<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Structure and geologic setting
 Physiographic setting
 Proposed physiographic divisio...
 Stratigraphy
 Eocene series
 Miocene series
 Paleoecology of the miocene
 Recent series
 Reference
 Index


FGS



Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094051/00001
 Material Information
Title: Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures
Series Title: Special publication - Florida Geological Society ; 5
Physical Description: ix, 312 p. : ill., maps (part fold. in pocket) ; 23cm.
Language: English
Creator: Puri, Harbans Singh
Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912- ( joint author )
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: State of Florida, State Board of Conservation, Division of Conservation, Division of Geology, Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1964
Edition: Rev.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 293-305.
General Note: Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harbans S. Puri and Robert O. Vernon.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000100853
oclc - 01099758
notis - AAL6319
System ID: UF00094051:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Structure and geologic setting
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Physiographic setting
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Proposed physiographic divisions
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Stratigraphy
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
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        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Eocene series
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 113
        Page 114
    Miocene series
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
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        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    Paleoecology of the miocene
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
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        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    Recent series
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Reference
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
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        Page 305
        Page 306
    Index
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
Full Text


STATE OF
STATE BOARD OF
DIVISION OF


FLORIDA
CONSERVATION
GEOLOGY


FLORIDA
Robert


GEOLOGICA
O. Vernon,


L SURVEY
Director


SPECIAL


PUBLICATION


SUMMARY


OF THE GEOLOGY OF


FLORIDA


AND


A GUIDEBOOK


TO THE CLASSIC


EXPOSURES


Harbons


By
5. Purl and


Robert 0.


Revised


TA LLAHASSE E
1964


NO. 5


Vernon











5-5-7dJ'S
cF^(tc

fl 0 ^

p C1&t+


Completed manuscript received
October 15, 1964
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee












PREFACE


Since the publication of Cooke's "Geology of Florida" in 1945,
a wealth of new information on the geology of the state, mostly by the
members of the Florida and U.S. Geological Surveys, has been published.
This additional information is scattered over several publications, some
of them not readily available. This new knowledge has not only added
considerably to the accurate interpretation of the geologic history of
Florida but has also created a marked interest on the part of geologists to
visit and study Florida exposures. This renewed interest has resulted
in the increasing demand by the various professional societies, academic
institutions, and students for a general guidebook to classic exposures of
the state. The earlier guidebooks issued by the Southeastern Geological
Society and the Florida Geological Survey were prepared for a portion
of the state, and most of them are out of print. It is hoped that this
guidebook will be of help to future students of Florida geology in finding
the various exposures.

A summary of the geology of the state appears with the guidebook.
This summary is not intended to be a treatise of the geology of the state,
but a resume of what is known to date. The exposures are numbered
consecutively as they appear in the guidebook chronologically. These
stops are located on three maps (pis. 9-11). Their exact location,
together with brief road logs, appears in the insets.

The writers are indebted to their colleagues of the Division of
Geology, State Board of Conservation and the U. S. Geological Survey-
Ground Water Branch for help in field problems, stimulating discussions,
proofing of copy and preparation of illustrations. We have drawn freely
from published works of many people, and Paul and Esther Applin have
generously summarized their work on the Mesozoic sediments of Florida.
Stanley J. Olsen compiled the vertebrate check lists, and unpublished
data from studies made by William Yon, Charles Hendry and Ray Gremillion
have been used. These data will be published as geologic reports of
Jefferson, Leon and Gadsden counties. Mr. Gremillion also X-rayed
several clay samples.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface ........................

Structure and Geologic Setting .....

Physiographic Setting ............

The Central Highlands .......

The Northern Highlands ......

M arianna Lowlands ..........

The Coastal Lowlands .......

Proposed Physiographic Divisions .

Stratigraphy ....................

Cryptozoic Era ..............

Pre-Cambrion System .....

Paleozoic (?) or Pre-Cambri

Paleozoic Era ...............

Ordovician System .......

Lower Ordovician ...

Middle Ordovician ...

Si lurian (?) System .......

Middle or Upper Siluria

Devonian System ........

Middle (?) Devonian .

Mesozoic Era ................

Triassic System .........

Diabase and Basalt .

Unnamed Red Beds ..

Jurassic System .........

Cretaceous Period ...........

Lower Cretaceous System .

Comanche Series ....

Upper Cretaceous System .

Tuscaloosa Formation

Atkinson Formation .

Eutaw Formation ....

Beds of Austin Age ..

Beds of Taylor Age ..

Fauna .........

Lawson Limestone ...

Fauna ..........

Beds'of Navarro Age (?


........................... .....

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"Cretaceous and older rocks in the

Peninsula," by P. L. Applin and E.

Cenozoic Era ............................

Tertiary System ......................

Paleocene Series ........ ......

Cedar Keys Formation ........

Fauna ..................

Undifferentiated Midway Stage .


..........

..........
subsurface 1

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Eocene Series ..................


...........4 4 4 .......


Oldsmar Limestone .... ......... ................. .
Undifferentiated Wilcox Stage .........................
Clastic Beds of Wilcox Age ................... .... .
Claiborne Stage.. ............. ....................
Lake City Limestone .......... .... .. ...., ...
Fauna ....................................
Tallahattoa Formation .. ........................
Avon Park Limestone ...........................
General Lithology .........................
Fauna F ......... 6. ...... ... ......
Lisbon Formation .............................
Ocalo Group ................ .... ................
Inglis Formation .......................... ... .
Fauna ........................ ............
Williston Formation ......... ................
Fauna .......... ... ......... ............
Crystal River Formation ............. .........
F auna .............. ..4.... ..4644344....
Thickness 99...... ....... ...... 4
Distribution ...............................
Zonation ............................. .. .
Oligocene Series ............. ............ .. ....
Vicksburg Group ................ ..... .......
Marianna Limestone .......................
Byram Formation ............... ..........
Fauna ............. ...................
Suwannee Limestone ............ ........
F aun a ... .. .. ..... .. ... .. .. ... .... .
M iocene Series .................. ....... .............
Tampa Stage .. .................. .. ........... ..
Chattahoochee Formation ............. .... .. .
St. Marks Formation ..........................
A lum Bluff Siage ................................
Chipola Formation ...........................
Shoal River Formation ........................
Oak Grove Sand . ...... ................
Hawthorn Formation ..... ..................
Alochua Formation ......................... .
Bone Valley Formation ...................... .
Miocene Coarse Clastics ......................F
Fort Preston Formation ..... ....-............
Miccosukee Formation ........................


Pensacola Clay ...............................
Choctawhatchee Stage ............................
Red Bay Formation ....... ....................
Yellow River formation ........................
Jackson Bluff formation .......................
Tamioami Formation ................ ......... ..
Alva clay member .........................
LaBelle clay member ................... .
"Charlton" Formation.........................
Paleoecology of the Miocene ...........................
Pliocene Series ..................................
?Plio-Pleistocene Series ..........................
High level alluvial and deltaic deposits .........


45
45
47
48
48
48
50
51
52
52
53
56
57
59
60
64
66
68
71
72
73
73
98
98
98
102
103
105
107
115
116
118
125
126
126
129
136

159
180
185
185
185
194
196
197
200
202
212
213
213
224
226




Quaternary System ................................ ... ... .
Pleistocene Series...................... ............ .
Coaloosahatchee Marl............................
Fort Denaud Member ... ... ...... ......
Marine Marl ........... .....................
Bee Branch Member . ........................
Ayers Landing Member ............6.... .......
Shell Bed ....................... ... .. .
Panope faunizone .........................
Paleoecology of the Caloosohatchee Formation .......
Fort Denaud Member .... ..................... .
Cyrtopleura costato faunizone ...............
Brackish Shallow-Water faces ..............
High salinity shallow-water bay facies ......


Turritello facies ...............
Oyster Biostrome and related beds


Brackish-water beds .....
Bee Branch Member ..........
Limestone faces ........
Marly facies .... .....
Ayers Landing Member........
Shell bed ..............
Fort Thompson Formation .....
Okoloakoochee Member .......
Lower fresh-water marl .,,
Chlamys bed ............
Upper fresh-water marl .
Fresh-water Iimestone ,,6
Coffee Mill Hammock marl
Paleoecology of the Fort Thompson


Recent
Selected References


Okaloakoochee Member ..
Coffee Mill Hammock Marl
Key Largo Limestone ...
Anastasia Formation ....
Miami Oolite ...........
Lake Flirt Marl ........
Marine Terrace Deposits .
Series ..................


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6444416949


66 F9F 46 F 44666 Ff44


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14111 ..11.1...
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.................. ...... ... ..........

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........l..........11.1
1....1..11........1...1


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Index ...........................................................


ILLUSTRATIONS


231
231
231
231
235
240
245
249
253
258
258
258
258
258
259
259
261
262
262
262
264
264
268
275
275
275
276
276
276
277
277
278
280-'
282
284 L
286
286
288
293
307


Generalized Geologic cross sections through Florida ............Pocket
Index to principal geologic structures in Florida ................ 4
Contours of the top of the Pre-Mesozoic and Cretaceous beds .... 5
Generalized locations of landforms ............................ 8
Physiographic map of West Florida........................... Pocket
Physiographic map of North Peninsular Florida ............... Pocket
Physiographic map of South Peninsular Florida ............... .Pocket
Stratigraphic nomenclature chart of Florida .................. 17


vii


Figure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


*. .. #




9 Stratigraphic chart of the Subsurface Panhandle . .25
10 Structure map upper cretaceous top of a high resistivity curve in
Eutaw Formation ............. ............................ 30
11 Stratigraphic Cenozoic nomenclature chart ................... 43
12 Nomenclature and relationships of the Upper Eocene rocks in
Florida *........ 4 .... ..................... 58
13 Nomenclature and relationships of the Oligocene rocks in Florida. 99
14 Nomenclature and relationships of the Miocene rocks in the Florida
Panhandle ............................................ .... 117
15 East-west geologic cross section through port of Highlands County
showing relationship of the marine Hawthorn formation with the non-
marine Hawthorn (Fort Preston formation?) (after Bishop, 1956)... 138
16 Cross-bedded, coarse plastic of the Fort Preston formation contain-
ing logs and plant impressions ........... ................... 139
17 Alluvium showing festoon bedding cut by "blind shrimp borings",
Fort Preston formation? ..................................... 140
18 Thin-bedded, contorted dolomite, quartz and phosphorite and algal
dolomite plate. Note the large more calcic mass left of center .... 141
19 Cross-bedded quartz and phosphorite sand and thin algal (?) dolo-
mite plates with mud cracks and large calcic mass .............. 142
20 View of beach area composed of algal (?) dolomi te plate, ripple-
marked, cross-bedded with sand and dipping steeply toward the back
of the picture .................... ...... ............... 143
21 Fill of cavern formed in the Suwannee limestone by alternating thin
beds of attapulgite and quartz-phosphate sands of the Hawthorn for-
m action .................................................... 144
22 View of the oyster biostrome (bed 1) in the Hawthorn formation near
White Springs, Columbia County, Florida....................... 160
23 Topographic map of the Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida,
showing location of auger holes (AS-288-AS-310), discovery well
and the various types of sediments exposed in the "Dig". ....... 166
24 Thomas Form "Dig", Gilchrist County, Florida (April, 1956) . .Pocket
25 Structure map on the top of predominantly clayey material, Thomas
Farm "Dig", Gilchrist County, Florida ........................ 167
26 Structure map on the top of the Crystal River Formation, Thomas
Farm "Dig", Gilchrist County, Florida . . . 4 168
27 View of the boulder bar .................... .............. 169
28 Close-up of figure 27 (area with pencil) showing the contact of the
boulder bar with cross-bedded sandy clay.........,,............. 169
29 Cross-bedded coarse sands (strike N. 30 to 50 W. variable) of the
Alachua Formation, Thomas Form "Dig" .................. 170
30 Close-up of figure 29 (area with pen) showing festoon type cross-
bedding ................. ................ ................ 170
31 Geologic cross-section along the Caloosahatchee River from Moore
Haven and LaBelSe ....... ................................ Pocket
32 Geologic cross-section along the Caloosahatchee River from LaBelle
to Olga............. . ......................... ...... Pocket
33 Correlation of stratigraphic sections along the Alligator Creek ..Pocket
34 Paleogeographic map of Florida during the Miocene ............. 227


viii




35 Composite stratigraphic section of the Quaternay showing strati-
graphic terminology in the Caloosahatchee area ,.. ............. 232
36 Correlation of the stratigraphic sections along the Shell Creek... Pocket
37 Block diagram of the Miami area (after Parker, et. al., 1955)..... 281

Plate
1 Preliminary age determination of the Paleozoic rocks in test wells
in Florida and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama ......... Pocket
2a Geologic mop of West Florida .............. ...... ........... Pocket
2b Geologic map of North Peninsular Florida..................... Pocket
2c Geologic map of South Peninsular Florida......... ......... Pocket
3 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in the Florida Pan-
handle ......... .... ........ ... ..................... Pocket
4 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in central and northern
F lorida. ......... .......... ................................. Pocket
5 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in central Florida.... Pocket
6 Pane I diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in southern Florida,, Pocket
7 Panel diagram of the Miocene rocks in the Florida Panhandle.... Pocket
8 Correlation of stratigraphic sections along the Caloosahatchee
River ................ . ....... ..... ........ ............ Pocket
9 Map of the Florida Panhandle showing route, oad log, and sche-
du led stops .................................... ........... Pocket
10 Map of the northern and central peninsula showing route, road log,
and scheduled stops ............ ............................ Pocket
11 Map of southern Florida showing route, road log, and scheduled
stops ........., ....... ... ........... .................. Pocket

Table
1 Data on wells penetrating pre-Cambrian rocks ................ 16
2 Data on wells penetrating rhyolitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks .. 18
3 Data on wells penetrating Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in
F lorida ............................ ............... ....... 19
4 Data on wells penetrating diabase and basalt ................ 23





SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA
AND
A GUIDEBOOK TO THE CLASSIC EXPOSURES

By
Harbans S. Purl and Robert 0. Vernon



STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGIC SETTING

Florida is a part of the eastern Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin
consisting of southern Alabama, southern Georgia, Florida, Cuba, and
the Bahamas. This sedimentary basin is divided by Pressler (1947,
p. 1851) into two sedimentary provinces (North Gulf Coast sedimentary
province and Florida Peninsula sedimentary province) separated by
a line drawn between Levy and Nassau counties. The North Gulf Coast
sedimentary province consists mainly of clastic sediments and includes
the Apolachicola ema ent and the Southeast Georgia embayment.The
Florida Peninsu a sedimentary province is characterized by nonclastic
sediments, predominantly carbonates and a nhydrites, and includes a
South Florida embayment of the Gulf of Mexico basin, with its center of de-
position passing through the southern archipelago and parallel ing the coast.

The Florida Peninsula has apparently rimmed the Gulf Coast
geosyncline since at least the Early Cretaceous, perhaps as early as
late Paleozoic. The dominant subsurface structure is the Peninsular
arch, a Paleozoic-Mesozoic movement, that was modified by Cretaceous
structures including the Broward syncline, South Florida embayment,
and connecting shelves. Early Miocene structural movements formed the
Ocala uplift, the Chattahoochee anticline, the Kissimmee faulted flexure,
the Sanford high, the Osceola low and other shallow contemporary
features.

The principal geologic structures of the State are shown on figures
I and 2, and summarized as follows:




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Peninsular Arch: This dominant subsurface structure forms the axis of
peninsular Florida, and the arch trends south-southeast and extends from
southeastern Georgia into central Florida and crests in the center of
northern peninsular Florida around Union and Bradford counties (Applin
1951, p. 3). This structure was a topographic high during Cretaceous
time and sediments of early Cretaceous age were deposited around it,
but did not completely cover it. Beds of Austin Age (Upper Cretaceous)
were deposited over the crest of this Paleozoic arch, where they overlie
Early Ordovician sandstone.

Broward Syncline: A subsurface, local feature named by Applin and
Applin (1964, ms.) for a Cretaceous syncline in Broward and Palm
Beach counties. The synclinal axis is NW-SE, and approximately parallels
the inner edge of the South Florida Shelf. This syncline is shown on
figure 2 as mapped on the top of the Comanche.

South Florida Shelf: A term used by Applin and Applin (1964, ms.)
for a shallow area, which includes parts of Charlotte, Sarasota, Hendry,
Glades, Palm Beach, Broward, Monroe counties, and all of Lee, Collier
and Dade counties. The boundaries generally parallel the axis of South
Florida embayment. This shelf, as mapped on the top of the Comanche,
is shown on figure 2.

Suwannee Straits: The name Suwannee strait was first used by Dall (1892,
p. 111) to define an area "which separated the continental border from the
Eocene and Miocene Islands" in which the argillaceous sediments of
the Hawthorn were deposited. He thought that the area north and west
of the straits was indicative of much deeper water because the sediments
contained less clay and a well developed Miocene fauna. Dali (1892, p.
121-122) included in the Strait the"Okefenokee and Suwannee Swamps and
the trough of the Suwannee River" and estimated its width to be less
than 50 miles. Vaughn (1910, p. 160) discussed Suwonnee straits and
cited Dall's evidence for the erosion of sediments of Miocene
age in the Straits. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1727), while discussing
structures of Florida referred to "a channel or trough extending south-
westward across Georgia through the Tallahassee area of Florida to
the Gulf of Mexico." The same structure is recognized by Jordan (1954)
as an erosional feature in the subsurface, which resulted because the
regional movements in the close of the Cretaceous time caused a channel
to be formed along the transition zone connecting the predominantly clas-
tic and carbonate faces of the Cretaceous. This feature is considered
by Hull (1962, p. 118-121) to represent a narrow area (20-30 miles in
width) of non-deposition, rather than an erosional channel that traverses
over 200 miles of territory. Whatever the cause of this channel, it has
affected deposition of both Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


The strait is considered by Applin and Applin (1964, ms.) to be
a saddle that is much wider and larger in area than visualized by earlier
authors. The strait is considered by the Applins to form the southern
limit of clastic beds of Navorro Age (?) on the north and northern limit
of Lawson Limestone on the south.

Ocala Uplift: Adequately documented by Vernon (1951, The anticline, pp.
54-58), is a gentle flexure of Tertiary age, about 230 miles long and 70
miles wide, where exposed. The crest trends northwest-southeast and is
extensively fractured and faulted. High-angle, strike faults flatten the
crest and increase its cross-section. The anticline merges inconspicu-
ously into several noses and troughs along the plunge and to each side.
Murray (1961) thought the Ocala uplift was only a time and space varia-
tion of the Peninsular arch, but long periods of erosion and deposition
separate distinctly datable structures, and geophysical data presented
by Antoine and Harding (1963) justify the separation of the two struc-
tures (fig. 3).

Kissimmee Faulted Flexure: This structure is a fault-bounded, tilted and
rotated block that includes many small folds, faults, and structural irre-
gularities. The southern port appears to be on anticlinal fold trending
west-northwest-east-southeast. The structure was erected by Vernon
(1951) for a positive area extending down the center of the Peninsula
and as additional data becomes available, it will be possible to more
accurately define the structure.

The Sanford High: A half dome in the vicinity of Sanford, Florida, was
first described by Vernon in 1951. The structure appears to be a closed
fold fhat has been halved along the fault that bounds the Kissimmee
faulted flexure. The other half may be represented by the fold in the dis-
tal end of the Kissimmee faulted flexure. Miocene sediments have been
deposited upon the eroded Inglis Formation and the remaining Ocala
Group and Oligocene sediments have been removed.

The Osceolo Low: One of the most prominent features on magnetic and
gravity maps of the State coincide with a poorly defined structural low,
centered in Osceola County. Vernon (1951) interpreted the structure as
being bound by steeply dipping faults. More information is needed to more
adequately define the structure, but the resulting basin is filled by Mio-
cene sediments and displacements of as much as 350 feet occur between
wells to the north and east and those within the structure.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CHATTAHOOCHEE,
ANTICLINE .


/ BASIN


NORTH GULF COAST
SEDIMENTARY
PROVINCE


/
/
/
/FLORIDA


Figure 2. Index to Principal Geologic Structures in Florida.


HIGH




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


PRE- MESOZOIC
(After Ansoine and Harding, 1963, and Applin, 1951)


CRETACEOUS. O-
(Afear Antoine and Harding, 1963, ond Toulmlain, 1955)


Figure 3. Contours of the top of the Pre-Mesozoic and Cretaceous Beds.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Chattohoochee Anticline: Chattahoochee anticline was first used by
Veatch (1911, p. 62-64) for a broad flexure in the tri-state area of Geor-
gia, Alabama and Florida. He mapped the structure on exposures of
Cretaceous and Eocene rocks along the Chattahoochee River in south-
western Georgia and from the inequalities of drainage divides of the
Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. Veatch thought that the shorter tri-
butaries of the larger Chattahoochee River were developed along the
crest of an anticline and the much longer tributaries of the Flint River
were formed on the eastern flank of the anticline. The crustal movements
which caused this arch were dated by Stephenson (1928, p. 295) as late
Tertiary or early Quaternary. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1727) men-
tioned an upwarped area around Jackson County, "with dips extending
away from it towards the southeast, south and southwest." Pressler
(1947, p. 1852, fig. 1) refers to the same feature as "Decatur arch."

Jordan (1951, p. 44) refers to the Chattahoochee arch as a second
Paleozoic high, and it is a prominent feature on a structure map on the
top of the pre-Mesozoic rocks. This structure is on elongate anticline
that trends northeast-southwest and crests in Jackson, Holmes and Wash-
ington counties. This upwarp is primarily responsible for the exposures
of upper Eocene, Crystal R iver Formation in these counties.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


PHYSIOGRAPHIC SETTING


White, Vernon, and Puri (manuscript, 1964) have isolated, described
and named the landforms of Florida, which will be presented as the first
port of a comprehensive series of volumes on the "Geology of Florida."
The distribution of the landforms is presented as figures 4, 5, 6,
and 7.

Cooke's (1939, p. 14) primary physiographic divisions of the Flori-
don Plateau have been retained where possible. We have found the
"Coastal Lowlands", the "Central Highlands" and the "Marianna Low-
lands" applicable, but suggest the "Northern Highlands" as the primary
term to include the series of high landmasses, separated by stream val-
leys, that extend from Trail Ridge on the east into Alabama on the west
and which are limited to the south and east by a seaward-facing escarp-
ment.

Florida is divided into three generalized physiographic zones, sepa-
rated along transpeninsular lines, oriented about perpendicular to the
length of the peninsula (figure 4). The northern zone encompasses
the panhandle, and extends southward along the peninsula to a line which
would pass approximately through the cities of Palatka, Hawthorn; and
Gainesville. The central or midpeninsular zone, extends from this line
to one that crosses the peninsula from the general vicinity of Ft. Myers
to Ft. Pierce. The southern, or distal zone, extends from this line to
the southern limit of the mainland shores at Biscayne and Florida Bay.
Certain features cross these boundaries from one physiographic zone to
another. Thus, the Gulf Coastal Lowland extends along the west coast
of the peninsula from the northern to the southern zone, as also does the
Eastern Valley along the Atlantic side of the peninsula. Likewise, the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge reaches the entire length of the peninsula from
the Georgia State boundary to Homestead, and the Atlantic Barrier Chain,
with allowance for changes from sand construction to that of a coral
reef, extends from the Georgia State boundary line to Key West.

This increasing southerly overlap to the east seems to result from
the fact that the peninsula becomes longer as sea level dropped, and
greater lengths of it emerged from beneath the sea. The present shoreline
is, perforce, the lowest and, therefore, the longest of those presently
above sea level. Hence, it extends farther southward than any of the
higher or earlier ones. However, from Palm Beach southward to Key





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



MARIANNA LOWLANDS
__A L A E AM A .
NOR THE N 1 0 CIA
T GE OR GI A2




A 4
\ *t







40e0 Lr
1--


















Figure 4. Generalized Locations of Landforms.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


West, the present shore, as well as the relict shores of certain earlier
stands of the sea, somewhat higher than the present one, are at the very
edge of the continental shelf and, therefore, have left beach deposits
in essentially the some place to form an Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which
extends farther southward than do the higher features of the other more
northerly zones. The oceanic shore of a somewhat higher sea level, the
Pomlico, extended as far south as the southern limit of the central or
midpeninsular zone thus enclosing the eastern valley across both north-
ern and central zones. Possibly the low-lying lands of the southern zone,
west of the Atlantic Ridge, did not reach elevations as high as the At-
lantic Ridge on their eastern rim because they were not exposed to the
high energy processes of the Atlantic shore. Or they may have been
reduced by solution from former elevations comparable to those of the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge.

The northern physiographic zone is distinguished by continuously
high ground forming a broad upland which extends eastward to the Eastern
Volley and westward continuously into the Western Highland of panhandle
Florida. The central or midpeninsular zone is characterized by discon-
tinuous highlands in the form of subparallel ridges parallel with the axis
of the peninsula and separated by broad valleys. The southern or distal
zone is characterized by a broad, flat, gently sloping and poorly drained
plain, fenced on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Ridge.

For the most part, the northern zone is high enough to have its sur-
face above the piezometric surface and is therefore characterized by
many of the features of dry, highland, or dead zone karst, such as first
generation dry sinks, abandoned spring heads, dry stream courses, and dry
beds of former broad, shallow lakes which are now prairies. In general,
the ridges of the central or midpeninsular zone are above the piezometric
surface, but the broad valley floors are below it. Broad, shallow lakes
are common on the valley floors and smaller deep lakes, many of which
seem to have had a rather complex geomorphic history, pock the ridges.
The southern or distal zone, is almost universally below the piezometric
surface and has lakes only in its most northerly part. These lakes are
apparently a carryover from the central zone and seem to exist largely
because small amounts of sand overlie limestone. Farther to the south
there is no sand. Limestone either lies bare or is peat-covered. There
are no lakes, but there is a nearly ubiquitous swamp.

The Central Highlands

The Central Highlands comprise a number of rather localized areas
of higher ground such as the Lake Wales, Brooksville, Winter Haven and
Orlando ridges which rise above much broader general uplands of con-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


siderably less elevation, and usually much less local relief such as the
Polk, Lake, Sumter and Marion uplands. The general area also encloses
large lowlands, the Central and Western valleys and the valley occupied
by the St. Johns River Offset. For the most part the higher areas are elon-
gate and ridge-like, especially the Lake Wales Ridge which is only a
few miles wide but more than 100 miles long. Many of the others are
more or less equidimensional in general but the arrangement of higher
places within their boundaries shows strong lineation parallel with the
Atlantic Coast. The lineation of these "suproa-ridge" higher places is
best seen on the topographic map or in some instances on aerial photo-
graphs. The great valleys also share the same general elongation, paral-
lel with the length of the peninsula.

The larger areas of higher ground are the Lake Wales, Brooksville,
Lakeland, Winter Haven, Lake Henry, Mount Dora and DeLand ridges,
the Fairfield Hills and the Ocala Hills. The intervening areas of lower
ground, the several broad uplands and great valleys enumerated in the
paragraph above, seem for the most part to have been reduced from a
once ubiquitous highland. Apparently parts of this highland still remain
to form the present ridges. They seem to have been preserved by some
attribute obtained from coastal features, which must have been formed
during times when the several parts of the highland were undissected
surfaces at sea level.

The Northern Highlands

The Northern Highlands extend across the northern part of the State
of Florida from Trail Ridge on the east to the western boundary, where
they extend ihto Alabama. To the north, they exte nd into Georgia and
Alabama along the entire length of the northern boundary of Florida,
west of Trail Ridge.

The almost continuous highland is parted by the larger stream val-
leys, several of which have combined their erosional and depositional
cycles with solution to form one of the two significant low areas which
break the higher land surface--the Marianna Lowlands. The marginal
slopes of the Northern Highlands are well drained by dendritic streams but
the tops are gently sloping plateaus. The significant forms include Trail
Ridge, Florahome Valley, Tallahassee Hills, Grand Ridge, New Hope
Ridge, Washington County outliers, and the Western Highlands.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


The Northern Highlands are separate from the several ridges of the
Central Highlands of the Florida Peninsula, only because of greater dis-
section in the peninsula. Both Northern and Central highlands appear to
be remnants of a once integrate highland which has been partitioned by
erosion and solution, leaving a number of remnants in the peninsula to
form the present ridges of the Central Highlands and a still relatively
intact mass at the north, which is the Northern Highlands. Actually, the
division between the two is not prominent, for the Northern Highlands
are separated from the northern end of the Brooksville Ridge only by the
High Springs Gap some 12 miles across; from the Fairfield Hills by the
Alachua Lake Cross Valley about 8 miles across; and from the Mount
Dora Ridge by the Kenwood Gap also about 8 miles wide. These gaps
are in no way different from those farther south, which separate the
several parts of ridges of the Central Highlands such as the Withlacoo-
chee Gap at Dunnellon between the two parts of the Brooksville Ridge.
All these highlands seem to be dissevered remnants of a once continuous
residual highland.

The Northern Highlands are limited on the south and east by an out-
facing scarp which extends regionally through the East Gulf and Atlantic
Coastal Plains (Dooring, 1960, fig. 12). This scarp, which we have called
the Cody Scarp in Florida, is the most persistent topographic break in the
State. Its continuity is unbroken except by the valleys of major streams,
but its definition is variable. In many places, it can be delineated with
unequivocal sharpness; in others, it is shown only by a gradual reduction
of average elevation, and a general flattening of terrain as the lower ele-
vations are reached.

In general, this bounding scarp can be divided into three parts that
are somewhat different in erosional history.

The Atlantic, or eastern part of the scarp is the southern end of
what is perhaps the best known relict marine scarp of the Atlantic Coas-
tal Plain. It is the seaward or eastern side of Trail Ridge which has
been described in the literature in some detail. The second part begins
near Palatka where the bounding scarp turns west to cross the peninsula.
Here, there is little evidence of marine shoreline erosion, although the
Wicomico sea may have reached the toe of the scarp in places as the
shoreline of straits and sounds, as McNeil (1949, p. 103, pl. 19) sug-
gested. This transpeninsular part of the scarp is much more irregular in
plan than the first or relict Atlantic Coastal part. It seems to have been
shaped by stream erosion and solution. Here, as in the first part, marine
erosion seems to have been an important factor in shaping it. In general,
It is straighter here and has more definition than in the transpeninsu lor
part.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Marianne Lowlands


The high remnant hills of Washington County; Orange, Rock, High,
Oak and Falling Water indicate that the Northern Highlands were once
continuous; and the Western Highlands, New Hope Ridge, Grand Ridge
and Tollahassee Hills were connected. Stream erosion, combined with
solution activity, has reduced this highland to elevations lower than
the land to the south producing a steep north-facing scarp, known as the
Holmes Valley scarp, that separates the Marianna Lowlands from the high
sand hills of the New Hope Ridge. This scorp has relief of as much as
200 feet, and can be traced along the northern edges of New Hope Ridge,
Grand Ridge, and into Georgia along the Flint River.

The lowlands in Holmes, Washington, and Jackson counties, Florida,
cover a rectangular area 30 x 64 miles on the sides, but they extend
into Alabama and Georgia along the principal streams. Because of the
abandoned valleys, and stranded alluvial deposits it is believed that
the lowlands were generally developed along the valleys of the Apala-
chicola, Chattahoochee, Chipola and Choctawhatchee Rivers. The aban-
doned valleys, the stranded alluviums, the distribution of stream terraces
along the rivers, and the presence of a deep, wide gap along the Chocta
whatchee River suggest that the lowlands were developed by the largest
stream--the Apalachicola River--discharging through the Choctowhatchee
gap. Stream piracy has formed the stream systems that traverse the area
today.

The land surface is well drained and has a well developed dendritic
stream pattern. It is pocked by sinks interspersed with rolling hills and
abrupt ridges. The ridges are bounded by stream channels or by sink rims.
Broad, shallow basins are generally present, some filled by water.

The Marianna Lowlands extend into Alabama and Georgia. They are
bounded on the west by the Western Highlands, on the southeast by
Grand Ridge, and on the south by New Hope Ridge.

The Coastal Lowlands

The land adjacent to the coastline of Florida is generally low in
elevation and poorly drained. Its characterizing features are generally
coast parallel, indicating a close control of their shape and form by





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


marine forces. Those lowlands lying east of the Central Highlands, and
close to the ocean, have been called the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands.
Those lying west of the Central Highlands have been called the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands. Those south of the highlands, which form the southern
third of the peninsula, and which have a genetic relation to both the
Gulf and the Atlantic, have been called the Distal Lowlands. Coastwise
terraces characterize many of the landforms of the lowlands and their
scarps form the boundaries for some.

The landforms of the near coastal area are composed of barrier
islands, lagoons, estuaries, coastal ridges, sand dune ridges, relict
spits and bars, with intervening coast-parallel valleys. Gently sloping
plains extend from the highlands coastward, and many of these are dent-
ed by well developed karst. The Distal Lowlands include those land-
forms that connect the Atlantic with the Gulf, and the higher elevations
are found on the Okeechobee Plain and Immokalee Rise, with joining
slopes and intermediate elevations in the Everglades, Caloosahatchee
Valley, Caloosahatchee Incline, Big Cypress Spur, Southwestern Slope,
and others descending to the Florida Bay Mangrove Islands, keys and
otol Is.

PROPOSED PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS

The primary, secondary and tertiary landforms of Florida, as recog-
nized in White, Vernon and Puri (manuscript, 1964) are listed below and
outlined in figures 4, 5, 6, and 7:

Coastal Lowlands
Atlantic Coastal Lowlands
The Eastern Valley
Peoria Hill
Palatka Hill
San Mateo Hill
Ten Mile Ridge
Green Ridge
The St. Mary's Meander Plain
Roses Bluff
Yulee Hill
Evergreen Hill
St.. John's River Offset
Wekiva Plain
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Lagoons and Barrier Chain
Silver Bluff Scarp
Duval Upland
Teasdale Hill
Crescent Ridge
Demand Ridge
Geneva Hil




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A Proposal Of Landforms (cont.)
Osceola Plain
Orlando Ridge
Bombing Range Ridge
Intermediate Coastal Lowlands
Okeechobee Plain
Caloosahatchee Incline
Everglades
Caloosahatchee Valley
Immokalee Rise
Big Cypress Spur
Southwestern Slope
Southern Slope
Florida Bay Mangrove Islands
Keys
High Coral Keys
Low Coral Keys
Ool ite Keys
Distal Atolls
Gulf Coastal Lowlands
Reticulate Coastal Swamps and Ten Thousand Islands
Gulf Coastal Lagoons and Barrier Chains
Gulf Coastal estuaries
The Coastal swamps and drowned coastal karst
Aeolion features
Cape Sable
Desoto Plain
Polk Upland
Bell Ridge
Greenhead Slope
The Deaden ings
Fountain Slope
Beacon Slope
Wakulla Hills
Lake Munson Hills
Calico Hill
Pea Ridge
Interleves Lowlands Tates Hell Swamp and Pickett Bay
Relict Spits and Bars
Terraces of the Panhandle
Braided Channel of Wacisso River





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


A Proposal Of Londforms (cont.)
Central Highlands
Marion Upland
Mount Dora Ridge
Central Valley
Lake Wales Ridge
Inter-rido Valley
Fairfield Hilts
Marte Hill
Ocola Hill
Cotton Plant Ridge
Sumter Upland
Lake Upland
Rock Ridge Hills
Winter Haven Ridge
Gordonville Ridge
Lake Henry Ridge
Lakeland Ridge
Western Valley
Tsala Apopka Plain
Brooksville Ridge
Alachua Lake Cross Valley
Lake Harris Cross Valley
Dunneflon Gap
High Springs Gap
Kenwood Gap
Zephyr Hills Gap
Northern Highlands
Trail Ridge
Florahome Valley
Tallahassee Hills
Cody escarpment
Grand Ridge
New Hope Ridge
Washington County Outliers
High Hill
Orange Hill
Rock Hill
Oak Hill
Falling Water Hill
Western Highlands
Drowned Valley Lakes
Marianna Lowlands
Holmes Valley escarpment





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STRATIGRAPHY

CRYPTOZOIC ERA

PRE-CAMBRIAN SYSTEM

The crystalline rocks encountered in wells in Florida represent
the buried extension of rocks of the southern Appalachian Piedmont.
These pre-Cambrian rocks are represented by granites and diorites and
have been recorded in three wells in eastern central Florida (fig. 8).
1
Applin (1951, p. 5) considered the crystalline rocks encountered
in Florida, like their outcropping counterpart of southern Appalachian
Piedmont, to be probably in part pre-Cambrian and in part Paleozoic
Age.


TABLE 1. Date on Wells Penetrating pre-Cambrian Rocks (After Applin, 1951)
Top of Total Total
County Well No. pre-Cambrian Thickness Depth Nature of Rocks
Lake W. 275 -5983 17 6120 Granite
Osceola W-1 014 -7973 14 8049 Altered and
veined blotitic
granite
Volusia W-1118 -5862 48 5958 Hornblende
Diorite


PALEOZOIC (?) OR PRE-CAMBRIAN (?) SYSTEM

Rhyolitic Lavas and Pyroclastic Rocks

In the central peninsula, eight wells terminated in volcanic rocks
that are mostly lavas, tuffs, and agglomerates. In two wells basalt
occurred in association with rhyolite and tuff. Depth of penetration
and petrographic determinations of these wells are listed in table 2.

The nature of rocks encountered in the different wells, according
to Applin (1951) are indicative of their extrusive origin. These rocks
are considered by Applin to possibly occur either as continuous bodies
of tuff and lava flows or as localized discontinuous bodies separated
by intervening sedimentary rocks.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


PANHANDLE


PENINSULA


WEST EAST NORTH CENTRAL SOUTH




Bi de f T r . . . . . . . . .. i. A.T.P.LII ... ..... . . . .. .



B4d *I Auli JA . ... . . . . . . . .,Beds o Amuspin A .. . ... .. .. . . ... .


h-M






C6 CK




GUL


millir S md


Marine


-k. [[Pilo ] Sond


edst of EqlIa furl Ag..
6*
0*.


S** la W1 wdbifi Au ......... .. .....



Grem Shale


"n a wt t. .... .........
y BOle g PrF*rluhfeo r b ..Ag ...
Sun flf tlhi1d UnIfdlFian d Bi4* 0 of Trini ,lAge .. .
Phm rtr i t iia A niSrmI
Sam mm.len 1..i .mues.eng

UPiIER
,PnakAi.mi L"Poml

JURA$UIC
JURAUC A NaN Agrce
4~~~ wu M3 Im Foerioe
OII LBt Fo~rmet ani
CRETTCCOU

2
BUndifferenl 1i.j
(I4111113]

a

Re |k d anrd vericeloted clear, ic rocs cneiaiiq, DiabuM Intrusong
i noe wril, Irrn Wns af Dribe aD M 6e L a ondlfor iswu
Tir l F -Il l



Te p irf i gltlI De itl ( I ii l )
& *


Ekch SholI


0
w RO
RE-R O ..loc S. .



Snd bmlW DOOR Shtte

;PftkE-AMBRM;AN 0?R"^ -


LOWER PALEOZOIC

PRE-CAMBRIAN ?


PWphvyrithe t apolHl I 11 1


Rhyaliphs Love en Pr edealic Roche


ealmflt nd OmarlIt


AGE U N K NOWN LRC[IH.uwll)

FMKOTTlI; 1. APLIIt MID AP t, IH4.
L scotst, kng se
L. GML A INILE BYiHTM OF PALIEOZOC UEAlulmTMaTi gc *mas ERE IDETIWIED 1I Ait OM WELL. CLAMaflrT19OiP4e g AJA2IC
IOMlMbaMT tao I a1$ iltt ONA 8 0iIwAN MD wa i 1 iw. Wtt NLATER imr uitu.itl$iED iFlCATii sg v A AK EM W AM.M. SCAW.
4 MA MIM AIC MN PEMBLEuM COMYw a.LIF.LT W LL I, MLAim COmrHI, FLMs)DA. ETEMWIlAtThl r M Ii aumMjul mKTaitUM COPMMNIT.
IW RIOI.LT lJ UTRt21lt UgOUCATIO i t*mI IAT&k.
k APML.M P.L., I M Lk, k, MID Fb. I.
FiL AM -- ipi thh, i1n4.




Figure 8. Stratigraphic Nomenclature chart of Florida.


17


up"p


..u. Cs..w


'81 RIAN


1 111,19


*




*


I





18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

TABLE 2. Data on Wells Penetrating Rhyolitic Lavas and Pyroclastic Rocks
(From Applin, 1951)


County


Flogler

Hardee
Highlands


Well No.

W-1474

W-1655
W- 966


HIllsborough W-1005


Marion


Osceola
Putnam
Volusla


W-1482


W-1411
W.1838
W.1 746


Depth of
Penetration


44

106
367

119

22


58
19
21


Total
Depth


Nature of Rocks


4,632 Tuff and volcanic agglomerate
of rhyolitic composition
11,934 Lavas and pyroclastic rocks
12,985 Basalt, rhyolite porphyry, and
related kinds of volcanic rocks
10,129 Rhyollte and volcanic
agglomerate
4,637 Volcanic agglomerate or tuff of
rhyolitic composition
8,798 Rhyolit.
3,892 Volcanic ash and tuff
5,424 Rhyolitic ? volcanic rock





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


PALEOZOIC ERA


ORDOVICIAN SYSTEM


Lower Ordovician

Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been encountered in 40 wells in
Florida. These sediments are parts of an extensive Paleozoic strata
that occupy the northern and central portion of the Florida Peninsula
and southeastern Georgia. The following table summarizes the occurrence
of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (data from Applin, 1951, and from Bridge
and Bordan, 1952), with recent additions by Berdan and Schopf (1960),
see also Plate 1.





TABLE 3. Data on Wells Penetrating Paleozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Florida


Top of
Well No. Paleozoic


Total
Age thickness


Totell
depth


Nature of sediments


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Baker
Brodford
Clay
Clay
Columbia

Columbi a
Columbia
Columbia
Columbia
Columbia
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Gilchrist
Gilchri st
!manndo
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lafayette


W-1465
W-1486
W-1472
W-1500
W-1466
W-1590
W-6299
W-1789

W-1981
W 1915
W-1923
W-1832
W.2164
W.1114
W-1568
W-1405
W.1003
W.1819
W- 994
W-1886
W-1854
W-1866
W-2000


3135
3170
3217
3342
3140
3725
3487
3482

2813
3033
2922
3303
3302
5228
5016
3545
3588
3348
7720
8440
7909
3480
4505


5 *
5
5
5
5
5
5
1

5
6
5
1
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
0
6
5
6


15
50
71
7
27
2137
22
962

15
18
7
8
168
2282
88
26
168
18
752
805
4?
27
7


3150 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
3220 Quartz itic sandstone and shale
3228 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
3349 Quartzitic sandstone
3167 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
5862 Quartz itic sandstone
QuartzJtic sandstone and shale
4444 Woathered zone ? 3482-3492
Black shale 3492-4444
2828 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
3051 Quartz itic sandstone
2929 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
3311 Black shale
3470 Black shale 3302-3470
7510 Quartzitic sandstone
5104 Sandstone and shale
3671 Quartzitic sandstone ond shale
3753 Quortzitic sandstone and shale
3366 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
8472 Quartzitic sandstone
9245 Red and gray sandstone and shale
7913 Quartzitic sandstone
3507 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
4512 Quartzitic sandstone


County






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. (Continued)


Lafayette
Lafayette
Levy
Levy

Levy
Madison
Madison
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Nassau
Putnam
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Taylor


W.1696
W. 968
W.1537
W-2012

W.1007
W-1596
W.1598
W- 901
W. 18
W.-1482
W-1904
W- 336
W.1514
W-1450
W.1924
W-1548
W.2161


4205
4030
5810
4377

3960
4628
4060
3660?
4100
4240
3679
4640
3320
3040
3135
3500
4874


6 30 4235 Quartz itic sand intone and shale


103
40
232


37
757
36
674?
2070?
375
166
168
8
121
3
72
3


4133
5850
4609

3997
5385
4096
4334
6180
4637
3845
4824
3328
3161
3139
3572
4878


Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Black shale
Six inches of altered black shale
overlying quartzitic sandstone
Quartzitic sandstone
Black shale
Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Quartzitic sandstone
Quartzitic sandstone
Quatzitic sandstone
Quartzitic sandstone
Black shale
Quartzitic sandstone
Black shale
Quartzitic sandstone
Black shale
Quartziric sandstone


* (0) Middle Devonian; (1) Late Silurian or Early Devonian; (2) Silurian or Late Ordovician;


(3) Middle and/or Lore Devonian; (4) Middle Ordovician; (5) Early Ordovician;
probably Early Ordovician.


(6) unplaced,


Howell and Richards (1949) described a species of brachiopod
(Lingulepsis floridanus) from fine grained micaceous sandstone taken at
3,668 to 3,671 feet in Dixie County, W-1405. They assigned a Late
Cambrian or Early Ordovician age to this species. Bordcn and Bridge
(1951, p. 70) studied the 232 feet of Paleozoic sediments cored from
the Humble-Robinson well in central Levy County. These sediments
consist of gray, quartzitic sandstone and black, micaceous, sandy shale.
Linguloid brachiopods were found in the upper (between 4,390 to 4,424
feet) part of the section. Berdan and Bridge (op. cit.) correlated these
beds with the Union Producing Company's Kirkland No. 1 well, Houston
County, Alabama, just north of the Florida-Alabama state line. The
same type of lithology and types of linguloid brachiopods were found in
the Kirkland well, which, in addition to the linguloid brachiopods, also
carries a rich graptolite fauna. On the basis of this graptolite founa and
with their identification of molluscan forms associated with these Paleo-
zoic sediments, Berdan and Bridge (op. cit.) assigned an Early Ordovician
to the rock of these wells and to that of 22 other wells.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Middle Ordovician

Clastic sandstones and shales of Middle Ordovician (Black River)
have been definitely recognized in one well (Hunt Oil Company, Gibson
No. 2, Madison County), and tentatively identified in another (Sun Oil
Company, Earl Odom No. 1, Suwannee County). The maximum thickness
of these rocks is 753 feet in the Hunt Oil Company, Gibson No. 2 well
(Bridge and Berdan, 1952), from which the only known trilobite remains
in sediments underlying Florida were taken. The trilobite was identified
as Colpocoryphe ezsul Whittington, n. sp., and came from a core at 5154
to 5162 feet.

Quartzitic sandstone and shale of P aleozoic age was penetrated in
six wells, but these were not sufficiently distinctive to identify as to
age.


SILU R IAN (?) SYSTEM

Middle or Upper Silurian

Black shale encountered in five wells (Humble Oil and Refining
Company, Cone No. 1, Columbia County; Sun OiI Company, Sapp No. IA,
Columbia County; Sun Oil Company, J. H. Tillis No. 1, Suwannee County.
St. Marys River Oil Corporation, Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1,
Nassau County; Gulf Oil Company, Kie Vining No. 1, Columbia County)
are referred to Middle or Late Silurian by Berdan and Schopf (1960). The
maximum thickness of these sediments is 906 feet in Humble Oil and
Refining Company, Cone No. 1. The location, lithology, and probable
age relationships are shown on plate 1. The Coastal Petroleum Company,
Ragland No. 1, Levy County, penetrated 40 feet of black shale which is
either Silurian or Devonian in age.


DEVONIAN SYSTEM

Middle (?) Devonian

In Humble Oil and Refining Company, Tindel No. 1, Jackson County,
803 feet of sediments are assigned to Middle (?) Devonian (Bridge and
Berdan, 1952).

Preliminary age determinations of the Paleozoic rocks in Florida
and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama published by Bridge and
Berdan (1952) and modified by Berdan and Schopf (1960), are reproduced
as plate 1. .... .





FLORIDA GEOLOG ICAL SURVEY


MESOZOIC ERA

TRIASSIC (?) SYSTEM

Diabas* and Basalt
Diabase and basalt have been penetrated in nine wells in Florida.
Of these nine wells, diabase occurred in five, basalt in two, while two
wells yielded both basalt and diabase. These volcanic rocks have been
construed to be sills or dikes in some wells while in others they are
presumed to be flows (Applin, 1951, p. 15). Table 4 gives the location
and manner of occurrence of these volcanic rocks.

Since the diabase in W-336 agrees in mineral composition with the
upper chilled zone of the Palisade diabase, these volcanic rocks were
tentatively identified as Triassic by Cole (1944, p. 89-94).


Unnamed Red Beds

Red shale and sand penetrated in Brown and Ravlin No. 1 Philips
well, Wakulla County, between 4,270 and 5,746 feet (total depth), and
in the Hammonds No. 1, Granberry well, Jackson County, between 3,448
and 5,022 feet (total depth), are similar in lithology -to sediments of
Triassic Age along the western gulf coast. Additional study is needed
to establish their exact thickness and area extent.


JURASSIC (?) SYSTEM

In two wells in peninsular Florida, limestones, dolomites, anhy.
drites and shaly limestone underlying the Lower Cretaceous are referred
to Jurassic (?) Age by Applin (1951). These wells are W-972, Gulf Oil
Corporation, State of Florida No. 1, Monroe County; and W-1471, Humble
Oil and Refining Company, Tucson Corporation No. 1, Palm Beach
County. Additional studies are needed to establish a more precise age
for these sediments.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


TABLE 4. Data on Wells Penetrating Diabase and Basalt (after Applan, 1951)


Well No. County Mmner of occurrence
Diabase
W-1596 Madison Flow? or sill


Modison Flow? or sill I


Nossau Sill or dike

Taylor Well terminated in
diabast gabbra


Taylor


Flow? Well terminated
in diabase


Basalt
Jackson Sills or dike


Levy


Columbia


Remarks

Underlies Lower Cretoceous or older Mesozoic
clastic rocks; overlies black shale of Paleozoic
Age
Underlies Lower Cretoceous or older Mesozoic
clastic rocks; overlies sandstone and shal e of
Poleozolc Age
In block shale of Paleozoic age
Underlies early Mesozoic clastic rocks

Underlies early Mesozoic elastic rocks



In Paleozoic strata


Flow?


Diabase and basalt
Sills or dike


Taylor Well terminated in
diobose gobbro


In Paleozoic strata


Underlies early Mesozoic clostic rocks


W-1598


W- 336
W-2106


W-2099



W-1886
W.2012


W-1789
W-1876




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CRETACEOUS PERIOD
Lower Cretaceous System
Comanche Series

Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Florida Panhandle are undif-
ferentiated, argillaceous sands, interbedded with red and green shale
with nodules of sandy limestone and anhydrite. More than 1,500 feet of
sediments have been assigned to this stratigraphic unit although the
total thickness of sediments has not yet been penetrated by the drill.

Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1721) placed certain plastic sediments
penetrated in six wells in Florida in the Lower Cretaceous. In southern
Florida, Lower Cretaceous sediments, called "Sunniland payzone" by
Pressler (1947) and "Sunniland formation" by Raasch (1955) have been
called Trinity (undifferentiated) and Glen Rose formations by some oil
geologists having considerable experience in the western gulf coast.
The upper part of the Lower Cretaceous in southern Florida consists
of a miliolid limestone and the lower part is generally anhydrite. Speci-
mens of Orhitolina walnutensis and Coskinolina sunnilandensis are
common in this section. The oldest known vertebrate remains in Florida
were taken from a core of gray, argillaceous dolomite at 9,210 feet in
the Amerada No. 1 Marie Swenson well, Okeechobee County. These
bones are as yet undescribed but ore the girdle of a turtle.

Upper Cretaceous System

The Gulf Series in the Floride Peninsula consists of four distinct
units. These, in descending order, are beds of Navarro Age (Lawson
limestone), beds of Taylor Age, beds of Austin Age, and Atkinson
Formation (beds of Eagleford and Woodbine Age). This section is based
on studies by Applin and Applin (1944, 1947), Southeastern Geological
Society Mesozoic Committee (1949), and Vernon (1951). These workers
have correlated the Florida Cretaceous System with that of the standard
section of Texas. Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944, 1945), however, has
correlated the Florida section with that of Alabama and has used the
Alabama nomenclature for Cretaceous rocks (fig. 9).

In the panhandle, the Gulf Series are divided into five stratigraphic
units. These units, in descending order, are beds of Navarro Age (?),
beds of Taylor Age, beds of Austin Age, Eutaw Formation, and Tuscaloosa
Formation.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 25



ALABAMA FLORIDA
I'Crea-k ousanjadjmy linstne1M grey M5 ckr dcy, amam,,
LISBON Of i. $ 0* o *"' =*
- - --- \Ge-Wg U4M@ fine. 30-4$5 FM Sick.
TlAATTA 1 ^ ^TALIAIAflA: C ?a. twilegn.nJIkwr,dcy Ie.osll*oaid wraay learn.
s0w.4cdwrsn cloyr. 150-500 fea fthlck.


i HATCHETiBEE M-
Ll
Ch f-- ^ USniIHUndifw'lmed WiLCOK $Smndvse.malgbc hmutaone-lg cawca'i^c, cok..
0C l --------- i-mnd; qmTr, while a* ca paqly liieliton ru ri mBemicous clay al base.
5Silkmsm.mpy.cry' limmaom anhd rwmn-gy ckly predomensW .adwcird. All have
a ] VelaKscok Iunajbul cammrnomhoms f* a mt at o h ikFai oc*ur In Ihs bo lom
ISCAH A 100 ID 300 fn which i prinipally a whi hocretposay, ,l*s.1iFbrws lImmEons,
av USC UA v renirvld ?h &alr Mnlo.nu li-win. 400-1600 fq thick.



KAMAFALIA

-,- NHm EOLA
S-- ------- c Undifferenialed Ml DWAY' Grcgmicacamusmsandy clay with iMms of crwiahsndy,
PRT S CEEK pamty, lFt IsHalso. Dark grur io blat micucuous clay wilh thin beds of Armn,
n__ 2^rined and prw wcpaIwd,OAnd bWded ailinoumi clayr makle up h b*-VWaksco

i CLAYTON u. 2 5-- 7 I s t6c. k
PRAIRIE BLUFF ed -----
-A B*dsrf NVWRRO AGE(?)= A thingroy,pauy mad iatke
lop of tlcprh4C .t..4 ,.otamning not*isil-,oCeurs in Ph*
w5tem Pmkanidle Pwaibl NWARRO in aw-TAYLOI
pe\ op- up ko 1 erp It.C .

J AE M P BOdUS So i TAYLOR AGE Cmam i granyeper, poaly choll wilh th.n b.wd o
-5 c|l4*woon clay, soil crnm lom ra rl- IAYLOR fnuiih. Thinm .aMward -
CA c350-7100 lM thick.


Beds of AUSTIN AGt:1 the soil,pPnlylgary ri ondW limitonm of wmwernia?
unnnrjul j kII Fbnhumdl* gxdemmiwHqrd amrfnkBk*oe HcimpBouiGu ta o own quartz
MOOREVI LE ",,erd,, wih- 44wn,,eF, thin-,,dddela th,,demandi.p.n-
r an~oswa c lcvous conal. A spckip cUkowu1s, Pl0 clo coiuactorlns the am.
=- E-- -- ----------1350-450 6wa thick.
buJ. a EUTAW: A pray *frniie9cariouttine BwaMtnn. tiht dcndip
SC inoS mft, poay, andydchlwit h rnmenee em. 150-300 F** 46ck.

ai 3 Upper TUSCALOOSAI GOr cream, fium.clcarmkoumioclw.dayn, .il y
**s ip Be ?a oiFom with hs of calcarvou& dufl6. Gra&d&&do dip tioa Wallar *nd
C- G ii, oo.aw.ic,*,alem es sialos- EAGlE FORD Mma. 400-500 FM4 ick
C2
-A MILLER SAO
L.J A a (IMa.rim TUSCALOOSA; Moifnay,lhMrd, poker chi'dmlh wilh naira*ued,
C limeoow,gliiwluomt, mAndl| A.d fru nmien and comr6wan i. eama ard
l lm tlis-GIboerufpc a fou"B. 250- 375 *w thlek.
SLaew TUSCALOOA MoNMarllnpoormy sodrr lagr ., lim to arn
M s7ri l Mnd wdribCoted s th**.T"lapau colors in wia mantword oand the
pwcewta, of l. ise=n dimwp. 400--750 feW thick.

Lmw CRETACEOUSi UMAff* dniatc.ruilum&, mdalMbneddk4d wIth mud
maU 'gr shale wilk ntmlm adl sandy linmmet an d nshdit., Tlhkn, not4
p --urotod.




Figure 9. Stratigraphic chart of the Subsurface Panhandle.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tuscaloosa Formation

The sediments of the Tuscaloosa Formation overlie plastic sedi-
ments of the Early Cretaceous or older formation. The Tuscaloosa has
been divided into three members, a nonmarine lower Tuscaloosa, marine
Tuscaloosa, and Upper Tuscaloosa.

The lower Tuscaloosa in the panhandle consists of nonmarine,
poorly sorted, gray to green, fine to coarse sand'and variegated sholes.
The pastel colors increase eastward and the percentage of shale increases
downdip. The thickness of the lower Tuscaloosa ranges from 400 to 475
feet.

The term Moye (Pilot) sand reservoir is used by Winter (1954) for
the glauconitic, fine grained sand at the top of the lower Tuscaloosa.
This sand averages 91 feet in thickness and the upper 25 to 30 feet are
relatively clean, but the sand is argillaceous below this interval. It is
the most prolific of the oil-bearing sands in the Pollard field and has
been identified in most wells in the panhandle.

The marine Tuscaloosa consists predominantly of marine, gray,
hard, "poker-chip" shale with laminated, micaceous, glauconitic sand,
shell fragments, carbonaceous seams and flecks, containing a Globo-
truncana fauna. The formation varies in thickness from 250 to 375 feet.

The upper Tuscaloosa generally consists of gray to cream, fine,
calcareous, micaceous, clayey, silty sandstone with beds of calcareous
shale. It grades downdip to a similar sand interbedded and overlying
laminated, greenish gray, micaceous, carbonaceous, glauconitic, cal-
careous shale. This upper member contains Fagleford fauna and is
400 to 500 feet thick.

The name Miller sand reservoir is used by Winter (1954) for lenticular
fine grained sand at the base of the upper Tuscaloosa. The Miller Sand
is interbedded with streaks of shale and dense sandstone. This sand is
oil-bearing in the Pollard field near depths ranging from 5,624 to 5,722
feet below sea level. The thickness of this sand varies between 15 and
30 feet and has been identified in most wells in the Florida Panhandle.

Applin and Applin (1944) identified the Tuscaloosa Formation
in 13 wells in Florida and adjacent parts of Alabama and Georgia, and
correlated it in part with the Eagleford Shale, and in part with the
Woodbine Formation of Texas.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


TUSCALOOSA FORMATION
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)


County Well No. Top Bottom Thickness Total Depth

Dixie W-636 3626 3741 115 4776
Jackson W4285 2803 3448 645 5022
Jefferson W. 19 3410 3838 428 3838
Lake W-275 5322 5392 70 6120
Leon W. 32 3465 3755 290 3755
Levy W.-166 4170 4235 65 5266
Monroe W-445 7676 8168 492 10,006
Nassau W-336 4254 4600 346 4821
Wakulla W- 44 3672 4270 598 5746
Walton W-148 4133 5337 204 5337
Washington W. 1 3470? 4912 ? 4912



Atkinson Formation

The Atkinson Formation was proposed by Applin and Applin (1947,
chart) with a threefold division (upper, middle, and lower) for marine
micaceous shales and micaceous sands with thin shaley limestone beds
of pre-Austin Age that overlie the Comanche Series in southern Alabama,
Georgia, and northern Florida. Applin and Applin (1947) tentatively
correlated this formation with the Tuscaloosa and McShane Formations

The lower and middle members of the Atkinson Formation in Alabama
and Georgia were distinguished by the Applins (1947) on lithology. In
southern Florida, the lower and middle members are indistinct litho.
logically and are separated mainly on microfauna.

The Atkinson Formation has been divided by the Southeastern
Geological Society Mesozoic Committee into two founizones, faunizone
"A" containing Eagleford fauna, and faunizone "B" containing Woodbine
fauna. This subdivision has been used by subsequent authors.

Cushman and Applin (1947, p. 53. 54) reported two species of
AamobaculWies (A. gratus Cushman and Applin and A. agrestis Cushman
and Applin) from the Atkinson Formation in Florida.


27





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Faunizone "A" commonly contains, in marine shale beds, a fauna
characteristic of the Eagleford shale of Texas and includes Planulina
eagleiordensis, Valvulineria infrequens, Gumbelina moremani, G reussi4
Trochammina wickendent, Globigerina cretacea and abundant ostracodes.

Faunizone "'B" contains, in micaceous, calcareous sands and
sandy limestones, a microfauno characteristic of the Woodbine sand of
Texas, including Ammobaculites braunsteini, A. comprimatus, A. advenus,
Ammobaciloldes plummerae, and Trochammina rainwater.

In general, the upper member of the Atkinson Formation carries
a microfauna of Eagleford Age and is equivalent to faunizone "A".
The middle and lower members of the Atkinson contain a Woodbine fauna
and both of these members are included in faunizone "B". Applin (1955)
has redefined the Atkinson Formation to consist of two members, an
upper member of Eagleford Age and a lower member of Woodbine Age
consisting of the former lower and middle members.

Applin (1955) has described the foraminiferal fauna of Woodbine
biofacies of the Atkinson Formation. The following species are recorded
from 13 wells in Florida and adjoining parts of Alabama and Georgia:

Rechax deckred Toppan
Haplophoagmoides longsdafnsis Applin
HaiophrAgmoides advenus (Cushman and Applin)
Anwnoaculites agrestis Cushman and Applin
Ammobaculftes junceus Cushman and Applin
AmnmbaculoIdes plumnmenm Loeblich
Gaudryina baerowms Is Applin
Qulnquelocuflna movmwani barlowensis Applin
Trochammino rolnwateri Cushman and Applin
Acrullammina long (Tappon)
Piacopsifina lansdalensis Applin
Robulust munsteri (Rowmer)
Lenticulina cyprina (Vieoux)
NodosarlF a'ffinis Reuss var.
CtIharfi recta (Reus s)
Frondlcularlta barlowensis Applin
Patellina subcreatceo Cushman and Alexander
DiscorbIs mininma Vieoux
ValvulInerlo Infrequens Morrow var.
Globorovtuio cushmont Morrow




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Globigerina cf. G. cretucea d'Orblgny
Anomatina obesa Cushman and Applin
Anomalina petite Carsey

The above fauna has been found in an area northward from Levy
and Putnam counties to Clinch County in southern Georgia. In Florida
this biofacies has been identified in the subsurface from Jackson, Colum-
bia, Putnam, Dixie, Suwannee, and Jefferson counties.

According to Applin (1955), the predominance of arenaceous micro-
fauna of this facies and the l ithologic character of the sediments indicate
an environmentof deposition ranging from very shallow marine to estuarine
and brackish water to weakly saline and poorly aerated waters.



Eutaw Formation

The Eutaw Formation in the Florida Panhandle consists of a gray
to cream, calcareous, fine sandstone that grades downdip into soft,
pasty, sandy chalk with limestone seams. The thickness of the Eutaw
varies from 150 to 300 feet (fig. 10).


BEDS OF AUSTIN AGE

The following facies are recognized by Applin and Applin (1944,
p. 1715-1716) in the beds of Austin Age:

Predominantly shale and sand faces (western and northern Florida)
Sales and marly limestone facies (central Florida)
Limestone faces (southern Florida)

The shale and sand faces of western and northern Florida grades
into beds composed mainly of sales and marly limestones in central
Florida, which in turn grades into limestone in southern Florida.

Beds of Austin Age in the westernmost Florida Panhandle consist
of soft, pasty, gray marls and limestones. Eastward, these sediments
grade into gray, soft, glauconitic, micaceous, fine to coarse quartz sand,
interbedded with gray-green, soft, calcareous, thin bedded clay that
increases in calcareous content downdip. The base of these beds is


29





















STRUCTURE MAP


UPPER CRETACEOUS c
TOP OF A HIGH RESISTIVITY
CURVE IN EUTAW FORMATION MILES
0244610 m0 30 4 0
APPROXIMATE SCALE
CONTOIVjR iNTEFfVAL 100 FEET


FIGURE 10




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


characterized by a speckled, calcareous, soft cloy. The thickness
of the beds of Austin Age varies between 350 and 450 feet.

In central Florida, these sediments are composed of gray and
greenish gray marl or calcareous shale with streaks of limestone and
and lenses of fine grained sand. The speckled, calcareous shale is
commonly present in central Florida. In southern Florida, beds of Austin
consist of hard, white limestone. In peninsular Florida, the beds of
Austin Age have a uniform thickness of 250 to 350 feet (Applin and
Applin, 1944). Vernon (1951, 0. 80, 81) records the maximum thickness
of these sediments to be 527 feet.


BEDS OF TAYLOR AGE

Beds of Taylor Age, in the Florida Panhandle, are composed of
cream to gray, clayey, pasty, chalk with thin beds of calcareous clay
and soft, cream to gray marl. These beds are 350 to 700 feet thick,
thinning eastward.

Beds of Taylor Age underlie the beds of Navarro Age (?) in the
Florida Panhandle, except in the Tallahassee area, where Paleocene
beds overlie beds of Taylor Age, with beds of Navarro Age (?) being
absent. Over most of the Florida Peninsula these sediments are com-
posed of hard, white, cream colored, chalky limestone with thin, irregular
streaks of shale and gray marl occasionally present. Applin and Applin
(1944) give the thickness of beds of Taylor Age in the central part of
the peninsula to be 400 feet, increasing northeastward to 600 feet, and
the southern peninsula to be more than 1,200 feet.

The top of the beds of Taylor Age can be picked by the first
appearance of an abundance of fragments of Inoceramus.

Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945):

Anomaoina cosdenI Applin and Jordan
Anomaly no scholtzens is Cole
Bolivina Incrassata Reuss
Bollvinmldes decomrta (Jones)
Bullminella cushmani Sand idge
Globigerina creftce (?) d'Orbigny





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Globotruncona arca (Cushman)
Globotrunmon ccanalculata (Reuss)
GyroIdina micheliniana (d'Orbigny)
PIanulina cedarkeysensis Cole
Planutina fexona Cushman
Stensloeina americana Cushman and Dorsey


Lawson Limestone

The name Lawson (from J. 5. Cosden-Lawson well No. 1, Marion
County) Limestone was named and described by Applin and Applin (1944,
p. 1708-1711) for a limestone facies of the Upper Cretaceous beds
occurring in northeast Florida and in the peninsula below the Cedar Keys
limestone and above beds of Taylor Age. They (1944) divided this
formation into a lower and an upper member, each with a distinctive
microfauna. The upper member is a white to cream colored, gypsum
impregnated calcitic limestone, 40 to 300 feet thick. The average
thickness of the upper member is about 200 feet. Tbe upper member
carries a recrystallized microfouna, which is difficult to identify both
specifically and generically. Species of Vaughanina, Orbitolina, Pseudor-
bitoides and Lepidorditoides we common (Applin and Applin, 1944).

The lower member is white to cream colored, hard, chalky limestone,
generally 300 to 400 feet thick, although it reaches a maximum of 700
feet in wells in Levy County. Applin and Applin (1944) noted only a
small amount of gypsum in the lower member.

Fauna
The lower member of the Lawson has a distinctive microfauna
in which the following species are common and characteristic (Applin
and Jordan, 1945):

Chicides harper (Sandidge)
Lepidorbitoldes (Asterobis) aguayoi D. K. Palmer
Lepidorbitoldes (Lepidorbitoides) minima H. Douville
Lepidoritfoides (Lepidorbfolides) nortoni (Vaughan)
Lepidorbitoides (Lepidorbitoides) planasi M. G. Rutten
Loxostoma clavafum (Cushman)
Robulus mwnsteri (Roomer)
Sulcoperculina cosdenI Applin and Jordan





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


BEDS OF NAVARRO AGE (?)

The Lawson Limestone grades laterally into clastic beds of Navarro
Age (?) in the Florida Panhandle, composed of a thin, gray, pasty marl,
containing few fossils. These sediments are up to 100 feet thick and
are possibly Navarro in age; but they may perhaps be equivalent to the
upper part of beds of Taylor Age.

It is hoped that current studies by Paul L. and Esther R. Applin
on the Cretaceous sediments of Florida, Georgia, and Alabama will clarify
some of the problems in Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleontology.


33




34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




CRETACEOUS AND OLDER ROCKS IN THE SUBSURFACE IN THE
FLORIDA PENINSULA



By
Paul L. Applin and Esther R. Applin
U. S. Geological Survey (retired)
Jackson, Mississippi

INTRODUCTION

The lithology, paleontology, faces changes, and stratigraphic sequence
of the Cretaceous and older rocks that underlie the Florida peninsula are known
from the microscopic study of cores and cuttings from about 175 oil test wells
drilled since 1927. The samples from the wells have been released to the public
by the different oil companies, and commercial electric logs that are available
for most of the wells aid in the correlation of the different stratigraphic units.
The present report, prepared for this guidebook, is mainly a synthesis of some
of the material discussed in greater detail in publications of the U. S. Geolo-
gical Survey, and in articles that were published in various scientific bulletins
(Applin, E.R., 1955; Applin, E.R., and Jordan, Louise, 1945; Appliri, P. L.,
1951o; 1951b; 1952; 1957; Applin and Applin, 1944; 1947; 1964, unpublished data;
Berdon and Bridge, 1951; Bridge and Berdan, 1951). References to these publica-
tions, ond to publications by other writers, are made in the text of this report.
After a description of the older rocks of the Coastal Plain floor is presented, the
report describes the stratigraphy of the unconformably overlying Jurassic (?)and
Cretaceous rocks.


1 Publication authorized by the director of the United States Geological Survey.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 35



COASTAL PLAIN FLOOR

The Coastal Plain floor in the Florida peninsula is the truncated surface
of a wide variety of igneous and sedimentary rocks that are, chiefly, Precam-
brian (?) and early Paleozoic in age. In the northern part of the peninsula,
scattered occurrences of Upper Triassic (?) rocks evidently form a part of the
truncated surface on which the coastal plain rocks were deposited.

The pre-Mesozoic rocks (Applin, P.L., 1951a, p. 5-15; Berdan and Bridge,
1951; Bridge and Berdan, 1951) that compose the greater part of the Coastal
Plain floor in central and northern Florida have been provisionally classified
as Precambrian (?) granite and diorite; Precambrian (?) or lower Paleozoic (?)
rhyolite and pyroclastic rocks; unmetamorphosed or weakly metamorphosed
sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Early Ordovician to Middle (?) Devonian
(J. M. Berdan, written communication to H. S. Purl, 1960, quoting J. M. Schopf)
that are composed mainly of quartzitic sandstones, gray to black, noncalcareous,
micaceous sales, and gray to black, noncalcareous, nonmicaceous sales. A
well drilled in 1957 in St. Lucie County, Fla., on the southeast coast of the
peninsula, terminated in highly altered igneous intrusive rocks of undetermined
age (Applin and Applin, 1964).

Several wells in the northwestern part of the peninsula penetrated a se-
quence of rocks that has been tentatively classified (Applin, P.L., 1951a, p.
15-16; 1957) as the Upper Triassic (?) Newark (?) Group. The rocks, which
are chiefly terrestrial or marginal clastic deposits cut by intrusions and flows
of diabase and basalt, seem to form a westward-thickening wedge between the
Paleozoic rocks, below, and the Cretaceous plastic strata, above. Elsewhere
in the northern part of the peninsula, diabase of Triassic (?) age cuts early
Paleozoic strata in several wells; in a few others, a thin layer of weathered
diabase rests on early Paleozoic strata and underlies Lower Cretaceous clastic
rocks.

The depth below sea level to the Coastal Plain floor ranges from about
2600 feet in a well in Columbia County, in northern Florida, to more than 12,500
feet in several wells in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee. Oil test wells in the
southern part of the peninsula and on the Keys were not drilled sufficiently deep
to penetrate the Coastal Plain floor, although a few reached depths in excess of
15,000 feet (fig. 3).




36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



JURASSIC (?) AND CRETACEOUS ROCKS
Nomenclature

The major stratigraphic units of the Jurassic (?) and Cretaceous rocks are
from oldest to youngest, an Upper Jurassic (?) or Lower Cretaceous (?) unit in
south Florida that has been named the Fort Pierce Formation (Applin and Applin,
1964), and the Comanche Series and Gulf Series that are present throughout most
of the peninsula. The carbonate rocks and evaporites that characterize the
Comanche rocks in central and south Florida are separable into three units,
chiefly on the basis of distinctive microfaunal assemblages occurring in a uni-
form sequence in the different wells in the area. These units of the Comanche
Series are, from oldest to youngest, beds of Trinity age, beds of Fredericks-
burg age, and beds of Washita age. Distinctive units in the beds of Trinity age
that have been formally named and described are the Punta Gorda Anhydrite
(Applin and Applin, 1964) and the Sunniland Limestone (Pressler, 1947, p. 1859;
Applin, P.L., 1960, p. B 209; Applin and Applin, 1964). Unfossiliferous, mar-
ginal plastic or continental deposits that characterize the Comanche rocks in
north Florida are largely undifferentiated. Overlying the Comanche rocks in
south Florida, and underlying the rocks of the Gulf Series, an unnamed thin
layer of distinctive green shale is classified as Comanche Series (?) or Gulf
Series (?) (Applin and Applin, 1964). The Gulf Series in the northern part of
the peninsula is divisible into four major stratigraphic units of which the Atkin-
son Formation (Applin and Applin, 1947; Applin, E.R., 1955, p. 187) is the
oldest. The Atkinson Formation consists of two unnamed members, a lower mem-
ber containing a microfouna of Woodbine age, and an upper member containing
a microfouna of Eagle Ford age. Overlying the Atkinson Formation, the progress-
ively younger units of the Gulf Series are classic fied as beds of Austin age, beds
of Taylor age, and the Lawson Limestone (Applin and Applin, 1944, p. 1715-
1716; p. 1711-1713; p. 1681 and p. 1708-1709; unpublished data) of Navarro age.
The Lawson Limestone consists of two unnamed members, a lower member com-
posed, mainly, of white chalk containing a distinctive microfouna, and an upper
member that is, chiefly, a highly dolomitized algal and rudistid biostrome. The
units of the Gulf Series are less clearly differentiated in south Florida, although
the basal beds of the Atkinson Formation have been definitely determined (Applin
and Applin, 1964) in several wells.

Thickness

The Jurassic (?) and Cretaceous rocks are, in general, a part of the
seaward-thickening wedge of sediments that forms the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal
Plain of the United States and extends outward onto the continental shelf.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Cretaceous rocks that crop out in a northeastward-trending belt across
central Georgia at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain, dip southeastward
under the younger Tertiary rocks and thicken wedge-like toward the coast. The
southeastward thickening is interrupted, however, by a relatively stable element
of the Coastal Plain floor in northern Florida that subsided much less rapidly
than the neighboring elements. This stable element coincides closely with the
Peninsular arch (Applin, P.L., 195Ta, p. 3-5) and markedly affects the distribu-
tion, thickness, lithology, and biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous sedimentary
units in the Florida peninsula and adjacent parts of southern Georgia.

The clastic rocks of the Comanche Series, which pinch out around an area
of lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks at the crest of the Peninsular arch, thicken
eastward, southward, and westward toward the coast (Applin, P.L., 1952, fig. 3;
Applin and Applin, 1964; Jordan, 1954, fig. 4). On the crest of the arch, and
along the axis of the Suwannee saddle (preferred name for "Suwannee strait"'
of Doll, 1892, p. 111 and p. 122) in southeastern Georgia, the rocks of the Gulf
Series range in thickness from 1000 to 1500 feet, in marked contrast to greater
thicknesses that have been penetrated in the surrounding areas (Applin, P.L.,
1952, fig. 2; Applin and Applin, unpublished data; Jordan, 1954, fig. 3; Hull,
1962, fig. 2 and fig. 3). In southern Florida near Key West, the Jurassic (?) and
Cretaceous rocks are more than 10,000 feet thick in a well that stopped above
the Coastal Plain floor.

Lithofacies

Judging from the areal distribution and the variations in thickness of the
Jurassic (?) and Cretaceous rocks, regional submergence of the Florida penin-
sula apparently began early in the Mesozoic Era and was definitely in progress
in Late Jurassic (?) or earliest Cretaceous (?) time. The Jurassic (?) and
Cretaceous sediments were deposited, in general, in a transgressing sea whose
margin encroached northward accompanied by progressive subsidence of the
Coastal Plain floor.

The Fort Pierce Formation and the Comanche Series are predominantly
a carbonate-evaporite faces in south Florida, but significant faces changes
in these units mark the advance of the sea in the central part of the peninsula.
By a series of onlaps, the Fort Pierce Formation and the units of Trinity, Fred-
ericksburg, and Washita age transgress northward from south Florida and wedge
out on the Peninsular arch. In central Florida, the carbonate-evaporite faces of
each unit thins progressively northward and grades into lithologically diverse
d. oosits, termed a mixed facies (Applin and Applin, 1964), that are mainly


37




38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



argillaceous and arenaceous limestones and dolomites, neritic plastic rocks,
and some evaporites. The mixed faces, in turn, grades northward and shoreward
into an unfossiliferous marginal plastic or "red bed" faces composed of irreg.
ularly intertensing mudstones, siltstones, poorly-sorted fine to coorse-grained
sandstones, and red, green, and varicolored shales.

In each well in central Florida, the marginal clastic faces is at the base
of the Comanche rocks and rests unconformably on the Coastal Plain floor.
Inasmuch as this faces was deposited along the margin of an advancing sea,
it follows that it is of different ages at different places, and although the mar-
ginal faces is a unit of more or less uniform lithology, it is not here considered
to be a time unit. In our opinion, its geologic age ranges from Late Jurassic (?)
or Early Cretaceous (?)to Washita. The prevailing type of lithology of the largely
undifferentiated Comanche rocks in northern Florida and the Coastal Plain of
Georgia is also a marginal plastic faces. However, a shallow-water marine
facies in the upper port of the Comanche Series in the Magnolia Petroleum Co.
State of Florida Block 5B well 1A, Franklin County, contains specimens of
species of microfossils of Buda (Washita) age, marking a significant environment.
tal change (Applin and Applin, unpublished data).

Facies changes in the rocks of the Gulf Series are less striking than in
the rocks of the Comanche Series but are nevertheless significant. Anhydrite,
a major constituent of the carbonate rocks of the Comanche Series, is a minor
constituent of the Gulf Series.

The Atkinson Formation in northern Florida is characteristically composed
of dark fossiliferous marine shales, predominantly fine-grained sandstones, and,
in the upper part of the unit, scattered lense of silty limestone. The Atkinson
unconformably overlies the unfossiliferous, nonmarine clastic beds of the Coman-
che Series, except in the area near the crest of the Peninsular arch where the
Comanche rocks are absent. Most wells in this area penetrated the Atkinson
unconformably overlying early Paleozoic strata, although it, too, seems to be
absent in a few scattered wells in which the beds of Austin age rest uncon-
formably on the older rocks. Overlying the Atkinson Formation, the progressively
younger beds of Austin and Taylor age, and the Lawson Limestone are composed,
chiefly, of fossiliferous limestone, dolomite, chalk, and some chalky marl. A
unique and distinctive sandstone faces in the lower part of the beds of Austin
age occupies a narrow belt across the northern part of the peninsula.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 39



In the central part of the peninsula, the ratio of calcareous rocks to plastic
rocks in the Atkinson Formation increases progressively southward; the lime-
stone and dolomite in the beds of Austin and Taylor age change gradually south-
ward into sparsely fossiliferous chalk. The basal part of the Atkinson Formation
in central Florida is a sandy chalk that ranges in thickness from 10 to about
50 feet, and contains specimens of fossils diagnostic of the lower port of the
formation. The sandy chalk in several wells overlies the green shale unit of
questionable Comanche (?) or Gulf (?) age, but in several other wells it rests
directly on the sequence of carbonate rocks and evaporites in the upper part
of the beds of Washita age.

Underlying the Lawson Limestone in south Florida, the beds of Taylor
and Austin age are a nearly uniForm sequence of chalk containing relatively
few specifically determinable fossil specimens, The chalk sequence, in turn,
is underlain in the southwestern part of the peninsula by a gray, dense, some-
what fossiliferous limestone, about 50 feet thick, that has been classified on
the basis of its Fauna as the basal part of the Atkinson Formation. The gray
limestone rests on the thin stratum of green shale that lies between the Comanche
Series below and the Gulf Series above.

Structure I Features

Regional subsurface structural features in the Jurassic (?) and Cretaceous
rocks are, in addition to the already mentioned Peninsular arch and Suwannee
saddle, the Ocala uplift (Hopkins, 1920; Vernon, 1951, p. 54-56, pl. 1 and 2);
the south Florida embayment (Pressler, 1947, p. 1956 and fig. 1; Applin and
Applin, 1964); the south Florida shelf (Applin and Applin, 1964); the Broward
syncline (Applin and Applin, 1964); the Okefenokee embayment (Pressler, 1947,
p. 1856), also known as the Savannah or southeast Georgia basin (Murray, 1961,
p. 96-97); the Apalachicola embayment (Pressler, 1947, p. 1853 and 1856),
frequently called the southwest Georgia basin (Murray, 1961, p. 103); the
bight of Florida (Antoine and Harding, 1963, p. 12, fig. 6 and fig. 7; Applin
and Applin, unpublished data).




40


Antoine, J. W
1963




Applin, E.R.
1955


Applin, E.R.
1945


Applin, P. L.
1951a


1951 b



1952




1957



1960


Applin, P. L.
1944



1947



1964


(and Harding, J.L.) Structure of the continental shelf, northeastern
Gulf of Mexico (preliminary report): The Agricultural and Mechan-
ical College of Texas, Dept. of Oceanography and Meteorology,
A. & M. Project 286-1, 18 p., 9 figs.

(also see Applin, P. L.)
A biofacies of Woodbine age in the southeastern Gulf Coast region:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 264-1, p. 187-197.


(and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface for-
motions in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, p. 129-148.


Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and ad-
jacent states: U. S. Geol. Survey Cire. 91, 28 p.; also in Fla. Geol.
Survey, Guidebook, Am. Assoc. State Geologists 44th Ann. Meet-
ing, Field Trip, Apr. 1952, p. 1.28, (1952).

Florida in Ball, M. W.,, chinm., Possible future petroleum provinces
of North America: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 35,
p. 405-408.

volume of Mesozoic sediments in Florida and Georgia, Pt. 1 of
Murray, G. E., Sedimentary volumes in Gulf Coastal Plain of the
United States and Mexico: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 63, p. 1159-
1163.

Alabama, Georgia, Florida, in Reeside, J. B., chm. Correlation of
the Triassic formations of North America exclusive of Canada:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 68, p. 1486-1489.

Significance of changes in thickness and lithofacies of the Sunni-
land Limestone, Collier County, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Poper,400-B, p. B 209- B 211.


(and Applin, E. R.)
Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida and
southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v.
28, p. 1673-1753.

Regional subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and correlation of
middle and early Upper Cretaceous rocks in Alabama, Georgia, and
north Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Oil and Gas Inv. Prelim. Chart 26.

The Comanche Series and associated rocks in the subsurface in
central and south Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 447, in
press.


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES CITED





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Berdan, J. M. (also see Bridge, Josiah)
1951 (and Bridge, Josiah) Preliminary notes on the Paleozoic strata be.
neath Levy and Citrus Counties, Florida, in Vernon, R. 0., Geo-
logy of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 33, p. 68-71, (1951).


Bridge, Josiah
1951





Dall, W. H.
1892


(also see Berdan, J. M.)
(and Berdan, J. M.) Preliminary correlation of the Paleozoic rocks
from test wells in Florida and adjacent parts of Georgia and Ala-
bama: U. S. Geol. Survey open file report, mimeographed, 8 p.:
also in Fla. Geol. Survey, Guidebook, Assoc. Am. State Geologist
44th Ann. Meeting, Field Trip, Apr., 1952, p. 29-38, (1952).


(and Harris, G. D.) Correlation papers, Neocene: U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 84, 349 p.


Harding, J. L. (see Antoine, J. W.)


Harris, G. D. (see Dalo, W. H.)

Hopkins, 0. B.
1920 Drilling for oil in Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Press Bull., Apr.,1920.

Hull, J. P. D., Jr.
1962 Cretaceous Suwannee Strait, Georgia and Florida: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geologists Bull., v. 46, p. 118-121.

Jordan, Louise (also see Applin, E. R.)
1954 Oil possibilities in Florida: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 53, no. 28, p.
370-372, 375, (November 15, 1954).

Murray, G. E.
1961 Geology of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Province of North Ameri-
ca: New York, Harper & Brothers, 692 p.

Pressler, E. D.
1947 Geology and occurrence of oil in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologist Bull., v. 31, p. 1951-1862.

Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 33, 256 p.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CENOZOIC ERA

TERTIARY SYSTEM

Paleocene Series

Cedar Keys Formation

This formation was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27, 28) for a mostly
tan limestone containing Borells gunteri Cole and Borelis floridanus Cole
in its upper portion, and which overlies Cretaceous calcorenite. As
defined, this formation is a stage and is synonymous with Midway Stage
of the western gulf states. As used by Cole, the formation extended
from the uppermost occurrence of Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper
Cretaceous, as identified by him, and included a transition zone at base,
which is considered by most workers to represent the top of Upper Creta-
ceous (upper member of the Lawson Limestone). The Cedar Keys is
here used as emended by Applin and Applin (1944) and Vernon (1951)
and covers the interval between the top of the Borells fauna, the first
occurrence of a small foraminiferal assemblage associated with Borelis,
to the top of the Cretaceous. This current usage includes in the Cedar
Keys an indefinite thickness of beds at the top and excludes the Upper
Cretaceous beds. This definition of Cedar Keys makes the formation
much more uniform in its occurrence and thickness (fig. 11).

Fauna
Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Borells floridanus Cole
Borefls gunterl Cole
Cribrospira ? bushnellensis Applin and Jordan
Planispirina ? klssengenensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulamrnrina nassauensis Applin and Jordan

Ostracoda (Applin and Applin, 1944)

Cytherella symmetrica Alexander
Cyshereis aff. C. sculpftils Alexander







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Unnamed Sand. Psof. and ClC)


Lake FIli Mahrl

Silvie Bluff Formatan
C eil mipore n acu
PnmIicao FrmAri4fl Caerba-ale
and
W.ca lice Flr MIiOm Sond Dep-sirs
Co Io.iahilchee Far mOtiontf
Otelenche* Ferrnbal an

Coherri Formation


High level AlluTial a 4 Deltie iape sIP

I Upper Miocent Corn r1e r1iiCL


C#ttff4 rr Zla1e


C(a 11 hec5 het
Formarl'h


5r Moait
farmatign


._ _. --*- rd T mi,'aml
F0rmtioin 5nulh Area
Zene downdip 4r Souih
Floi do Emnbuiffint:1/"


M;e9pflt no SPeufftr~ Lose


Sumau'.. Lia~eIOsS


M.'fp-* l r.ImbI. CrIrg I I Ri yr Fraslion 1



Ingl'it Formerin


Ocola Group


Are', Park timearone


Lnte Culr LimaillOlt




Oldtmi' tmostilong


Ctder KgIL Ltimalton


Figure 11. Stratigraphic Cenozoic Nomenclature Chart.




44 FLORIDA GEOLOG ICAL SURVEY


LIMESTONE FACIES CEDAR KEYS FORMATION
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)

County Well No. Top Bottom Thickness Total Depth

Dade W-215 3675 5432 (T.D.) 1757 5432
Dade W.147 3773 4560 (T.D.) 787 4560
DFxie W-636 2561 1894 333 4776
Hillsborough W- 8 3090 3255 165 3255
Lake W-275 1570 3365 795 6120
Levy W.166 2051 2489 438 5266
Marion W-901 1730 2235 505 4334
Monroe W-445 3310 5430 2120 10,006
Nassau W.336 2215 2750 535 4821
Polk W- 61 2630 4300 1670 4540
Sumter W- 3 2005 2940 935 3070




UNDIFFERENTIATED MIDWAY STAGE

In the Florida Panhandle, plastic beds of Midway Age have not
been differentiated into the three units (Clayton, Porters Creek, and
Naheola) recognized in Alabama. The undifferentiated Midway in the
panhandle consists of gray, micaceous, sandy clay with seams of cream,
sandy, pasty, soft limestone; the basal portion is composed of a dark
gray to black, micaceous clay with thin beds of green, red, and gray,
speckled, and banded fossiliferous clays. The thickness of these
sediments vary from 250 to 750 feet. In some wells in Jackson, Jefferson,
Washington, and Wakulla counties, these sediments in the lower part
contain a very characteristic Tamesi fauna which is composed of the
following species (Applin and Jordan, 1945):

Ammodiscus Incertus d'Orbigny
Anomalina rubiginosa Cushmon
Buimina (Desinobullmina) qyadrafa Plummer
CIbIcides cognatus Galloway and Morrey
Clavulinoides midwayensis Cushman
Dorothioa alabamensis Cushman
Eponides waltonensis Applin and Jordan
Gaudry ina sp.
Globtgerhna cretacea d'Orbigny
Globigerina pseudobulloides Plummer






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5

Globigerina trilocufinoides Plummetr
Globigerina velascoensis Cushman
Globoartaoli cf. G. memnbranacea (Ehrenberg)
Globorotalio velascoensis Cushman
Gyroidina sparks White
Gyroidina subangulata (Plummer)
Marssonella oxycona florldona Applin and Jordan
Planulina waotonensis Applin and Jordan
Pseudoglandul fna manifesto (Reuss)
Pullenia quinqueloba Reuss
Pulvinulinella obtusa (Burrows and Holland)
Troclhamminoides Irregularis White
Vaginul na robust Plummer
Valvulineria allomorphfnoldes (Reuss)



CLASTIC FACIES OF MIDWAY AGE
(Data from Applin and ApplIn, 1944)


Well No.


Top


Bottom


Thickness


Total Depth


Jacks on

Jeffers -n

Leon
Wakulla

Wa Iton
Washingtonr


W-285 1672
(Tamesi fauna) 1761
W. 19 2490
(Tarnesi fauna)
W- 32 2235
W-440 2665
(Tame s fauna)
W-148 2010
W. 1 ?
(Tamesi fauna) 2060


1761
1934
3056 app.


2675
2715


2400 app.
2060
2545


89
173
566

440
50


390
Unknown
485


Eocene Series

Oldsmar Limestone

The name Oldsmar Limestone was given by Applin and Applin
(1944, p. 1699) to a series of founizones to include stratigraphic intervals
overlying the Cedar Keys Limestone which is marked by the abundance
of Helicostegina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale. The following four
faunizones were recognized by the Applins:


45


County


5022

3838

3755
5746

5337
4912




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Helicostegina gyralis faunizone

Salt Mountain Limestone faunizone characterized by
Pseudophragmina cedarkeysensis Cole

Coskinolina elongata faunizone


Unnamed faunizone, characterized over the north
peninsular Florida by Miscellanea nassauensis
Applin and Jordan, and over the central and
southern peninsula by "Lockhartia" cushmani
Applin and Jordan.

Levin (1957) reports the following Foraminifera and Ostracoda
from the Oldsmar Limestone:

Foraminifero

Volvulina sp.
Coskinolina elongata Cole
Quinqueloculina aknerlana d'Orbigny
Qulnqueloculfnra sp.
Nonion mimica Levin
Nummulites sp.
Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Miscellanea nassauensis var. reticulosus Applin and Jordan
Borells floridanus Cole
Tubulogenerina turbina Levin
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Discorbts tallahaotensis Bandy
Dlscorbfs yeguaensis Weinzierl and Applin
Gyroidina lottensis Garrett
Gyroidina lotfensis var. impensa Levin
Epontdes oldsnmarensis Levin
Rotalia trochidiformis (Lamarck)
Lockhartia gyropapulosa Levin
Lockhortio proealta Levin
Siphonina wilcoxensis Cushman
Asterigerifn prlrnmara var.heligma Levin
Asterigerina texana (Stadnichenko)
Helicostegina gyrolis Barker and Grimsdale
Amphistegina Iopeztrigoi Palmer
Cibtcides sassei Cole
Pseudophragmino (Proporocyclino) cedcrkeysensis Cole





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Ostracoda

Aulocytheridea margodentato Howe
Haplocytheridea cf. H. goochi (Stephenson)
Xestoleberis sp.
Cythereis ? Iongicostata Blake

Besides the foraminiferal species listed above, Clavulina floridana
Cole, Lituonella eleqans Cole, and "Lockhartia" cushmani Applin and
Jordan have been reported from the Oldsmar Limestone.



UNDIFFERENTIATED WILCOX STAGE

Stratigraphic equivalents of Nanafalia,Tuscahoma, and Hatchetigbee
formations of Alabama have been recognized in the Florida Panhandle as
undifferentiated Wilcox. These sediments consist of sandy, cream,
gfauconitic limestone; gray, glauconitic, calcareous sand; white to
cream, pasty limestone; gray-green micaceous clay at base. Siliceous,
gray, argillaceous limestone and greenish gray clay predominant eastward.
The entire section has a Velasco fauna but concentration of elements
of fauna occurs in the bottom 100 to 300 feet, which is principally a
white to cream, nasty, fossiliferous limestone, named the Salt Mountain
Limestone. The sediments of Wilcox Age vary in thickness from 400 to
1,600 feet. The clastic beds of the panhandle grade laterally across
Jefferson and adjacent counties into a limestone facies called the Olds-
mar Limestone (Applin and Applin, 1944).

LIMESTONE FACES OLDSMAR LIMESTONE
(Data from Applin and Applin,1944)


Well No.


Top


Bottom


Thickness


Total Depth


Browa rd
Columbia
Dads
Dade
Dixie
Hillsborough
Lake
Levy
Marion
Monroe
Monroe
Nassau
Polk
St. Johns
Sumter


W-150
W-299
W*215
W-147
W.636
W- 8
W-275
W-166
W-901
W-445
W- 2
W-336
W- 61
W-236
W- 3


2500 app. 3010
1010 1012 (T.D.)
2737 3675
3720 3773
1085 1561
2165 3090
1750 2570
1308 2051
1285 1730
2050 3310
1920 2310
1370 2215
1960 2630
1350 (last sample)
1430 2005


County


510
02
938
53
476
925
820
743
445
1260
390
845
670

575


3010
1012
5432
4560
4776
3255
6120
5266
4334
10,006
2310
4821
4540
1350
3070





48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PLASTIC BEDS OF WILCOX AGE

County Well No. Top Bottom Thickness Total Depth
Jackson W.285 776 1672 896 5022
Jefferson W. 19 2223 2490 ? 267 3838
Leon W- 32 1995 2235 240 3755
Wokullo W-440 2122 2665 543 5746
Walton W-148 1508 1980 472 5337
Washington W- 1 970 ? 4912


CLAIBORNE STAGE

Lake City Limestone

The Lake City Limestone was erected by Applin and Applin (1944)
for a chalky limestone faces of the early middle Eocene in northern and
peninsular Florida. The type section is a well (W-229) at Lake City,
Columbia County. The limestone grades laterally into and interfingers
with unnamed, chalky, glauconitic, sandy, plastic faces of western
Florida that contains a fauna related to the Cook Mountain Formation.

Vernon (1951, p. 91-92) reported that the formation is characterized
by several lithologies which probably occur as thin beds in a thick
carbonate section. The formation is composed of a matrix of tan to
cream, fragmental, often peat-flecked, granular, and pasty limestone
in which are embedded quantities of foraminifers, crystals of calcite,
and echinoid plates. The limestone is irregularly dolomitized and dolo*
mitization is present in all stages from incipient dolomite crystals in the
matrix to complete dolomite. The change is usually accompanied by
decalcification of the fauna to a degree comparable to the amount of
dolomitization. Such decalcification is present in stages from unaltered
fossils, calcite dust retaining some of the fossil forms, to molds sur-
rounded by crystalline dolomite. The complete removal of fossils some-
times results in a dolomite that retains the texture of a former granular
limestone, in which the matrix and interiors of the faunas have been
filled by dolomite and the calcite shells removed, to form a very porous
scab and skeletal spongy texture. Sometimes the limestone is essentially
a coquina of specimens of Dictyoconus, Coskinolina, Lockhartia and
associated foraminifers, and rarely this coquina may be so impregnated
with gypsum that the fossils appear to be embedded in gypsum.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Gypsum has impregnated much of the Lake City Limestone and
commonly the rock is completely impregnated with anhydrite and gypsum,
all porosity being filled, this resulting in rare gypsum casts of the
fossils. Thin beds and seams of anhydrite and selenite are also present
and these may represent cavity fills, since the impregnation appears in
most samples to have occurred after dolomitization.

The general lithology is emphasized by beds which apparently
characterize the Lake City Limestone. These beds occur throughout
the formation but many are concentrated at the top and serve with the
diagnostic foraminifers to mark the top of the formation.

These beds include a pseudo-oolite, a brown to coffee colored
chert, a bentonitic (?) clay, and a brownish gray, laminated, finely
crystalline dolomite containing seams of black carbon and flattened
decalcified specimens of Fabularia vaughani, Coskinolina sp., Archaias
columbiaensis, and larger Valvulinidae giving it a mottled and laminated
(molasses and butter) appearance. Occasionally, the last mentioned
rock is seamed with peat and is not fossiliferous. The finely crystalline
dolomite matrix grades vertically in some wells to a granular fragmental
matrix containing many small calcareous foraminifers, making a white
and brown speckled limestone with a dolomite matrix.

At the top of the formation, and sometimes also in samples below,
a cream, yellowish and brownish gray, very fissile, waxy, highly ab-
sorptive possible bentonitic clay was encountered in a number of wells
that penetrated the Lake City Limestone. Silica is commonly associated
with the clay and occurs at the top of the formation in great abundance.
The silica is dense, mammillary, hard, brown to tan colored chalcedony
which is transparent on thin edges. The chert is frequently peat flecked
and rarely contains specimens of Archaias columbiaensis, Lockhartia
cushmani, and Dictyoconus sp. The brown chert is frequently asso-
ciated with a white chalcedony and milky quartz and rarely all the silica
is white and milky. The clay and silica usually occur with the laminated
and speckled dolomite described above.

The limestone faces laterally grades into a clastic facies in a
series of wells extending from Wakulla County westward to Walton County.

Paleontologically, the formation is very distinct and can be identi-
fied from its fauna, the top of the formation being picked on the first
occurrence of Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman).


49




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Lake City Limestone overlies the Oldsmor and underlies
the Avon Pork Limestone. The formational contacts are known only
from rock cuttings taken from oil and water wells. The Lake City prob.
ably rests unconformably upon the Oldsmar. Vernon (1951, p. 92) noticed
that peat content increases toward the top of the Oldsmar, indicating
progressive near shore facies.

The contact of the Avon Park Limestone upon the Lake City
Limestone is undoubtedly nonconformable. The development of peat
and lignite beds, clay and sand stringers, and phosphorite and l imonite
nodules along the contact are evidences of an unconformity. In some
well penetrations, the rock cuttings show signs of oxidation and weather-
ing of the Lake City Limestone at the contact and locally the formation
appears to have been thinned.

Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Amphistegina lopeztrigoi Palmer
Amphistegina nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Archolas columbioensis Applin and Jordan
Asterigerina cedarkeysensis Cole
Dictyoconus omericanus (Cushman)
Asterocyclina monticollensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Epistomaria semimarginato (d'Orbigny)
Epaonides gunteri Cole
Fabularia gunteri Applin and Jordan
Fabularka vaughanl Cole and Ponton
Gunteria fIorldana Cushman and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman
Lepidocyci na (Pliolep dina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Linderino floridensis Cole
"Lockharfa'" cushmani Applin and Jordan
Opercullnoldes jennyi Barker






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5



LIMESTONE FACIES LAKE CITY LIMESTONE
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)


Well No.


Top


Bottom


Thickness


Tota I Depth


Brevord
Broward
Columbia
Dade
Dixie
Duval
Duval
H ilIsborough
Jefferson
Lake
Leon
Levy
Marion
Monroe
Monroe
Nassau
Nassau
Polk
Polk
St. Johns
Sunmter
Suwannee
Wakulla
Wakulla


W.104
W.150
W-299
W-215
W-636
W.304
W-581
W- 8
W- 19
W-275
W- 32
W-166
W.901
W-445
W- 2
W-336
W.670
W- 61
W-668
W-236
W. 3
W- 6
W. 12
W-440


756
2127
492
2490
525
805
965
1910
1740
1010
1600
811
915
1810
1740
945
853
1540
930
590
890
475
1750
1750


872 (T.D.)
2500
1010
2737
1085(1 stsampl.)
1005 (T.D.)
980 (T.D.)
2165
2223
2000
1995
1308
1285
2050
1920
1370
1060 (T.D.)
1960 (T.D.)
1040
1350 (T.D.)
1430
650 (T.D.)
2169 (T.D.)
2122


Tallahatta Formation

Cream to white, glauconitic, sandy, clayey limestone and gray to
cream, sandy, glauconitic clay constitute the Tallahatto Formation.
In the Florida Panhandle, thickness of these beds varies from 150 to
500 feet. These beds are called "clastic beds of Cook Mountain Age"
by the Applins (1944). These clastic sediments merge laterally into
the limestone facies (Lake City Limestone) from Wakulla County east-
ward into the Florida Peninsula.


County


116
373
518
247
560
200
15
255
483
990
395
497
370
240
180
425
207
420
110
760
540
175
419
372


872
3010
1012
5432
4776
1005
980
3255
3838
6120
3755
5266
4334
10,006
2310
4821
1060
4540
1040
1350
3070
650
2169
5746





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Avon Park Limestone

The term Avon Park Limestone was proposed by Applin and Applin
(1944, p. 1680, 1686) for the sediments of late middle Eocene in Florida.
The type locality is in a well at Avon Park Bombing Range in Polk
County. This formation in its type area is a cream colored l imestonethat
contains a very distinct middle Eocene microfouna. The surface expo-
sures of this formation have only been found in Citrus and Levy counties
(Vernon, 1951, p. 95).


General Lithology

The Avon Park Limestone is composed of several lithologies
having in common a distinct and prolific fauna and a high content of
lignitic and other carbonaceous plant residues. Three general lithologic
types, all carbonates, are present in Citrus and Levy counties in expo-
sures and well penetrations of the formation. These are as follows
(Vernon, 1951, p. 96, 97):

"(1) Cream to brown, highly fossiliferous, miliolid-rich, marine, frag-
mental to pasty limestone that weathers cream to white, and purple-
tinted (stop 1). The bed contains abundant specimens of mollusks,
foraminifers, and corals. In its porosity and fauna it resembles a
reef, and grades laterally and vertically through a tan to brown,
dense, brittle, thin lithographic limestone; a 4- to 6-inch 'fucoid-
Cerithlum' fragmental dolomite; an irregular lens of lignite and a
Foramrinifera-filled dolomite*clay into the other rock types (stop 2).

"(2) Cream to brown, pasty and fragmental, peat flecked and seamed,
very fossiliferous, marine limestone, not exposed. This bed is
extremely rich in well preserved Bryozqa, foraminifers and ostracods,
and the fauna is concentrated and somewhat deformed along thin
beds that are interbedded with peat and more barren pasty limestone
seams to give the rock a laminated and mottled appearance, to which
the term 'molasses and butter' has been applied by some geologists.

"(3) Tan to brown, thin bedded and laminated, very finely crystalline
marine dolomite. Molds of characteristic Avon Park foraminifers
are common. The dolomite is composed of euhedroal, silt-sixed
crystals of dolomite Interbedded with layers of lignite and carbona-
ceous plant remains, each layer being commonly one-sixteenth to
one-fourth inch in thickness. The structure of the rock resembles
varves and the poor consolidation and grain size cause the rock to
resemble siltstones."





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 53

Most of these generalized types will be seen at stops I and 2.

The equivalent plastic beds in the panhandle are not exposed. The
Avon Park Limestone is correlated with the Gosport Sand and with the
Lisbon Formation in part. These names have been used for the Florida
sediments although they differ from the sediments at the type sections.
Glauconitic, calcareous sand; hard, sandy, glauconitic limestone; soft,
sandy, glauconitic marl with minor seams of shale near the glauconitic,
cherty, limestone and fossiliferous bentonitic clay, have been placed in
the late middle Eocene and called Gosport Sand or Lisbon Formation.

Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Coskinolino floricana Cole
Cribrobullmina cushmani Applin and Jordan
Cyclammina waters Applin and Jordan
Dictyoconus cooke! (Moberg)
Discorinapsis gunteri Cole
Flintina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Lituonella floricdna Cole
Ronsal avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Textularla coryensis Cole
Valvulammlna minute Applin and Jordan
Valvulina avorporkeniss Applin and Jordan
Valvulna intermned-a Applin and Jordan
Vaivuflina nwrti Cush man and Bermudez

Gastropoda (Palmer, 1953)

Tectariopsis (?) avonensis Palmer
Velates floridanus Richards
Bellatara americana Palmer
Be/latom citmrn Palmer
Beflatoro floridamo Palmer
HIpponix floridanus Palmer
Pseudocrommium occldumn Palmer
Canomitra sp.





54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Pelecypoda (Richards, 1953)

Anom$a cf. A. Iisbonensis Aldrich
Crossatella inglisia Richards
Venericardla scabricostafa Guppy
Pseudomiltha megameris Dall
Here sp.
Fmnbria ofssoni Richards
Cardium (Trigoniocardium) protoaticulum Richards
Cardium (Trachycardium) cf. C. claibomensis Aldrich
Cardlum (Anthocardia ?) avonum Richards
Macrocallista annex (Conrad)
BSagnyveia ? guntefi Richards


Stop 1: (Section after Vernon, 1951, p. 105-106.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Middle Eocene Stage
Avon Park Limestone

3 Mottled cream to gray, very soft, granular, fragmental, massive,
weathered, marine limestone topped by blocky, red, sandy clay
soils that extend back into a cultivated field . . . . . 4.0

2 Cream to white, mottled, hard ledge of dense, very fossilif-
erous, marine, limestone containing excellent specimens of
Peneroplis sp. "X" and other Avon Park microfauna. Mol-
lusk molds are abundant and several Lucinids, Corbis sp. cf.
C. claibornensis and Trfgoniocardio, n. sp., are common . 1*5

1 Lithology above, but softer and containing hard nodules .. .. 3.0

Water level

Totalthickness ... ...* ...... ... ...... ......... 8.5


Stop 2: (Section after Vernon, 1951, p. 108-110

Bed Des cription Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
Pamlico Formation


8 Whiteto gray, fine, argillaceous, quartz sand . . . . *. .


1.5 to 4.0





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Unconformity
Upper Eocene Stage
Ocala Group
Inglis Formation


7 Toan, dense, hard, massive dolomite containing scattered
molds of foraminifers and broken mollusks . . . . * .

6 Tan, very soft, friable, finely crystalline, porous to dense,
thinly bedded dolomite composed of silt-size euhedral crys-
tals. Grades laterally into large, massive, dolomite beds
containing platy dolomite pebbles, apparently reworked from
beds below. This bed varies in height along the quarry face
and apparently has covered an erosional surface of relief up
to 10 feet . . .... .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ...... . ..


2.35


9.75


Unconformity
Middle Eocene Stage
Avon Park Limestone

5 High areas extending into bed 6, tan to brown, extremely
platy and laminated by alternate layers of plant remains and
silt-size euhedral crystals of dolomite. The base is dark
brown, heavily laminated and contains thin beds of peat and
specimens of Peneroplid sp. "X", Coskinolina, Dictyoconus
and Lituonella. Extensively exposed in the south side of
the quarry ......... ... ... ..... .... .. ... (variable) 3.00


4 Tan to brownish gray, dense, fine grained, fragmental dolo-
mite, cut by numerous long narrow borings made by worms or
boring mollusks. Many molds of "Cerithium" n. sp., are
present and the bed is absent in places . . . . . . .

3 Brownish gray, purple tinted, very dense, fine grained, litho-
graphic dolomite. Beds 3 and 4 grade laterally and vertically
into bed 2 or where absent into bed 1 *. . ... * * * . *

2 Brown to greenish gray, very pure, thin bedded, dense, car*
bonate having the texture and consistency of clay when wet
and analyzing 95 to 98 percent calcium-magnesium carbonate.
Upon drying the material cements solidly. The bed is lami-
nated by carbonized plant remains, thin peat beds in places,
and a pavement-like Bryozoo. It contains an abundant and
beautifully preserved microfauna of the Avon Park Limestone
and includes Elphidium sp. "A", Coskinolina floridana and
Dictyoconum cooked in great abundance. . ... . . .

1 Brownish gray to brown, purple tinted, soft but tough, granu-
lar, massive, porous limestone containing an abundant Avon
Park fauna .. ....,..., ....... ..........

Maximum cumulative thickness ...... . .. ...... ........


0.35 to 0.85



0.70 to 1.60










0.70 to 1.00


25.55




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Howe (1951) reports the following ostracode fauna from bed 2:

Cytherel/o febonmnsis Howe
Cytherelloideo florflein Howe
Baddoppleato Ievypnsjs Howe
Bardoppiloto vemano Howe
Clithrocytheridea sagittarfa Howe
Clithrocytheridea lehbnonensis Howe
Aulocytherfdea morgdentfoto Howe
Poracytherldea scorpona Howe
Paracytherideo scorpionr var. permuftra Howe
Paracytherideo vermoni Howe
Cytherettfh Infrm H owe
Brachycythere febononensis Howe
NephokIrkos aquaplanus Howe
Hemicythere phrygionla Howe
Hemicythere Ilenosa Howe
Hemicythere cribrarfa Howe
Hemicythera bellulo Howe
HemiJcythere mota Howe
Hemicythere electoria Howe
Hemicythere femniscorat Howe
Urocythere attenuate Howe
Spongicytheie spissa Howe
Occultocythereis delumbrat Howe
Hirsutocythere homotina Howe
Lenfocythere Iebonoens is Howe
Cythereis ? scatulaof Howe
Cytheres ? blaloto Howe
Xestoleberls gunterf Howe
Xestoleberls coplosa Howe


Lisbon Formation

The clastic beds, stratigraphically equivalent of the Avon Pork
Limestone of the Florida Peninsula, are recognized in the panhandle as
the Lisbon Formation. These sediments are composed of cream colored,
glauconitic, sandy limestone; light gray, blocky clay; cream, soft, chalky,
pyritic limestone; and light gray, calcareous sand. Some dolomitizotion
of carbonates occurs in some places. Sands, marls, and clay typical of
the outcrop areas are present on the Georgia-Alabama state line. The
thickness of these clastics varies from 300 to 425 feet.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


OCALA GROUP

The term Ocala Limestone, first proposed by Dall (1892, p. 103,
104), has been widely used, primarily as a rock unit. The name was
employed thus by various writers to cover all the calcareous sediments
in eastern Alabama and Florida deposited between middle Eocene (Clai-
borne) and Oligocene (Vicksburg) time, although the exact stratigraphic
position of the sediments remained in doubt until Cooke (1915) estab-
lished them as Eocene and proved that the Ocala Limestone underlies
the Marianna Limestone and that its fauna is essentially of Jackson
Stage. Since then Ocala Limestone, Jackson Group, Jackson Stage,
have been used indiscriminately by various writers for these upper
Eocene calcareous sediments. Vernon (1951) showed that "Ocala Lime-
stone" consists of at least three easily recognizable lithologic units.
Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term Ocala Group on a diagram to include
the Moodys Branch and Ocala Limestone (restricted) of Vernon (op. cit.)
or"lower Ocala" and "upper Ocala" of the Applins (op. cit.).

The Ocala Limestone was described from exposures in the vicinity
of Ocala, Marion County, Flewida (Doll, 1892, p. 103-104), and the term
has been commonly used to include all calcareous sediments of upper
Eocene age until the Applins (1944) showed that it could be divided
into an upper and a lower member. Because Vernon (1951) has recog-
nized three units and has established its subdivisions into a lower
Moodys Branch Formation and upper Ocala Limestone (restricted) and
because its regional nature has long been recognized, the Ocala was
used by Puri (1953, p. 130) as a group name. Since the "Ocala Lime-
stone" at the type locality has been quarried and the type section
destroyed, and the exposures in the vicinity of Ocala represent only
about 40 feet of sediments (the basal section in most pits belongs to
the Williston member), the Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manu-
facturing Company in the SE1NW'/ sec. 11, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Marion
County, was designated by Puri (1957, p. 24) as a cotype locality for
the Ocala Group. Seventy feet of limestone is exposed here.

The following three formations are assigned to the Ocala Group
(Puri, 1953) and their relationship, together with their thickness is
shown on plates 3-6 and figure 12.
Jackson Stage
Ocala Group
1. Crystal River Formation
2. Williston Formation
3. Inglis Formation


57














SHUBUTA


*0


AZOO


OUP


NORTH
CREEK
CLAY


MOODYS UMESTONE
BRANCH MEMBER
FORMATION -
GOSANPORT YD wncs W Ls
SAND


C


ALA


CRYSTAL


RIVER


GROUP


beds


w
C,
4
I-
LI)


O


LYELI FLOIDANUS


M)
4


Figure 12.


Nomenclature and Relationships of the Upper Eocene Rocks
in Florida.


'LU


z
0
het


4
-I





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 59


Inglis Formation

Vernon (1951, p. 115-116) proposed the name Inglis member of the
Moodys Branch Formation for 50 feet of the basal section of the Ocola
Limestone as expsoed in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County. Since
these sediments differ both faunistically and lithologically from the
overlying Williston and the underlying Avon Park Limestone and has
been recognized in the field and mapped, Purl (1953, p. 130) has raised
the Inglis to formational rank.

Type Locality

The type locality of the Inglis Formation is in the vicinity of
Inglis, Levy County, where the limestone is exposed in several pits
and quarries, and also along the Withlacoochee River. Vernon (1951,
p. 123) gives the following section, about -one-eighth mile below the
right bank of the Withlacoochee River in the SE4NW sec. 3, T. 17 S.,
R. 16 E.

Stop 3:

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
Pamlico Formation,
2 Quartz sand .. .*. . * . .* - ** .* m* Variable
1 Cream to tan, soft, porous, but casehardened and densely
crystalline where weathered, massive, granular, miliolid,
marine limestone. Contains numerous ecbinoids, particularly
Eupatagus mooreanus, Periarchus IyeIli floridanus, and as-
sociated forominifers. Exposed to water level in the stream
bank . . * , * . 5.-0

Total thickness . . . ........................ 5.0

The channel was improved in 1942 and the contact of the limestone
faces with the underlying dolomite faces of the Inglis member was
penetrated. Boulders of the following lithologies can be seen along the
banks of the river at this stop:

1. Gray, granular limestone as exposed along the river banks.
2. Cream colored, soft, granular, porous miliolid limestone with specimens
of Velates floridanus, Lucinid sp. "'A', buckshot miliolids, echinoids,
and mollusks.





60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

3. Mottled gray and brown, porous, finely crystalline, massive, sugary textured
dolomite with rare molds of mollusks and Perfarchus lyellI floridanus.

Probably the thickest exposure of the Inglis member in Citrus and
Levy counties is oresent at locality L-136 along a small stream that
crosses State Highway 40, NE4SWM sec. 1, T. 17 S., R. 16 E., 1.65
miles east of State Highway 55 along the escarpment between the Pamlico
and Wicomico terraces. An aggregate thickness of 11.35 feet of cream,
soft, porous, massive limestone is exposed.

Stop 4. (Section after Vernon, 1951, p. 127.) Sink located in a field east
of the section road in the SW4NWI4 sec. 13, T. 12 S., R. 14 E.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
Wicomico Formation ?

4 Quartz sandsoil. .... ........ ....... ........ 1.0

Unconformity
Eocene Series
Upper Eocene Stage
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
3 Typical Operculinoides coquina in a cream colored, pasty
limestone * ...................... . . ... 5.0
2 Buff, pasty, hard, tough, porous limestone, with numerous
Operculinoides moodybmnchensis . . . ....... . 1.0
Inglis member Elevation 25 feet
1 Light tan, weathering pink, massive, hard, porous limestone.
Many mollusk molds, Peneroplid "X", Operculinoldes moody-
branchensis and rare Fobiania cubensis. . . . . . . 1.25

Total thickness. . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . 8.25


Fauna

The Inglis Formation has a highly diversified and prolific fauna.
Swain (1946) described some Ostracoda from the Ocala, including some
Inglis species. Vernon (1951) lists species of Foraminifera and Mollusca
from the Inglis Formation in the outcrop area. Fischer (1951) described
the echinoid fauna. The molluscan fauna has been described by Richards






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 61

and Palmer (1953). Roberts (1953) described a species of decapod
crustacean from the Inglis.

Palmer (1953, p. 10, 11) lists the following gastropods from
the Inglis:

Astraea withlacoochensis Palmer
Vetates floridonus Richards
Turritella fischeri Palmer
Diastoma sp.
Baftilaria advena Palmer
Bellatora americana Palmer
Bellatara citrama Palmer
Beilatara florldana Palmer
Pseudoaluca clarki Palmer
Hipponix floridanus Palmer
Calyptmea apertao (Solander)
Xenophora sp.
Tugurium grayI Palmer
Laevella floridana Palmer
Terrebellum (Serophs) belemnitum Palmer
Cyproedla fenestroits Conrad
Ampullinopsis citrinensis Palmer
Pseudocromminum brucet Pa lmer
Distorsio (Personelloa) jacksonens is (Meyer)
Papillina gunteri Palmer
Agaronia inglisia Palmer
Oliveala (Caltinarx) poinciana Palmer
Conomitra sp.
Lapparia conradl Pa I mer
Eovasum vemrnon Palmer
Athleto aorngla Pa lmer
Sycospira eocenica Palmer
Carlcella obsoleta Palmer
Voluticefla Ievensis Palmer
Lyria citrusensls Palmer
Lyria pycnopleura eacenia Pa Iner
Pseudotoma florldana Palmer
Conus sp. A
Conus op. B
Scaphander richardsi Pa linmer





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Richards (1953, p. 42, 43) lists the following pelecypods from
the Inglis:

Barbatla palme.oe Richards
Barbatia ? Inglisla Richards
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris
Ostrea falco Dall
Ostrea s p.
Voisella sp.
Crassatella inglisla Richards
Crssatella eutawcolens Harris
Cmssatella sp.
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy
Venericardio wlthlacoochensis Richards
Pseudomritha megameris Dol I
Here cf. H. wacissana Da ll
Here s p.
Divericello roberts Richards
Fimbria vemron Richards
Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi Richards
Cardium (Trigonfocarcdum) protoa lcum Richards
Cardium (Trachycardfum) cf. C. (T.) claibornense Aldrich
Gori jacksonense Harris
Macrocajifsta annxoa Conrad
Blagrcrveia ? gunferi Richards
Corbula dAwsata Conrad

Fischer (1951) lists the following species of irregular echinoids
from the Inglis:

Fibularlo vaughani (Twitchell)
Oligopygus holdemant (Conrad)
Laganum ocalonum Cooke
Perone*la crustuloldes (Morton)
Peronella dalif Cooke
Peroneila archerensis (Twitchell)
Peraorchus lyellf florfdanus Fischer
Cassidulus (C.) ericsoni Fischer
Cassidulus (Parolampas) ly*eli (Conrad)
Cassidulus (Pamlampas) globosus Fischer
Agasszila floridano de Lorlol
Euparlagus mooreanus Pilsbry
EupOtagus clevel Cotteau






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


63


Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) mortoni (Conrad) is the only regular
echinoid known from the Inglis (Fischer, 1951, p. 55).

The following foraminiferal assemblage is contained in the Inglis
(Puri, 1957, p. 27):


Ammospirota ? levyensis Puril
Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Archoias withlacoochensis Puri
Camagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Cyclamina sp.
Dentalino vertebralls albatrossi (Cushman)
Dictyoconus cooked (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Eiphdiumn ap.
Epistomaria seminarginota (d'Orbigny)
Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermuda
Globigerina sp.
Globulina gibba drOrbigny
Globulina gibba globossa (Von Munster)
Lepidocyclina sp. (small, noded)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Lituonella sp.
Mtliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck
Nonion advenum (Cushman)
Plectofrondicularia ? Inglisiona Puri
Quinquelocullna ocalanr Puri
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotolia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss)
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Spiroloculina newberryonsis Puri
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan
Textularia adalta Cushman
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia ocalaona Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Textularia triangulate Puri
VaolvuWln fiorIdana Cole
Vernonia tuberculata Puri




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Puri (1957) lists the following species of ostracodes from the
Inglis:

Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Clithrocytherideo sagittaria Howe
Cytheretta daytonensls Swain
Cytheretta Infirma Howe
Echinocytherels nuda Puri
Hemicythere moti Howe
Jugosocytherals blcarfnota (Swain)
Jugosocytherals Iebonoenesis Howe
Pamcytheridea scorplona Howe
Spongicythere caudafa Puri
Spongicythere spissa How.
Trachyleberis parexanthenata (Swain)
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe


Williston Formation

Vernon (op. cit., p. 141) proposed the name Williston member for
about 30 feet of foraminiferal limestone overlying the Inglis and placed
it in the Moodys Branch Formation. Over 60 feet of the basal section
at Newberry belongs to this formation. Vernon (1951, p. 122, 144) re-
corded that the Williston and Inglis thicken toward Polk, Baker, and
Volusia counties and this is confirmed by the presence of 25 feet of
Inglis sediments in water well W-381, Polk County. Furthermore, two
founizones (Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone and Operculinoides
moodybranchensis founizone) can be recognized in the Williston. Because
it was lithologically and faunistically distinct from the underlying Inglis
Formation, and because faunizones were recognizable in it, Puri (1953)
raised the Williston to formational rank.

Type Local ity

The Williston Formation is typically exposed west of the town of
Williston in Levy County. Vernon (1951, p. 145) gives the following
section on the southeast side of a limestone quarry in the SEINE'4
seeo m, T. 12 S., R. 18 E.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 65

Stp 5:
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Upper Eocene Stage
Ocala Group
Williston Formation

4 Cream to ton, soft, detrital limestone containing numerous
hard crystalline nodules, many Pecten sp., rare Amuslum sp.,
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Opercuinoldes floridensis, Anphts.
tegina pinarensis cosdeni and abundant Cornerin vanderstokf 0.60
3 Cream colored, massive, somewhat nodular, pasty foraminiferal
coquina limestone with numerous spongiform concretions.
Foraminifers of bed 4, Operculnoides floridensis, Nonion
advenum, Rotolia cushnman and Eponides jacksonensls are
very abundant ..a a a .............................. 6.80
2 Cream colored, very hard ledge, porous, somewhat crystalline,
very fossiliferous limestone containing numerous mollusks,
molds, echinoid plates, abundant miliolids and other rare
foraminifers . ... a ........................ 0.45
1 Cream colored, granular, detrital, soft, porous, miliolid lime-
stone containing the fossils above. Somewhat more resistant
to weathering and more massive than beds above .. a a 9.30
Total thickness ................................ a 17.15


On the northwest side of the pit an additional 3.6 feet of bed 4 is exposed
in the face of the quarry and an additional 2 feet, 50 feet back of the rim.

The following founizones aes recognized by Puri (1957, p. 50-52)
in the Williston:


Opercultnoides jacksonensis FaunizonE

This faunizone consists of 15 to 59 feet of basal Williston sedi*
ments. Operculina mariannensis (in the Newberry section, stop 12) and
Operculinoides jacksonensis (in Polk County, well W-381)areits markers.
Operculinoides jacksonensis seems to be confined to this faunizone. The
basal 15 feet of the section at Newberry (stop 12) belongs to this founi-
zone, which is easily recognized by the marker species. Its top is
marked by the uppermost occurrence of either Operculina mariannensis or
Operculinoides jacksonensis in peninsular Florida. In West Florida,
however, Operculina mariannensis occurs in the Asterocyclina founi zone.
This faunizone as such cannot be recognized in West Florida.




66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


OperculInoides moodybranchens is Faunizone

The uppermost occurrence of Operculinoides jacksonensis overlain
by an abundance of Operculinoides moodybranchensis, Amphistegina
pinarensis cosdeni and the occasional occurrence of Spiroloculina
seminolensis and Spongicythere willistonensis mark the base of this
faunizone. Lepidocyclina ocalana and its varieties are uncommon and
the top of the faunizone is marked by the disappearance of Operculinoides
moodybranchensis, together with the gradual increase in number of
arenaceous forms (various species of Textularia, Valvulina and Neo-
clavulina), Miliolidae (species of Spiroloculina and Quinqueloculina)
and Lepidocyclina ocaiana and its varieties. At some places Nummulites
vanderstoki is associated with Operculinoides moodybranchensis but
occurs only in small quantities. Relatively large individuals of Oper-
culinoides floridensis and Operculinoides willcoxi are associated with
Operculinoides moodybranchensis and Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni
and make it easy to identify this zone in the field.

The Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone varies in thickness
from 14 feet at Bell (stop 18) to 25 feet in the Polk County well (W-381).
At Newberry (stop 12) it is 30 feet thick while at Kendrick (stop 9) it is
only 5 feet.

Fauna

Puri (1957) reports the following Foraminifera and Ostracoda from
the Williston:

Foraminifera

Amphlsflegna pinarensis cosden1 Applin and Jordan
MilloIa cf. M. saxorum Lamarck
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeorgypsina gqobula (Reuss)
Spirolocultina newberryensis Puri
Spiroloculin seminolensis Applin and Jordan
Textularia adaita Cushman
Texulaoria dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia oclaonr Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Vemonia tuberculato Puri





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 67

Ostracoda

Autocytheridea margocdentoto How
Bairdoppilata vernonr Howe
Cythre.lIoldea floridana Howe
Cytheretta daytonensis Swain
Echinocytherels okeechobiensis (Swain)
Jugosocyther*is bicarinato (Swo in)
?Spongicythere caudata Purl
Tr"mchyleberis parexanthenzata (Swain)


Stop 6: Abandoned quarry, 0.9 mile north of northern city limits of Bell,
SEY4NW'4 sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Section
measured on east wall of quarry. (Section after Purn, 1957, p. 60.)

Bad Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Upper Eocene Stag*
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
6 Cream to white colored, granular limestone, with abundant
Lepidocyclinas. Limestone is filled with pockets of gray
and pink to brown sand of Hawthorn and post-Hawthorn Age;
solution funnels common ........ ..a ... ... 7.7

5 Hard, granular limestone, with molds of Spondyfus sp., and
other Mollusc . . .. . .. . .. . a . A a . a . 1.0

4 Cream to white colored, granular limestone, almost a foray*
miniferal coquina ,.. . . . .. .. .. 4.. .,.4 3.0

3 Hard, white, chalky limestone, with abundant Foraminifera
and Mollusca; some of the Foraminifera and Mollusca are of
brownish color and are embedded In a white chalky matrix 2.9

2 White, chalky, granular limestone, with occasional Lepido-
cyclina sp. *. .a a.. ..... . a . a .. ,* 6.5
Williston Formation

1 White to cream colored, chalky limestone with abundant
Foraminifero and Mollusca; almost a foraminiferal coquina
in places; abundant Pecten sp., Sol/en ap. In lower 3 feet 7.0


27.2


Total thickness ....... * ........,, * .




68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Stop 7: Marvin Stancel's pit SWY4NE% sec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gil-
christ County, Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957, p. 64.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Upper Eocene Stoag
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

5 White to cream colored, hard granular, fossiliferous limestone;
many Lepidocyclfna sp., Bryozoa, Spondylus sp . . . 3.0

Williston Formation

4 Coarsely granular limestone; in places almost a coquina of
largeforam nifers ..... * ......................... 3.5

3 Cream colored, granular limestone, with very little smaller
foraminifers. Modiolus sp., Xenophora sp. present 4.. . ... 4.0

2 Modloius bed. Cream colored, large foraminiferal coquina,
loosely cemented . . a . ..... .... ... .. 2.0

1 Soft, granular limestone with fewer large Foraminifera than
bed 2 *. .................................... 2.0

Total thickness ..... ... .. ...................... 14.5


Crystal River Formation

The name Crystal River Formation (Puri, 1953, p. 130; Vernon and
Puri, 1956, p. 35, 38) proposed for the 108 feet of limestone exposed
in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, sec. 6, T. 19 S., R. 18 E.,
Citrus County, Florida, includes all calcareous deposits of upper Eocene
Age, lying stratigraphically between, the Williston Formation and the
Oligocene limestone. It consists of a homogeneous microcoquina,
almost entirely made up of tests of Foraminifera. The basal portion
may contain a few beds, as much as 12 feet thick, of secondary dolomite.
The Crystal River Formation is synonymous with "Ocala Limestone
(restricted)" of Vernon (op. cit.). The entire Crystal River Formation
is nowhere exposed, because its top is marked by on erosional uncon-
formity, but a total of 310 feet of sediments belonging to this formation
is present in water well W-381, Polk County.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


69


The following faunizones are recognized in the formation:

Lepidocyclina (Nephroiepidina) chaperl Faunizone
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vemrnon Faunizone
Nummulites vanderstokl-Hemlcythere Founizone
LepidocyclinamPseudophragmina Faunizone
Spiroloculina newberryensis Faunizone

A thickness of over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the sub-
surface of Jackson County, Florida, where its upper portion has been
designated Lepidocyclina fragilis Faunizone by MacNeil (1944).

Type Locality

Stop 8: Crystal River Rock Company quarry, NESW!/ sec. 6, T. 19 S.,
R. 18 E., Citrus County, Florida. (Section after Vernon, 1951, p. 166-
167.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Oligocene Series
Suwannee Limestone

13 A cream colored, porous, firmly cemented, detrital limestone
composed of echinoid plates and spines, poorly preserved
foraminifers and granular calcite. Chlamys brooksvillensis,
Chlone sp., Clypeaster rogers Cassidulus gouldi Kuphus
incmssatus, and numerous specimens of Dictyoconus cooked,
Coskinolina floridana are present. The bed measured 9 feet
from the top of the highest pinnacle east of the quarry to the
rim and an additional 8 feet Is exposed in the quarry face 17.0

12 Cream to ton, hard, crystalline, nodular, very porous limestone
with seams of the limestone of bed 13 and containing many
poorly preserved mollusk molds, including Chione sp. cf. C.
bainbridgensis, Turritella martinensis, T. vicksburgensis
and rare specimens of Cassidulus gouldii and Lepldocydina
sp.a we ,,,,.. .... ... .. E........ .. .... ....** 1.0

11 White to light gray, dense, thin bedded, pasty to crypto-
crystalline limestone containing rather numerous molds of
Turritella martinensis and T. vicksburgens is. Weathered
surfaces appear brecciated .... . . . . .. .. .. . 2.0





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


10 Layer of light gray to cream colored, weathered brown, crypto-
crystalline, subJithographic, hard, dense, thin bedded limestone
with an occasional seam of light green, waxy marl . .. . . 0.30

9 Light gray, dense, thin bedded, hard, lithographic limestone
with rare molds of Turritella .............. . ..... 1.65

8 Brown to light gray, dense, hard, cryptocrystalline limestone
with porous detrital limestone seams . .. . b a a a . . 1.00

7 Light greenish gray clay with fibrous, crystalline, light
greenish gray calcite growths lying along a very irregular
surface developed upon bed 6 . . . . .(variable) 0.50

Unconformity
Eocene Series
Upper Eacene Stage
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 124.65 feet

6 Cream colored, detrital, porous, firmly cemented limestone
with seams of dense, crystalline limestone and numerous
poorly preserved molds of mollusks and rare specimens of
Gyps ina sp. cf. G. globula. The upper few inches are very
indurated and the top of the limestone is very irregular 1.90

5 Cream to white, massive, bedded, pasty, soft coquina composed
of mollusks, Bryozoa, corals and large foraminifers in a pasty
calcite matrix. Specimens of Camerina vanderstoki are common
in the lower 25 feet, but decrease upward and are replaced by
Operculinoides ocolana. Turritella sp., Pecten sp., corals,
Lepidocycline ocolona, Gypsina globula, Eponides jackson-
ensis were identified ... ....... ... .. . . ... 43.25

4 Cream to white limestone of bed 5, but containing irregular
crystalline nodular concretions and Ostrea podagrina, Amusium
ocalanurn, Pecten sp., Gypsina globule, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Reusselloa ocena, Discocyclina fllntensis, Nonion
preedvwnum, Cibicldes mississippiensis oclanus ... . . . 9.50

3 Cream colored, coquina limestone composed of foraminifers,
Bryozoa, echinoid plates and spines, corals, Pecten sp. cf. P.
"perplanus", Agassizia floridana, Oligopygus holdemrani,
Fibulario ovughani, Loganum floridanum, L. ocalanum,
Peronella cubae, Schizaster ocolanus, and some of the fora-
minifers above . . .. .. ... .... .. .. .. 7.00





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


2 Cream colored, pasty, massive, coquina limestone with
numerous irregular and spongiform concretions, and Amusium
ocolanum, Ostrea podagrina, Pecten sp., P. "perplanus",
Fibularlt vaughani, Peronefla cubae, Lagena foaevis and
foraminifers of bed 4 ........... . . .. .. 38.00

1 Cream colored, very pasty, porous, soft limestone containing
Lepidocyclina ocalarra, Heterostegina ocalano, Opercufflnoides
floridens is, Opercutlnoldes sp., Gyps ina globula, Cibc ides
mississippiensis, Rotalia cushmani and other poorly preserved
foraminifers . ...... ........ . . . ... .. 8.25

Total thickness . . ......... . ............. 131.25


Fauna

The Crystal River Formation has an abundchnt molluscan fauna.
Mrs. Katherine Van Winkle Palmer is presently engaged in a compre-
hensive study of the molluscan fauna collected by Survey personnel
from numerous outcrop sections in Florida.

Harris (1951) lists the following pelecypods from the "Ocala"
(most of Harris' locations belong to the Crystal River Formation):

Ostrea georgiana Conrad
Ostrem "podogrina" Doll
Ostrea trigonalis Conrad
Pficatulo filomentosa Conrad
Spondylus holiIsteri Harris
Pecten perplanus Morton, var.
Pecten (Chlamys) spillmani (Gabb), var.
Pectan (Chlamys) orotipes (Morton)
Amusium ocalanum (Doll)
Lima tricIncta Harris
Lima vicksburgiana Dol I
Pinna quadroto Dll I
Atrina jacksoniano Da II
Pferia cf. P. orgentea (Conrad)
Voisella ocalensis MacNeil
Area cf. A. rhomboidella Lea, var.
Arca (Barbatia) cucuiloides (Conrad)
Nuculano sp.
Glycymerls arctatus var. cooke! Da II
Glycymrneris cf. G. anteparilis Kellum





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Venericardla pfanicosta var. ocal/edes Harris
Venericardla cf. V. nodifera Kellum
Euloxa sp.
Crassatella protexto var. sinus Harris
Crussatella sp.
CrossatIca porcus Harris
Cmssatella ocordia Harris
Llrodiscus jacksonensis (Mayer)
Here cf. H. wacissona (Doll)
M1ltha ocalano (Da II)
Lucina perovato (Dall)
Pftar cf. P. nuttall Conrad
Pitar cf. P. subimpresa Conrad
Pftar trigoniata (Lea)
Cardlum nicolletti Conrad
Cardium cf. C. cabezai (Gardner)
Cordlum *evrsum? Conrad
Cardium sp.
Cardlum eversum Conrad
Gori cerosium (Da 11)
Panope oblongata (Conrad)
Spisuia proetenuis Conrad
Acroperna? s p.
Arcoperna sp. (sic.)

The only known Eocene vertebrate in Florida is Basilosaurus
cetoides, remains of which have been found in limestone quarries at
Mayo, Branford, and Buda, Florida (Roay, 1957).

Thickness of Ocala Group

An exact estimate of the thickness of the Crystal River Formation
is rendered difficult because the rock is unevenly eroded at the top and
its base is of transitional nature. A maximum of 310 feet of the formation
is present in water well W-381, Polk County. Over 300 feet of the forma-
tion occurs in the subsurface in Jackson County.


Vernon (1951, p. 141) assigned 30 to 50 feet of sediments to the
Williston Formation. The Williston Formation thickens at the expense
of the Inglis Formation in the Florida Panhandle, -ind may replace the
Inglis locally.

The Inglis Formation seems to have o more or less constant thick-
ness of 50 to 55 feet in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County, which is the





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


type locality. In northeastern and eastern peninsular Florida (Columbia,
Bradford, Duval, and Volusia counties) the Inglis Formation appears
to thicken to as much as 150 feet (Vernon, op. cit., p. 122).


Distribution of Ocala Group

The limestones of the Ocola Group ore exposed in two extensive
areas in Florida. The more extensive area is a regional feature, the
Ocala uplift, which borders the Gulf of Mexico in the northwest part of
peninsular Florida. The other area is the northern half of Washington
and Jackson counties, and the eastern portion of Holmes County, whence
the limestones extend into southern Alabama and southwestern Georgia.

From subsurface samples, it is known that the Ocala Group under-
lies the entire Stateof Florida except for small areas in northern Seminole
County, Volusia County, southern Orange County, northern Osceola
County, Lake County, Marion County, and in southern Levy County,
where it is absent (Vernon, op. cit., pl. 2). Applin and Applin (1944)
showed that their upper member of the "Ocala" which is the typical
Crystal River Formation, occurs in subsurface throughout Florida except
on the east coast in parts of Seminole County. The wells in this area,
on the east coast, penetrated the lower less fossiliferous member of the
"Ocala" directly beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds.

The surface distribution of the Ocala Group is shown on plate 2.


Zonation

Detailed faunal studies of the subsurface of Florida are limited to
a few wells studied by Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944). Surface recon-
naissance work has been confined to a few selected localities and the
faunal succession has not been precisely determined. In this work,
most of the species were described by Heilprin (1882), Cushman (1917,
1920, 1921, 1934), Vaughan (1928), Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944), and
Applin and Jordan (1945).

Among scores of papers published on the "Ocala Limestone,"
only four have a direct bearing on its zonation. Gravell and Hanna (1938,
p. 99-106) reported three faunal zones in the "Ocala Limestone." These
in descending order are:


73





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) zone including several species
of Discocyclina and Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Operculinoides
ocalanus (Cushman), Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and Heterostegina
ocalana Cushman.

2. Operculinoides mariannensis zone.

3. "Camerina" jacksonensis zone including "Camerina" jackson-
ensis GravelI and Hanna, "Camerina" moodybranchensis Gravell and
Hanna, and Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman.

Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1684) divided the "Ocala Limestone"
informally into ao lower and an upper member. The lower member is hard
crystalline limestone and contains a few species and specimens of larger
Foraminifera, the most abundant of these being "Camerina" aff. "C. "
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Other species present in the lower
member are Amphistegina pinarensis Cushman and Bermudez var. lawsoni
Applin and Jordan. The upper member, which is mostly a chalky, porous
coquinoid limestone, is made entirely of Foraminifera containing Lepido-
cyclina ocalana Cushman and its varieties, Operculinoides willcoxi
(Heilprin), and Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). This informal divi-
sion did not designate any names for these two members.

Vernon (1951) divided the upper Eocene into two formations, a
lower one, the Moodys Branch Formation, and an upper one, the "Ocala
Limestone (restricted)" on the basis of both lithology and fauna. He
recognized and mapped two units (Inglis and Williston) in the Moodys
Branch Formation which also differs faunistically from the overlying
strata designated by him as "Ocala Limestone (restricted)."

The following faunizones were recognized in the Crystal River
Formation by Puri (1957):

Lepidocyclino (Nephrolepidine) chaperI faunizone
Asterocyci na-Spirolaea vernoni founizone
Nummulitts vanderstoki-Hemrnicythere founixone
Lepldocycl in-Pseudophnugmina faunizone
Spiroloculirm newberryonsis faunizone


74




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Spiro loiurlna newberryensis Founisone

Spiroloculina newberryensis is the most common miliolid species
in this faunizone. Arenaceous Foraminifera such as various species of
Textularia, Valvulina and Neoclavulina, and Spiroloculina newberryensis
are abundant. The fauna is suggestive of shallow warm water conditions,
not over 60 feet in depth, in an open sea. The thickness of the Spiro-
loculina newberryensis faunizone varies between 25 feet (at Kendrick,
stop 9) to 48 feet (at Crystal River, stop 8). Forty feet of sediments
in the Polk County section (W-381) and at Zuber (stop 11), and 40 feet
of sediments at Newberry (stop 12) belong to this zone.


L ep docycl in-Pseudophragmina Foun zone

This faunizone is marked by the abundance of Lepidocyclina
ocalana and its varieties, and Pseudophraqmina (Proporocyclina) floridana.
Several species, like Jugosocythereis tricarinata, Absonocytheropteron
carinata, Valvulina jacksonensis, Textularia howei, Nonion planatum,
Cancris sp., and Bulimina sp., occur at the base of this zone and help
to delineate it. The fauna is suggestive of an environment similar to
a modern bioherm or reef in which large Foraminifera thrived at depths
of 60 to 150 feet.

The thickness of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
varies from 10 feet (at Kendrick, stop 9) to 60 feet (in the Polk County
section, W-381). Thirty-two feet of sediments at Crystal River (stop 8)
and at Newberry (stop 12), and 10 feet of sediments at Kendrick (stop 9)
are referred to this zone.


Nummulites vanderstok iHernicythere Faunizone

The base of this faunizone is marked by the epidemic occurrence
of Nummulites vanderstoki in the Crystal River section (stop 8) and is
indicated by the occurrence of Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County
section (W-381). This composite zone, which by some geologists may
be considered as two distinct bathymetric zones, is essentially contem-
poraneous. There is a suggestion of relatively deeper water conditions
in the sediments referred to this faunizone in the Polk County section
(W-381). The top of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence
of Hemicythere punctata. Twenty-seven feet of sediments in the Crystal
River section (stop 8) and 30 feet of sediments in the Polk County section
(W-381) are referred to this zone.





76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Asterocyclino-Spirolaeo vernonia Faunizonr

The abundance of Asterocyclina spp. is characteristic of this
faunizone in the Florida panhandle. This fauinzone is exposed in Jackson
County (stops 14, 15, 20), where it is overlain by Lepidocyclina (Nephro-
lepidina) chaperi faunizone (stops 14, 15). The species confined to this
zone are: Asterocyclina americana, Asterocyclina chipolensis, Astero-
cyclina georgiana, Asterocyclina mariannensis. In the outcrop area in
Jackson County, this faunizone is about 30 feet thick. In central penin-
sula, Spirolaea vernoni is the dominant and diagnostic species in this
faunizone. The top of the Spirolaea vernoni faunizone is marked by an
unconformity and the zone is overlain by beds of Oligocene or younger
age in peninsular Florida. The smaller Foraminifera are dominant over
larger species and the sporadic occurrences of Uvigerina suggest deeper
water conditions than those prevalent during the deposition of the Lepido-
cyclina-Pseudophragmina zone. This faunizone reaches a maximum thick-
ness of 75 feet in Polk County.


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi Faunizone

This faunizone, "Bumpnose Limestone" of Moore (1955), rep-
resents the youngest upper Eocene sediments in Florida which contain
specimens of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi Lemoine and
Douville. This faunizone is represented by 14 feet of sediments at
stop 20, 10 feet of sediments at stop 15, and 15 feet of sediments in
W-276.

Sections of the Crystal River Formation:

Stop 9: Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company,
NE'/NE sec. 26, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Kendrick, Marion County, Florida.
(Section after Puri, 1957, p. 72.)

Composite section Elevatlon 115.39 feet
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Miocene Series
?Hawthorn Formation
5 Pale to cream colored hard molluscan limestone with abundant,
large Turritella sp. .. a a * ........ * .........* * 10




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 77

Unconformity
Eocene Series
Oca o Group
Crystal River Formation

4 Amuslum bed. White chalky limestone with beds of calcite
and chert. Lepidocyclina oca4ana and vars. common; abundant
specimens of An sum sp. . . . . *............ 22
3 White chalky limestone, in places a larger Foraminifera co*
quina, abundant large specimens of LepidocyCIhna ocalana
and vars., Heterostegina ocalonc and Operculinofdes ocalanus 15

2 Cream to white, soft limestone, ckalky in places, with large
specimens of Lepidocyclina ocaoana very common ......... 3
Williston Formation

1 Cream to white, granular limestone with dwarfed Lepidocyclina
ocaarna, Opercullno ides moodybranchens is, Operculinoides
w co ....... . . . . ..... a a a a a a a a * ....... 5
Total thickness .... * . ........ . a ........... 55

Canu and Bassler (1920) recorded the following species of Bryozoa
occurring in Jackson-Eocene "Ocala Limestone" from "9 miles north
of Ocala."

Desmeplagloecia pllcata Canu and Bossier
Plagloecia botula Canu and Bossier
Aeteo angulna (?) (Linnaeus)
Beisselinr irmpllcata Canu and Bass ler
Dacryonelloa octonarla Canu and Bass ler
Dip/opholeos fusiforme Coanu and Bass lor
Gmanmello cross Imarginata (Hincks)
Onychocell lacInioso Canu and Bossier
Rectonychocelfo tennis Canu and Bassier
Stamenocella Inferoviculifera Canu and Bossier
Vel umel lao evigatao Canu and Boss ler


Stop 10: Dixie Limestone Products Company pit at Reddick, NW'ANE/
sec. 10, T. 13 S., R. 21 E., Marion County, Florida. (Section after Puri,
1957, p. 70.)





78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Composite section Elevation 156.83 feet

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Miocene Series
?Hawthorn Formation

3 Cream colored molluscan limestone, crossbedded in places.
The lower portion is honeycombed with maids of large Turri-
fella sp., and containing dugong ribs. The upper 3 feet is a
beach rock .. .. .... ...* . .... ....... 8
Unconformity
Eocene Series
Oca la Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Amuslum bed. White chalky limestone with abundant special
mans of Amuslum sp. ........... . . 20
1 White chalky limestone, a coquina of larger Foraminifera,
mostly Lepidocycline ocalana and vars. . .* * * . 22
Total thickness ............ . .. ........* * ... 50


Pleistocene sediments fill the inverted funnel-shaped solution
pipes in the vicinity of this locality. These sediments have yielded
abundant vertebrate fauna. The following is a complete list, by. S. J.
Olsen, of the vertebrate remains discovered from Kendrick (stop 9) and
Reddick pits (in the vicinity of stop 10). A discussion of the environ-
ment in which these animals live is given on page

Amphibia

Siren facertina Linnaeus: Salamander (Amphibian not Rodent)

Reptilla
Ophisaurus ventrolis (Linnaeus): Glass lizard
Anolis carolinensis (Voigt): Lizard
Cnemidophorus sexiiratus (Linnaeus): Lizard
Euneces cf. fasclarus (Linnaeus): Lizard
Terrapene carolira (Linne): Box turtle
Testudo sp.: Land tortoise
Gopherus sp.: Gopher tortoise





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 79

Aves
Podilymbus podiceds (Linneous): Pied-billed grebe
Ans fulvigula (Pidgway): Mottled duck
Anas acuto Linnaeus: Pintail
Quequedula discors (Linnaeus): Duck
NettIon corlinense (Gmelin): Duck
Spatula clypeato (Linnaeus)t Shoveler
Aythya collars (Donovan): R Ing-necked duck
Gymnogyps amrplus Miller: Extinct condor
Cathoraes aura (Linnaeus): Mexican turkey vulture
Cofmgyps occidentalls (Miller): Extinct vulture
Acclptffer cooperif (Bonaparte)i Cooper's hawk
Accipiler strlatus Vlillori Sharp-shinned hawk
But.o jamaicensis (Gme lin): Red-tailed hawk
Buteo lineatus (Gmelin)s Red.shouldered hawk
Faico peagrinus Tunstao l Peregrine falcon
Falco sporverlus Linnaeus: Sparrow hawk
Polyborus prelutosus Howard
Colinus virglnlanus (Linnaeus)
Meleagrfs gallopav Linnaeus: Turkey
Rallus llmfcole Vieilors Virginia rail
Poraona carolina ( Linnaeus)t Sore
Porsona auffenbergi Brodkorb: Extinct scra
CoturnIcops nevebomcens is (G me II n): Yllow rail
Latemflus gurt Brodkorb; Extinct rail
Fulica minor Shufeldt: Extinct coot
Charaidrus vociferus Linnaeus: KilIdeer
Tringa flavlpes (Gmelin): Lesser yellowlegs
Capella delicate (Ord): Snipe
Ectopistes migratoefus (Linnaeus): Passenger pigeon
Zenaldum macroura (Linnaeus): Mourning dove
Tyfo olba (Scopoll): Barn owl
Ots asio (Linnaeus): Screech owl
Speofyro cunicularla (Molina): Burrowing owl
Sfrix varia Bartons Barred owl
Colopes auratus (Linnaeus): Y*llowushafted flicker
Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus): Redheaded woodpecker
Tyronnus tyrannus (Linnaeus): Kingbird
Progne subls (Linnaeus); Purple martin
Tachyclneto speloodytes Brodkorbs Extinct swallow
Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm: Crow
Corvus ossitfgus Wilsont Fish crow
Protocitta dxi Brodkorb: Extinct joy






80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus): Bluejay
Troglodytes aedon Viesilot: House wren
Cistothorus brevis Brodkorb: Extinct sedge wren
Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus): Maryland yellowthroat
Pandaonris floridno Brodkorb: Extinct cowbird
Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus): Red-winged blackbird
Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus): Grackle
Sturneula magna (Linnaeus): Eastern meadowlark
PIplio erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus): Towhee
Passerherbulus henslowii (Aud4ibon): (Henslow's sparrow)

Mammalio

Didelphis morsupialis Linnaeus: Opossum
Blarina brevicauda (Say): Shrew
Crytotis floridana (Merriam): Shrew
Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus): Mole
Desmodus magnus Gut: Vampire bat
Myotis sp.: Bat
Megalonyx cf. wheatley; Cope: Sloth
Paramylodon cf. harlani (Owen): Sloth
Chlamytherlum septentrioalis (Leldy): Giant Armadillo
Dasypus bellus (Simpson): Armadillo
Boreost con floridanus Simpson: Glyptodont
Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen): Florida cottontail
Sylvilagus palustris (Bachman): Marsh rabbit
Geomys pinetis Rafinesque: Pocket gopher
Oryzomys palustris (Harlan): Rice rat
Peromyscus floricdnus (Chapman): Florida white*footed mouse
Peromyscus gossypinus (LeConte): Catton mouse
Peromyscus nuttalli (Harlan): Golden mouse
Peromyscus pollonotus (Wagner): Oldileld mouse
Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord: Cotton rat
Neofiber alleni True: Florida water rat
Pitfymys pineforum (LeConte): Pine mouse
Synoptomys australls Simpson: Bob lemming
Aenocyon ayersi (S. Ilards): Dire wolf
Canis loatrans Say: Coyote
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber): Fox
Ursus americanus Pallas: Black bear
Arctodus floridanus (Gidley): Extinct bear
Procyon lotor (Linnaeus): Raccoon
Mephitis mephitis (Schreber): Striped s kunk
Splfogale ambarvalis Bangs: Spotted skunk





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Lynx rufus Schreber: Bobcat
Panther augusta (Leidy): Extinct Jaguar
Mammut mericanum (Kerr): American mastodon
Mammuthus sp.: Mammoth
Equus sp.i Horse
Topirus veroensis Se lards: Tapir
Mylohyus gidleyi Simpson: Extinct peccary
Piatygonus sp.: Extinct peccary
Tanupolama mirifica Simpson: Camel
Odocolleus virginianus (Boddaaert): Whitetail deer
Bison sp.: American "buFfalo"

The reader is referred to Ray (1957) for a complete bibliography
and an index to the fossil vertebrates of Florida.


Stop 11: Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company
near Martin, SEM4SW4 sec. 11, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Marion County, Florida.
(Section after Puri, 1957, p. 70-72.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 134.67 feet
6 Amnslum bed. White chalky limestone with abundant Amusium
sp., upper portion with several horizontal beds of silicified
limestone . . ..... . a . . . * ...... 31
5 White, soft, chalky limestone with occasional specimens of
Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp. .. . .. .... .. .. 5
4 Cream colored, soft, chalky limestone, in places a coquina
of larger Foraminifera; specimens of Pectenr p. and Turritefllao
sp. common ....... ...... . . . *** *** 10
3 Pale granular limestone, in places almost entirely a larger
Foraminifera coquina, with casts and molds of mollusks 9
2 Very hard, consolidated limestone, a shell bed of Ostreo
sp., Spondylus sp., and several gastropod casts and molds 5
1 Pale, soft, granular limestone, in places a coquina of Lepido-
cycllna ocalana and nummulitids; specimens of Xenophora
sp., Cardium sp., and Ostrea sp. common . . . ...... 10

Total thickness . . . 6 & a a . . . . .. ... * * * 70




82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

itop 12: Newberry Corporation pits, SWOSE/4 sec. 13, T. 9 S., R. 17 E.,
\lachua County, Florida. Measured on the southern wall of quarry
Section after Puri, 1957, p. 58.)

3ed Description Thickness
(feet)
"ocene Series
)cala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 91.91 feet

5 Amuslum bed. Shell coquina of Foraminifera, Mollusca and
abundant Amusium sp., cemented in a granular matrix, nodular
weathering ...... . . . 0 # 0 & 4 .. . . . . .. 16.0
1 Moderately hard, granular limestone, with several holothurion.
like concretions and Mollusca, grades into a Foraminiferal
shell coquina toward the upper portion.. .. .a . . 4.0
1 Modcolus bed. Soft, chalky limestone, with molluscan, echi-
noid and foraminiferal skeletal material; first smooth oval
Amusium sp. at 8.5 feet . . . . . . ...* 44 7.5
2 Soft, granular limestone, with Spondylus sp. and holothurian-
like concretions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
I Ferominiferal shell coquina. Holothurian-like concretions 5.0

Total thickness . ... ..*. ., o . . a. . ... . . 35.0


Two more sections were also measured; one on the east wall and
the other on the west wall of the quarry. The succession of beds through-
out the quarry is the same. Section on the west wall measured 36 feet.

Newberry Corporation pits have been referred to as "Haile" by
earlier workers. Vertical solution pipes are well developed in the crea
and younger sediments of Hawthorn Formation or Pleistocene sands
generally fill these solution pipes. A very rich vertebrate fauna has
been obtained from the various pits in this locality and also in sur-
rounding pits. The following list, by S. J. Olsen, includes only the
forms that have so far been reported in the literature from this area:

Amphibia

Bufo tiheni Auffenberg: Extinct toad
Siren locertino Linnaeus: Great siren
Siren simpsonf Goin and Auffenberg: Extinct siren
Siren hosterna Goin and Auffenberg: Extinct siren





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 83


Pseudobranchus robustus Goin and Auffenberg: Extinct mud siren
Pseudabranchus vetustus Goin and Auffenberg: Extinct mud siren

Reptilia
Gavialosuchus americanus (Sellards): Extinct gavial
Ophisaurus compressus (Cope): Coastal glass lizard
Anolis carolinensls (Voigt): Common anole, "Chameleon"
Aves
Porzana auffenbergi Brodkcorb: Extinct rail
Podi/ymbus podiceps (Linnaeus): Pied-billed grebe
Guara alba (Linnaeus): White ibis
Anos platyrhynchos Linnaeus: Mallard
Porphyrul/ mrrtinica (Linnaeus): Purple gallinule
GaI/inula chloropus (Linnaeus): Common gallinule
Fulica americana Gmelin: American coot
Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin): Grasshopper sparrow

Mamma lia
Hipparlon cf. minor (Sellards): Extinct horse


Stop 13: S. M. Wall quarry, SWVANE4 sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 18 E., Alachua
County, Florida. Section measured on northwest wall of quarry. (Section
after Puri, 1957, p. 58.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 108.62 feet
4 Amusium bed. White, coarsely granular, chalky limestone
with abundant Amusium sp., (flat, smooth, oval sp.) .*. . a 21
3 A coquina of large foraminiferal shells in a chalky matrix
with some Amusium sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) present 10
2 Soft, chalky, limestone matrix cementing a lepidocyclinic
camerinid shell coquina. Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp.
common. Holothurian-like concretions present in lower part
of section . . .. ... . ... . . .. *. ... 30
1 Modiolus bed. Soft, granular limestone with pockets of Mod/o-
1us sp . . .. . .... . . ....... 5

Total thickness ... ..... . . . . . . . . 66






84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Water percolating through the Modiolus bed has formed beautiful
stalacitites around individual Modiolus. Toward the top of the section
boulders of chert occur. These boulders are round and unlike the trunk-
shaped boulders around Kendrick, Marion County.

Vertebrae and ribs of Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen) commonly occur
in this quarry.


Stop 14: Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, SE/NEV sec. 32,
T. 6 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957,
p. 65.)

This is type locality of the Asterocyclina faunizone:

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation E elevation 115 feet
8 White, very hard, dolomitic limestone, with rounded solution
cavities. (Two to three feet behind the hill, hardening due to
solution.) Back of the hill several pinnacles of hard limestone
occur with the softer part eroded away .. ... .& .. . 2-3

7 Amusium-Asterocyclino bed. Hard, white limestone, well
cemented, calcitic, with abundant specimens of Amuslum sp.
Top bed has crystals of calcite, horizontal pocket and veins
of calcite 1l to 2 feet thick . . . . . . . . . . 5.5

6 White, chalky limestone, composed of broken pieces of echinoid
fragments, Bryozoa, Molluscca, and larger Foraminifera. Lepido-
cyclinr 3p. common, occasional specimens of Asterocyclina
sp. on weathered exposures. Massively bedded withspec imens
of lepidacyclinas oriented in all directions; geodes of calcite
common . P ...* . 0 b* ** * * * * * 0 * 2

5 Hard, white calcitic limestone composed of tests of Foraml-
nifera, skeletal remains of Bryozoa, and some specimens of
Lepidocyclina, Amusium sp., Pecten sp., and Spondylus sp.
Weathered exposures pink to brown .*. *. 0 . . b 3





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 85

4 White, chalky, nodular limestone, coarsely granular, speci-
mons of Lepidocyclina, Spondylus sp., and Pecten sp., and
echinoids common on weathered exposures ... . . .. 1

3 White, chalky limestone, with occasional specimens of Astero-
cyclina, abundant tests of Foraminifera and skeletal remains
of Bryozoa, Pecten sp., Amusium sp., and Spondylus sp. Fairly
common . . . . . . ... * . . 2

2 Hard, cream to white limestone, pink on weathered exposures,
almost microcoquina, lower portion calcitic. Lepidocyclina
sp. frequent, and occasional specimens of Pecten sp., Spondy*
fus sp.,Amusiumnsp. ....... ................ 1.5

1 White, granular, fossiliferous limestone, composed mostly of
calcite grains and tests of smaller Foraminifera. Bryozoa
and Lepidocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana rare .* . . . 3

Total thickness . E D . . . . . . . .... 27'2"


Stop 15: NE'4NW% sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 10 W., on the west side of Chipola
River, under bridge on U. S. Highway 90, about I mile east of Marianna,
Jackson County, Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957, p. 68.)

This is the type locality of the Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperl
founizone.

Bed Description Thickness
Oligocene Series
Vicksburg Group
Byram Formation
6 Buff colored, dense, finely crystalline dolomite . . . . . 3
Marianna Limestone

5 Hard, white to cream colored granular limestone, Lepidocyclina
moantell common . . *. . . . * .a . . . . 3
4 Soft, white, massive limestone with abundant Lepidocycline
mantelli . . . . ... . .0 . .. . i 15
3 White limestone with glauconite; Lepidocyclina mantelii and
Pecten poutsoni common *. . ....... @ a @


Covered





86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Lepidocyclino (Nephrolepidino) chaperi faunizone. Very
hard, cream colored limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina
(Nephrolepidina) chapter . ........... . . .. ... 10
1 Asterocyclina faunizone. Soft, cream colored microcoquinoid
limestone with Asterocyelinc sp., Lepidocyclina ocalano,
Hetercstegina ocalona, and Opercalinm ocalona .... . .

Total Thickness . . . . . . . .. . . a . ... 44

Canu and Bassler (1920) report the following Cheilostome Bryozoa
from this locality:

Buffon*rlar microstoma Canu and Bass lr
Dacryanella minor Ca nu and Bass lor
Docryoniela octonaria Canu and Bossier
Diplapholeos fusiforme Canu and Bassler
Ellisina laxa Canu and Bossier
Fivgularlc(?) crassicostulata Canu and Bassler
Gephyrotes quadritserialls Conu and Bassler
Gigantopora filiformis Canu and Bossier
Grornmmell/a pusilla Canu and Bass Ilr
Hincksina ocalensis Canu and Bassier
Hippothoa sp.
Hippozeuigosella tegas Canu and Bassier
Lacema hexagonalls Canu and Bassier
Lunularia verrucose Canu and Bass lor
Membmrniporidra pyriformis Canu and Bassler
Membraniporidra spissimuralls Canu and Bossier
Membrendoecium duplex Canu and Bass ler
Membrendoeclum rectum Canu and BassIer
MetradolIlum transversum Canu and Bass ler
M icropora corlacea (Es per)
Perigastrolla ovoidea Canu and Bass ler
porigastrella tubulosa Canu and Bass ler
plaglosmittia regulars Canu and Boassier
Puellina radlota (Moll)
Rectonychocella *lliptica Canu and Bass ler
Retepora scutulata Conu and Bossier
Schiromavella gronulifera Canu and Bossier
Semfhaswellio .exlls Canu and Bass ler





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Smtfflna angulato (Reuss)
Smlftna stronmbeckI (Reuss)
Stamenocella gwvndis Canu and Bossier
Stegonaporella Incrustans Canu and Bossier
Tetrrparie tuberculata Canu and Bass ler
Tremotoichos rectifurcatum Canu and Bassier
Trypostgo inornmot (Gabb and Horn)
Velumella plicta Canu and Bossier



Stop 16: Gordon Philpot's quarry, 1.9 miles south of bridge over Santa
Fe River on State Highway 49, on section line, between secs. 12 and 13,
T. 7 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Section measured on north
wall of quarry. (Section after Puri, 1957, p. 60.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 37.33 feet

2 Hard, white, foraminiferal coquinoid limestone; weathers
yellowish brown, Pectun sp., solution funnels common, filled
with gray and brown, waxy clay and sand . . . . . . . 7*10"
White, granular, foraminiferal limestone, soft and friable;
lower portion at the base of quarry with large Ostrea sp. 6
To l thicken s . .i w ,& P. i . . .i . * * a, 13 10"


Stop 17: Bill Rush's pit, NE14SWI4 sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County,
Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957, p. 64.)

Composite section
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 30.36 feet
4 Cream to white colored, granular, chalky, pure limestone;
lower 6 to 9 inches with some calcite lenses; larger Foram-
inifera abundant .. .... ........ .... ........... 4.0





88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

3 Cream to white colored, granular limestone, with some Foram-
iniferal and molluscan casts and molds * . .. .


Williston Formation

2 Modiolus bed.
Lepidocyclina
sp., Xenophora


Hard, granular limestone, with abundant
sp. and Mollusca; Modiolus sp., Turritella
sp .* 0 4 * R. 4 9 9 I 40 I* 4 k 4 0 6 4 & 0 4 &


1 White, granular limestone, very few larger Forominifera, few
lepidocyclinas ....... . . .U


Total thickness .....................


4. 1 I.U a 4 4


2.0


410"

15'5"


Stop 18: Abandoned quarry SE'SE!4 sec.
christ County, Florida. (Section after Puri,


23, T. 8 S.,
1957, p. 65.)


R. 14 E., Gil-


Composite section


Description


Thickness
(feet)


Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation


Elevation 56.16 feet


6 Cream colored to white forominiferol limestone . . . . .
5 Hard, well cemented, granular limestone with casts of Mollusca

4 Cream- colored, coarsely granular, chalky limestone with
abundant larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, Lepidocyclina
sp., Pecten sp. ................... 4* U F F . 4 . . . 4

3 Modiolus bed. Cream colored, granular limestone, with few
larger Foraminifera and Mollusco, molds of mollusks and
Lepidocyclina p. .............................
Williston Formation

2 Cream colored foraminiferal lirmetone, studded with larger
Foraminifera, holothurian-like concretions, Pecten sp., and
Spondylus sp.j has a characteristic nodular weathering;
echinoids common * . a & N. .& a * * *

1 Cream colored granular limestone, few larger Foraminifero .

Total thickness ................ ................. *


4'67"


5.0
1.0


2.0


16.0


8.0

6.0

38.0





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 89

Stop 19: Buda pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NEkhNE' sec. 32,
T. 8 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957,
p. 60.)

Composite section Elevation 63.23 feet

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

7 Soft, chalky, friable limestone, studded with Foraminifera
and Mollusca sp. . . . 14'8".

6 Soft, chalky limestone, questionably glauconitic, with abun-
dant Spondylus sp.; upper portion contains striated Pecten sp. 9

5 Cream colored, moderately hard, granular limestone, with
some holothurian-like concretions; partially dolomitized 3

4 Soft, granular limestone, with very little chalk, thin streaks
of foraminiferal shell coquina; striated Pecten sp .. . . ... 5

3 Larger foraminiferal shell coquina in a granular matrix;
abundant Mollusca; some holothurian-like concretions . . 5

2 Cream colored, soft, granular, somewhat chalky limestone;
with abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus sp.;
somewhat chalky . *. ....... ....... . 2.5

1 Cream colored, granular, pasty limestone; nodular weathering;
abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus sp.,poorly
bedded; dolomitized ledges up to one-half foot thick with
casts of mollusks * .. ...... . . a . M .. (lowest exposure) 4

Cream colored, granular limestone . . . . .. . .(Dredged) 15-20

Total thickness a . . 4 . . . .. . . * * 58'2"- 63#2"#

Several vertebrae of Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen) were collected
from this pit.





90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Stop 20: Sam Smith's quarry SE4NE' sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., Jackson
County, Florida. (Section after Puri, 1957, p. 65, 68.)

Bed Description Thickness
(Feet)
Oligocene Series
Vicksburg Group
Marianna Limestone

Soft granular pure limestone ................ . . . plus 60

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

5 Lepidocyclina chaperi zone. Hard, white, granular limestone
with L. chaperi and some Pecten sp.; some lepidocyclinas as
large as half a dollar. Glauconitic in places; oysters and
echinoids common . . ........ ....* . * * 4 4.5

4 White, granular limestone with microforaminiferal coquinas
and Lepidocyclina sp. Abundant Xenophonm sp. and Conus sp. 4.75

3 White, granular limestone with abundant Lepidocycllna chaperi 9" -.1

2 White, granular limestone, with microforaminiferal coquina in
places, and Lepidocyclina sp. ...... . . . . ... 4

1 Cream to brown, soft limestone .* . .................. (base) 8"

Total thickness (Ocala)l .4 . .. .. . 0 . . . . .. U14'8"


The Marianna Limerock Company mined the Mar ianna Limestone as
a building stone up to the second level before mining the Crystal River
Formation. The present operations are in the Crystal River Formation.
In this general area the Crystal River Formation is penetrated below
60 feet of Marianna Limestone. The top portion of Crystal River (chaperi
zone) is exposed in numerous quarries and road cuts, and also is pene-
trated in wells. MacNeil (1944, p. 1324, 1325) placed this section in the
Oligocene as an equivalent of Red Bluff on the western Gulf States. The
Marianna Limestone generally is fine grained, pure, and was quarried in
former years as building stone.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 91

Stop 21: Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE/4NW/
sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., Lafayette County, Florida. (Section after
Puri, 1957, p. 68-70.)

Bed Descripti on Th ckness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 56.17 feet

9 White, chalky limestone . . . .. . .... ...... .... 1.25

8 Pecten bed, white, chalky limestone . . 9 . . 9"-1

7 White, chalky limestone . . . ..... . * . . . 1.00

6 Pecten bed with Nummulites sp. in a chalky matrix . 9"

5 Nummulitid coquina in a chalky matrix t. . * . . . . 2

4 White, granular, chalky limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina
sp. and some molluscan costs . . . . . . . .. 11

3 White to pink, hard limestone; abundant Amusium sp., numerous
Mollusca and Foraminifers . ... . ... . .......* 12

2 Cream to pink, soft, nummulitid coquina with coquina, with
with some Pecten sp. and holothurian-like concretions &. .* .. 6" -2
1 Cream to pink, granular limestone with holothurian-like con-
cretion impressions and nummutitids . . 0 6 6 .. . . . ... 5

Total thickness . ... ........... . ........ 33.25 to 34.0



Stop 22: Abandoned quarry SE/iSE sec. 18 and NENE'4 sec. 19,
T. 6 S., R. 15 E., Suwannee County, Florida. Section measured on the
north wall that parallels U.S. Highway 29. (Section after Puri, 1957,
p. 72.)

Bed Des cription Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation Elevation 52.72 feet

4 Amuslum bed. White, soft, chalky limestone, with two species of