other days will seem like a
gift. It is all a 'HAPPY MEDIUM'. If your asking for several
days has still not accomplished the desired response, you
may need to look at the physical aspect of the response. Can
Trigger actually do it? Or is there something physical
preventing him from the 'good boy' he would normally be.
And that is a whole other topic.
Enjoy the ride, be safe and Happy Holidays to all! Marjie
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 14 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
An Introduction to the Belize Agro-
productive Sector Group
The Belize Agro-productive Sector Group (BASGroup)
commenced operation in October 2005 as a private sector
non-profit entity with its central mandate of advocating the
consensus interests of its members. It is however, a
successor to a previous quasi-government entity called the
Belize Commodities Secretariat which was established in
January 2000. The Commodities Secretariat was housed
within the Ministry responsible for the Citrus and Banana
Industries at the time. These two industries and the
Government of Belize each contributed equally to its budget.
The Commodities Secretariat was established with an initial
mandate to assist with the reform of the citrus and banana
industries by facilitating stakeholder dialogue, trade
negotiation and domestic policy formulation. The sugar
industry, specifically Belize Sugar Industries (BSI),
requested and was granted membership shortly after and the
mandate was expanded to include sugar. The Commodities
Secretariat functioned very well for a few years with its
involvement in some key reform initiatives such as the
revised sugar industry legislation; the buy-over of citrus
processing by the growers and fighting the never ending
banana war in the WTO. However, the constant shifting of
portfolio responsibilities in government and related
unpredictability led to diminished interest in the
Commodities Secretariat. The private sector partners then
decided to expand their base and co-opted the mixed
farming Mennonite Communities and took the initiative to
fully privatized by forming BASGroup.
We often hear of the potential for agriculture and indeed we
have some very good success stories. However, agriculture's
(including fisheries and forestry) contribution to the total
national output is declining and this is due to three major
factors. Firstly, other sectors have experienced greater
growth such as tourism and now oil. Agriculture is now a
Open daily 6am 10pm
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smaller portion of a bigger pie. Secondly, no new major crop
or "agriculture industry" has taken hold over that last two
decades except papayas, which experienced significant
growth (shrimp had both its boom and bust in this period).
Thirdly, the traditional export crops are facing increased
competition in their once near exclusive and price
preferential markets. While bananas experienced a
tremendous increase in productivity and efficiencies, the
price decrease eroded most of these gains. In short,
agriculture must run twice as fast just to keep up the pace!
How do we ensure that agriculture and its related industries
remain viable in the long-term? Addressing this question is
the underlying purpose of BASGroup!
BASGroup Secretariat acts as a focal point for members to
discuss issues of mutual concern and provide consensus
action such as: identifying and using synergies at the
enterprise level; identifying market opportunities;
formulating policy suggestions for a better business
environment and maintaining constructive dialogue with
government and other stakeholders. Through this
coordinated approach we have influenced change such as a
reduced tax on land for the agro-productive sector and
significant concession on GST waivers for agriculture. The
work is far from complete!
A fundamental problem affecting the agriculture/food sector
in Belize is the absence of a comprehensive policy and
development plan for the sector that forms a consensus from
which all stakeholders including government will act. This is
nothing new, it has been this way long before Independence.
However if the sector is to remain viable and expand, this
must change. In addition to the usual agronomic issues, a
comprehensive agriculture/food policy should include detailed
pronouncements on investment, financing, taxation,
importation regime, export regime among many others while
addressing the peculiarities of both small and large farmer/
BASGroup Continues to page 18
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 15 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 16 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
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Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
BASGroup Continues from page 15
Contradiction in government policy is also nothing new and
quite frankly it is inevitable in trying to steer the ship of state
in a constantly changing world. However, allowing the
contradictions to fester usually causes uncertainty which in
turn undermines confidence and deter investments. A good
example is the contradiction between the noble policy
objective of reducing the cost of food locally and our
investment and tax policy. Many food products for export are
produced within Export Processing Zones (EPZ) which are
defacto tax free environments. This reduces the cost of the
food exported and in many cases is required to keep the
operation "competitive". On the other hand, food produced for
local consumption bears the full tax burden of all the taxes on
inputs and post production taxes. If we want cheaper food
locally, should we not extend the same treatment that we are
prepared to offer the food we export? This will also help level
the playing field between large and small operators in Belize.
Unlike manufacturing or the mercantile sector, agriculture
carries a higher risk because of the potential for losses
throughout the cycle from planting to post harvest handling.
Why then is agriculture taxed like other sectors? Agriculture
inputs are taxed while it may all end up down the river in a
flood or dried up in the sun. These are losses that you can't
recover while you must still pay your bank loans at a high
interest rate. Should we then as a policy begin to tax
agriculture at the point of production and sale? Please note we
are not suggesting avoiding payment of taxes, we believe it is
just fair that you pay taxes based on profit, not losses.
These are but only two of the bottlenecks we believe must be
addressed if we seriously want to see agriculture proposer in
Belize. We have used this opportunity to introduce BASGroup
but also to hopefully spur debate. We therefore want to cast a
wider net to solicit your views on the core issues you believe
are bottlenecks to the development of agriculture in Belize and
some possible solutions.
Please contact us with your comments and questions at:
Belize Agro-productive Sector Group
B. E. S. T. Building, 54 Hummingbird Highway, Belmopan.
Tel 822-2901 or email email@example.com
We wish you the very best for this New Year!
Contributed by Jose Alpuche, CEO BASGroup.
Rice-Continues from page 8
Purified seeds are known as breeder seeds and are the best
quality and are kept in Central Farm. These are in very small
amounts and are used to maintain the characteristics of the
variety. The stock seeds are sent to Poppy Show in Toledo for
multiplication. These large quantities, upwards of loo100,000ooo
pounds are the made available to rice producers who plant these
seeds for food provision.
At Central Farm, Cayo District Rice Seed production operated
by myself and supervised by Mr Frank Lin of the Taiwan
Technical Mission seeks to provide quality rice seeds by the
purification of the previously developed rice variety, CARDI-70.
This project is also collaborated with the Central Farm Research
and Development Center.
Mr. Anil Sinha, representative of the Caribbean Agricultural
Research and Development Institute (CARDI) in Belize recalls
the inception of the CARDI-70 variety. Over 1200 lines were
brought in from Colombia, Brazil and the United States of which
only 34 were selected. Further selection turned out 5 more lines
and in 1988 the CARDI-70 variety was born. This variety was
chosen according to the Breeding Objectives outlined by
Poehlman in "Breeding Field Crops" (p359) which includes
grain quality, insect and disease resistance, drought resistance
and high yield potential.
The Taiwan Technical Mission has extended this project to
the farmers in the Toledo District. Most farmers in Toledo chose
the CARDI-70 variety to plant for these selected qualities. These
rice plants respond well to the environmental condition and are
economically feasible in reference to required amount of
fertilizers and pesticides. The CARDI-70o has been also well
adapted to the growers in the north.
The Future of Rice in Belize.
Since 1991 the Republic of China (ROC) Taiwan Technical
Mission (TTM) in Belize has produced commercial rice seeds for
farmers of the Toledo District using the irrigated mechanized
system. With this practice two crops can be harvested for the
year and this result in more seed production which is effective
and highly profitable. This commercial rice seed production
project is being done at the Toledo Agriculture Station in the
Poppy Show area.
Continues on page 27
Saving local seeds for
BelIzean food security
(among many other
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Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com
19 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Oil Palms: Potential Problems and Opportunity
by Heather duPlooy
Oil palms are of the genus Elaeis which contains two species,
one from Africa, E. guieensis and one from the Americas, E.
oleifera. Both are very similar oil-bearing palms, but the
African variety, E. guieensis, is widely cultivated around the
world's tropics as a commercial crop and ornamental. The E.
oleifera which is native to Central and South America can be
used for oil production, but is not as popularly cultivated.
Both species of oil palms are very attractive, they have a wide
feathery canopy and a trunk that is thick with persistent leaf
bases. The main differences are that the leaves of the
American oil palm are arranged regularly, spreading on the
same plane and while the young part of the trunk will be
upright, the older trunk can be found to grow along the
ground. In the African oil palm you will find the leaves
spreading on different planes and the trunk remains upright.
The African oil palm can be seen around Belize grown in
home and business gardens as ornamental palm. Although a
popular landscape palm in other parts of the world as well, its
predominant use, as the name suggests, is for the extraction
of oil. Currently the top palm oil producers are Malaysia and
The palm produces densely packed clusters of fruit from
which comestible and combustible oil can be extracted. This
oil is widely used around the world. Palm oil is an ingredient
in a wide variety of foods and products ranging from soaps
and cosmetics to margarine, baked good and a host of other
products. It may be listed as palm oil, dende oil or just
vegetable oil on product ingredient information.
One factor for its rising popularity is consumer desire to
eliminate harmful trans fats which come from hydrogenated
vegetable oils to solidify them. Because palm oil is high in
saturated fat and it is therefore semi-solid at room
temperature and does not need to be hydrogenated.
The oil of the African oil palm, as other vegetable oils, can
also be used as biodiesel. As the world looks for ways to
reduce carbon emissions the quest for clean burning,
renewable sources of fuel palm oil has emerged as a big
The following is an excerpt from a 2007 article on
mongabay.com by R. A. Butler that illustrates the fantastic
opportunity to be found in African oil palms:
...a single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of
crude oil, or nearly 6,ooo litres of crude oil that can be used
in biodiesel production. At $400 per metric ton, or about
$54 per barrel, palm oil is competitive with conventional oil.
Though Butler mentions that these prices should drop as
palm oil becomes more abundant it still offers a high yield,
low maintenance crop.
the Earth, is a good idea. Crops like physic nut (Jatropha
curcas) and African oil palms get extra points for
sustainability when they are grown on previously cleared non
In other words land that is not needed for food production,
which is one of the main arguments against crops, such as
corn, being used for this purpose. With so many people to
feed, we should not waste fertile soil burning what can be
Many people choose and many countries promote palm oil in
the global effort to reduce carbon emissions, however much
pristine rainforest has been cleared in order to provide land
for palm oil farms. The destruction of the rainforest leaves in
its wake a broken ecosystem that compromises the well-being
of the species that inhabit it and the people that live around
it. Removing rainforest to grow biofuels to reduce carbon
emissions is an irony and a travesty when such habitats are
carbon sinks that reduce carbon emissions and help control
global warming. Such forests have far more value intact than
replanted with any crop, even tree crops.
Below is an ad for a campaign urging people to avoid
products with palm oil or at least unsustainably harvested
DYING FOR A
Some companies such as ASDA have vowed to remove all
unsustainable palm oil from their offered products. In
response there is now a large movement in producer and
consumer countries working to develop international
standards of production and traceability as well as
commitments to grow only sustainable palm oil plantations.
There is a lot of potential in palm oil particularly making use
of marginal land and creating trans fat free food and
biodiesel. As long as a healthy policy is developed to ensure
that we do not duplicate the problems created by this crop in
other countries it could well be an interesting investment.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 20 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Book Review of Guide to the Orchids of Belize
By Roni Martinez
is the new book produced in 2009 by Belize Botanic Gardens
(BBG) in conjunction with the National Botanic Gardens of
Ireland. The authors, Brendan Sayers and Brett Adams,
have spent many years in the field collecting, and countless
hours studying specimens. The convenient size of the book,
specific data, and up-to-date information will quickly make
it a must for the field and office.
The book is dedicated to Ken duPlooy, founder of
BBG, whose passion for orchids laid the groundwork for the
conservation of Belizean flora in contemporary times. To
date, the BBG stands as a foremost source of botanical
information and conservation education.
A brief history of orchid collecting by both Gardens
lets us understand the rich orchid flora Belize holds within
its small borders. Thanks to the mutual efforts, some 30
species of the 312 recorded for Belize, have been new
additions to the orchid list for the country. The anatomy of
orchids is explained in a complete and understandable
manner to a general audience. Topics such as: leaves,
pollination, roots and habitats are all described in ample
paragraphs and simplified language, making it easy to learn
and retain the information. The book contains full color
photographs of over 75 species of native orchids and
abundant information from the common and massive
Myrmecophila tibicinus to the rare and elusive Pleurothallis
duplooyi which has so far been recorded only in Belize. Over
50 genera are covered in depth, but more than triple that
amount of species are cited with vital information such as:
species descriptions, regional and local distribution,
blooming periods, and species pollination.
Homes from $99,000 to $250,OOOUS
Guide to the Orchids of Belize
by Brendon Sayers and Brett Adams
may be purchased at:
duPlooys Resort or at the Belize Botanic Gardens
TEL: 824- 3101
Retail Price $25.oo BZE
Get outta town!
Come tour the garden then
enjoy lunch and a cool swim A
in the river.
To book the shuttle or find
out more just call 824-3101,
boantc garde( it's a
T nauirql wonndir
I nfo~ b.I Iebotunktorg
BelizeAgReport.com 21 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
1131- nSA. UUIJ I j1LJt>.rIj:,u,
i ud i 'fl YJ4I
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S0/D DA F W/ #INr/ I//
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THI 621-Ui .13 F ,3-02j-
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 22 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
David Martinez, a Chess Role Model Volunteer for
Belize National Youth Chess Foundation
David Martinez, a volunteer for the BNYCF in the Belize
District, has been playing chess for 20 years, enthusiastically
supported by his parents as a youngster. At the age of 4, he
was taught the game by his father and by the age 8 had
already participated in the Belize Games 1993, winning his
first gold medal. His dad promoted the game by having a
chess club at their house involving neighborhood kids and
most of Belize City's Elite players who were adults. David's
dad insisted he play against the Elites, saying, "You can
never be a winner if you don't learn to lose." And lose he
did most of the time. But by the age of 11, he was
considered to be one the best for his age, having participated
in international tournaments held in Honduras and Cuba.
In the Belize National Chess Tournament 2005 David
competed against veteran players more than 10 years older
than he, losing only to the national champion for Belize.
When the BNYCF advertised for volunteers for their first
chess camp in 2006, David jumped at the chance to take
youngsters from Belize City and volunteer his time at the
camp. He has been involved with BNYCF ever since: as a
full-time worker until he had to quit to go to college, and
now, as a volunteer. He assisted in conducting workshops
for teachers, volunteers in the community, and BDF soldiers
nationwide, started two chess clubs in Belize City, and now
coaches players and assists at tournaments.
David continues to volunteer his time because he firmly
believes that youngsters and teenagers are the foundation
for a better Belize. His vision is to see the chess spirit revive
in Belize. He has seen first-hand the positive effect that
chess has on youngsters. It is a sport of discipline and focus
which requires analytic thinking. David says that after
learning chess at camp kids who had failed their classes at
school became more focused on their work; those same
kids, after enrolling in the chess club at their school, began
to pass with much better grades. They began to be more
disciplined, pay more attention to the teacher and began
doing home work. Education is the key to acquiring life
skills; chess helps to enrich the learning process.
Why We Need a Seed Bank
by Mark Miller
Plants provide us with food. What might happen if these
plants disappeared? Think of a seed bank as a savings
account. Seeds are "deposited" into the seed bank (a storage
area) with the intention of "withdrawing" them in the future
when they are needed. Just as you might keep money saved
for a future need, we are saving up seeds to use for
replanting not just for the next crop, but also in case certain
crops die out or are destroyed in any given year. If farmers
and gardeners do not have enough seeds to plant, we will
have a shortage of food. Saving seeds in Belize is an
important part of ensuring our Food Security as a nation.
We humans have been doing agriculture, growing plants, for
thousands of years. From the beginning, farmers have
realized that they need to save seeds to ensure next season's
crops. Seed harvesting and saving was an important ritual
in all ancient cultures. These historical seed banks protected
the seeds from animals, pests, disease, and weather
Today, we need to store seeds for similar reasons. We can
get seeds from outside of Belize, but there are several
problems with relying on these foreign sources. Different
varieties of plants grow in different places. Cabbage that
grows well in New York, USA may not grow well in Belize.
The same is true for most other plants. If we run out of the
seeds for the types of plants that grow well here, we may not
be able to grow enough food to feed ourselves.
Disasters and Diseases do not respect national boundaries.
If another country faces the same seed shortage as Belize, we
may not be able to import appropriate seeds to allow us to
It is important for we Belizeans to save seeds, and store
sufficient seeds for the future!
Some seeds, called orthodox seeds, can be saved in a cool,
dry environment. Examples of this are tomatoes, pumpkin,
and pepper. These types of seeds are saved in seed banks.
Other seeds, called recalcitrant seeds, must be continuously
replanted to replenish stocks. An example of this is cacao.
These plants are saved by continuously growing them, also
called in-situ conservation. It is important that these plants
are grown in a number of different places, so they are not all
wiped out by the same disaster or disease. In-situ
conservation is promoted by using a mixed cropping system
of agriculture, and avoiding mono-culture agriculture we
should grow lots of things on our farm, not just one or two
Orthodox seeds are collected from plants when ripe, cleaned,
dried and prepared for storage. In the hot moist climate of
Belize, refrigerated storage provides the lower temperature
and humidity needed for longer life of the seeds. The seeds
need to have some air, but also need to be protected from a
changing environment, so are packaged carefully prior to
refrigeration. The seeds still need to be replenished
The Government of Belize, along with partners, is looking at
seed banks seriously as a means of ensuring our Food
Security. Corn and beans are being saved in the Toledo
District. Mark Miller works with Plenty Belize in Toledo.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 23 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Citrus Continues from page 13
Tips for Maximizing Citrus Production
Know the pH of your grove soil
Apply the required amount of lime to adjust soil pH to 6.0
Get a soil and leaf nutrient test to ensure the correct amounts of
fertilizer are being applied.
Use the following table as a guide to how much granular fertilizer
should be applied based on the current year's yield.
Orange Fetilizer application 1Qbs/yr)
0x3/ acre tree acre
105 2 220
209 4 440
314 6 660
418 8 880
523 10 1,100
627 12 1,320
Assuming 110 trees an acre and use of 18:9:18 fertilizer + trace
element mix (TEM) and adequate levels of nutrients in the soil
and trees. Fertilizer application rates assume that each box of
orange removes 0.4 lb N from the grove. Recommended rates
will of course vary depending on soil type, tree age etc.
Apply granular fertilizer in split applications splitting into three
or even more applications per year will give the best results.
Ensure to apply micronutrients either through foliar fertilizer or
mixed in with granular fertilizer
Probably most importantly be consistent with maintaining the
At low levels of soil pH many nutrients are no longer
available (they become chemically "locked-up" by the soil")
and aluminium becomes soluble in the soil water.
Aluminium is toxic to the tree and inhibits root growth.
Fertilizer application rates should be calculated based on
the fruit for the current year. When fertilizing, growers are
replacing the nutrients removed when the fruit is harvested
and need to apply additional amounts of fertilizer if the soil
or the trees are found to be nutrient deficient. Sandy soils
will likely require higher amounts of fertilizer as the
fertilizer will be more easily washed away (or leached)
during heavy rains. By implementing grove activities that
increase the organic matter of the soil (such as applying
compost or using cover crops) growers can increase the
soil's capacity to hold onto the nutrients that are applied
through fertilizer. A soil and leaf analysis test (available
from CREI) will enable the grower to decide what nutrients
are deficient, the type of soil in their grove and thus enable
them make the right decision about amount and type of
fertilizer that needs to be applied. If a grove is presently
producing o100 cxs / acre, growers should not expect to
increase production the next year just by increasing
fertilizer application rates. Application rates should be
gradually increased year by year as yields are seen to
increase. Growers should also remember that N, P and K
alone, as is provided with the standard 19:9:19 or 22:11:22
fertilizers, will not produce high yielding citrus trees.
Applications of micronutrients will also be required if the
trees are to produce large quantities of high quality fruit.
In summary groves that have low production will require two
to three years of enhanced management and inputs before
higher yields can be achieved. Growers should not be
discouraged but talk to their neighbours who have already
completed the journey. CREI staff can put you in touch with
growers who have made changes in their levels of production
by making small changes in their farm management
practices. Now is the time, when prices paid for fruits are
relatively good, to increase grove fertilizer inputs, to increase
production and so realize increased profits in a few years
time. Higher production also allows growers to continue to
make some profit from their citrus at times of low prices to
be in a better position to "ride out any economic storm" and
ready to make good profits when prices rise again (as they
always do). So don't wait; fertilize, increase the production of
your grove and stay in citrus for the long term.
Contact the Citrus Research & Education Institute at the
Citrus Growers Association for any additional information
or advice or services on the issues raised in this article -
Soil and foliar applic;
and no Chlorine
Easy to use
Thiessen Liquid Fertilizer
I Box 208, Route 35 West,
I Spanish Lookout, Belize
n Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 670-4817 or 672-2404
action AN^ .tor
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 24 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Proud Product of Belize
".. improving the taste of nature!"
i ^ *!7 ,
'Jli in. rrS^
Visit our Run
Offering a wide selection of:
* Fresh Cuts and Processed meat products
* Beef and Pork
* For this Holiday Seasori, stop in-and
get your quality & delicious Running W
Hams & Picigl -a JN
:NG W B BRAND MEATS
nigiW--Store atAMII 63, Weiteri Higjh
rtage ojractory prices w7all pin.Iwts.
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 25 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Spanish Lookout, Belize
Corn Production Sequence and Cost
Obviously there are variations from one farm to another and the following are examples only-numbers
computed at 45 bags (4500 Ibs.) per acre.
1. Disk/ and or likewise prepare field. Per Acre $ 22
2. Field finisher or seed bed preparation. Per Acre $ 10
3. Corn Seed (imported) -27,000-30,000 plants per acre. Per Acre $ 95
4. Fertilizer 200 Ibs of 14-36-12 or 46-0-0 (dry prill) Per Acre $120
5. Planting 6 or 12 row planters. Per Acre $ 17
6. Herbicide (weed killer) Example prowl or Atrazine Per Acre $ 50
7. Application ground rig or spray plane Per Acre $ 10
8. Insecticide worms and/ or spider mites 2 or 3 times. Per Acre $ 40
9. Application ground rig or spray plane Per Acre $ 20
10. Combine harvest $1.55 per bag times 45 bags Per Acre $ 70
11. Freight to the dryer or storage location ($1.00 per bag.) Per Acre $ 45
12. Butane drvinc 25% moisture down to 13% for storage.
$ 2.40 x 45 bags = Per Acre $108
13. Storage .12/ bags*45bags*6 months Per Acre $ 32
Break Even is 14.2 0 / lb. (no interest, rent or contingency)
14. Contingency cost (some farmers utilize the following
procedures and want them included in the cost.) mold board
plow or soil ripper $42.00 leveling beam $8.00. Cultivation $20.00
Per Acre $70
15. Interest $709.00 at 14% x 6 months. Per Acre $ 50
16. Rent or Return on Investment @ 15% of 45 = 6.75 bags
Estimating sales price @ .20 cents per pound. Per Acre $135
Net Break- Even is $18.3 0 / lb. (without contingency)
Net Break Even is $19.8 / lb. (with contingency)
As you examine the numbers and consider the current corn price at 17 to 18 cents a pound, we are breaking even at best
and probably losing around $100 per acre. Farmers always try to know their cost of production and strive to make 10 to
20% return on investment. This would mean that corn should sell for around 23 or 24 0 a pound to make a fair profit. Risk
is always a factor in agriculture and it may run from a decrease in yield, or an increase in production costs due to overrun
of insects, or we could have a complete wipe-out from floods or hurricanes. We had some corn fields in 2009 that yielded
only 25% of the expectation due to a massive infestation of spider mites. In spite of these negatives there is some form of
satisfaction in a farmer's head and heart that cause him to always be optimistic about next year.
By John Carr
Banana Bank Ranch
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 26 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Rice-Continues from page 18
The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) is in a
collaborative association with the ROC TTM producing
quality and affordable rice seeds to the producers of the
Toledo District where they are encouraged to adapt new
technology to their current system of producing rice seeds
such as having the flooded and irrigated rice plots. The
prospect of adapting to new technology is continually
being revised such as the replacement of diesel powered
pumps to solar powered units to flood the rice field. This
new addition will further reduce the price of rice seeds for
the farmers in the near future.
Successful production and marketing of quality
Commercial Rice Seeds in the Toledo District will be an
important factor in expanding the countrywide rice
production. Within a three year period it is expected that a
significant increase in rice production will be apparent in
the Toledo District. Income generation amongst the
farmers will create economic stability and export material
to the neighboring countries. This will create more
opportunity for Belize to be thrust into the market for
exporting rice and provide food security for a developing
nation. MAF and ROC TTM will continue to work on this
effort, continually evaluating it as time progresses.
Photos that accompany article can be found in the
ONLINE ANNEX addition at www.belizeagreport.com
Wholesale and Retail
Gasoline & Diesel
Sahta EenIa i
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com
In More Places
Bonging PeopIe To g er
W!ire 1'you dehu
27 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
T r f i 1 l ) 8 3 3- 0 1 $ :. O W .I B
Sj: ani-h lDokout S VCOS10 U S81 EL PCuM
wwweconodiesel.bzo 1tl WLMAf ,
Full line of diesel engine parts! (4) BOSCH
Belize City Outlet
e Eaqle One Hardware
Mile 42 Northern Hwy
Tel (601) 223-4445
Garrett [ WE C AOOTA DENSO
BelizeAgReport.com 28 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
2-3 lines = $22, 4-5 lines = $30, 6-7 lines = $38
Would you like your ag related events publicized
on our FREE online Ag calendar?
Call: 664 7272 or email:
FOR SALE: Weanlings to 3 year olds by Horse of the Year,
J REBEL, Cell: 663-4609
YOUR HELP PLEASE..... Trying to compile a complete
list of people and businesses countrywide that are involved
with RECYCLING and GREEN SERVICES send information
PROPERTY: Even Farmers Need Some R & R..... 50 x50
Beachfront Lot, San Pedro, 95kusd. .N. San Pedro
PROPERTY: 30 acres, Camalote, Pond, close to capital city
of Belmopan, priced to move at $45kusd. Holdfast Ltd 663-
PROPERTY: MAGNET HILL, magnificent 16 acs on
Hummingbird Hwy. Mile 28. Creek + All Yr River, bounded
in back by Nat'l Park. Elec line. Hills, Road to bldg. site,
bearing fruit trees.
INCREDIBLE vistas, perfect for estate or resort/restaurant.
$145kusd HOLDFAST LTD 663-5263
PROPERTY: RIVERFRONT LOTS, edge of San Ignacio
Town, all utilities, gated, LARGE .6 ac+ lots, large trees, high
bank, owner financing. GARDEN LOTS, row 2, with river
$68kusd up riverfront. 50ok Garden lots. CEDAR BLUFF
662-5700 or 664-7272.
PROPERTY: 99 acs. Banana Bank Area, Cayo, riverfront,
North Side of Belize River, great soil, massive trees and hills,
80% cleared. You can grow anything you like here. $ 297k
usd Holdfast Ltd 662-5263
PROPERTY: Bullet Tree Falls Village, Cayo Lot on Mopan
River, $ 45k usd. 662-5263
PROPERTY: Calla Creek, Cayo, 21 ac. River front Mopan
River,$188kusd Holdfast Ltd. 662-5263
PROPERTY: RENTAL, RURAL, Cristo Rey Rd, 10 mins
from San Ignacio. All utilities, incl. internet, 1 luxury bdrm,
+ 2 full baths, deck, barbq, views, breeze, maid and yard
service and security on working farm. 750usd/month. 6 mths
min. 664 7272
FOR SALE: MORINGA PLANTS, $10 per plant Belize-
Michigan Partners (Dr. Chris Bennett) tel 223-0404
GROW YOUR OWN DIESEL Jatropha seedlings 'Ready
To Plant', harvest in the first year! Process seeds as bio-
diesel..... 1,000 20,000 seedling supply. Sliding scale
pricing. Great opportunity to help the planet, make & save
money! Tel: 501-621-3432 Location: Mile 63
Western Highway. (Central Farm Airstrip).
BIO-DEGRADABLE PLANTING BAGS: Eco friendly
propagation method, saves $ $ $ $ in nursery, planting, time
& labor. Pre-filled sterile peat bags with pH loaded. All tree,
plant and vegetable types available. Mile 63, Western
Highway (Airstrip) 501-621-3432 www.b-oilbelize.com
Tres Caballos Mowing and Hay: Variety of baled grasses
for horses and cattle. Plan ahead for the dry season. Cayo
District. Delivery available. Call 600-2853 between 6 am
and 6 pm.
WANTED : contact with individuals making interesting
GARDEN FURNITURE or accessories, please contact
SPECTARTE ART GALLERY at Maya Beach Tel: 523 8019
WANTED: Old wooden Bol (platters used for making
tortillas), Chicle Pots, Chicle Spurs, & Interesting old stuff-
wood, metal or stone.
Email: email@example.com or call 662-5700
WANTED : secondhand wicker or rattan sofa and chairs
WANTED: BUYER for fresh BEEF HIDES, 20 to 40 avail.
wkly. tels: 824-2126 & 610-4524
WANTED: Used file cabinets, Cayo District Tel: 664 7272
WANTED: Please call with information on purchase of
African Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf or Kinder Goats.
Nadja: 667- 9481(if no answer call back)
or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
FOR SALE: MORINGA PLANTS, $10 per plant Belize-
Michigan Partners (Dr. Chris Bennett) Tel 223-0404
BRC PRINTING CS'
DESKTOP PUBLISHING LTD.
Nazarene St. Benque Viejo
Tel: 823-3139 Fax: 823-3082
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.eom 29 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com
29 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
AG SUPPLIES/PRODUCTS Page
Circle R Products Ltd. .................................5.......5
Econo Diesel ************************...................*******************..................................... 28
Midwest Steel & Agro Supplies ............................ 10
Prim e ................................................................. 11
Quality Poultry Products ..................................... 22
Reim er's Feed M ill .............................................. 28
Running W Brand Meats ..................................... 25
Sol N uts ........................................................6
Thiessen Liquid Fertilizer .................................... 24
W western Dairies .................... ............................... 25
W estrac Ltd. ...................................................... 16
Plenty Belize ....................................................... 18
Banana Bank Ranch ............... ............................. 31
Cedar Bluff Ranch ..............................................15
Spectarte ............................................................. 12
Belize Botanic Gardens ....................................... 21
Jiffy/B-Oil Belize ..............................................* 2
The Aguada ......................................................... 11
Banana Bank Lodge ............................................ 31
Cheers ................................................................. 3
M om 's Place ........................................................ 15
Sw eet T ing ........................................................... 30
Cedar Bluff Riverfront Community ....................32
Ceiba Realty ........................................................ 5
Diam ond Realty .................................................. 22
The Gardens at Duplooy's .................................. 21
H oldfast Ltd. ........................ ........................ 2
A cross ................................................................ 6
Adventuretrex ************************************************............................................. 2
Agricultural Developments Services.................... 9
Bel-C ar ............................................................... 19
BRC Printers .......................................................29
C P G as................................................................. 27
M Henley Farrier/Trainer .................................. 14
SM A R T ............................................................... 27
W estar ................................................................ 11
Sweet Ting, where you will find the best desserts in Cayo &
the Belize Ag Report announce the winners of issue 4's
1st place winner: Mrs. Eva Friesen, with her photo of her
menfolk: Dustin, Cody, Adrian, Joe Jr. and Joe, on the
fence at their Rocking J Ranch, located in the Ignaua Creek
area of Spanish Lookout.
2nd place winner: Norman Smith, with his photo of young
man resting against orange sacks
3rd place winner: Ms. Miriam Serrut with "Weeding by Hand
in an Organic Vegetable Garden in Santa Familia", and
printed in our ONLINE ANNEX
1st prize photo is shown on facing page 31. 2nd and 3rd place
photos are in our ONLINE ANNEX of issue #5
Submit entries in jpg before February 15, 2010, to
editor(@belizeagreport.com All submitted entries become
property of Sweet Ting and the Belize Ag Report. Yes, you
may enter more than once. Theme will remain 'People in
ist Prize: Specialty cake of your choice, up to $50.
2nd Prize: Cheesecake of your choice
3rd Prize: Pastries of your choice, up to $15.
30 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Jan-Feb 2010l BelizeAgReport.com
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 31 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
rc uar .....
Residential Rfiverfront Comm uniit s
-r -. A_ ,
-, -.A ~ -
Birder's Paradise, Large Trees
Garden Area, Edge of Town
San Ignacio, Cayo
Mile 1.2 Cristo Rey Rd. @
662-5263 / 662-5700
Jan-Feb 2010 BelizeAgReport.com 32 Harvesting the Ag News from All of Belize
Table of Contents
Belize Botanic Gardens Membership Information 40
Citrus Greening Information Chart (by CGA) 48
If Words Were Food, Nobody Would Go Hungry
(reprint from Nov.19, 2009 economist.com) 44, 45, 46
Rural Roots by Matthew James 34
Rice Purification in Belize (accompanying photos) 36, 37
Ylang-Ylang (accompanies article from p.3) 41
Photo Contest Winners 50, 51
NEW! Translated Articles:
El Control del Mosquito Sin Sustancias Quimicas 49
La Necesidad de un Banco de Semillas 47
El Sol Brilla Para el Sector de Agricultura en Belice 38, 39
Belize Affordable Web Design 33
KO-OX HAN-NAH 33
Come join us at
Best Restaurant in town,
situated on Burns Ave,
San Ignado, Cayo.
aelize Scarlet rDrangonfly Contact: Leslie Kearns
I S- 501-661-8251
inkfeize ffortdaffe Web6 )esig n
P.O. Box 150, Belmopan, Cayo, Belize
Professional Web-sites, Reasonable Rates
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
By Mathew James
Maya, Olmec's, Toltec's, Wari,Tiwanaku, all were capable of feeding themselves without using chemicals
or synthetic pesticides. Last month's article mentioned the importance of healthy soil for healthy plants
and this simple lesson has far reaching effects. It is impossible to grow sustainable crop production
without replacing nutrient matter to the soil for uptake by growing crops; since Liebig discovered the
potential for chemical fertilizer in the 1880's this replacement has been achieved by chemical means. In
2000 Belize used 112,000,000 lbs of fertilizer on farmland; given that around 40% is immediately lost to
runoff ,the excess is washed into OUR waterways and into OUR Sea.
Unless this situation is changed our waterways and sea will become a mess of high potency chemical
nutrients that will have a devastating impact on the country. Clean water from rivers is now a matter for
debate as the most common elements present are chemicals from farm runoff.
Using compost and other means it is possible for Belize to dramatically reduce use of chemical
inputs(often a high a cost for farmers to use, further reducing yields) while still retaining the benefits of
soil improvement without the damaging side effects. Although results may appear slower over time there
will be an increase in quality and yield both of which translate to higher margins for farmers/growers.
Several efforts are already started to give farmers access to non-hybrid seed and to source traditional crop
seed as well as new to Belize varieties all of which will allow the local farmer to spread out and diversify
into other crops.
New initiatives are coming in 2010 from several Ministries to assist local crop production with forage
crops available allowing farmers to grow their own feed that is as good ,nutritionally,as commercial feed.
Finally I would like to acknowledge the passing of my best friend Spike, Spike has been around for 18
years during his time he stopped 4 attempted burglaries and 1 auto theft.
Yes he is only a dog but he was a giant among cannines R.I.P. Brother.
Mathew James resides in Dangriga and covers issues from the Stann Creek District for
The Belize Ag Report.
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
Rice Purification in Belize
www.belizeagreport.com Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
EL SOL BRILLA PARA EL SECTOR DE AGRICULTURE EN BELICE
Por Dr. Gabriel Rodriguez Marques,
Representante, IICA Oficina de Belice
La agriculture en Belice tiene un potential extraordinario y un gran future. La agriculture de Belice
parece unajoya sin brillo con el crecimiento de subsectores y la preparaci6n de alcanzar a nuevos
mercados. El acuerdo reciente entire Belice y Mexico abri6 el mercado para el ganado vivo. El camar6n de
aquacultura alcanz6 a Francia, uno de los mercados mas importantes en el mundo, los products como el
maiz van a ser exportadas a Guatemala, el desarrollo de un sector de horticulture usando la tecnologia
avanzada (invemaderos, irrigaci6n y sistemas de buenos IPM) podrian dar la oportunidad a este pais para
ser el patio del Caribe. Hay mas ejemplos demasiado numerosos para mencionar.
En los terminos generals las condiciones estan listas para tener un sector de agriculture exitoso. Sin
embargo, algunos requisitos deberan ser completadas y uno de los mas importantes es que los agricultores
de los subsectores diferentes tendran que trabajar juntos como un verdadero equipo. El sector privado
desempefia el papel principal en el desarrollo de la agriculture, y tendra que aprender a asumir sus propios
riesgos y no siempre esperar fondos del Gobierno. Con la globalizaci6n, el mundo cambi6 las reglas para
la agriculture y los agricultores tienen que manejar su propia tierra y producci6n como una empresa
Como fue dicho antes que el sector ganadero de Belice comenzara dentro de poco sus exportaciones a
Mexico, y por esta raz6n analizaremos como las exportaciones de came de vaca de Uruguay alcanzaron a
los mercados mas importantes.
El sector de care siempre fue para Uruguay el sector de exportaci6n principal, y hoy en dia se esta
haciendo buen trabajo para reafirmar la hegemonia del sector aplicando proyectos y programs en la
busqueda para las certificaciones mas exigentes acerca de la calidad international.
Hace 400 afios, en julio del 1608, Hernandarias defini6 el territorio uruguayo como uno de uso esencial
para el cultivo y crianza del ganado, debido a la calidad excelente de su tierra.
Despues de aquel moment, el origen del ganado creciendo la came ha sido el recurso econ6mico
principal del pais. Despues de 400 afios, este product es acompafiado por toda la informaci6n que le
permit decir su propia historic, de la naturaleza al consumidor.
La producci6n de care en Uruguay es apoyada por la capacidad y la maestria de todos los eslabones de la
cadena agro-industrial, asi como por las instituciones que aseguran la salud del animal, la seguridad de la
came y la calidad commercial requerida por el client.
Uruguay ha tenido un sistema de rastreo por mas de 30 afios y recientemente, esto ha puesto en practice
mecanismos individuals de rastreo que hacen possible trazar a un animal de su origen hasta el matadero.
Issue #5 Jan. -Feb. 20 10
En plants procesadoras, combinando la information proporcionada por la double etiqueta de oreja por el
sistema de informaci6n electr6nico para la industrial de came de vaca, es possible identificar cada corte de
res y el animal del cual vino. La combinaci6n de ambos sistemas convierte Uruguay en el unico pais del
mundo capaz de tener archives de su entera manada de ganado, y de todas sus exportaciones de came de
vaca. Esto, cuya fuerza principal es la habilidad de ofrecer garantias en cuanto a mandos de salud de
ganado y seguridad de came, tambien permit que el pais asegura la cadena de custodia, significando que
es possible saber de cambios de la propiedad de products durante producci6n, transport, procesamiento,
almacenaje y comercio, es decir del nacimiento del temero al consumidor final.
Uruguay clasificado como el segundo en el mundo en el consume de came de vaca per capital con 53 kg.
por persona por afio. Esto produce aproximadamente 600 mil toneladas de came de vaca al afio. 150 mil
toneladas son consumidos en el mercado domestic, y 450 mil toneladas son exportados. En 2008, casi
1,5 millones de cabezas fueron enviados a mataderos y el precio promedio pagado a agricultores era 2.25
US$/kg. Uruguay export came de vaca a mas de 100 paises, sin embargo el 80 por ciento del volume va
a Estados Unidos, Mexico, Canada, Uni6n Europea, Rusia y Brasil.
Tener acceso a los mercados mas exigentes require much trabajo en medidas de seguridad. Por eso, la
certificaci6n de came permit que Uruguay asegure que los products obtenidos en todas parties de una
series de etapas estan bajo control. La certificaci6n permit que plants procesadoras satisfacen las
exigencias comerciales especificas del client.
Desde el principio, las certificaciones han sido publicadas para products finales. Con esta finalidad,
durante 30 afios Uruguay ha estado garantizando un nivel minimo de calidad commercial para todas sus
exportaciones de came con la certificaci6n official del control de calidad. Los requisitos de certificaci6n de
product se hacen cada vez mas exigentes en cuanto al process de industrializacion, que sucesivamente
hizo que el sistema de rastreo, tanto para el ganado como para la came de vaca, un instrument
indispensable para estas classes de certificaciones.
El consume mas alto de la came de vaca en el mercado domestic hace que la monitorizaci6n sea
fundamental para ayudar al establecimiento de una political piblica que asegura el acceso a la protein de
animal para el mayor numero de personas.
Despues de esta breve descripci6n del sector de came en Uruguay, la pregunta es si Belice esta lista para
exportar ganado vivo a Mexico. La respuesta es SI, una vez que las exigencias de las autoridades
mexicanas esten realizadas. Esto no tomara much tiempo como ya que al final de este afio Belice habra
puesto en practice su Registro de Ganado Nacional, el primer paso hacia un sistema de rastreo y un repaso
del ganado al nivel national ocurrira en los meses siguientes para poner etiquetas de oreja y asegurar las
condiciones de salud de las manadas.
Teniendo en cuenta la situaci6n corriente las perspectives para el future del sector de agriculture en
Belice son brillantes.
Translation by Derry Roberson & Henning Bartsch
Issue #5 Jan. -Feb. 2010
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Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
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Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
FEEDING THE WORLD
If words were food, nobody would go hungry
Investment in agriculture is soaring. So, worryingly, is distrust of markets and trade
Nov 19th 2009
ROME: "The world's attention is back on your cause." That was Bill Gates talking to agricultural scientists gathered recently to honour the late
Norman Borlaug, father of the Green Revolution. The tycoon-turned-philanthropist was right. This
week, the world-in the guise of 60-odd heads of state including the pope-held the first United
Nations food summit since 2002. As the world's attention turns from the receding financial crisis, it
is switching to one emerging in agriculture.
.I 'The U.N. conference on food security took place at a point of relative calm between two storms.
The first occurred in 2007-08, when world food prices experienced their sharpest rise for 30 years.
Food riots swept through three dozen countries and two governments (Haiti's and Madagascar's)
were overthrown by the events that the price rises set in train.
The next storm is likely within a few years and everyone fears its arrival. The price spike of 2007-
08 was the result of structural imbalances in the world food chain, not just temporary fluctuations like bad weather or government mistakes.
These imbalances have not gone away: food demand is still rising because of changing appetites and rising incomes in emerging markets;
biofuels are still competing with food crops for available land; yield growth in cereals is declining.
In 2008-09 food problems were masked for a while by the financial crisis. But as Jacques Diouf, head of the UN's Food and Agriculture
Organisation (FAO), said this week, "when the recovery picks up, we will be back to square one." Jeffrey Currie of Goldman Sachs argues that
while most recession-hit industries in the rich world are operating at 60-70% of capacity, agriculture is at full capacity, in the sense that last
year's cereals crop was the largest on record and there is little fallow land ready to be taken under the plough. If there were another supply or
demand shock, the farm-trade system would not cushion the blow.
I -ngapio It may not be many years away. In the first ten months of this year, food prices rose by 9.8%, prompting
i uS ri fears of a resumption of the surge that began in 2007, the first of the two years of crisis (see chart, left).
The "breakfast commodities" (tea, cocoa, sugar, important sources of calories in some parts of the world)
--- --. are trading at their highest levels for 30 years. Worse, the price respite, while it lasted, did nothing for the
S/ ,, poorest and most vulnerable. According to the FAO, the number of malnourished people in the world rose
I S to over 1 billion this year, up from 915m in 2008 (see chart, below). Economists at the World Bank reckon
if that the number living on less than $1.25 a day will rise by 89m between 2008 and 2010 and those on
1 ~ under $2 a day will rise by 120m. A quarter of a century after a famine in Ethiopia which dramatised
i failings in the food system, famine is again stalking the Horn of Africa. Has anything been done to prepare
for future food shocks?
Certainly, say most governments. Money is starting to pour into agriculture after 30 years of neglect. There
has been a spasm of institutional reform. And public and private sectors are doing more to help farmers than ever.
At their meeting in L'Aquila in July, the Group of Eight (G8) large rich economies promised to increase spending on agricultural development by
$20 billion over the next three years. Not much of this was new money (probably $3 billion-5 billion) and it is not clear how much, if any, has
been delivered. The amount also falls far short of the $44 billion that the FAO guesses will be needed each year to end malnutrition (and even
shorter, aid agencies reflect, of the $14 trillion poured by rich countries into their banks). Still, the amount is not trivial. It would finance for
three years the annual $7 billion that the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), a think tank in Washington, DC, estimates will be
the bill for developing countries to protect agriculture from the impact of climate change. And it excludes the far greater sums developing
countries themselves are promising to farming.
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 20 10
Agriculture and food security have become "the core of the international agenda", as the G8 called it. In 2009, the World Bank increased its
spending on agriculture by 50%, to $6 billion. The Islamic Development Bank is creating an agriculture department for the first time.
Barack Obama asked Congress to double to just over $1 billion America's aid for agricultural development in 2010. And in a sign that food
productivity means more than warm words and cash, he nominated a pundit, not a politician, to head USAID, the assistance agency: Rajiv
Shah, the chief scientist for the Department of Agriculture. In the West, there is a new consensus on the need to invest more in agriculture in
Jeffrey Sachs, an economist at America's Columbia University, has argued that the next step should be to create a new international agency to
co-ordinate all the money and perhaps have a big budget of its own. He wants something similar to the global fund to fight HIV/AIDS, a public-
private partnership. Earlier food shortages, in the 1970s, had also produced institutional shake-ups: the International Fund for Agricultural
Development (IFAD) and the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), influential groups in the field, were both set up
But the latest crisis has not spawned any institutional children, mainly because the U.N. food agencies-FAO, IFAD and the World Food
Programme-spent too much time bickering. Instead, institution-building took the form of tinkering. The idea for what was grandly labelled a
global partnership on food security began with the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, in the spring of 2008 and morphed into a U.N. committee
and a "high-level task force" attached to the secretary-general's office. So far, this modest
arrangement seems to be working rather well, at least in terms of mobilising attention and A tragc rersai.l
resources. bah.rou.mr,[aat .n
The most important activity, though, is taking place at the national level. Here, the price rises s of
2007-08 have unleashed an unprecedented pack of policies. Practically every developing i
country, however cash-strapped, has done something (often a lot) to help farmers. African
governments are finally starting to fulfil a promise they made in 2003 to spend 10% of their o.e
budgets on agriculture. The most popular measures have been to build rural roads, subsidise on
inputs such as seeds and fertilisers, give special help to the poorest smallholders as a kind of
safety net, and to intervene in the operation of markets, sometimes to improve and
sometimes to control them. Mi- 0 ,-o09'
The Philippines set up a seed bank to improve the quality of seeds and provide a reserve against occasions when crops are wrecked by
typhoons (the country is prone to such disasters). Lesotho and Uganda created "seed fairs" in the hope of increasing the varieties on offer to
give farmers. Tanzania and Mali tried to achieve the same end by subsidising the grain and fertilizer merchants directly. Nepal and Jamaica
offered cheap kits (pumps, drip feeds) to persuade smallholders to irrigate their fields. Malawi kept going its much-studied fertilizer subsidy,
which practically gives the stuff away to the poorest farmers. The jury is still out on what will happen if and when the country can no longer
afford the programme, which is eating up 4.2% of GDP. But there is no doubting the impact so far: the programme has turned Malawi into a
breadbasket: in 2005, the country imported over 40% of its food; this year, it will export more than half its output, including to famine-stricken
Kenya, having trebled the maize harvest in four years.
Brazil also subsidized inputs, launching a programme that provided credit for 14,000 tractors in its first year. But its bigger intervention was to
expand a safety net which allows family farmers to sell $800 worth of food to the government each year; the government uses part of the food
for reserves to help stabilise prices and another portion for school meals which are part of the country's much-admired conditional-cash transfer
scheme, Bolsa Familia.
Many countries are using help to farmers as an anti-poverty measure. India, for example, last year extended to every rural district its National
Rural Employment Guarantee Act, which guarantees 100 days of minimum-wage employment on public works to every rural household that
asks for it. The act, one of the biggest job-creating schemes in the world, is widely credited with maintaining rural demand in the face of one of
the worst monsoons for years. India also introduced a one-off agricultural-debt waiver programme for about 40m farmers.
At the height of the food-price spike in 2008, many of the biggest food producers banned the export of crops (they sought to cushion the
domestic impact of rising world prices). Most of these restrictions have been lifted and replaced by a variety of price and marketing policies.
Many of them are sensible. Uganda, for example, reckons farmers got 5-15% more for their crops after publishing price and market information
more widely. Kenya improved peoples' nutrition by removing restrictions on the sale of unpasteurised milk (milk is one of the most important
foodstuffs in east Africa). There is also a fashion for creating grain reserves to smooth out local price fluctuations by building silos in villages:
Burkina Faso, Burundi and Gambia are doing this.
It all sounds admirable. And it is matched by an almost equally frenetic pace of change among commercial food companies. Some have started
to invest directly-often for the first time-in farming in poor countries, providing farmers with new varieties of seeds or drought- and disease-
resistant plants (see article for a case study of Monsanto). Agricultural business centres-one-stop shops where farmers can go to buy seeds
and fertilisers, rent farm equipment, and get crop insurance-are springing up everywhere.
THIS LITTLE PIGGY DIDN'T GO TO MARKET
Yet there are worrying signs that all is not well. For alongside the increases in investment and attention is something more insidious: a turn
away from trade, markets and efficiency. Depending on how far this goes, the trend could undo much of the benefits of new investment.
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 20 10
The price rises of 2008 were traumatic. When Thailand and Vietnam, the world's two largest rice exporters, banned exports, the Philippines, the
world's largest importer, concluded that the international grain trade could no longer be trusted to supply its needs. Fearing what might happen
as a result of India's poor harvest this year, the Philippines in the past two weeks has concluded contracts to buy 1.5m tonnes of rice-
equivalent to 5% of the total annual trade in the grain. This is panic buying driven by mistrust. In turn, India is negotiating directly with
Thailand and Vietnam for rice, which would further reduce the tradable supply of an already thinly traded commodity.
The large "land grabs" in Africa and Asia are also signs of distrust in world markets. Food importers which can afford it-like Saudi Arabia,
Kuwait, China, South Korea-have opted to grow food on land they own or control abroad rather than import it through international trade.
"Land grabbers" (mostly state companies or governments) have concluded contracts to buy or lease roughly 20m hectares (50m acres) of the
best farmland in poor countries.
Trust in world grain markets seems weak among industrial countries, too. Western countries share the blame for the failure to complete the
Doha round of trade talks. They have done little to reduce subsidies to biofuels, which have taken large quantities of maize out of food markets
and put it into petrol tanks. IFPRI and others have urged countries to calm the wildest price fluctuations (and hence provide a measure of
reassurance to importers) by setting up a system of international or regional grain reserves or by providing emergency financing to be drawn
upon if prices spike. But the summit did nothing to improve the operation of world markets or to cut biofuels subsidies.
And just as distrust of world trade seems to be growing, so confidence in domestic markets seems to be falling. According to a review of
national farm policies by the FAO, around two-thirds of developing countries have undertaken some sort of non-market-based measures to
support farmers since 2007, including input subsidies and price interventions. The governments of Burkina Faso and Sierra Leone have started
to negotiate with wholesalers to control prices indirectly. Other countries, such as Madagascar, have imposed direct price controls. The picture
here is mixed: some countries are seeking to improve the operation of their markets. But six of 34 African countries which reported their policy
responses to the FAO said they were proposing price controls.
Perhaps the most striking trend is the move from "food security" towards "food self-sufficiency" as a goal of national policy. The first means
ensuring everyone has enough to eat; the second, growing it yourself. The Philippines says it hopes to grow 98% of the rice it needs by next
year, though whether it can meet this target is unclear. "Indonesia must struggle to reach food self-sufficiency," said President Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono last year, announcing big increases in seed, fertilizer and credit subsidies. Senegal imports 80% of its rice, putting this small African
nation in the top ten rice importers. Rocked by food riots in 2008, the government responded with what it called the "Great Offensive for Food
and Abundance", and promised to become self-sufficient in staples. Others with the same aim include China, Malaysia, Colombia and Honduras.
This shift towards self-sufficiency coincides with growing scepticism about world trade, examples of price controls and more extensive
government involvement. The FAO has even suggested the shift may amount to "a change of paradigm" in farming.
Such a shift could undermine the hopes raised by new investment because farmers would get bogus price signals, efficiency would be
compromised and because, says IFAD's head of operation, "it's harder to do good projects where the policy environment is poor." Food policy
has never been free. For the past 20 years, agriculture in developing countries has been dominated by a gradual decline in investment and a
shift towards a somewhat more liberal policy environment. The first trend is now being reversed, for the better. The worry is that the second
trend will be reversed, too-for the worse.
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 20 10
La Necesidad de un Banco de Semillas
Las plants nos proven de alimentos. ,Que podria pasar si estas plants desaparecieran? Piense en un banco de
semilla como una cuenta de ahorros. Las semillas son "depositadas" en el banco de semilla (un area de
almacenamiento) con la intenci6n "de retirarlas" en el future cuando se tenga necesidad de ellas. Como usted podria
guardar el dinero para una future necesidad, guardamos semillas para plantar de nuevo, no solo para la siguiente
cosecha, sino tambien en caso de que ciertas cosechas mueran o sean destruidas. en cualquier afio. Si los
agricultores y los jardineros no tienen suficientes semillas para sembrar, tendriamos una escasez del alimento. El
ahorro de semillas en Belice es una parte important de asegurar nuestra Seguridad de Alimento como nacion.
El human ha estado creando la agriculture y cultivando las plants durante miles de afios. Desde el principio, los
agricultores han realizado que se tienen que guardar semillas para asegurar las cosechas de la siguiente temporada.
La cosecha y el ahorro de las semillas es un ritual important en todas las cultures antiguas. Estos bancos de semilla
hist6ricos protegian las semillas de los animals, los parisitos, las enfermedad, y los estados del tiempo.
Hoy tenemos que guardar semillas por motivos similares. Podemos conseguir semillas fuera de Belice, pero hay
various problems con confiar en estas fuentes extranjeras. Las variedades diferentes de plants crecen en areas
diferentes. Puede ser que el repollo que crece bien en Nueva York, EE.UU. no puede crecer bien en Belice. Lo
mismo es vilido para la mayoria de las plants. Si nos quedamos sin las semillas de las species de plants que
crecen bien aqui, podriamos ser incapaces de cultivar suficiente comida para alimentamos.
Los desastres y las enfermedades no respetan limits nacionales. Si otro pais afronta la misma escasez de semilla
que Belice, seriamos incapaces de importar semillas apropiadas para sembrar de nuevo.
jEs important que nosotros los Belicefios guardemos semillas, y almacenemos semillas suficientes para el future!
Algunas semillas, llamadas semillas ortodoxas, pueden ser guardadas en un ambiente fresco y seco. Unos ejemplos
de estas son el tomate, la calabaza, y la pimienta. Estos tipos de semillas son guardadas en bancos de semilla.
Otras semillas, llamadas semillas recalcitrantes, deben ser continuamente sembradas de nuevo para reponer
reserves. Un ejemplo de esto, es el cacao. Estas plants son asegurados por cultivaci6n continue, tambien llamada
conservacio6n "in-situ". Es important que estas plants sean cultivadas en various sitios diferentes, para no ser
exterminados por el mismo desastre o enfermedad. Conservacio6n "in-situ" es promovido usando un sistema variado
de cultivo de agriculture y evitando la agriculture de monocultura Deberiamos cultivar muchas cosas en nuestra
granja, no solo una o dos cosechas.
Las semillas ortodoxas son coleccionadas de plants cuando son maduras, y son limpiadas, secadas y preparadas
para el almacenaje. En el clima humedo y caliente de Belice, el almacenaje refrigerado proporciona la temperature
baja y la humedad necesaria para una vida mias larga de las semillas. Las semillas no solo deben tener algun aire,
sino tambien tienen que ser protegidas de un ambiente cambiante, y por eso son embaladas cuidadosamente antes
de la refrigeraci6n. Las semillas tienen que ser repuestas peri6dicamente.
El Gobierno de Belice, junto con unos socios, consider seriamente bancos de semilla, como un medio de asegurar
nuestra Seguridad de Alimento. El maiz y el frijol estin siendo almacenados en el Distrito de Toledo. La Misi6n
Taiwanesa esta considerando un sistema de banco de semilla para guardar la semilla de arroz. "Plenty Belize" esti
estableciendo un banco de semilla para verduras. jEste es un buen comienzo pero much mis sobra por hacer!
Mark Miller trabaja con Plenty Belize en Toledo.
Por Mark Miller, Plenty Belize, Punta Gorda, Toledo
Translation by Derry Roberson & Henning Bartsch
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 20 10
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Blotchy no~lle on GrapefruitleIaves~
HL B-afflbcted fruit with brownish-black
aborted wged & orange stained vascular
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Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
_C a I Mv es
El CONTROL DEL MOSQUITO SIN SUSTANCIAS QUIMICAS
Por Dr. Ed Boles, Galen University, Central Farm, Cayo District
Los mosquitos y las enfermedades que llevan, como la malaria y el dengue, son una preocupaci6n grave en Belice. La
temporadade lluvia es especialmente problemitica en cuanto las areas de reproducci6n del mosquito son much mis
abundantes. Cuindo el indice de piquete del mosquito y los incidents de enfermedades son altos, camiones de rocio
pulverizan con malathion y otras insecticides el paisaje urbano. A veces esta estrategia puede ser eficaz, pero muchos
otros insects, incluso los depredadores del mosquito y abejas de miel, tambi6n son matados por estos insecticides.
Aparte de eso, las personas de los pueblos y las aldeas que fumigadas estan expuestas a problems de salud a
consecuencias del uso de insecticides. Sin embargo, hay una alternative preferida de estrategia de control que consiste en
concentrar en la larva del mosquito y no defender de products quimicos.
Las estrategias del control del mosquito no quimico ofrecen varias ventajas sobre el uso de sustancias quimicas. La larva
es el objetivo, matando las antes que se vuelven adults y lleguen a ser un problema. Los m6todos no quimicos son
much mis baratos que el uso de quimicos. Los j6venes locales que estin interesados pueden ser capacitados y pueden
ser contratados tiempo parcial como t6cnicos de control del mosquito en sus respectivas comunidades. Este enfoque
ayuda a reducir el uso de sustancias quimicas, reduciendo de esta manera la exposici6n de las personas y ecosistemas a
cancerigenos demostrados y al mismo tiempo ahorra dinero. Esto tambi6n minimize exposici6n de los depredadores del
mosquito (lib61lulas,) y insects polinizadores (abejas, moscas de flores, las palomillas, las mariposas) a pesticides.
Eliminando el uso rutinario de sustancias quimicas reduce la oportunidad de resistencia al pesticide que se acumula en
poblaciones de mosquito. Esto ayuda a asegurar que esas sustancias quimicas serin efectivas durante estallidos de
emergencia y enfermedades provocados por mosquitos.
Las estrategias efectivas de control del mosquito no quimico son basadas en una comprensi6n de la biologia y la
ecologia de poblaciones locales de mosquito y otros organismos que comparten su habitat. Las species diferentes del
mosquito tienen diferentes requisitos de habitat de reproduccion, diferentes alcances de vuelo, y diferentes patrons de
comportamiento y potential de vector de enfermedad, asi requiriendo estrategias diferentes de control. El primer trabajo
es la limpieza general de la zona, animando a las personas a quitar bidones viejas, botellas, latas y los aparatos de sus
patios. Una limpieza buena de la zona puede quitar la mayor parte de los sitios de reproduccion del Mosquito de la
Fiebre amarilla y el Dengue.
El pr6ximo trabajo es andar por el vecindario, ver todas las calls, los espacios vacios, los parques, los patios de las
escuelas, sistemas de desagtie y revisar todas las areas de agua estancado. Cada area de agua es probada con un cuchar6n
de mango largo o un cuchar6n de la cocina y revisado por larvas de mosquito. Todos los resumideros atascados son
vaciados de basura y sedimento y permitidos a fluir. Los pozos s6pticos agujerados y letrinas mal construidas contaminan
las areas locales de agua creando sitios ideales para el Mosquito Casero del sur. Estas areas deben ser tratadas y la
contaminaci6n por aguas residuales debe corregirse. Permanentes areas de agua que crean mosquitos y sin peces deben
ser llenados con peces de mosquito y molliesias de aguas cercanas, donde aparecen generalmente en abundancia.
Las areas bajas que tienen agua en la temporada de lluvia y otros cuerpos de aguas temporales donde el mosquito crece
pueden ser tratados con una formula disponible comercialmente de bacteria (israelensis de thuringiensis de Bacilo) que
matan especificamente larvas de mosquito pero no dafia los depredadores del mosquito. Todas las areas de agua donde se
encuentra mosquitos creciendo son verificados rutinariamente (cada uno a dos semanas) y tratados cuindo larvas de
mosquito son encontradas. Un gal6n de la formula liquid de bacteria usualmente durardi a una pequefia comunidad una
temporada y es much mis barata que los pesticides convencionales.
El control del mosquito no es un esfuerzo de una sola vez, sino debe ser un trabajo continue, de una temporada al la otra,
y de un afio al otro. Uno de los elements mis importantes de un trabajo exitoso de control de mosquito no-quimico es el
educativo y el apoyo public. El involucrar a escuelas locales ofrece una manera de conectar con la comunidad en
general. Las actividades de la consciencia del mosquito proporcionan una avenida para introducir concepts aplicados de
la biologia y la ecologia en las classes. Aparte de eso, futures t6cnicos puedan ser descubiertos durante esfuerzos de
education. La participaci6n de miembros informados y activos del vecindario de todas las edades es esencial para crear
un program exitoso de control a largo plazo.
Translation by Derry Roberson & Henning Bartsch
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 20 10
PHOTO CONTEST WINNERS Nov-Dec 2009 Issue
/zz1 Ii 1 r" I
1st, 2nd and 3rd place winners, are as follows:
1st Place Mrs. Eva Friesen, with picture of her family at their Rocking J Ranch, Iguana Creek Area,
Spanish Lookout. That photo is printed on page 31 of this issue, #5.
2nd Place Mr. Norman Smith, with his picture of a young man resting against orange sacks.
3rd Place Ms. Miriam Serrut, with her "Weeding by Hand in an Organic Vegetable Garden in Santa
Sweet Ting and The Belize Ag Report thank all the entrants for taking their time and sharing their work
with us. See page 30 for details on how you can enter the next PHOTO CONTEST.
1st place picture by Eva Friesen
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010
2nd place picture, by Norman Smith
Issue #5 Jan. Feb. 2010