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Folio of South Florida basin
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094050/00001
 Material Information
Title: Folio of South Florida basin a preliminary study
Series Title: Map series ;
Physical Description: ii, 3 p. : maps (folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Oglesby, Woodson R.
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Maps, Physical -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sedimentary basins -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps, Physical -- Florida Watershed -- United States   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Sunniland Formation (Fl.)   ( lcsh )
Geology -- 1:2,500,000 -- Florida -- 1965   ( local )
Sedimentary basins -- 1:2,500,000 -- Florida -- 1965   ( local )
Geology -- 1:2,500,000 -- Florida -- 1965   ( local )
1:2,500,000 -- Florida Watershed -- United States -- 1965   ( local )
1:2,500,000 -- United States -- Florida Watershed -- 1965   ( local )
Sedimentary basins -- 1:2,500,000 -- Florida -- 1965   ( local )
1:2,500,000 -- Sunniland Formation (Fla.) -- 1965   ( local )
Sunniland Formation -- 1:2,500,000 -- Florida -- 1965   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
General Note: Includes 6 maps of south Florida at scale ca. 1:2,500,000.
Statement of Responsibility: by Woodson R. Oglesby.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001923686
oclc - 07115073
notis - AJZ9522
System ID: UF00094050:00001

Full Text


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Robert 0.


Vernon, Director


MAP SERIES NO. 19






FOLIO OF SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN

A PRELIMINARY STUDY







By
Woodson R. Oglesby


MAP LIBRARY


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G3931
.C1
no. 19
1965
.04








SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN

By
Woodson R. Oglesby


Completed manuscript received
September 15, 1965
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey (118)
Tallahassee
1965


ii


A PRELIMINARY STUDY

The South Florida Basin extends over approximately 77,000
square miles, as outlined on the accompanying maps. About half
of the surface expression of the basin area is dry land and the
remaining half is water bottom land extending to the edge of the
Continental Shelf.

The basin was formed prior to the deposition of Trinity age
evaporites; which could not have been deposited under normal
marine conditions. Observations of well cores confirm that there
were repeated cycles of sea water influx, followed by evapora-
tion, as evidenced by the occurrence of repeated cycles of carbo-
nate-evaporite deposition.

In the Punta Gorda Formation, evaporites predominate, which
suggests restricted encroachment of the seas upon the land. In the
Gulf Oil Company No. 1 State Lease 826-G, Monroe County, the
top 350 feet of the Punta Gorda Formation was cored, and pene-
trated rock as follows:

1.) 40 feet of anhydrite.

2.) 60 feet of oil saturated limestone.

3.) 250 feet of sediment consisting of 216 feet of anhydrite,
15 feet of halite, and only 19 feet of carbonates.

The carbonates occur in seven isolated portions of the 250
feet of cored section.

Of the uppermost 100 feet of the Punta Gorda Formation, the
lower 60 feet is dark brown cryptocrystalline limestone which
appears petroliferous and yields an oil cut when treated with
dilute hydrochloric acid. The section is too tight to produce in
this area but is a likely source bed for petroleum. It is capped
by 40 feet of anhydrite.




The thin carbonate sections noted in statements 1 and 2
probably represent sea water influx, perhaps during storms, when
barrier reefs were inundated and breached by wave action. The
60-foot section of cryptocrystalline limestone noted in statement
3 indicates a rather extensive period of continuous influx, possi-
bly denoting a temporary rise in sea level prior to the succeeding
period of restricted basinal deposit of 40 feet of anhydrite.

The Sunniland Limestone occurs as a biostrome extending
from its up-dip limits, shown on accompanying maps, to Charlotte
Harbor on the Southwest, and running thence southeasterly to Key
Largo. Within this biostrome there are reef- like bioherms composed
largely of chamids, rudistids and other mollusks associated with
these sessile builders of rigid frameworks. The flanks of these
bioherms are composed of bioclastic mollusk detritus and may
contain large Foraminifera such as Operculina and Dictyoconus,
The inter-reef areas are occupied by lime muds, now indurated,
that frequently contain abundant miliolids and usually lack poro-
sity. For descriptions of similar lithologies, the "Symposium on
Edwards Limestone in Central Texas", University of Texas Publi-
cation No. 5905, 1959, is recommended.

The Sunniland Limestone interval is largely replaced by
evaporites in the trough that parallels the coasts of Collier and
Monroe counties. In the Gulf No. 1 State Lease 826-G, evaporites
predominate in the cored Sunniland interval, coupled with minor
cycles of influx, during which periods calcilutites were preci-
pitated.

The Sunniland Limestone, or its equivalent, is present in the
Marquesas Keys and is inferred to extend NNW paralleling the
Collier-Monroe trough mentioned above. The Broward Syncline,
is indicated as occurring NNE of the Sunniland shelf.-

During Washita-Fredericksburg time, the cyclic deposition
of carbonate-evaporite series persisted. The close of the Lower
Cretaceous is marked by a final deposit of anhydrite which is
immediately overlain by one foot of green shale .in the Humble
No. 1 Collier Corporation, located east of Naples, in Collier Coun-
ty. A basal Fredericksburg shaly calcilutite overlies the green
shale, followed by 300 feet of Austin Age calcilutite and chalk.
This grades upward into pure white chalk which persists almost
uninterrupted throughout approximately 3,000 feet of Gulfian depo-


SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN 3


sition. The absence of evaporites in the Upper Cretaceous evi-
dences widespread encroachment of epicontinental seas, which
occurred simultaneously in the mid-continent of North America
and in general throughout the world.

The Paleocene Series is marked by a re-occurrence of car-
bonate-evaporite cycles indicating a general restriction of the
seas during this interval. It is assumed that the barriers which
cut off unrestricted access to the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico
from the South Florida Basin during the Comanchean era, were
either resurrected at the end of the Gulfian time, or were not des-
troyed during the Gulfian inundation.

The Eocene-to-Recent interval does not contain evaporites
in the geographical locale of the South Florida Basin. This indi-
cates free access to the seas and the formation of a physiographic
platform as opposed to the underlying structural basin of pre-
ceding eras.


The following maps and cross sections are available at a larger scale.
Scale and prices may be obtained upon request. Address inquiries to:
Florida Geological Survey, P. O. Box 631, Tallahassee, Florida 32302.







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SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN
LAKE TRAFFORDroo
STRUCTURAL CONTOURS :-Nov,,N

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The contours reflect structure at the close of Lake
Trafford deposition. The Lake Trafford Formation is pro-
posed to replace the names "upper anhydrite" or "upper
massive anhydrite" used informally by the oil industry
to designate the impervious beds which overlie the Sunni-
land Limestone.

The type well of the Lake Trafford Formation is desig-
nated the Humble Oil and Refining Company #1 J. A. Curry
in Collier County about 2% miles east of Lake Trafford
-1650' S. of N/line and 1650' E. of W/line of Section 8,
T 47 S, R 29 E.

The entire section was diamond cored in the type
well; portions of the cores are available for study at the
Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. A core descrip-
tion follows:

Comanche Series
Lake Trafford Formation (11478'-11612')
Total thickness 134 feet.


11480'-11486'

11501'-11505'



11508'-11518'


Limestone, brown, lithographic with dolo-
mite phenocrysts.
Limestone, buff to tan, microcoquina of
milliolids and ostracods to buff, finely
sucrosic limestone with molluscan frag-
ments, visible porosity.
Limestone, buff to brown, dense, litho-
graphic.


11524'


11531'


11560'-11561'

11561'-11562'

11566'-11571'

11571'-11574'

11574'-11577'
11584'-11589'
11589'-11592'

11592'-11612'


Limestone, medium-sized crystals, with
some intercrystalline porosity; heavy oil
stain and cut.
Anhydrite, white in matrix of black (car-
bonaceous?) limestone.
Limestone brown, dense, lithographic.
Anhydrite, white, in matrix of limestone,
brown, dense to medium crystalline.
Limestone, buff to tan, medium to coarse
crystalline.
Limestone, tan medium crystalline to
dense
Limestone, brown, fossiliferous, hard re-
crystallized.
Limestone brown, miliolitic, dense.
Limestone, brown dense.
Limestone, brown, dense, fossiliferous and
recrystallized.
Anhydrite, white in matrix of limestone,
dense, brown, carbonaceous.


Of the 134-foot section, 38 feet, or slightly less than
30% is anhydrite. This percentage ranges between 10%
and 50% in the Charlotte Harbor to Key Largo Trend. Cor-
relations of the Lake Trafford Formation are easily taken
from electric logs; dense hard limestones grade laterally
to equally dense anhydrites, which appear similar on stan-
,dard E. S. or I. E. S. logs. Gamma-neutron and density
'logs are useful in discriminating between dense limestones
and anhydrites within the section.

























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SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN 5--
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SUNNILAND *' U
STRUCTURAL CONTOURS

prepared by DIVISION oF GEOLOGY S.i-' - f o ZO __ _____ o--Of ? -
by Woodson Oglesby ONOUR INTErL 500 FE-11" 321 U B
-1101 CA Y
S T AFT FOA S-115 5BIF



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by Woodson Oglesby COMMURl INTIEIIAL 500 F!P- % UY A


The structure of the South Florida Basin at the close
of Sunniland Limestone deposition is shown on the accom-
panying map.

The basin persisted from pre-Cretaceous time through
the Cedar Keys anhydrite (Paleocene). This is demonstra-
ted by repeated sequences of carbonates alternating with
anhydrites. The overall known thickness of the carbonate-
anhydrite sequences attained 10,000' at Charlotte Harbor
(California-Coastal FSL 224 B-l) and 11,000' in the Mar-
quesas Keys (Gulf FSL 826-Y).

The Sunniland Limestone has been defined by Applin
(U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 400-B, pp. B209-211, 1960). The
present map conforms to Mr. Applin's definition.

Seismic section A-A' was modified after Antoine and
Ewing (Jour. Geophys. Research, April, 1963). The Creta-
ceous thins rapidly at the western end of the seismic
section, indicating the basin rim, which approximates the
margin of the continental shelf.


The zone
after Pressler
I I .


of faulting shown north of Cuba is modified
(Bull. A. A. P. G., 1947, pp. 1851-62). The
ix.: -- 1 - .. s n- ^n ^ me.. (* inV 171 .! >1, (- oh artl mll


on section B-B', (on reverse side), modified after Maher
(1964). The origin of the steep-walled straits is attributed
to faulting which probably extends southwestward between
the Florida Keys and Cay Sal.

The Andros Island well (cf. section B-B') did not
contain the evaporites found in the South Florida Basin,
indicating separate environments of deposition.

Cross section B-B' was constructed by John C. Maher
of the U. S. G. S., Research, Division of Marine Geology,
as part of a series extending along the eastern coast of
the United States.

The modifications show probable faulting to account
for the steep profile of the Florida Straits, and the replace-
ment of Sunniland Limestone by anhydrite in wells 109
and 105.

In well 2, at Andros Island, the Comanche to Midway
interval consists exclusively of carbonates, whereas there
are numerous evaporites present in a similar interval in
well 104 at Key Largo. It is therefore inferred that the
eastern rim of the South Florida Basin occurs between
In I .1 1 C an1A 0














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prepaed b DIVIION f GEO OGY


The structure of the South Florida Basin at the close
of Sunniland Limestone deposition is shown on the accom-
panying map.

The basin persisted from pre-Cretaceous time through
the Cedar Keys anhydrite (Paleocene). This is demonstra-
ted by repeated sequences of carbonates alternating with
anhydrites. The overall known thickness of the carbonate-
anhydrite sequences attained 10,000' at Charlotte Harbor
(California-Coastal FSL 224 B-l) and 11,000' in the Mar-
quesas Keys (Gulf FSL 826-Y).

The Sunniland Limestone has been defined by Applin
(U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 400-B, pp. B209-211, 1960). The
present map conforms to Mr. Applin's definition.

Seismic section A-A' was modified after Antoine and
Ewing (Jour. Geophys. Research, April, 1963). The Creta-
ceous thins rapidly at the western end of the seismic
section, indicating the basin rim, which approximates the
margin of the continental shelf.

The zone of faulting shown north of Cuba is modified
after Pressler (Bull. A. A. P. G., 1947, pp. 1851-62). The
postulated faulting along the straits of Florida is shown


on section B-B', (on reverse side), modified after Maher
(1964). The origin of the steep-walled straits is attributed
to faulting which probably extends southwestward between
the Florida Keys and Cay Sal.

The Andros Island well (cf. section B-B') did not
contain the evaporites found in the South Florida Basin,
indicating separate environments of deposition.

Cross section B-B' was constructed by John C. Maher
of the U. S. G. S., Research, Division of Marine Geology,
as part of a series extending along the eastern coast of
the United States.

The modifications show probable faulting to account
for the steep profile of the Florida Straits, and the replace-
ment of Sunniland Limestone by anhydrite in wells 109
and 105.

In well 2, at Andros Island, the Comanche to Midway
interval consists exclusively of carbonates, whereas there
are numerous evaporites present in a similar interval in
well 104 at Key Largo. It is therefore inferred that the
eastern rim of the South Florida Basin occurs between
wells 104 and 2.












































































SAL
BANK \


SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN
SUNNILAND LIMESTONE
ISOPACH


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SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN 1 -

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STRUCTURAL CONTOURS 0000
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CONTOUR INTERVAL 500 FE- -8 -- U B A

























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SOUTH FLORIDA BASIN -T
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LAKE TRAFFR 0 PUHTA ORDA

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Approx, Scal.-MIll~ ---






















IsCONTOUR INTERVAL 50 FEIll. T.-C U B A0\
38 300

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SOUTH FLOID BASIN









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