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The Florida Platform lies on the south-central part of the North
American Plate, extending to the southeast from the North American
continent separating the Gulf of Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. The Florida
Platform, as measured above the 300 foot (91 meter) isobath, spans more than
350 miles (565 kilometers) at its greatest width and extends southward more than
450 miles (725 kilometers) at its greatest length. The modem Florida peninsula is
the exposed part of the platform and lies predominantly east of the axis of the
platform. Most of the State of Florida lies on the Florida Platform; the western pan-
handle is part of the Gulf Coastal Plain.
The basement rocks of the Florida Platform include Precambrian-Cambrian igneous rocks,
Ordovician-Devonian sedimentary rocks, and Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks (Arthur, 1988). Florida's
igneous and sedimentary foundation separated from what is now the African Plate when the super-
continent Pangea rifted apart in the Triassic (pre-Middle Jurassic?) and sutured to the North American
craton (Smith, 1982).
A thick sequence of mid-Jurassic to Holocene sediments (unlithified to well lithified) lies unconform-
ably upon the eroded surface of the basement rocks. Carbonate sedimentation predominated from
mid-Jurassic until at least mid-Oligocene on most of the Florida Platform. In response to renewed
uplift and erosion in the Appalachian highlands to the north and sea-level fluctuations, siliciclastic sedi-
ments began to encroach upon the carbonate-depositing environments of the Florida Platform.
Deposition of siliciclastic-bearing carbonates and siliciclastic sediments predominated from mid-Oligo-
cene to the Holocene over much of the platform. Numerous disconformities that formed in response to
nondeposition and erosion resulting from sea-level fluctuations occur within the stratigraphic section.
The oldest sediments exposed at the modem land surface are Middle Eocene carbonates of the Avon
Park Formation, which crop out on the crest of the Ocala Platform in west-central Florida. The pattern
of exposures of younger sediments is obvious on the geologic map. Much of the state is blanketed by
Pliocene to Holocene siliciclastic and siliciclastic-bearing sediments that were deposited in response to
late Tertiary and Quaternary sea-level fluctuations.
The characteristic landscape of Florida is relatively to extremely flat. There are few large, natural
exposures and limited smaller exposures that geologists can investigate. The result is that geologists
must rely primarily on de-watered or dry pits and quarries for exposures and must make use of subsur-
face data in studying the geology of Florida. Subsurface data, in the form of well cuttings and cores,
were utilized extensively in the development of this map. Formational tops recognized in the subsur-
face have been extrapolated to the surface where exposures are limited.
Previously published geological maps of Florida include Smith (1881), Dall and Harris (1892), Matson
et al. (1909), Sellards, et al. (1922), Cooke and Mossom (1929). Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), Vernon
and Puri (1964) and Brooks (1982).
Groundwork for a new geologic map of Florida began in the 1980s with a county-level mapping effort
as part of a statewide radon investigation. The county maps created for the radon project were
merged and modified to produce a new state map. The geologists from the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) involved in the project included Jon Arthur, Ken Campbell, Joel Duncan, Richard Green,
Jacqueline Lloyd, Guy Means, Frank Rupert, and Tom Scott. Tom Missimer, Missimer International, Ft
Myers, Florida was part of the mapping team for Charlotte and Lee Counties. Previous mapping
provided a basis for this project. Geologists involved in the preliminary mapping included Paulette
Bond, Richard Johnson, Ed Lane, Waft Schmidt and Bill Yon. The resulting statewide geologic map
was published in 2001 (Scott et al., 2001).
Much of Florida is covered by a blanket of Pliocene to Holocene, undifferentiated siliciclastics that
range in thickness from less than one foot to greater than 100 feet. As a result, in developing the
criteria for producing this map, FGS geologists decided to map the first recognizable lithostratigraphic
unit occurring within 20 feet (68.1 meters) of the land surface. In areas where highly karstic limestones
underlie the undifferentiated siliciclastics, paleosinkholes may be infilled with significantly thicker
sequences of siliciclastics. If the shallowest occurrences of the karstic carbonates were 20 feet (6.1
meters) or less below land surface, the carbonate lithostratigraphic unit was mapped. If the carbon-
ates lie more than 20 feet (6.1 meters) below land surface, an undifferentiated siliciclastic unit was
Undifferentiated siliciclastic sediments occur in significant thickness (>20 feet [6.1 meters]) over
much of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands and the eastern part of the Florida peninsula. Where these sedi-
ments were mapped, efforts were made to determine if beach-ridge or dune topography was present in
order to subdivide the siliciclastic sediments.
Lithostratigraphic terminology applied in this mapping effort followed, with limited changes, the
lithostratigraphic framework delineated for the Gulf Coast Region chart from the Correlation of
Stratigraphic Units of North America Project (COSUNA) (Braunstein et al., 1988). Although some of
the units depicted on the COSUNA chart have a significant biostratigraphic basis, the COSUNA chart
represents the best effort to date to provide an accurate stratigraphic framework for the Florida
Platform and surrounding regions.
Lithostratigraphic units expressed on the State geological map range from Middle Eocene to
Holocene. The accompanying explanation inset lists the stratigraphic units and provides a brief litho-
logic components list
Arthur, J. D., 1988, Petrogenesis of Early Mesozoic tholeiite In the Florida basement and overview of
Florida basement geology: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigation 97, 39 p.
Braunstein, J., Huddlestun, P., and Biel, R., 1988, Gulf Coast region correlation of stratigraphic units of
North America: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Correlation Chart.
Brooks, H.K, 1982, Geologic map of Florida: Center for Environmental and Natural Resources,
University of Florida.
Cooke, C. W., 1945, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29, 339 p.
Cooke, C. W., and Mansfield, W. C., 1936, Suwannee Limestone of Florida (abstract): Geological
Society of America Proceedings, 1935, p. 71 72.
Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., 1929, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Twentith Annual
Report, p. 29-228, 1 plate.
Dall, W.H., and Harris, G.D., 1892, Correlation papers Neocene: United States Geological Survey
Bulletin 84, 349 p.
Matson, G. C., Clapp, F. G., and Sanford, S., 1909, Geologic and topographic map of Florida: in
Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the geology of Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Second Annual Report, p. 23-173, 1 plate.
Scott, T. M., Campbell, K. M., Rupert, F. R., Arthur, J. D., Green, R. C., Means, G. H., Missimer, T. M.,
Uoyd, J. M., Yon, J. W., and Duncan, J. G., 2001, Geologic map of the State of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Map Series 146.
Sellards, E. H., Gunter, H., and Cooke, C. W., 1922, Geologic map of Florida: in Sellards, E. H., and
Gunter, H., On the petroleum possibilities of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Fourteenth Annual
Report, p. 33-135, 1 plate.
Smith, D.L., 1982, Review of the tectonic history of the Florida basement: Tectonophysics, v. 88, p.
Smith, E. A., 1881, Geology of Florida: American Journal of Science, 3rd Series, v. XXI, p. 292-309.
Vernon, R. 0., 1951, Surface occurrences of geologic formations in Florida (geologic map): in
Association of American State Geologists Forty-fourth Annual Meeting Field Trip Guidebook A
summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the Cenozoic exposures of a portion of the
State, 116 p., 5 plates.
Vernon, R.O., and Puri, H.S., 1964, Geologic map of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series
Holocene sediments sand, day. organs
Alluvium sand, day,organics
Beach ridge and dune sand
ZI Undlfferentlated sediments sand, clay,
Anastasia Formation limestone, coquin
Key Largo Limestone limestone
.1 Miami Limestone limestone, sand
. Trail Ridge sands sand, heavy minerals
Shell-bearing sediments shells, sand,
Undilferentlated sediments sand, clay
= Reworked Cypresshead sediments sa
\ Cypresshead Formation sand, clay
Citronelle Formation sand, day
dI Miccosukee Formation sand, clay
SIntracoastal Formation limestone, sand
Tamlami Formation limestone, sand, di
Jackson Bluff Formation day, sand, sa
II Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Fm., Ch
Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formatlo
Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formatico
1111 Residuum on Miocene sediments
Alum Bluff Group clay, sand
Hawthorn Group clay, dolostone, sand
% Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchle Form
Hawthorn Group, Statenville Formation
Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formation c
M Chattahoochee Formation dolostone, I
S St. Marks Formation limestone, sand
! Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation d
_ Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation, T
Residuum on Oligocene sediments
B Suwannee Umestone limestone
Suwannee Limestone Marianna Limrnes
Residuum on Eocene sediments
Ocala Limestone limestone, dolostone
Avon Park Formation limestone, dolost
The geologic structures that hai
Quatemary sediments of the Florid
numerous authors (Puri and Verno
1991). The majority of the structul
tion, erosion and alteration of the (
appear to have had a significant el
lithostratigraphic units. These geo
Anj~lunn.fflija Ram:n Q* ljnhna Plaff
jacuKI vuui uanluOllla, 0i. IUIIIon rIauluIIII, oaamlU nylli, tilUra riauuuiiu u,
Osceola Low and the Okeechobee Basin (Scott, 1992). Those structural
features that exerted an influence on the surficial or very near surface distri-
bution of the Cenozoic sediments, or mark areas of significant faces changes,
include the Gulf Trough/Apalachicola Embayment, Chattahoochee 'Anticline' and
the Ocala Platform. Eocene sediments crop out on the Chattahoochee Anticline and
the Ocala Platform. The Gulf Trough/ Apalachicola Embayment formed an important
bathymetric and environmental barrier from the Paleocene into the Miocene. As a
result, the Oligocene carbonate faces east and south of the Gulf Trough/Apalachicola
Embayment are distinctly different from those occurring to the west and north (see
Schmidt  and Bryan  for discussion).
I ;i: .'.-..**. ; i :.T- ,*-
I ..: :=;:;*,., : *. j ,
-",*: 4 a?: .^' ^:. ..j:..
of the Surficial and
Floridan Aquifer Systems
1 1. Florida
ia, sand Ml
0 10 20 30
o0 20 4
I, day, shell
hell L, .
rladiton Member- sand, clay, limestone, dolostone, phosphate -
in sand, day, dolostone, phosphate d
in, Beam Valley Member- sand, day, phosphate, dolostone
atlon sand, clay, limestone, dolostone, phosphate
I dolostone,sand,day, phosphate i R )
lay, sand, limestone
lolostone, limestone, sand '
amm Member limestone, dolostone, sand, day, phosphate
d d y, h ellU 5i 41',,
tone undifferentiated limestone,,// e,,opa
GULF NASSAU EMBAYMENT
Dn oe afetdsallow Tmertiaryand, apopae ootn l
PALACHICOIJ ST. JOHNS ,"
1F,. HIGH I
Ia Platform have been defined by
n., 19,4; Miller. 1980; Scott. o 1988; Scott,
rs recognized as influencing the deposi-
:enozoic sediments in Florida do not
lfect on the surface expression of the
'logic structures include the Gulf Basin,
ia...- O .a..jJ U;mk rD.,,a..a..AflIa4t.,,-
in A uifer System
I 40 50
Surficial Aquifer System Relative Vulnerability
Floridan Aquifer System Relative Vulnerability
- More vulnerable
I Less vulnerable
Ground water is one of the most important and sensitive components of Florida's dynamic eco-
systems. It is present throughout the framework of Florida's natural systems from deep under-
ground to just below land surface. More than 700 springs that are known to exist in Florida are vivid
examples of ground water flowing into surface water bodies (Scott et al., 2004). Less obvious, but
equally important are surface-water ground-water interactions occurring beneath dry uplands, and in
lakes, rivers, streams, and along the coast. Regardless of where ground water exists and flows, it plays
a major role in ecosystem health and almost every aspect of our lives.
In Florida, we depend on ground water for domestic, municipal, agricultural, recreational and industrial
needs. The average Floridian uses more than 140 gallons of ground water per day (Solley et al., 1998) and
more than 90% of Florida's drinking water comes from ground water (Bemdt et al., 1998). With the popula-
tion of Florida growing at a rate of almost 900 people per day (U.S. Census, 2005), demands on this resour
continue to intensify. Human activities can degrade ground-water resources and it has required enormous
effort to mitigate the damage. To ensure the sustainability of Florida's ground-water resources, a balance
between human needs and environmental needs is essential.
Given that Florida's aquifer systems are the primary sources of drinking water in the state, knowledge of t
vulnerability of an aquifer system to contamination from surfaces sources of pollution is of critical importance
the vulnerability of Florida's major aquifer systems, the Florida Geological Survey has developed the Florida
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model. FAVA differs from the Environmental Protection Agency's existing I
currently utilized by several state agencies, in that the newer technique takes advantage of geographic inform
(GIS) technology and accounts for Florida's karat terrain.
The modeling method selected for evaluation of vulnerability of Florida's aquifer systems is known as Wei
This is a quantitative method for combining evidence (e.g., karat, confinement thickness, soil properties) to
variable (i.e., probability for aquifer vulnerability) using a set of training points (known occurrences). The th
consist of water-quality parameters from wells within the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's I
monitoring network. Statistically defined threshold values of parameters such as dissolved oxygen are used
point wells. Weights of Evidence easily incorporates new and available data sets to predict relative vulnera
(data driven) on the front end, easily updateable, avoids preconceptions, and can be readily validated by ind
parameters. Moreover, model-response uncertainty can be calculated. This model should not be used for s
Input into the FAVA model consists of spatial data layers (i.e., evidential themes) representing existing an
To be incorporated into the model, evidential themes must be categorized into at least two distinct classes a
butes from other evidential themes. Different evidential themes are utilized for each aquifer system. For ea
Floridan Aquifer System model include thickness of confining unit, distance to topographic depressions, and
Aquifer System, on the other hand, utilized soil permeability, distance to topographic depressions and depth
considered during the iterative modeling process for each aquifer, the evidence did not significantly improve
the final assessment. Weights are calculated based on the association between the training points and the
The response theme, or output map, for the vulnerability assessments is calculated based on the spatial r
cations and the training points. The output map displays the probability that a unit area will contain a trainir
classes of favorability or probability. In the case of FAVA, the maps reflect relative vulnerability. Results fro
advantages over an expert-driven index model like DRASTIC.
The primary goal of the FAVA project is to provide a scientifically defensible water-resource management a
help minimize adverse impacts on ground-water quality. The FAVA maps are presently used by environment
Florida's ground-water resources. Specific applications of the FAVA project include well-head protection, sc
land-use planning/zoning, and land conservation. Results of the FAVA project also serve as valuable educal
aquifer systems. Phase II of FAVA is underway, and includes refinement of statewide evidential themes, ad'
Arthur, J.D., Baker, A.E., Cichon, J.R., Wood, A.R., and Rudin, A., 2007, Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Asses
Arthur, J.D., Wood, A.R., Baker, A.E., Cichon, J.R., and Raines, G.L., 2007, A Bayesian-based Aquifer Vuln
16, issue 6, (in press).
Bemdt., M.P., Oaksford, E.T., Mahon, G.L., and Schmidt., W., 1998, Groundwater, in Fernald, EA., and Pur
State University, Institute of Public Affairs, 312 p.
Scott, TM., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P., Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland, R.E., Jones, J., Roberts,
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 66, 377 p.
Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., and Perlman, H.A., 1998, Estimated Use of Water in the United States: U.S. Geo
Census Bureau: State and County Quick Facts, 01-Feb-2005, 15:48:47 EST, www.census.gov.
Bryan, J.R., 1991, Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of Paleocana and Oligocene carbonate faces of the eastern Gulf
Coastal Plain: unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 324 p.
Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama and South
Carolina: United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-B, 91 p. plus maps.
Puri, H.. and Vemrnon, R. 0., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 5 (Revised),
Schmidt, W., 1984, Neogene stratigraphy and geologic history of the Apalachicola Embayment, Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Bulletin 58, 146 p.
Scott, T.M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p.
Scott, TM., 1991, A Geological overview of Florida: in Scott, TM., Uoyd, J. M., and Maddox, G. (eds.), Florida's Ground Water
Quality Monitoring Program-Hydrogeological Framework: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 32, p. 5-14.
Scott, TM., 1992, Coastal Plains stratigraphy: The dichotomy of biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy- A philosophical approach
to an old problem: in Scott, TM., and Allmon, W. D., (eds.) The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of southern
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 36. p. 21-26.
Sites of Geologic Interest
with a bibliography of selected geological field trips in Florida
The Florida Platform extends south- -- /"
ward from the continental United States
separating the Gulf of Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. The exposed portion of
the platform, the Florida peninsula, constitutes approximately one-half of the
Florida Platform measured between the 600 feet (200 meter) depth contour of the Central
continental shelves. The axis of the platform extends northwest to southeast approxi- Lakes
mately along the present day west coast of the peninsula. The Florida peninsula, from District
the St. Mary's River to Key West, measures nearly 450 miles (725 km). From the
Alabama-Florida line to the Atlantic coastline is approximately 370 miles (595 km).
Florida lies entirely within the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province as defined by
Fenneman (1938) and is the only state in the United States that falls completely within the
Coastal Plain. Much of the surface of Florida shows the influence of the marine pro-
cesses that transported and deposited the later Tertiary, Quaternary and Holocene sedi-
ments. Fluvial processes, although more important in the panhandle, have helped sculpt
the entire state, particularly during the lowstands of sea level, redistributing the marine
Karst processes have had a dramatic effect on Florida's landscape due to the near
surface occurrence of soluble carbonate rocks. Middle Eocene to Pleistocene carbon-
ate sediments are affected by karstification over large areas of the State. Siliciclastic
sediments, ranging in thickness from a few feet (one meter) to more than 200 feet (61
meters), overlie the karstified carbonates.
More than 700 springs are recognized in Florida with the major springs occurring within the
karstic areas of the State (Scott et al, 2004). The vast majority of the springs are located in
the Ocala Karst District, the Central Lake District and the Dougherty Karst Plain District.
The lay of the land in the State of Florida consists of east-west trending highlands in the
northern and western portions of the state and north-south trending highlands extending approxi-
mately two-thirds the length of the peninsula. Coastal lowlands occur between the highlands and
the coastline wrapping around the entire state. The highest point in the state, 345 feet (105 meters)
above mean sea level (msl) occurs in the Western Highlands near the Alabama-Florida state line in
Walton County. This is the lowest high point of any state in the United States. There are several hilltops
in the Central Highlands that exceed 300 feet (91 meters) msl in elevation.
Many visitors to the State see only the coastal lowlands and think of Florida as a very flat plain. Some
areas of the State, such as the Everglades, are remarkable for being extremely flat with very little variation in
elevation over vast areas. However, in the interior of the peninsula and in the panhandle, on prominent ridges
in the Ocala Karst and Central Lakes Districts and in the Triton Uplands District, there am areas of rolling hills
and valleys with local relief of nearly 200 feet (61 meters). These vistas stand in stark contrast to the flat profile
often associated with the typical image of Florida.
White, Vemon and Puri (1964 in Puri and Vemrnon, 1964) and White (1970) delineated the geomorphic subdivisions that
most geologists working in the state recognize. The geomorphology recognized here follows this framework with some
modification (Scott, in preparation). Physiographic subdivisions from Georgia and Alabama that can be traced into
Florida have been utilized in order to eliminate state line discrepancies.
Interstate Geomorphic Districts
The Western Highlands, Marianna Lowlands, Northern Highlands and the Eastern Valley of White, et al.
(in Puri and Vernon, 1964) and White (1970) ar portions of larger physiographic features that extend
across the state line into Alabama and Georgia. The older names for the features are employed for the
sake of consistency across state lines. The names include Southern Pine Hills, Dougherty Karst Plain,
Tifton Upland, Okeefenokee Basin District and the Barrier Island Sequence District
Road crossing paleo-sand
dunes in the Ocala Karst
LDistrict (Photo by Tom scott).
a ~ ~ tr~r
Florida's Geomorphic Districts
White (1970) recognized three major geomorphic 'zones" In peninsular Florida, the northern, central and southern zones, each characterized by distino-
tive landforms. The geomorphic districts delineated here are more genetically related areas than the broad, generalized zones of White (Scott, In prepara-
tion). The districts include the Southern Pine Hills District, the Dougherty Karst Plain District, the Apalachicola Delta District, the Tifton Upland District, the
Okefenokee Basin District, the Ocala Karst District, the Central Lake District, the Barrier Island Sequence District, the Sarasota River District, and the Ever-
glades District. Many of the geomorphic features in Florida formed in direct response to the influence of the underlying geologic framework. Also, the
major geologic structures that control the distribution pattern of the geological units exerted a strong influence on the development of these geomorphic
features. The major structures involved in the geomorphic process are the positive structures, the Chattahochee "anticline" and the Ocala Platform. The
negative features, including the Jacksonville Basin and the Okeechobee Basin, exerted little influence on the development of the surficial features.
Scott, T.M., in preparation, Geomorphic map of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series.
Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P., Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland, R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet, A.,
2004, Springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 66, 377 p.
White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula: Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.
White, W. A., Purl, H.S., and Vernon, R. 0., 1964, in Purl, H.S., and Vernon, R. 0., Summary of the geology of Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 5 (Revised), 312 p.
I* "' r ,
Industrial minerals are mined over most of "
Florida. The production of cement in Florida is Exp lanation j'- --
driven by the construction industry in response to --
development. The raw materials for cement lime, NTA
silica, alumina and iron are all found within the
state. Clay deposits are scattered over the pan- Sands
handle and the northern and central peninsula. They | Dolostone 9 H
are characterized by the proper mineralogy, purity, | Gravel and coarse sand .
and volume for commercial use in only a few loca- Limestone ,
tons. Economically valuable concentrations of Peat
heavy minerals including ilmenite, rutile, and zircon, | Shell beds, shelly sand and clay ,
among others, are produced from deposits in the | e Watpr
northeastern peninsula. They were transported to | Water
Florida from the southern Appalachians by fluvial I A O
processes and marine longshore currents and
deposited during previous high stands of sea level. Limestone I Peat
Peat is extracted from isolated wetlands in Florida | Phosphate S Cement
for various horticultural uses. The deposits of the I Clay Sand
Central Florida Phosphate District occur as a thin Fill I Shell
sheet of highly reworked marine and estuarine sedi- Fuller's earth I Soil
ments. Limestone, dolostone and shell are mined in Stone
Florida. Crushed stone is used for base material, Heavy minerals S Other
concrete and asphalt, aggregate, cement manufac- c i
turning, fertilizer, soil conditioners and rip rap. Almost
all of Florida is covered with a thin veneer of quartz
sand making it one of the state's most abundant
natural resources. Commercial quantities of gravel are associated with modem river deposits in Florida's western
panhandle. These products are mainly used in construction, including fill. The diversity of Florida's mineral industry
reflects the complexity of its geologic history.
Limestone for building
stone in Jackson
County, circa 1940.
Florida's environmental geology is influenced mainly by the lithology and characteristics of its surficial and shallow sedi-
ments. Limestone and dolostone of the westem-central peninsula and the panhandle are among the oldest rocks exposed
in the state. These rocks are part of the Floridan Aquifer System. Limestone units that occur south of Lake Okeechobee are
much younger and lie above the rocks of the Oligocene to Pliocene Hawthorn Group (a complex mixture of lithologies which
serves as a confining unit for the Floridan Aquifer System and contains limited aquifer units but is not shown on this map). These
younger limestone units vary greatly in their permeability. The limestone of the southwestern peninsula is part of the Surficial Aquifer
System or alternatively part of the Intermediate Confining Unit or Aquifer System. The limestone that underlies the southeastern pen-
insula forms much of the Biscayne Aquifer of the Surficial Aquifer System. The permeability and porosity of these shallow carbonate
rocks and their variability both horizontally and vertically are extremely important in wise stewardship of Florida's environment.
Much of the peninsula north of Lake Okeechobee and across the panhandle is blanketed with quartz sand deposits that contain varying
amounts of clay and silt. Florida's southern peninsula is characterized by shelly sediments (mixtures of shelly sand and clay along
with the occasional lenses or layers of mainly shell) often overlain by peat and/or quartz sand. An area along Florida's east
coast that is also characterized by shelly sediments is known for the occurrence of the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation,
a poorly indurated to well lithified coquina that was used extensively
in the construction of historical structures. Gravels and coarse sand
are associated with marine terrace deposits of the panhandle. In
much of Florida these sands and shell units comprise the Surficial Aquifer System.
Fuller's earth mine (site 10), Gadsden
County, (Photo by Tom Scott).
Peat, an accumulation of organic matter in wetland environments, is shown from Lake Okeechobee south to the Florida Bay.
This deposit is the Florida Everglades. The linear deposit of peat that is parallel to the east coast of Florida and just north of
Lake Okeechobee is the marsh that makes up the headwaters of the St. Johns River. Peatlands are the foundation of wetland
habitat. Organic matter in wetlands also has the ability to sequester heavy metals from waters that flow into it
Florida's recoverable mineral resources lie close to the earth's surface. Limestone and dolostone that are mined for
numerous uses including crushed stone are part of the Floridan Aquifer System and the Surficial Aquifer System. Likewise
abundant sand deposits are often frequently part of the Surficial Aquifer System. A knowledge and understanding of the envi-
ronmental characteristics of Florida's shallow geology is essential if its abundant mineral resources are to be exploited
97 4 i .
S,, 7m ,N'
t'= M Falling Water Sink (site 4), Speleothem in main cave, Florida Caverns Main spring, Ichetuckn
I : n St Washington County. (Photo by Tom State Park (site 6), Jackson Couty. (Photo (site 23), Columbia Cc
Scott) by Harley Means). Means).
C% 27 1 "=
8 . .. NI -.,
.1.Bayuff..eakonby4.2 es s o.la s I ( 1FloridaRoadways *
in eastern Pensocila, Escaniba County. The pain is stated on a bluffawhich 20. Suwannee RiverStab Pari, U.S. 90 and the Suwainee Rrver, H nt
w esternyhighlands. Features sandy bottom oered 2aj.erSites 2ne Floda- Tunpi k
-1. ..' .
KegysciSa day tteSkeRie Glass N mtere boatS patsdegeesoespg reek
,- = ... -, ,: Explanation ::
h. Bay Butfs Park on b CTy 4.2 miles south of Intrst m a0 (ex it 17) on U.S. 90, V ts.Seuviersl eeanr ests C Ehei txamatea sdt o da mesa rxada feeh d .(32)
in eastern Pensacoa, Escambia C.ty" The park is situated on a bluffwhich
expoes 40 to 50 felt nsof bedded, sandy and gravelnly day of he Citroonell For- County Situated at the contend o of the thl2362121.acoche ad Suwannee Rivers. ROUTE TYPE
maton ad reworked units. Free. this park features exposures of Suwaee Uliestone along the rivr anks. '
Admission fee Phone (386) 362-2721. 44U.S. Interstate '
24. FallWatRier State Parkt, four m soutonf Bidge Rd., Ht, Snta Rosa :~. godaaranao wsidLe goo 0 4 llt
County. The r Blawa tr is a u ique, shallow, tann d ri flowing in Florida's U.S. Routete
western highlands. Features sadybotom, composed of alluviumestone. 21.A uinet eRa ,HanL Car ouny.O sofHawlhmGupsedmenlsand Florida's T uiei ;i,
from adjacent Plistother sinks aene its, darktani tin Entrance fee. Swawme Lwnmusne xpcansosedafbrr ftL ime -igt gensoua- 43 Ssyr Slnci ao SmiesesthoaOcb, at 5656 E %er 14SpD gs BMsvd Bea (SR.ch, F Catrdasny .Trn
large, white sandbars Bedvieed by canoe. Admission fee. (850) 98MW d Baetobsa atbw a rfmaboator County.SimrSprng andthe aisodd al9sp4gs. e3emoretha6 5005m2n State Route50l0mt
gwkns fwaer a daF iD te Sifer mer. Gls Ibcdxlbo peodeo g ss d e s; .
5. PonS oe Leon Sprdings State Park,Ponal State dLe Holmes ne 2SWo f asnkzmiespW fy ff C of theuAnty.i oIam'River aweinor etFal loridat 1983Is Miles :
haPortlf mil Joe th of US. 9 on CR 181U.S. 98, o spring vn t in Ocaa Limrthsone Is LoMe ofa amessthe Cody EspmeotDe a Schmidt W, Kirk, H. Bishop, EW, Wa ener J. R., anaddl, Aei, chaged.nd Cleveland,(3
expa 14 mliongellonsaoft eshwter a day into a shallow spr ingpodo ndmis- tized H oF Grup inthe riFr bed readssa onenvte ssadsra Fem-R~ NI pu 23 2121. 0NI l 10 20 30 40 50f 60 tn
northern i 83 4281. tiaand cedepent ne camping arse. has been er opsledgesand rla aaes a ie d
Sad camping e dsaged(850) 227-1327. alen there (86)397-2733 44. Fred DSprings, Kelly Par, is a county pa sixk, 2 miles N. Be ofh S App (SR A1AR. Florida, 3 K A outheaster Geological society Field Trip Guidebook
w mbtb aeag d ta m north d Omn, d Beange Count si CRok Spring Sflowd out ofthe base pa umhigh ciof number33,109 p.sa
4. Falling Wter State Par~k four mie south of CMplari off SR. 77, In hWash. h ksstec8 do Forida and a adipayon fe sr dHdahnesad lGo eorm. 0 20 40 60 80 100
r County. Hem a small dream falls into a deep, 20ootwidetubular sink 23 I duees Spiengs tate Pate SLR 238, Fa mss othest dR W, e feIse bpsF Pe 6764s. idakCaverns Staters State Rec
waW exposes Chattoahochee Fonrein and Suwannee naimes n .n Aa Combia dCn Tugti and canoeing the deadly Icheluke 1deMaddox,
nature talloops paother sinks and s in theicinity. Ennc deaee.hosphat Musum 101 d O im ong the T 45 M anFirstd S c, one 1040 M m d., D Beach, ervC Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guide-
www.ftbaddeparloV rlinabftsde L rlcmir wasa clsdisis for l eiscei lrdalbe krlss, lsuto olck is Pl ihd k-m Fealumsthe.61hS1 ofeanet Floda gat gmrndsk ad oharloal ss Admision
thePa Ad e (38) 47 0. ee. (36) SR 2537 60 ineetion Mulbess Polk Count This all museum number 45 p.
5. sJoseph Penirnsua(T.H. Stone MemorialStaePark), 12 miessSW of -wwwbidasmW3epagtds pgs b Cenozoicgeology ofthe ApalachicolaRiver aa, northwest Florida, 1983,
Port St. JoeAon S.l 30E oil U.S. 98, Gulf C y, This unique no arth 46 lespie MA n dr aal Sn rivers campus, Unit8403, Da Vduosi Schmidt, W., Kirk, H., Bishop, E.W., Wagner, J. R., Clewall, A., and Cleveland,
trending sand spit featusi high, croasbeddad, whie quartz sand dunss and 24. OLeeo SlaS Park and a8p01t River Roe Prsseaue Staie Park US 441,12 miles Cout. Fseeuia age n ri o -d e rnerle spemin ens Fresadrisin (386) MA., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 25, 96 p.
beach onserans, punua by rve sntvening ales. Tha Pts onpkes the eas mf SOPgp Cosbia dCat.hLocagSad on ttheSaya Fe fRo this pak has 822-7330.o p' uean RPpi, Sunheas G
northem tip ofthe spit and except afor e camping arePe, has beeA lef unde- n l espoes dOca Limes n o o n ou5s wat and ry sinks, ad an abandoned Geologic field studies of the coastal plain in Alabama, Georgia, and
veloped. Entce and camping fees charged. (850) 227-1327. ikesre quarry. VW Oleno Sta Pak the Santa Fe Riverdsappea ardflows 47. Rock Springs, Kelly Park, is a county park six miles north of Apopka on C.R. Florida, 1993, Kish, S.A.. Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook
wwstatepSocgiseyFepheldefauLfTnunndeprnd for morehan huiriseeos 4, iptag. beoms a suaoesh a 435, Orange County. Rock Springs flow out of the base of a 20 foot high ciff of number 33,10p.
6. Florida. Caveros State Park threa miles Forat A lum on S.R 17, ar I:e Stalle .as am-issonfee. (386) 454-1853. Hawthorn Group dolomite. Admission fee.
6. Florida Caverns State Park three smiles north of Mariannaon S 167, httpJM-ww.orangecountyfl.nerdept/ossrvcs/parks/ParkDetails.asp?ParklD=22 Karst Features of Florida Cavems State Park and Falling Water State Rec-
fJackson untyonain an C ground l erearion Area; Jackson and Weashington Counties, Florida, 1993, Maddox,
n view deoa e and olhersedion fo developed in limest en of the 25 Ginnne Snnga, High Spings, lachua CounCy LTahi me futesee mills nestthlfl ndfHsisbrugFoouny.uewthnc lutIdeusrrya4a01sEadsnFow3eralFee.,R(S.RJ.
Ocala and Mariama iesones. esigated a State Geolgic Park F iis ise sallo rge sim co ll sections. The museum is open Tuesorday through Saurday from 10:00 am. ter In teraction along the Cody Sate Geologicarpl Society Field
admissionnd cavetrfees. (850482-95or s ng andvig for erUedSCUBA in 33, op 5:00 p.m. and useersgsad n days f rom noon to 5:00 p.mos Admission fe. (941) 746 31. Tp Guidebook 43,30 p.
tlon region of the Suwannee River basin near Live Oak, Rodda, 1998,
wwvw.bdastapaf.agfiwk mvens/default und eca eslorn i Ocalal dine. Em i alrf dla oul- 49. Mulberry Phosphate Museum, 10 1ii SE First St (Hwy 37), one block south of winkler, W., and Davis, K, Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guide-
htandig vienturod adanso d by cared c-ee11 Admision fee and adothe S.R. 37oS.R. 60 intersection, Mulberry, Polk County. This small museum bok number 35, 45 p.
7. um Bluff, two miles north of Brislol off S.R. 12, Liberty County. Part of a tionlAees frSCUBAdving. (36) 454-7188. innttrK features displays on dragline phosphate mining and fossils fonnd in the nearby
Nature Conservancy preserve, this 130 foot high bluff, situated on the east mines. Open Tuesday through Saturday from 10am to 4:30pm. (863) Geologic exposures along the upper Apalachicola River, 2002, Means, G.H.,
bank of the Apaiadodia River has one ofWtb bsst natural geologic xpures 26. Peacod Spris SRMPat 5mies nor0h1Of layo on SR 51, Sfimea County. 425-2823. Scott T.M., Means, D.B., Means, R.C., and Meegan, R.P., Southastem Geo-
In Forida. Fosstliferous beds of the Chipola Formation, AJum Buff Group and lThs pak oias exoelentexanoaes I subfau and sdrba karstbns ud- logical Society Field Trip Guidebook 43, 39 p.
Jackson Bluff Fornaton, as well asthe Citronelle Formation and Pleistocene ing hormao sprnisVa mxr spring nn, si= Id and numartm ssalsiftsand 50. South Florida Museum, 201 10th Street West (U.S. 41 and 10th Street, W),
terrac deposits, arexpossd in the bluff face. A3,5 mileTGarden of Eden depresonors Thesilx ssd springslordhereapa patdtm 3um Bradenton, Manatee County. This museum features excellent shell and fossil The Floridan Aquifer within the Maranna Lowlands, 2003, Froede, C.R. Jr.,
Trail circuits the preserve. The gedogical sequence is best observed from the unde ater amsystem kol in FIo Itis also one doteologest undervf acma collections. The museum is open Tuesday through Saturday from 10:00 a.m. to Means, G.H., Ricker, B.R., Maddox, G.L., Southeastern Geological Sciety Field
river. For current enty information, contact (850) 643-2756 or syAmsin heent reconlin Urd Daft with aut33,000feetcif 5:00 p.m., and Sundays from noon to 5:00 p.m. Admission fee. (941) 746o131. Trip Guidebook 43, 30 p.
www.nature.agMmstatslforlam r esa v/5 -,:-,-.- -=-s ,e5:00 plm.,nned Sundaysar obym noon497-2511. www..sou o6-3damuseum.org.
htmln d e d 3 Geomorphic Influence of scarps in the Suwannee River basin, 2005,
51 Wrim Inland Rtatp RnM A2 Cgliar r-lunr lhnunh mnvifld hu Iinainh Copeland, R., Scott, T, Coryak, R., Upchurch, S., King, J., Means, G.H., Katz,
8. Torreya State Park, 13 miles north of Bristol off S.R 271 in Liberty County,
is situated on a 150-feet high uf oveookg the Apdachicoa River. The
Miocene-age Toeya Formation (Hathom Group) is exposed several places
in the bluff, along the river bank and atthe end oftheW ng Ridge hiking
tria. Open 7 days, 8 AM until sundown. Enrance fee, (850) 643-2674.
9. Chattahoochee, US. 90, Gadsden County. The Early Miocene-age Chatta-
hoochdee Fomation limestone Is eoposed In a cut along the entrance road to
the Jim Woouiff Dam on the east bank of the Apalachiola River.A similar
at is visile on the access rad to the old VtWoy Bridge south of U.S. 90.
10. Fullers earth mines, Quincy, Gadsden County. Fulle earth clay
lgors belngig to the Hawthorn Group s mixed h pits north of
Quffc. This minig area is the southwestemrenn s of the tMeigQuin-
ltapulgus Fulle earth disMiIwhh trends northeastward Into Georgia
Silicied trees, as as vertsbrate fossils have been unearthed In these
mines, but are generally rare. Mine access status varies
11. Museum of Floridda History, 500 S. Bronugh SL, Tallahassee, FL
Features relics and displays depi Flong rida's past including Indian artifacts
and the Wakulla madon sk (a Pleistocene elephantike animal)
which was found in Wakulla Springs Free admission. (850) 488-1484.
12 Florida Geoogical Survey, corner of Woodvrard and Tennessee Streets,
Talahassee. As the state's primary geological research and data collection
agency, the Survey maintains a statewide well log data base, core and well
sample repository, mlcrofossi collections, and ol and gas data. Various
Florida rock and mineral spedmens and a Miocene dugong skeleton are on
display in the lobby. Publications on Florida Geology are avatable for disifbu-
ton in Survy brary. (850)48-9380.
13 19. The odville Karst Plain, southem Leon, kVtku and Taylor
Coruntes Abroad, latto gently-rollingkart plain undedai by shallow St
Marks Formation and Suwannenee me s and suaced with relict Pelst-
cene marine sands. This unique region contains outstanding examples of
sinkholes and associated wet cave systems, disappearing sreamrns, springs
(oth on land and submarine), and natural bridges. Site numbers 13-19 lie
witahi the bounds of this kast plain.
13 Leon Sinks Geokc Area, Apladchicola National Forest, 8 miles south
of Tallahassee on U. S. 319, Leon County Mbiocene through Recent sedi-
ments are exposed in several water filed sinks. A hiding bai through relict
Pleistocene marine dunes or bars loops around the mostspectacular sinks
and a sinking stream. Atthe tailhead an terpretive exhibit explains the local
geology and biology. Parking fe. (850)942-9300.
14. Blue Sik, atthe intersection of SR 61 and Highway 319, Leon County. A
Naonal Forest reeat site, thi sinkhole lake es these t largerwet sinks
of te northern Woodville Karast Plain. Access status varies.
15. Emerald Sink, south side of New Light Church Road, one mle west of SR
319, Wakulla County. A deep, circular waer-fled sink conn being at depth to
the Woodvlle Karst Plain cave system, one of the longest underwater caves
in Florda. This system is known to extend from the Leon Sinks area of Leon
County southeastwad toward Wakulla Springs. Miocene St Marks Forma-
tion rims the sinkhole.
16. Edward Ball Wakulla SprigsStae Park, S.R. 61 and S.R. 267, Wakui
County. Wakla Spring ows outofa large vent in the Suwannee Limestone
and ms Ihe a of the akulla Rver. Numerous Pleistocee vete-
brate remains have been found In the Sprng cave and pool. Colectig is not
permitted. Glass bottom boatstour he spring podo and a jungle crse high-
liIhts calwiikt. Aowmmodations ae avalableatthe park klodge. Admi-
sion fee plus additional fee for boat rdes. (850) 224-5950.
17. Natual Bridge Battefeld Hstoric State Park, s miles east of Woodvie,
of S.R. 383 at 7502 Natural Bridge Road, Wakulla County. TheSt Marks
River sinks underground on the northern side of his small park, lows south-
ward undergound through a linestone cave, and rises a few hundred yards
south to continue its course as a surface stream to the Gulf. Miocene St
Marks Formation limestone visible in the banks and sink. (850) 922-6007.
18. Spring Creek submarine springs group, offshore from Spring Creek com-
munity, iWakulla County A series of submarine springs expel freshwatr into
Apalachee Bay. Best viewed from a boat, the larger springs produce notice-
able boils at the bay surface.
19. Audla Rier and Sits, southern Jefferson and Taylor Counties. One of
few remaining natural and unspo ed coastal rivers, Oligocene Suwannee
Limestone arops ot along its bank. The river offers deep springs and rapids
and a uniue series of sinks and rises. Emerging from swaps nearthe
Georgia-Florida state line, the Audlla River ls southwestward, passing
ver the Audlla Rapids, formed by shoallng oerdolomized Suwannee Ume-
stone ledges The steam then disappears underground one half mte north of
Goose Pasture Road. Fora distance of several miles, the river appears and
disappears h a series of "rises' and 'sinks The river continues this pattern
until the fhal rise at Nutall Rise 05 mile north of the US 98 bridge. Part of the
Florida Trail follows the Auilla Sinks portion of the rier. Day hikes along the
sinks can start atthe trail rising on Goose Pasture Road. Look forFlorida
Trair signs near the cate grate. Free. httpapalachee.foridatil.org/bg-
27. Big Tal sld Stte Pa 20 nies east ddewtaM Jacsnvfwon A1ANori,
Ekvo C ULiquez1 Lk ateqosuosfr hunm asped an BatQ oc
Beach thepark (904) 251-2320.
28 ulle Tabbo and S tPark Off ad 358A 17 mes eas DuvalCxru The
park sska saexoellanqc as asardd sarda tibneu -sAna
ecospsens. (904)251-2320. wmh idhatepafcglMl9etolislandd dm
29. DvN tppqGed pc Sa Patk, dSR 232, ie rr NW dofiesve,
Aachua Caonty. Alage, 120-footdeepsitkoeexposes Moeneob Recetage
sesdnen lsVtos may deend tothe bIolthesofte sit ona vmdm stanei y. fnr-
pie itrrmna mdltesie. Designed a SBt Gelogic a Sb AMissin fee (386)
462-7905. Wi "Iat p gria Urtoppb 'tdp
30. Fblorida IMmmum dNanld Hsi tyPon Hal 34t1 SBet and Road UkiUer-
sily of Fha canps Gaa&te. The Sta MIseum cadb much of the cimat
paldeo icaland Xatvq ogicda vk in Fbid dOn play ammany ifuesg
Frida s, inpre dspays and a eosucFmn of a F kmestnecave.
Freeadtissio (352)846-200M0. w n.fthmuedu
31. Pa nes Riie sei Sit Park US 441, McaMpy,A chu Couny. Payne
Paie was onoethe basin tr Abch Liae, Wich drained nabyplti aeaimsn
sirk in helae 1800W stand fish and srdsm amms which had n mgu lus
ac=s e s Soetien as t led v waleronly imn y, usualy ar periods
of heavy Atai A viswro rdsoe inerpiBe dslays ad etk issoie
32 Manasee Spngs SM u PaK sd rie uest od Chiedla on S&R 320, Levy C ty
Tisepa issl tedi h SuvameeseR, and fhres a agefreshwtr spring,
mxdaer b ae, aind oa aops d caa Lkness nia &Mn fhe. (352)4936072
331 Des Den, 530 NE 180th Ave. V on, LevyCount. Apitae aOacmn feair-
ing a ler-sled kst dowfamed n Eocene Ocala L tonsa Astaicas leads
mderguind toa dbke fpl m htenid def lhftewsrpol. The hbrsang
caaes and staad best viewmd by SCUBAdikg. Asigficatl Pleisene
veitebrtesslbed a su coMred atdep hitiein tale. AOrrissimand drg
fees (352) 523344. w dev d
34. R ow S ings St PaK 3 ries noi of Dnne onthe east sdf U.S.
Hwy.41, aron Co Aserieofpisspigs,f o igfmtieOcau oe
fnnteheaate o flthe Ranbwi er. Oca Lamesbneeqxuiws aevewable
aoye ard hin e ier. (352) 4898503
35 Jackssmn tseum of Scinh and is 1025 Gul ki.e DrwJacoe, FL
32207. Feabeslocd wterate and ivub fesas, asass ypica bc Fbrid ro
Aditsion e a (904) 396674. wmwahentog
36.St.Agusie, U.S. 1, RaFerCoy.St AugusisistheseofdCaslodeSan
Mamos, a 171h oeiry Span~is ftdodtucedAofnasasia Fornlon oqxux a ud
fhm nery quantAes issin he btof 9048296506 t234
37. Anastasia Sa Pak fbabes an orignd Anasia FrmaFon coqr quawry,
onedsealon e isand red by hetSpa, as a sa reofdbig matefriial
fee 1340AA1ASouh SL, St slne, Fbrida 32080, (904)461-2033.
38. Mi Roes Gold Head Brand Sta Paik 5 is orileasoKeytre Het a
6239 SR 21,Clay Cty. Adeep i ne(uls hn Ptth cesandhis itrants
ofanciut maine sad du shinhe cenbatilhlandsdfFbida The parkaso
aontanss ea.esrp bas romafshesandsinhole aes. Adrission ha (352)
39 Ravine Gadens Skt Pak P"akPu Ram Codnty. Loaed a 1600 Twgg
Steet 12 ne souh of SR 20, the gardens fease a iaang 50 ot deep ravines
and seephea iPteisoWem sednens. Admission fee. (386)329721.
..ni..s.a. e gAarhisgar flLctn
40. Genm Cow Sps 20 mlessolhfd adon on US 17, Clay Coty. A150
fot deep, sulfaous spg s sbaMd h a city park and and pales aonte wast
batk dofe SL Johns u R one biock north ofhe US 17iSR 16 lseclon. Acikir,
ed spng poo about20t rn bmer, supes aom ysmiii pod and
ul&nAlmiaamt nea StJohsRivr. Fiee
41.W~fnh goOaksGadesS Pa 2 a s2soui cfMariieandadt64SON.
Ocernshon B k(SR.A1A, Pam Coast Faglr Coa n, d lee The FRocks, an
heirdnse ofee Acastasaiae Fmain ooquwhadoig teshos hr.messent e.
42.k a Spings Readien a, Oc a Naion Forest SR 19, Main Conly.At
fti puttC wig aa, asaie sprig tioutMs f ed q Am Group car-
bona The v racoumlas in aeld qWf pod and enpts houh ashrt
run in Lake GegAdiione changed. Inren adadableat(352)
wwwkt.fedBj&LSkti6 al sri a atiu wdenoasHttrprk
51. Marco Island, State Road 92, Collier County. Although modified by develop-
ment, a spectacular ellptical dune over 25 feet high encirdes Barfield Bay, at
the southern end of the island. Paved roads follow the crest along a portion of
the dune, which has the highest elevations south of Lake Okeechobee.
52. Blowing Rocks Preserve, three miles north of Jupiter Inlet Colony, on S.R.
A1A, Jupiter Island, Martin County. Coquina of the Anastasia Formation is
exposed along the shoreline. This formation crops out sporadically from Boca
Raton north to St. Augustine. During extreme high tides and after winter storms,
seas break against the rocks and force plumes of saltwater through eroded
holes up to 50 feet skyward, an impressive sight for which the preserve was
named. Beach access fee. (561) 744-6668
53. Mami and vicinity, Dade County. Numerous quarry pits west of Miami
expose beds of the Miami Limestone. The Silver Bluff shoreline, which repre-
sents a Pleistocene wave-cut scarp in the Miami Limestone, is visible along
South Bayshore Drive between Mercy Hospital and Coral Gables. A large, pub-
lically accessible exposure is in Alice Wainwright Park on Brickell Avenue just
north of the Viscaya Mansion, off Bayshore Drive and S.E. 32nd Road. Good
exposures of oolitic Miami Limestone also occur under the Ingraham Highway
bridge at the Coral Gables Canal in Coral Gables, and at the Miami MetroRail
station on Coral Way.
54. Everglades National Park, S.R. 9336, south of Homestead, Dade and
Monroe Counties. Floored in Pleistocene Miami Limestone, the Everglades is a
large shallow freshwater basin fed by overland sheet flow. Information is avail-
able at the visitor center near the Park entrance. Admission fee, (305)
55. Key Largo and the Upper Florida Keys, U.S. 1, Monroe County. The upper
Keys, north of Big Pine Key, are comprised of Key Largo Limestone, a dead
Pleistocene coral reef. Well preserved coral heads are visible in canal cuts and
in quarries on Key Largo and Windley Key. Glass bottom boat trips to view the
modern living reef offshore depart from John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park
(milepost 102.5, U.S. 1). Admission fee to park and boat rides. (305) 451-1202.
56. Windley Key Fossil Reef Geological State Park is located on the bayside at
Mile Marker 85.5, just south of the Snake Creek drawbridge, Monroe County.
The land was originally purchased by Henry Flagler in 1908 to quarry limestone
rock for the Overseas Railroad bed and bridge approaches. The park offers
visitors the unique opportunity to view an ancient coral reef formation in Key
Largo Limestone and explore the historic remains of Flagler's quarrying activi-
ties. Designated a State Geologic Site. Entrance fee. (305) 664-2540.
57. Lower Keys, Big Pine Key to Key West, Monroe County. The lower Keys are
comprised of Miami Limestone, which underlies Florida Bay and resurfaces on
the west side of Big Pine Key. The Key Largo Limestone Miami Limestone
contact was once exposed at Big Pine Key, but is now covered.
The following is a compilation of selected Florida field trip guidebooks. They are
organized by approximate section of the state in which each route lies. Many of
the guidebooks are not widely disseminated but may still be obtained directly
from the geological society that sponsored the trip. A few have been reproduced
and are available online. Most contain road logs and/or descriptions of geologic
features observable on each tip mute. Development and land ownership
changes have affected the geologic sites listed in the earlier publications, and
some may no longer be accessible. Additional fieldtrip routes, especially those
conducted by various education Institutions, may also be available on the
Internet via an appropriate web search.
Geology of western Florida, 1945, Rainwater, E.H., Herring, D.G. Jr., Ericson,
D.B., Miami Geological Society 3rd Field Trip Guidebook, 93 p.
A summary of the geology of panhandle Florida and a guidebook to the
surface exposures, 1956, Vernon, R.O., Puri, H.S., and Calver, J.C., Florida
Geological Survey, prepared for the Tallahassee meeting of the Southeastern
Section of the Geological Society of America, 83 p.
A summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the Cenozoic
exposures of a portion of the state, 1952, Gunter, H. (compiler), Florida Geo-
logical Survey, prepared for the field trip of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Asso-
ciation of American State Geologists, 123 p.
Mlocne-Pllocene series of the Georgia-Floda area, 1966, Brooks, H.K.,
Gremillion, L.R., Olson, N.K., and Puri, H.S., Southeastern Geological Society
12th Annual Field Conference Guidebook, 94 p.
Geologic review of some north Florida mineral resources, 1971, Pirkle,
E.C., Yoho, W.H., Hendry, C.W., Gamer, T.E. Jr., Fairchild, R.W., and Isphord-
ing, W.C., Southeastern Geological Society 15th Field Trip Guidebook, 98 p.
Kart hydrogeology and Miocene geology of the upper Suwannee River
basin, Hamilton County, Florida, 1981, Knapp, M., Copeland, R.E., Scott,
T.M., Ceryak, R., Price, D. and Bumson, T, Southeastern Geological Society
Field Trip Guidebook number 23, 36 p.
Cenozoic vertebrate and Invertebrate paleontology of north Florida, 1982,
Smith, D.L, Randazzo, A.F., Jones, D.S., Lindquist, R.C., and Mac Fadden,
BJ., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 24, 64 p.
B., Mirti, T., Kaufman, B., and Zwanka, W., Southeastern Geological Society
Field Trip Guidebook 44, 56 p.
Karat hydrogeology of the Woodville Kart Plain, 2006, Wakulla and St
Marks River Basins, Kincaid, T.R., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip
Guidebook 46, 13 p.
Geology of west-central Florida, 1947, Rainwater, E.H., and Vernon, R.O.,
Southeastern Geological Society 5th Field Trip Guidebook 71 p.
Late Cenozoic stratigraphy and sedimentation of central Florida, 1960, Purin,
H. S., Southeastern Geological Society 9th Field Trip Guidebook 134 p.
Miocene-Pliocene problems of peninsular Florida, 1967, Brooks, H.K., Pirkle,
E.C., and Fountain, R.C., Southeastern Geological Society 13th Field Trip
Guidebook, 36 p.
Geology and peohydrolgy of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal area, 1970,
Vernon, R.O., Faulkner, G.L., Purl, H. S., Banks, J.E., and Raves, W.D., South-
eastern Geological Society 14th Field Conference Guidebook, 80 p.
Space age geology terrestrial applications, techniques and training, 1972,
Pirkle, E.C.,Yoho, W.H., Pirkle, WA., May, J.P., Brooks, H.K., and Trask, N.J.,
Southeastern Geological Society 16th Field Conference Guidebook, 54 p.
VHydrogeology of west-central Florida, 1975, Wilson, W.E., Parker, G.G., Motz,
.H., Hutchinson, C.B., Stewart, J.W., Fernandez, M., Hunn, J.D., Crum, F.H.,
Hudson, H.E., Jr., Cawley, S.L., Boatwright, B., and Allman, D.W., Southeastern
Geological Society Guidebook 17, 88 p.
Mid-Tertiary carbonates, Citrus, Levy and Marion Counties, west-central
Florida, 1976, Hunter, M., Banks, J., Winston, G.O., and Randazzo, A.F., South-
eastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 18, 102 p.
Environment of the Central Florida Phosphate District 1977, MacGill, P.L.,
Nettles, S., Wilson, W.E., Breedlove, B.W., Adams, S.R., Johnson, W., Gurr,
T.M., and Crissinger, D.B., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guide-
book number 19, 76 p.
Hydrogeology of south-central Florida, Brown, M.P., 1978, Southeastem
Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 20, 122 p.
Holocene geology and man in Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties, Florida,
1980, Upchurch, S.B. (compiler), Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip
Guidebook number 22, 72 p.
Survey of central Florida geology, 1981, Meeder, J., Moore, D., Harlem, P.,
Hunter, M. and Webb, S., Miami Geological Society 1981 Fieldtrip, 44 p.
The Central Florida Phosphate District, 1983, Geological Society of America
Fieldtrip Guidebook, March 16, 1983, 96 p.
Heavy mineral mining in northeast Florida and an examination of the Hawthorn
Group and Post-Hathorn clastic sediments, 1988. Pirkle, FL., and Reynolds.
J.G., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 29, 76 p.
Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River basin of
north Florida and south Georgia, 1989, Morgan, G.S., Southeastern Geologi-
cal Society Field Trip Guidebook number 30, 60 p.
Hydrogeology of the Western Santa Fe River Basin, 1991, Scott, T.M., Ellins,
K., Kincaid, T, Hisert. R., Johnson, NA., Davison, CA., Wenninkhof, R.H.,
Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook number 32, 67 p.
Florida phosphate deposits, 1989, Scott T.M. and Cathcart, J., Fieldtrip guide-
book T 178, 28th International Geological Congress: Washington, American
Geophysical Union, 52 p.
The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan Aquifer System
in Florida, 1989, Scott, TM., Arthur, J., Rupert, F., and Upchurch, S., Feldtrip
guidebook T 185, Tampa to Tallahassee, 28th International Geological Congress:
Washington, American Geophysical Union, 78 p.
Central Florida Phosphate District, stratigraphy and paleontology, 1994,
Tihansky, A., Winkler, W., Paugh, J. and Crissinger, D., Southeastern Geological
Socety/AIPG Field Trip Guidebook number 34b, 6 p.
The upper Hillsborough River basin, 1998, Flannery, S., Jones, G.,
Thompson, D., Blood, D., Wilson, B., Sharrock, G., and Peterson, R., Southeast-
em Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook number 37b, 13 p.
Carbonate Deposits In South Florida, 1954, Ginsburg, R.N. and Schroeder,
M.C., Southeastern Geological Society 81h Field Trip Guidebook, 48 p.
Late Cenozoic Stratigraphy and Sedimentation of Central Florida, 1960,
Purl, H. S., Southeastern Geological Society 9th Field Trip Guidebook, 134 p.
Environments of coal formation (or pet deposits of the Everqlades) 1964,
Spackman, W., Scholl, D.W. and Taft, W.H., Miami Geological Society, Geologi-
cal Society of America pre-convention fieldtrip, November 16-18, 1964, 67 p.
Living and fossil reef types of South Florida, 1964, Hoffmelster, J., Jones, J.,
Milliman, J., Moore, D. and Multer, H., Miami Geological Society, A guidebook
for Fieldtrip No. 3, Geological Society of America Convention, 28 p.