Text to accompany the geologic map of Florida
Related Map ( Related )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094041/00001
 Material Information
Title: Text to accompany the geologic map of Florida
Series Title: Open-file report
Portion of title: Geologic map of Florida
Physical Description: 29 p. : ill., charts, maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, Thomas M
Florida Geological Survey
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2001
Copyright Date: 2001
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 24-29)
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas M. Scott.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 002750110
oclc - 47198905
notis - ANM7992
System ID: UF00094041:00001


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )

Full Text


David B. Struhs, Secretary

Edwin J. Conklin, Director

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief



Thomas M. Scott, P.G. #99

Tallahassee, Florida
ISSN 1058-1391



Thomas M. Scott, P.G. 99

The Florida Platform lies on the south-central part of the North American Plate,
extending to the southeast from the North American continent separating the Gulf of Mexico
from the Atlantic Ocean. The Florida Platform, as measured above the 300 foot (91 meter)
isobath, spans more than 350 miles (565 kilometers) at its greatest width and extends southward
more than 450 miles (725 kilometers) at its greatest length. The modern Florida peninsula is the
exposed part of the platform and lies predominantly east of the axis of the platform. Most of the
State of Florida lies on the Florida Platform; the western panhandle is part of the Gulf Coastal
The basement rocks of the Florida Platform include Precambrian-Cambrian igneous
rocks, Ordovician-Devonian sedimentary rocks, and Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks (Arthur,
1988). Florida's igneous and sedimentary foundation separated from what is now the African
Plate when the super-continent Pangea rifted apart in the Triassic (pre-Middle Jurassic?) and
sutured to the North American craton (Smith, 1982).
A thick sequence of mid-Jurassic to Holocene sediments (unlithified to well lithified)
lies unconformably upon the eroded surface of the basement rocks. Carbonate sedimentation
predominated from mid-Jurassic until at least mid-Oligocene on most of the Florida Platform. In
response to renewed uplift and erosion in the Appalachian highlands to the north and sea-level
fluctuations, siliciclastic sediments began to encroach upon the carbonate-depositing
environments of the Florida Platform. Deposition of siliciclastic-bearing carbonates and
siliciclastic sediments predominated from mid-Oligocene to the Holocene over much of the
platform. Numerous disconformities that formed in response to nondeposition and erosion
resulting from sea-level fluctuations occur within the stratigraphic section.
The oldest sediments exposed at the modem land surface are Middle Eocene carbonates
of the Avon Park Formation which crop out on the crest of the Ocala Platform in west-central
Florida. The pattern of exposures of younger sediments is obvious on the geologic map. Much
of the state is blanketed by Pliocene to Holocene siliciclastic and siliciclastic-bearing sediments
that were deposited in response to late Tertiary and Quaternary sea-level fluctuations.
The characteristic landscape of Florida is relatively to extremely flat. There are few
large, natural exposures and limited smaller exposures that geologists can investigate. The result
is that geologists must rely primarily on de-watered or dry pits and quarries for exposures and
must make use of subsurface data in studying the geology of Florida. Subsurface data, in the
form of well cuttings and cores, were utilized extensively in the development of this map.
Formational tops recognized in the subsurface have been extrapolated to the surface where
exposures are limited.

Previously published geological maps of Florida include Smith (1881), Dall and Harris
(1892), Matson et al. (1909), Sellards, Gunter and Cooke (1922), Cooke and Mossom (1929),
Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), Vernon and Puri (1964) and Brooks (1982).


Groundwork for a new geologic map of Florida began in the 1980s with a county-level
mapping effort as part of a statewide radon investigation. The county maps created for the radon
project were merged and modified to produce a new State map. The geologists from the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) involved in the project included Jon Arthur, Ken Campbell, Joel
Duncan, Frank Rupert, and Tom Scott. Tom Missimer, Missimer International, Ft. Myers,
Florida was part of the mapping team for Charlotte and Lee Counties. Previous mapping
provided a basis for this project. Geologists involved in the preliminary mapping included
Paulette Bond, Richard Johnson, Ed Lane, Walt Schmidt and Bill Yon.

Much of Florida is covered by a blanket of Pliocene to Holocene, undifferentiated
siliciclastics that range in thickness from less than one foot to greater than 100 feet. As a result,
in developing the criteria for producing this map, FGS geologists decided to map the first
recognizable lithostratigraphic unit occurring within 20 feet (6.1 meters) of the land surface. In
areas where highly karstic limestones underlie the undifferentiated siliciclastics, paleosinkholes
may be infilled with significantly thicker sequences of siliciclastics. If the shallowest
occurrences of the karstic carbonates were 20 feet (6.1 meters) or less below land surface, the
carbonate lithostratigraphic unit was mapped. If the carbonates lie more than 20 feet (6.1
meters) below land surface, an undifferentiated siliciclastic unit was mapped.
Undifferentiated siliciclastic sediments occur in significant thickness (>20 feet [6.1
meters]) over much of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands (White, 1970; Scott, in preparation) and the
eastern part of the Florida peninsula. Where these sediments were mapped, efforts were made to
determine if beach-ridge or dune topography was present in order to subdivide the siliciclastic
Lithostratigraphic terminology applied in this mapping effort followed, with limited
changes, the lithostratigraphic framework delineated for the Gulf Coast Region chart from the
Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America Project (COSUNA) (Braunstein et al.,
1988). Although some of the units depicted on the COSUNA chart have a significant
biostratigraphic basis, the COSUNA chart represents the best effort to date to provide an
accurate stratigraphic framework for the Florida Platform and surrounding regions.
A peer review of the geologic map and this text by members of the geologic community
outside the FGS was done by S. Upchurch, R. Portell, T. Missimer, J. Bryan, J. Vecchioli, A.
Tihansky, K. Cunningham, G. L. Barr and R. Spechler. The FGS greatly appreciates the efforts
of these geologists.
FGS cartographers Jim Jones and Ted Kiper worked on the initial phase of this project.
CAD analyst Amy Graves assisted in the map preparation. Lou Cross and Peter Krafft from
Florida Resources and Environmental Analysis Center, Florida State University, finalized the
map in preparation for publication.

Lithostratigraphic units expressed on the State geological map range from Middle Eocene
to Holocene. The stratigraphic column showing the lithostratigraphic units utilized on the map
delineates only the formations occurring at or near the surface (Figure 1). Table 1 lists the
stratigraphic units and provides a brief lithologic components list. Cross sections (Figures 2 and
3) were constructed utilizing cores and well cuttings from the FGS well cuttings and core
repository. By necessity, the cross sections show some lithostratigraphic units that do not crop


out. These include the Pensacola Clay, Coarse Clastics, Bruce Creek Limestone, and the Long
Key Formation. Table 2 lists information for the wells used in the cross sections.

Table 1. Stratigraphic units and lithologies.

Unit Lithologies

Middle Eocene

Avon Park Formation

Upper Eocene

To Ocala Limestone

Lower Oligocene
Ts Suwannee Limestone
Tsm Suwannee-Marianna Limestones Undif.

Upper Oligocene to Middle Miocen
Tha Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation

That Hawthorn Group, Tampa Member









St. Marks Formation
Chattahoochee Formation

Hawthorn Group

Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formation
Hawthorn Group, Statenville Formation

Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Formation

Alum Bluff Group

Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formation

Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formation,
Bone Valley Member
Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Formation,
Charlton Member

limestone, dolostone

limestone, dolostone


dolostone, limestone, sand,
clay, phosphate
limestone, dolostone, sand,

limestone, sand
dolostone, limestone, sand,
dolostone, limestone, sand,
clay, phosphate
clay, sand, limestone
dolostone, sand, clay,
sand, clay limestone,
dolostone, phosphate
clay, sand

sand, clay, dolostone,
sand, clay, phosphate,
clay, sand, limestone








Tamiami Formation
Jackson Bluff Formation
Intracoastal Formation
Miccosukee Formation
Citronelle Formation
Cypresshead Formation
Reworked Cypresshead Formation
Undifferentiated sediments
Shell-bearing sediments

limestone, sand, clay
clay, sand
limestone, sand, clay
sand, clay
sand, clay
sand, clay
sand, clay
sand, clay
shells, sand, clay



Trail Ridge sands
Miami Limestone
Key Largo Limestone
Anastasia Formation

Beach Ridge and Dune



Qh Holocene sediments

sand, heavy minerals
limestone, sand
limestone, coquina, sand

sand, clay, organic
sand, clay, organic

sand, clay, organic




Table 2. Wells used in cross sections.



Section Town

Santa Rosa

se/se 17
sw/sw 31
sw/ne 1
ne/se/sw 23
sw/nw 16
sw/se 6
nw/se 31
sw/sw 18
sw/sw 31
ne/nw 35
se 22
ne/ne 24
ne/ne 10
nw/nw 2
se/ne 29
se/sw 9
ne/ne 23
ne/ne 23
ne 16
nw/ne 13
se/sw 23
ne/ne 6
ne/se 34
se/sw 27
sw 26
sw 36

Range Elevation



with W#








Cross Section
& Well #

4 A-A'
5 B-B'
9 B-B'
3 A-A'
3 B-B'
4 B-B'
9 A-A'
6 A-A'
6 B-B'
5 A-A'
7 A-A'
1 B-B'
10 A-A' 2 B-B'
8 A-A'
2 A-A'
1 A-A'
8 A-A'
4 A-A'
11 A-A'
11 A-A'
5 A-A'
6 A-A'
2 B-B'
7 B-B'
7 A-A'
9 A-A'
8 B-B'
11 B-B'
10 B-B'
12 A-A'


Panhandle Northern Southern
Peninsula Peninsula


' Oh' Cth

,-- -- - -- - - - - -
---l P ---3

:, ,,

: i

. I.i

T,--------- --- -

m tI-'
T:o : T_


TC r T: ri

* Ull'i U Ci

-- -- -- -----------T-------------------


Tb1 -l~t

Tr, Th,

Figure 1. Stratigraphic column showing the lithostratigraphic units used on the map.

.. *. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .*

.. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .
. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..- . . . .
. . . . i
. . . . . . .
'! ':. .'>. :> :> :. :> :> :> :>:> :. :> :> .

i.! ! ! ! ! ! !. ! ! ! ! ! !


........................ .............

[ . . . . . . .
~[ .. . . . . . . . .


Figure 2. Geological cross section locations.


0 ... ..........................

,' ,

- -

s s 0 0 0

------ -- -------- -- ---------g

00 1-0An
O00 nesseN

oo03 oiqunlo

*oo aauupMns

'03 uoslpe0

03o uosipel0
*oo uosiajjae

"o0 uapspeg

-03 Aoaqn
03 000eq!0
'o0 unortie0

"oO unol|eo
'oo Ae.

oo uol6u!qseM
'0 uolIiM

03 uolieM
'03 esno0l0O

'03 eSOol|lO
03oo eso0 elus

0-000 800 3ueS
S.3oo e0queosA

i _

, .' .


35 -




- -






50 100 150 MILES

80 160 240 KILOMETERS

Figure 4. Geologic structures in Florida (modified from Scott, 1988).


The geologic structures (Figure 4) that have affected shallow Tertiary and Quaternary
sediments of the Florida Platform have been defined by numerous authors (Puri and Vernon,
1964; Miller, 1986; Scott, 1988; Scott, 1991). The majority of the structures recognized as
influencing the deposition, erosion and alteration of the Cenozoic sediments in Florida do not
appear to have had a significant effect on the surface expression of the lithostratigraphic units.
These geologic structures include the Gulf Basin, Jacksonville Basin, St. Johns Platform,
Sanford High, Brevard Platform, Osceola Low and the Okeechobee Basin (Scott, 1992). Those
structural features that exerted an influence on the surficial or very near surface distribution of
the Cenozoic sediments, or mark areas of significant facies changes, include the Gulf
Trough/Apalachicola Embayment, Chattahoochee "Anticline" and the Ocala Platform. Eocene
sediments crop out on the Chattahoochee Anticline and the Ocala Platform. The Gulf Trough/
Apalachicola Embayment formed an important bathymetric and environmental barrier from the
latest Eocene or earliest Oligocene into the Miocene. As a result, the Oligocene carbonate facies
east and south of the Gulf Trough/Apalachicola Embayment are distinctly different from those
occurring to the west and north (see Schmidt [1984] and Bryan [1991] for discussion).



Eocene Series
Middle Eocene Bartonian Stage

Tap Avon Park Formation Middle Eocene carbonate sediments of peninsular Florida,
as originally described by Applin and Applin (1944), were subdivided, in ascending order, into
the Lake City Limestone and the Avon Park Limestone. Miller (1986) recommended combining
the Lake City Limestone with the Avon Park Limestone and, due to the common occurrence of
dolostone, referred to the unit as the Avon Park Formation. Carbonates of the Avon Park
Formation are the oldest sediments exposed in the state. The Avon Park Formation crops out in
a limited area in west-central peninsular Florida in Levy and Citrus Counties on the crest of the
Ocala Platform.
The Avon Park Formation consists of cream to light-brown or tan, poorly indurated to
well indurated, variably fossiliferous, limestone (grainstone, packstone and wackestone, with
rare mudstone). These limestones are interbedded with tan to brown, very poorly indurated to
well indurated, very fine to medium crystalline, fossiliferous (molds and casts), vuggy
dolostones. The fossils present include mollusks, foraminifers, echinoids, algae and carbonized
plant remains. Molds and casts of gypsum crystals occur locally.
The Avon Park Formation is part of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS). Parts of the
Avon Park Formation comprise important, subregional confining units within the FAS (Miller,


Upper Eocene Priabonian Stage

To Ocala Limestone Dall and Harris (1892) referred to the limestones exposed near
Ocala, Marion County, in central peninsular Florida as the Ocala Limestone. Puri (1953, 1957)
elevated the Ocala Limestone to group status recognizing its component formations on the basis
of foraminiferal faunas (biozones). Scott (1991) reduced the Ocala Group to formational status
in accordance with the North American Stratigraphic Code (North American Commission on
Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983).
The Ocala Limestone consists of nearly pure limestones and occasional dolostones. It
can be subdivided into lower and upper facies on the basis of lithology. The lower member is
composed of a white to cream-colored, fine to medium grained, poorly to moderately indurated,
very fossiliferous limestone (grainstone and packstone). The lower facies may not be present
throughout the areal extent of the Ocala Limestone and may be partially to completely
dolomitized in some regions (Miller, 1986). The upper facies is a white, poorly to well
indurated, poorly sorted, very fossiliferous limestone (grainstone, packstone and wackestone).
Silicified limestone (chert) is common in the upper facies. Fossils present in the Ocala
Limestone include abundant large and smaller foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks.
The large foraminifera Lepidocyclina sp. is abundant in the upper facies and extremely limited in
the lower facies. The presence of these large foraminifers in the upper facies is quite distinctive.
The Ocala Limestone is at or near the surface within the Ocala Karst District in the west-
central to northwestern peninsula and within the Dougherty Plain District in the north-central
panhandle (Scott, in preparation). In these areas, the Ocala Limestone exhibits extensive
karstification. These karst features often have tens of feet (meters) of relief, dramatically
influencing the topography of the Ocala Karst District and the Dougherty Plain District (Scott, in
preparation). Numerous disappearing streams and springs occur within these areas.
The permeable, highly transmissive carbonates of the Ocala Limestone form an important
part of the FAS. It is one of the most permeable rock units in the FAS (Miller, 1986).

Tre Residuum on Eocene sediments The post-Eocene residuum lying on Eocene
sediments in the panhandle consists of reddish brown, sandy clays and clayey sands with
inclusions of weathered Eocene limestones. Some of the inclusions are silicified carbonates.

Oligocene Series
Lower Oligocene Rupelian Stage

Previous geologic maps of Florida presented the Lower Oligocene sediments exposed at
the surface or in the shallow subsurface in a variety of ways. Cooke (1945) mapped, in
ascending order, the Marianna Limestone, Byram Formation, Suwannee Limestone and the Flint
River Formation. Vernon and Puri (1964) identified the Marianna Limestone, "Byram"
Formation, Duncan Church beds and the Suwannee Limestone. Brooks (1982) recognized the
Marianna Limestone, Suwannee Limestone and the Duncan Church facies of the Suwannee
Limestone. The variations in the stratigraphic units are indicative of the confusion over the
lithologic recognition and subdivision of the Lower Oligocene sediments. The confusion is at
least partially due to the use of biostratigraphic data to subdivide the lithostratigraphic units.


Huddlestun (1993) recognized a tripartite subdivision in the type area of the Suwannee
Limestone in northwestern peninsular Florida and proposed the Ellaville Limestone,
Suwannacoochee Dolostone and Suwannee Limestone. In the panhandle, west of the Gulf
Trough, Huddlestun (1993) recognized the Marianna Limestone and an undifferentiated
residuum as the Oligocene sediments extending into Florida's panhandle from Georgia.
Huddlestun (1993) also recognized Bucatunna Formation, Florala Limestone, Bridgeboro
Limestone and an unnamed marl in Okaloosa and Walton Counties.
Bryan (1991, 1993) provides a better framework for the recognition of the various facies
within the Lower Oligocene sediments. Within this framework, the Ellaville Limestone,
Suwannacoochee Dolostone and Suwannee Limestone occur within his Florida Platform
Association east and south of the Gulf Trough. West of the Gulf Trough in the Florida
panhandle (Bryan's Eastern Gulf Shelf Association), Bryan (1991) recognized the Bumpnose
Limestone, Marianna Limestone, Bridgeboro Limestone, Florala Limestone, Suwannee
Limestone, Byram Marl and Bucatunna Formation.
The limited data available, the occurrence of thin beds of some of these units and the
questionable occurrence of other units made mapping the Lower Oligocene sediments in the
central panhandle problematic. The approach selected by FGS geologists was to combine the
units into several mappable units appropriate for the scale of the present map. These mappable
units include: undifferentiated Oligocene sediments composed of the Bumpnose Limestone,
Marianna Limestone, Bridgeboro Limestone, Florala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, thin beds
of the Byram Marl and Bucatunna Formation and undifferentiated Oligocene residuum (see
Huddlestun [1993] for a discussion of the origin of the residuum).
The Lower Oligocene sediments of peninsular Florida are mapped as the Suwannee
Limestone and are not subdivided into the Ellaville Limestone, Suwannacoochee Dolostone and
Suwannee Limestone. This mapping convention was adopted by FGS geologists due to the
limited data on the areal distribution of the Ellaville Limestone and Suwannacoochee Dolostone.

Ts Suwannee Limestone Peninsular Lower Oligocene carbonates crop out on the
northwestern, northeastern and southwestern flanks of the Ocala Platform. The Suwannee
Limestone is absent from the eastern side of the Ocala Platform due to erosion, nondeposition or
both, an area referred to as Orange Island (Bryan, 1991).
The Suwannee Limestone, originally named by Cooke and Mansfield (1936), consists of
a white to cream, poorly to well indurated, fossiliferous, vuggy to moldic limestone (grainstone
and packstone). The dolomitized parts of the Suwannee Limestone are gray, tan, light brown to
moderate brown, moderately to well indurated, finely to coarsely crystalline, dolostone with
limited occurrences of fossiliferous (molds and casts) beds. Silicified limestone is common in
Suwannee Limestone. Fossils present in the Suwannee Limestone include mollusks,
foraminifers, corals and echinoids.

Tsm Undifferentiated Lower Oligocene Sediments The undifferentiated Lower
Oligocene sediments of the central panhandle consist of white to cream-colored, poorly to well
indurated, variably fossiliferous limestones (grainstone, packstone, wackestone and mudstone).
Glauconite occurs in some sediments. Siliciclastics form a minor component in some sediments.
Thin beds of siliciclastics (Byram Marl and Buccatuna Formation) are included in the


undifferentiated Lower Oligocene sediments. The Lower Oligocene carbonates form important
parts of the upper FAS (Miller, 1986).

Tro Residuum on Oligocene sediments The undifferentiated Oligocene residuum,
mapped on parts of the Chattahoochee "Anticline", characteristically consists of reddish brown,
variably sandy clay with inclusions of variably fossiliferous, silicified limestone (Huddlestun,
1993). The residuum includes Lower and Upper Oligocene weathered sediments (Huddlestun,

Oligocene Miocene Series
Upper Oligocene Middle Miocene Chattian Serravalian Stage


Lower Hawthorn Group
Recent investigations into the Oligocene of southern Florida documented the existence of
a thick (>330 feet [100 meters]) Upper Oligocene section previously considered Miocene (Scott
et al., 1994; Missimer and Scott, 1995; Brewster-Wingard et al., 1997). The Arcadia Formation,
Hawthorn Group, previously thought to be predominantly Early Miocene (Scott, 1988), is now
known to be late Early Oligocene to Middle Miocene (Brewster-Wingard et al., 1997; Missimer,
1997). The Tampa Limestone (or Formation of previous usage [Puri and Vernon, 1964]) is a
member of the Arcadia Formation, Hawthorn Group (Scott, 1988). The Tampa Member's
previous age assignment was latest Oligocene to Early Miocene (Scott, 1988). Brewster-
Wingard et al. (1997) recognized the Tampa Member as being Late Oligocene to Early Miocene.

Tha Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation The undifferentiated Arcadia Formation
and the Tampa Member crop out on the southwestern flank of the Ocala Platform from Pasco
County southward to Sarasota County. Although ages of the outcropping sediments have not
been accurately determined, stratigraphic position suggests that the Upper Oligocene parts of the
Arcadia Formation and Tampa Member are exposed in this region, particularly from
Hillsborough County northward to Pasco County.
The Arcadia Formation, named by Scott (1988), is predominantly a carbonate unit with a
variable siliciclastic component, including thin beds of siliciclastics. Within the outcrop area,
the Arcadia Formation, with the exception of the Tampa Member, is composed of yellowish gray
to light olive gray to light brown, micro to finely crystalline, variably sandy, clayey, and
phosphatic, fossiliferous limestones and dolostones. Thin beds of sand and clay are common.
The sands are yellowish gray, very fine to medium grained, poorly to moderately indurated,
clayey, dolomitic and phosphatic. The clays are yellowish gray to light olive gray, poorly to
moderately indurated, sandy, silty, phosphatic and dolomitic. Molds and casts of mollusks are
common in the dolostones. Silicified carbonates and opalized claystone are found in the Arcadia

That Arcadia Formation, Tampa Member The Tampa Member consists predominantly
of limestone with subordinate dolostone, sand and clay (Scott, 1988). The lithology of the
Tampa Member is very similar to that of the subsurface limestone part of the Arcadia Formation


except that the Tampa Member contains noticeably less phosphate (Scott, 1988). The limestone
in the Tampa is white to yellowish gray, fossiliferous and variably sandy and clayey mudstone,
wackestone and packstone with minor to no phosphate grains. Sand and clay beds are like those
in the undifferentiated Arcadia Formation. Mollusks and corals are common in the Tampa
Member as molds and casts, silicified pseudomorphs and original shell material. The Tampa
Member and the lower part of the Arcadia Formation form the upper part of the Floridan aquifer
system (FAS) in parts of southern Florida (Miller, 1986; Scott, 1991).


Upper Oligocene sediments are not known to crop out in the Florida panhandle. The
Chickasawhay Formation of Alabama has been traced in the subsurface into the central
panhandle but is not exposed on the Chattahoochee Anticline (Miller, 1986).

Miocene Series
Lower Miocene to Upper Miocene Aquitanian to Messinian Stage

Sediments of the Miocene Series have been the focus of numerous investigations due to
their complex nature and widespread occurrence in Florida (see Schmidt and Clark [1980],
Huddlestun [1988] and Scott [1988] for a review of previous investigations). The Miocene
sediments consist of siliciclastics, carbonates and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate lithologies with
numerous lateral and vertical facies changes. Exposures are limited and most investigations
dealt with these sediments in the subsurface.
Miocene sediments crop out or occur in the shallow subsurface on the northwestern flank
of the Ocala Platform in the eastern panhandle to the flanks of the Chattahoochee "Anticline" in
the central panhandle then into the western panhandle to Okaloosa County. In the peninsula, the
Miocene sediments crop out or are in the shallow subsurface from the northern flank of the
Ocala Platform in Hamilton, Columbia and Baker Counties southward to Charlotte County.
Some of the most beautiful landscapes in the State occur where the Miocene sediments are
exposed, eroded and often affected by karstification of underlying Paleogene carbonates.
The importance of the Miocene sediments in Florida is twofold first, these sediments
contain valuable mineral resources, primarily phosphate and adsorptive clays; and, second, the
Miocene sediments comprise the intermediate confining unit and aquifer system. Whereas the
principle geological hazard associated with Paleogene carbonates is karst development, the
hazards associated with the Miocene sediments are radon gas and swelling clays.
Significant changes in age determinations or interpretations have occurred for the
sediments traditionally considered as Miocene in the peninsula. Puri and Vernon (1964)
recognized a simple three-fold subdivision of the Miocene in peninsular Florida. Their
subdivision of the Miocene was that all Lower Miocene sediments were St. Marks Formation
(Tampa [Note that they used Tampa as a stage name so all sediments that had been called Tampa
were placed in the St. Marks Formation statewide]), Middle Miocene sediments were Hawthorn
Formation and Upper Miocene sediments were Tamiami Formation. Poag (1972) placed the
lower portion of the Chattahochee Formation in the Upper Oligocene. Currently, geologists
recognize that the Hawthorn Group spans from the mid-Oligocene to Early Pliocene (Brewster-


Wingard et al., 1997; Missimer, 1997). The Tamiami Formation is Early to Late Pliocene
(Missimer, 1997).
The Miocene lithostratigraphic units recognized by this study in the panhandle include
the Chattahoochee Formation, St. Marks Formation, Alum Bluff Group, Torreya Formation
(Hawthorn Group) and residuum. In the peninsula, the Miocene units mapped include the
undifferentiated Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Formation, Charlton Member, and the Peace
River Formation and its Bone Valley Member.

Tch Chattahoochee Formation The Chattahoochee Formation, originally named by
Dall and Stanley-Brown (1894), is predominantly a yellowish gray, poorly to moderately
indurated, fine-grained, often fossiliferous (molds and casts), silty to finely sandy dolostone
(Huddlestun, 1988). Siliciclastic beds and limestones may be present.
The Chattahoochee Formation is exposed in Jackson County, central panhandle, on the
Chattahoochee "Anticline". It grades laterally across the Gulf Trough into the St. Marks
Formation through a broad transition area (Scott, 1986). The Chattahoochee Formation forms
the upper part of the FAS in the central panhandle.

Tsmk St. Marks Formation The Lower Miocene St. Marks Formation, named by
Finch (1823), is exposed in Wakulla, Leon and Jefferson Counties on the northwestern flank of
the Ocala Platform. It is a white to yellowish gray, poorly to moderately indurated, sandy,
fossiliferous (molds and casts) limestone (packstone to wackestone). Mollusk molds and casts
are often abundant. The St. Marks Formation makes up the upper part of the FAS in part of the
eastern panhandle.

Hawthorn Group
The Hawthorn Group in Florida is composed of a number of different formations and
members (Scott, 1988; Huddlestun, 1988). Most of the formations are defined from subsurface
evaluations. As a result, for mapping purposes, all the component formations are not recognized
on the geologic map.
In the eastern panhandle, the upper Lower Miocene Torreya Formation, including the
Dogtown and Sopchoppy Members (Huddlestun and Hunter, 1982), comprises the entire
Hawthorn Group (Scott, 1988). The Dogtown and Sopchoppy Members are not delineated on
the map.
In northern peninsular Florida, the Hawthorn Group consists of the lower Lower Miocene
Penney Farms Formation and, rarely, the Parachucla Formation; the upper Lower Miocene
Marks Head Formation; the Middle Miocene Coosawhatchie Formation and the Statenville
Formation (Scott, 1988; Huddlestun, 1988). The Charlton Member of the Coosawhatchie
Formation is recognized in a limited area. The Penney Farms and Marks Head Formations are
not recognized cropping out in significant exposures. The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group was
mapped where component formations were questionable or difficult to differentiate due to very
limited data.
In southern peninsular Florida, the Hawthorn Group formations include the Upper
Oligocene to Middle Miocene Arcadia Formation including the Tampa and Nocatee Members
and the Middle Miocene to Early Pliocene Peace River Formation with its Bone Valley Member
and Wabasso beds (Scott, 1988). The Nocatee Member of the Arcadia Formation and the


Wabasso beds of the Peace River Formation were not recognized at or near land surface and do
not appear on the geologic map.

Tht Torreya Formation The Torreya Formation is exposed or near the surface from
western Gadsden County eastward to western-most Hamilton County. It is informally
subdivided into a lower carbonate unit and an upper siliciclastic unit (Scott, 1988). The majority
of Torreya Formation outcrops expose the siliciclastic part of the unit. The carbonate sediments
are white to light olive gray, generally poorly indurated, variably sandy and clayey, fossiliferous
(molds and casts) limestone (mudstone and wackestone). The limestones often grade into
calcareous-cemented sands. Phosphate is present in the carbonate sediments, particularly in the
Sopchoppy Member. The siliciclastics vary from white to light olive gray, unconsolidated to
poorly indurated, slightly clayey sands with minor phosphate to light gray to bluish gray, poorly
consolidated, variably silty clay (Dogtown Member). The siliciclastics are sporadically
fossiliferous. The Torreya Formation overlies the FAS and forms part of the intermediate
confining unit/aquifer system.

The Coosawhatchie Formation The Coosawhatchie Formation is exposed or lies
beneath a thin overburden on the eastern flank of the Ocala Platform from southern Columbia
County to southern Marion County. Within the outcrop region, the Coosawhatchie Formation
varies from a light gray to olive gray, poorly consolidated, variably clayey and phosphatic sand
with few fossils, to an olive gray, poorly to moderately consolidated, slightly sandy, silty clay
with few to no fossils. Occasionally the sands will contain a dolomitic component and, rarely,
the dominant lithology will be dolostone or limestone. Silicified nodules are often present in the
Coosawhatchie Formation sediments in the outcrop region. The sediment may contain 20
percent or more phosphate (Scott, 1988). Permeability of the Coosawhatchie sediments is
generally low, forming part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.

Thcc Coosawhatchie Formation, Charlton Member The Charlton Member (originally
the Charlton formation, Veatch and Stevenson, 1911), crops out only in northern Nassau County
near and along the St. Marys River. The Charlton Member in this area consists primarily of light
gray to greenish gray, poorly to moderately consolidated, dolomitic to calcareous, silty, sandy,
locally fossiliferous clays. Few carbonate beds occur.

Ths Statenville Formation The Statenville Formation occurs at or near the surface in a
limited area of Hamilton, Columbia and Baker Counties on the northeastern flank of the Ocala
Platform. The formation consists of interbedded sands, clays and dolostones with common to
very abundant phosphate grains. The sands predominate and are light gray to light olive gray,
poorly indurated, phosphatic, fine to coarse grained with scattered gravel and with minor
occurrences of fossils. Clays are yellowish gray to olive gray, poorly consolidated, variably
sandy and phosphatic, and variably dolomitic. The dolostones, which occur as thin beds, are
yellowish gray to light orange, poorly to well indurated, sandy, clayey and phosphatic with
scattered mollusk molds and casts. Phosphate occurs in the Statenville Formation in
economically important amounts. Silicified fossils and opalized claystones are found in the
Statenville Formation. Permeability of these sediments is generally low, forming part of the
intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.


Th Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group occurs at
or near the surface near the southern flank of the Ocala Platform from Gilchrist County
southward to Pasco County with isolated occurrences in Pinellas County. Correlation of these
sediments to the formations of the Hawthorn Group exposed to the east and in the subsurface is
uncertain. There is little to no phosphate present in these sediments and fossils are rare. Ages
have not been documented but stratigraphic position suggests inclusion in the Hawthorn Group.
These sediments may be residual from the weathering and erosion of the Hawthorn Group. The
Hawthorn Group sediments on the Brooksville Ridge are deeply weathered and in some outcrops
look like Cypresshead Formation siliciclastics.
The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments are light olive gray and blue gray in
unweathered sections to reddish brown in deeply weathered sections, poorly to moderately
consolidated, clayey sands to silty clays and relatively pure clays. These sediments are part of
the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system and provide an effective aquitard for the FAS,
except where perforated by karst features.
Hard-rock phosphate deposits are associated with the undifferentiated Hawthorn Group
sediments on the eastern flank of the Brooksville Ridge. The hard rock phosphate deposits were
formed by the dissolution of phosphate in the Hawthorn sediments and redeposition in karst

Tab Alum Bluff Group West of the Apalachicola River, the Hawthorn Group is
replaced by the Alum Bluff Group. The Alum Bluff Group includes the Chipola Formation, Oak
Grove Sand, Shoal River Formation, Choctawhatchee Formation and the Jackson Bluff
Formation (Huddlestun, 1984; Braunstein et al., 1988). The formations included in this group
are generally defined on the basis of their molluscan faunas and stratigraphic position (Schmidt
and Clark, 1980). Puri (1953) described sediment facies as they relate to the formations of the
Alum Bluff Group These sediments are lithologically distinct as a group, not as individual
units. Brooks (1982) mapped much of the Alum Bluff Group as the Shoal River Formation. The
Alum Bluff Group crops out or is beneath a thin overburden in the western panhandle from river
valleys in Okaloosa County eastward to western Jackson County.
The Alum Bluff Group consists of clays, sands and shell beds which may vary from
fossiliferous, sandy clays to unfossiliferous sands and clays and occasional carbonate beds
(Huddlestun, 1984). Mica is a common constituent and glauconite and phosphate occur
sporadically. Induration varies from essentially nonindurated in sands to well indurated in
carbonate lenses. Colors range from cream to olive gray with mottled reddish brown in
weathered sections. Sand grain size varies from very fine to very coarse with sporadic
occurrences of gravel. These sediments generally have low permeabilities and are part of the
intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.

Trm Residuum on Miocene sediments The undifferentiated Miocene residuum,
mapped on parts of the Chattahoochee "Anticline", characteristically consists of reddish brown,
variably sandy clay with inclusions of variably fossiliferous, silicified limestone. The residuum
includes Lower to Upper Miocene and younger weathered sediments.

Miocene Pliocene Series


Middle Miocene-Lower Pliocene, Serravalian Zanclean Stage

Thp Peace River Formation The Peace River Formation crops out or is beneath a thin
overburden on the southern part of the Ocala Platform extending into the Okeechobee Basin.
These sediments were mapped from Hillsborough County southward to Charlotte County.
Within this area, the Peace River Formation is composed of interbedded sands, clays and
carbonates. The sands are generally light gray to olive gray, poorly consolidated, clayey,
variably dolomitic, very fine to medium grained and phosphatic. The clays are yellowish gray to
olive gray, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty, phosphatic and dolomitic. The
carbonates are usually dolostone in the outcrop area. The dolostones are light gray to yellowish
gray, poorly to well indurated, variably sandy and clayey, and phosphatic. Opaline chert is often
found in these sediments. The phosphate content of the Peace River Formation sands is
frequently high enough to be economically mined. Fossil mollusks occur as reworked casts,
molds, and limited original shell material. Silicified corals and wood, and vertebrate fossils are
also present. The Peace River Formation is widespread in southern Florida. It is part of the
intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.

Thpb Bone Valley Member, Peace River Formation The Bone Valley Member
(originally the Bone Valley Formation of Matson and Clapp, 1909), Peace River Formation
occurs in a limited area on the southern part of the Ocala Platform in Hillsborough, Polk and
Hardee Counties. Throughout its extent, the Bone Valley Member is a plastic unit consisting of
sand-sized and larger phosphate grains in a matrix of quartz sand, silt and clay. The lithology is
highly variable, ranging from sandy, silty, phosphatic clays and relatively pure clays to clayey,
phosphatic sands to sandy, clayey phosphorites (Webb and Crissinger, 1983). In general,
consolidation is poor and colors range from white, light brown and yellowish gray to olive gray
and blue green. Mollusks are found as reworked, often phosphatized casts. Vertebrate fossils
occur in many of the beds within the Bone Valley Member. Shark's teeth are often abundant.
Silicified corals and wood are occasionally present as well.
The Bone Valley Member is an extremely important, unique phosphate deposit and has
provided much of the phosphate production in the United States during the twentieth century.
Mining of phosphate in the outcrop area began in 1888 (Cathcart, 1985) and continues to the

Pliocene Series
Lower Pliocene to Upper Pliocene Zanclean to Piacenzian Stage

Florida's Pliocene sediments have been the focus of numerous, primarily paleontologic,
investigations due to abundant and diverse molluscan faunas. Although the majority of the
Pliocene sediments are unfossiliferous siliciclastics, well preserved shell beds in southern
Florida have attracted much attention (see papers in Scott and Allmon [1992]; Zullo et al.[1993];
Missimer [1997]). Despite the attention to these units, the lithostratigraphy of the Pliocene units
remains poorly understood.
Pliocene sediments are distributed widely in Florida. In the panhandle and northern two-
thirds of the peninsula the Pliocene sediments are predominantly unfossiliferous siliciclastics. In
the southern one-third of the peninsula, the Pliocene sediments are often fossiliferous


siliciclastics with carbonates becoming more abundant in southwestern Florida. The facies
relationships within the marine Pliocene sediments of southern Florida are quite complex.

Tt Tamiami Formation The Tamiami Formation (Mansfield, 1939) is a poorly defined
lithostratigraphic unit containing a wide range of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lithologies and
associated faunas (Missimer, 1992). It occurs at or near the land surface in Charlotte, Lee,
Hendry, Collier and Monroe Counties in the southern peninsula. A number of named and
unnamed members are recognized within the Tamiami Formation. These include: the
Buckingham Limestone Member; an unnamed tan clay and sand; an oyster (Hyotissa) facies, a
sand facies, the Ochopee Limestone Member, the Bonita Springs Marl Member; an unnamed
limestone facies; the Golden Gate Reef Member; and the Pinecrest Sand Member (Missimer,
1992). The individual members of the Tamiami Formation were not separately mapped on the
geological map.
Lithologies of the Tamiami Formation in the mapped area include: 1) light gray to tan,
unconsolidated, fine to coarse grained, fossiliferous sand; 2) light gray to green, poorly
consolidated, fossiliferous sandy clay to clayey sand; 3) light gray, poorly consolidated, very fine
to medium grained, calcareous, fossiliferous sand; 4) white to light gray, poorly consolidated,
sandy, fossiliferous limestone; and 5) white to light gray, moderately to well indurated, sandy,
fossiliferous limestone. Phosphate is present in virtually all lithologies as limited quantities of
sand- to gravel-sized grains. Fossils present in the Tamiami occur as molds, casts and original
material. The fossils present include barnacles, mollusks, corals, echinoids, foraminifers and
calcareous nannoplankton.
The Tamiami Formation has highly permeable to impermeable lithologies that form a
complex aquifer. Locally, it is part of the surficial aquifer system. In other areas, it forms a part
of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.

Tib Jackson Bluff Formation The Jackson Bluff Formation, named by Vernon and
Puri (1964), occurs at or near the surface in a limited area of the panhandle in Leon, Liberty and
Wakulla Counties. It has attracted much attention due to its abundant fossil molluscan fauna
(Huddlestun, 1984; Schmidt, 1984).
In the outcrop area, the Jackson Bluff Formation is described as a sandy, clayey shell bed
(Schmidt, 1984). It is composed of tan to orange-brown to gray green, poorly consolidated,
fossiliferous, sandy clays to clayey sands. Fossils present include abundant mollusks, corals,
foraminifers and occasional vertebrate remains.

Tic Intracoastal Formation Limited exposures and shallow subsurface occurrences of
the Intracoastal Formation have been reported in northwestern Florida (Bay, Franklin, Liberty
and Wakulla Counties) (Schmidt, 1984). In the subsurface, it occurs to the west across the
Apalachicola Embayment (Huddlestun, 1984; Schmidt, 1984).
The Intracoastal Formation is composed of light gray to olive gray, poorly indurated,
sandy, clayey, highly fossiliferous limestone (grainstone and packstone). The fossils present
include foraminifers, mollusks, barnacles, echinoids and ostracods. Quartz sand varies from
very fine to coarse grained (Huddlestun, 1984).


Tci Citronelle Formation The Citronelle Formation is widespread in the Gulf Coastal
Plain. The type section for the Citronelle Formation, named by Matson (1916), is near
Citronelle, Alabama. The Citronelle Formation grades laterally, through a broad facies
transition, into the Miccosukee Formation of the eastern Florida panhandle. Coe (1979)
investigated the Citronelle Formation in portions of the western Florida panhandle. The
Citronelle Formation is a siliciclastic, deltaic deposit that is lithologically similar to, and time
equivalent with, the Cypresshead Formation and, at least in part, the Long Key Formation
(Cunningham et al., 1998) of the peninsula. In the western panhandle, some of the sediments
mapped as Citronelle Formation may be reworked Citronelle. The lithologies are the same and
there are few fossils present to document a possible younger age.
The Citronelle Formation consists of gray to orange, often mottled, unconsolidated to
poorly consolidated, very fine to very coarse, poorly sorted, clean to clayey sands. It contains
significant amounts of clay, silt and gravel which may occur as beds and lenses and may vary
considerably over short distances. Limonite nodules and limonite-cemented beds are common.
Marine fossils are rare but fossil pollen, plant remains and occasional vertebrates are found.
Much of the Citronelle Formation is highly permeable. It forms the Sand and Gravel
Aquifer of the surficial aquifer system.

Tmc Miccosukee Formation The Miccosukee Formation, named by Hendry and Yon
(1967), is a siliciclastic unit with a limited distribution in the eastern panhandle. It occurs in the
Tallahassee Hills from central Gadsden County to eastern Madison County, often capping hills.
The Miccosukee Formation grades to the west, through a broad facies transition, in central
Gadsden County into the Citronelle Formation. The Miccosukee Formation is a prodeltaic
The Miccosukee Formation is composed of grayish orange to grayish red, mottled, poorly
to moderately consolidated, interbedded clay, sand and gravel of varying coarseness and
admixtures (Hendry and Yon, 1967). The unit is relatively impermeable but is considered a part
of the surficial aquifer system (Southeastern Geological Society, 1986).

Tc Cypresshead Formation The Cypresshead Formation named by Huddlestun (1988),
is composed of siliciclastics and occurs only in the peninsula and eastern Georgia. It is at or near
the surface from northern Nassau County southward to Highlands County forming the peninsular
highlands. It appears that the Cypresshead Formation occurs in the subsurface southward from
the outcrop region and similar sediments, the Long Key Formation, underlie the Florida Keys.
The Cypresshead Formation is a shallow marine, near shore deposit equivalent to the Citronelle
Formation deltaic sediments and the Miccosukee Formation prodeltaic sediments.
The Cypresshead Formation consists of reddish brown to reddish orange, unconsolidated
to poorly consolidated, fine to very coarse grained, clean to clayey sands. Cross bedded sands
are common within the formation. Discoid quartzite pebbles and mica are often present. Clay
beds are scattered and not really extensive. In general, the Cypresshead Formation in exposure
occurs above 100 feet (30 meters) above mean sea level (msl).
Original fossil material is not present in the sediments although poorly preserved molds
and casts of mollusks and burrow structures are occasionally present. The presence of these
fossil "ghosts" and trace fossils documents marine influence on deposition of the Cypresshead


The permeable sands of the Cypresshead Formation form part of the surficial aquifer


TOu Undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary Sediments These sediments are
siliciclastics that are separated from undifferentiated Quaternary sediments solely on the basis of
elevation. Based on the suggestion that the Pleistocene sea levels reached a maximum of
approximately 100 feet (30 meters) msl (Colquhoun, 1969), these sediments, which occur above
100 feet (30 meters) msl, are predominantly older than Pleistocene but contain some sediemnts
reworked during the Pleistocene. This unit may include fluvial and aeolian deposits. The
undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary sediments occur in a band extending from the Georgia-
Florida state line in Baker and Columbia Counties southward to Alachua County.
These sediments are gray to blue green, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fine to
coarse grained, clean to clayey, unfossiliferous sands, sandy clays and clays. Organic debris and
disseminated organic are present in these sediments.
The undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary sediments are part of the surficial aquifer

TOd Tertiary-Quaternary Dunes The dune sediments are fine to medium quartz sand
with varying amounts of disseminated organic matter. The sands form dunes at elevations
greater than 100 feet (30 meters) msl.

TOuc Undifferentiated reworked Cypresshead Formation This unit is the result of
post depositional reworking of the Cypresshead siliciclastics. The sediments are fine to coarse
quartz sands with scattered quartz gravel and varying percentages of clay matrix.

Pliocene Pleistocene Series

TOsu Tertiary-Quaternary Fossiliferous Sediments of Southern Florida Mollusk-
bearing sediments of southern Florida contain some of the most abundant and diverse fossil
faunas in the world. The origin of these accumulations of fossil mollusks is imprecisely known
(Allmon, 1992). The shell beds have attracted much attention due to the abundance and
preservation of the fossils but the biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the units has not been
well defined (Scott, 1992). Scott and Wingard (1995) discussed the problems associated with
biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene in southern Florida. These
"formations" are biostratigraphic units.
The "formations" previously recognized within the latest Tertiary-Quaternary section of
southern Florida include the latest Pliocene early Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation, the
early Pleistocene Bermont formation (informal) and the late Pleistocene Fort Thompson
Formation. This section consists of fossiliferous sands and carbonates. The identification of
these units is problematic unless the significant molluscan species are recognized. Often
exposures are not extensive enough to facilitate the collection of representative faunal samples to
properly discern the biostratigraphic identification of the formation. In an attempt to alleviate
the inherent problems in the biostratigraphic recognition of lithostratigraphic units, Scott (1992)


suggested grouping the latest Pliocene through late Pleistocene Caloosahatchee, Bermont and
Fort Thompson Formations in to a single lithostratigraphic entity, the Okeechobee formation
(informal). In mapping the shelly sands and carbonates, a generalized grouping as Tertiary-
Quaternary shell units (TQsu) was utilized. This is equivalent to the informal Okeechobee
formation. The distribution of the Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formation are shown on
previous geologic maps by Cooke (1945), Vernon and Puri (1964) and Brooks (1982).
The Nashua Formation occurs within the Pliocene Pleistocene in northern Florida.
However, it crops out or is near the surface is an area too small to be shown on a map of this
Lithologically these sediments are complex, varying from unconsolidated, variably
calcareous and fossiliferous quartz sands to well indurated, sandy, fossiliferous limestones (both
marine and freshwater). Clayey sands and sandy clays are present. These sediments form part
of the surficial aquifer system

Pleistocene Series

Oa Anastasia Formation The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is underlain by the Anastasia
Formation from St. Johns County southward to Palm Beach County. Excellent exposures occur
in Flagler County in Washington Oaks State Park, in Martin County at the House of Refuge on
Hutchinson Island and at Blowing Rocks in Palm Beach County. An impressive exposure of
Anastasia Formation sediments occurs along Country Club Road in Palm Beach County
(Lovejoy, 1992). The Anastasia Formation generally is recognized near the coast but extends
inland as much as 20 miles (32 kilometers) in St. Lucie and Martin Counties.
The Anastasia Formation, named by Sellards (1912),is composed of interbedded sands
and coquinoid limestones. The most recognized facies of the Anastasia sediments is an orangish
brown, unindurated to moderately indurated, coquina of whole and fragmented mollusk shells in
a matrix of sand often cemented by sparry calcite. Sands occur as light gray to tan and orangish
brown, unconsolidated to moderately indurated, unfossiliferous to very fossiliferous beds. The
Anastasia Formation forms part of the surficial aquifer system.

Ok Key Largo Limestone The Key Largo Limestone, named by Sanford (1909), is
exposed at the surface in the Florida Keys from Soldier Key on the northeast to Newfound
Harbor Keys near Big Pine Key on the southwest (Hoffmeister, 1974). This unit is a fossil coral
reef much like the present day reefs offshore from the Keys. An exceptional exposure of the
Key Largo Limestone occurs in the Windley Key Quarry State Geological Site in the upper
Florida Keys. Exposures of the limestone containing large coral heads are in a series of old
The Key Largo Limestone is a white to light gray, moderately to well indurated,
fossiliferous, coralline limestone composed of coral heads encased in a calcarenitic matrix. Little
to no siliciclastic sediment is found in these sediments. Fossils present include corals, mollusks
and bryozoans. It is highly porous and permeable and is part of the Biscayne Aquifer of the
surficial aquifer system

Om Miami Limestone The Miami Limestone (formerly the Miami Oolite), named by
Sanford (1909), occurs at or near the surface in southeastern peninsular Florida from Palm Beach


County to Dade and Monroe Counties. It forms the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and extends beneath
the Everglades where it is commonly covered by thin organic and freshwater sediments. The
Miami Limestone occurs on the mainland and in the southern Florida Keys from Big Pine Key to
the Marquesas Keys. From Big Pine Key to the mainland, the Miami Limestone is replaced by
the Key Largo Limestone. To the north, in Palm Beach County, the Miami Limestone grades
laterally northward into the Anastasia Formation.
The Miami Limestone consists of two facies, an oolitic facies and a bryozoan facies
(Hoffmeister et al. [1967]). The oolitic facies consists of white to orangish gray, poorly to
moderately indurated, sandy, oolitic limestone (grainstone) with scattered concentrations of
fossils. The bryozoan facies consists of white to orangish gray, poorly to well indurated, sandy,
fossiliferous limestone (grainstone and packstone). Beds of quartz sand are also present as
unindurated sediments and indurated limey sandstones. Fossils present include mollusks,
bryozoans, and corals. Molds and casts of fossils are common. The highly porous and
permeable Miami Limestone forms much of the Biscayne Aquifer of the surficical aquifer

Oal Obd Otr Qu Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments Much of Florida's surface
is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics,
organic and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick,
they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments,
those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal).
Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately
(Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped
(refer to Healy [1975] for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the
Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in
order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology.
The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly
consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green
to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally
present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and
beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered
over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the
Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated,
fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These
carbonates often contain organic. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are

Holocene Series

Oh Holocene Sediments The Holocene sediments in Florida occur near the present
coastline at elevations generally less than 5 feet (1.5 meters). The sediments include quartz
sands, carbonate sands and muds, and organic.


Allmon, W.D., 1992, Whence southern Florida's Plio-Pleistocene shell beds: in Scott, T.M., and
Allmon, W.D., eds., The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of southern
Florida; Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 36, p. 1-20.

Applin, P. L., and Applin, E. R., 1944, Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida and
southern Georgia: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p. 1673-

Arthur, J. D., 1988, Petrogenesis of Early Mesozoic tholeiite in the Florida basement and overview
of Florida basement geology: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigation 97, 39

Braunstein, J., Huddlestun, P., and Biel, R., 1988, Gulf Coast region correlation of stratigraphic units
of North America: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Correlation Chart.

Brewster-Wingard, G.L., Scott, T.M., Edwards, L.E., Weedman, S.D., and Simmons, K.R., 1997,
Reinterpretation of the peninsular Florida Oligocene: An integrated stratigraphic
approach: Sedimentary Geology, v. 108, p. 207-228.

Brooks, H.K., 1982, Geologic Map of Florida: Center for Environmental and Natural Resources,
University of Florida.

Bryan, J.R., 1991, Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of Paleocene and Oligocene carbonate
facies of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain: unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 324 p.

Bryan, J.R., 1993, Late Eocene and Early Oligocene carbonate facies and paleoenvironments of
the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section
Meeting, Tallahassee, Florida, field trip guidebook, 25 p.

Cathcart, J.B., 1985, Economic geology of the Land-Pebble Phosphate District of Florida and its
southern extension: in Cathcart, J.B., and Scott, T.M., eds., Florida Land-Pebble
Phosphate District: Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida,
field trip guidebook, p. 4-27.

Coe, C. J., 1979, Geology of Plio-Pleistocene sediments in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties,
Florida: unpublished MS thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 115 p.

Colquhoun, D.J., 1969, Coastal plain terraces in the Carolinas and Georgia, U.S.A.: in Wright, H.E.,
Jr., editor, Quaternary Geology and Climate: Volume 16 of the Proceedings of the VII
Congress of the International Association for Quaternary Research, v. 16, p. 150-162.

Cooke, C. W., 1945, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29, 339 p.


Cooke, C. W., and Mansfield, W. C., 1936, Suwanne Limestone of Florida (abstract): Geological
Society of America Proceedings, 1935, p. 71 72.

Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., 1929, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Twentieth
Annual Report, p. 29-228, 1 plate.

Cunningham, K. J., McNeill, D. F., Guertin, L. A., Ciesielski, P. F., Scott, T. M., and de
Verteuil, L., 1998, New Tertiary stratigraphy for the Florida Keys and southern peninsula
of Florida: Geological Society of America Bulletin v.110, no. 2, p. 231-258.

Dall, W.H., and Harris, G.D., 1892, Correlation papers Neocene: United States Geological
Survey Bulletin 84, 349 p.

and Stanley-Brown, 1894, Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola River: Geological
Society of America Bulletin, v. 5, p.147-170.

Finch, J., 1823, Geological essay on the Tertiary formation in America: American Journal of
Science, v. 7, p. 31-43.

Healy, H.G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series

Hendry, C. W., Jr., and Yon, J. W., Jr., 1967, Stratigraphy of Upper Miocene Miccosukee
Formation, Jefferson and Leon Counties, Florida: American Association of Petroleum
Geologists Bulletin, v. 51, pp. 250-256.

Hoffmeister, J. E., 1974, Land from the sea: University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, FL, 143 p.

Stockman, K. W., and Multer, H. G., 1967, Miami Limestone of Florida and its
Recent Bahamian counterpart: Geological Society of America Bulletin 78, p. 175-190.

Huddlestun, P. F., 1984, The Neogene stratigraphy of the central Florida panhandle: Unpublished
Dissertation, Florida State University Department of Geology, Tallahassee, Florida,
210 p.

,1988, A revision of the lithostratigraphic units of the Coastal Plain of
Georgia The Miocene: Georgia Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 162 p.

1993, A revision of the lithostratigraphic units of the Coastal Plain of
Georgia The Oligocene: Georgia Geological Survey Bulletin 105, 152 p.

and Hunter, M. E., 1982, Stratigraphic revision of the Torreya Formation of
Florida (abstract): in Scott, T. M., and Upchurch, S. B., (eds.), Miocene of the southeastern


United States, Proceedings of the symposium: Florida Bureau of Geology, Special
Publication 25, p. 210.

Lovejoy, D. W., 1992, Classic exposures of the Anastasia Formation in Martin and Palm Beach
Counties, Florida: Guidebook for combined Southeastern Geological Society and Miami
Geological Society field trip, 31p.

Mansfield, W. C., 1939, Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of peninsular Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 18, 75 p.

Matson, G. C., 1916, The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain: U. S. Geological
Survey Professional Paper 98-L, p. 167-192.

and Clapp, F. G., 1909, A preliminary report on the geology of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Second Annual Report, p. 23-173, 1 plate.

Matson, G. C., Clapp, F. G. and Sanford, S., 1909, Geologic and topographic map of Florida: in
Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the geology of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Second Annual Report, p. 23-173, 1 plate.

Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of
Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina: United States Geological Survey Professional
Paper 1403-B, 91 p. plus maps.

Missimer, T.M., 1992, Stratigraphic relationships of sediment facies within the Tamiami
Formation of southwestern Florida: Proposed intraformational correlations; in Scott,
T.M., and Allmon, W.D., (eds.), The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of
southern Florida; Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 36, p. 63-92.

1997, Late Oligocene to Pliocene evolution of the central portion of the South
Florida Platform: Mixing of siliciclastic and carbonate sediments: unpublished
dissertation, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.

and Scott, T.M., 1995, Late Paleogene and Neogene sea-level history of the
southern Florida Platform and phosphatic sediment deposition: Congress Program with
abstracts, v. 1, The First SEPM Congress on Sedimentary Geology, St. Petersburg,
Florida, August 1995, p. 92.

North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983, North American Stratigraphic
Code: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 67, no. 5, p. 841-875.

Poag, C. W., 1972, Planktonic foraminifers of the Chickasawhay Formation, United States Gulf
Coast: Micropaleontology, v. 18, no. 3, p. 267-277.


Puri, H.S., 1953, Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida panhandle: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin 36, 345 p.

1957, Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
38, 248 p.

and Vernon, R. 0., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida:Florida Geological Survey
Special Publication 5 (Revised), 312 p.

Sanford, S., 1909, The topography and geology of southern Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Second Annual Report, p. 175-231.

Schmidt, W., 1984, Neogene stratigraphy and geologic history of the Apalachicola Embayment,
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 58, 146 p.

and Clark, M.W., 1980, Geology of Bay County, Florida:
Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 57, 96 p.

Scott, T. M., 1986, The lithostratigraphic relationships of the Chattahoochee, St. Marks and
Torreya Formations, eastern Florida Panhandle: Florida Academy of Sciences, Abstract,
Florida Scientist v. 49, supplement 1, p. 29.

1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p.

,1991, A Geological overview of Florida: in Scott, T.M., Lloyd, J. M., and Maddox,
G. (eds.), Florida's Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program- Hydrogeological
Framework: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 32, p. 5-14.

1992, Coastal Plains stratigraphy: The dichotomy of biostratigraphy and
lithostratigraphy A philosophical approach to an old problem: in Scott, T.M., and
Allmon, W. D., (eds.) The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of southern
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 36, p. 21-26.

in preparation, Geomorphic map of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map

and Allmon, W. D., 1992, The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of
southern Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 36, 194 p.

Wingard, G.L., Weedman, S.D., and Edwards, L.E., 1994, Reinterpretation of the
peninsular Florida Oligocene: A multidisciplinary view: Abstract, Geological Society of
America, Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA., Program with Abstracts, p. A-151.


and Wingard, G.L., 1995, Facies, fossils and time A discussion of the litho- and
biostratigraphic problems in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments in southern Florida: in Scott,
T.M., editor, Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Plio-Pleistocene shell beds, southwest
Florida: Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook 35, unpaginated.

Sellards, E. H., 1912, The soils and other surface residual materials of Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Fourth Annual Report, p. 1-79.

Sellards, E. H., Gunter, H., and Cooke, C. W., 1922, Geologic map of Florida: in Sellards, E. H., and
Gunter, H., On the petroleum possibilities of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Fourteenth
Annual Report, p. 33-135, 1 plate.

Smith, D.L., 1982, Review of the tectonic history of the Florida basement: Tectonophysics, v. 88, p.

Smith, E. A., 1881, Geology of Florida: American Journal of Science, 3rd Series, v. XXI, p. 292-

Southeastern Geological Society (SEGS) Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit
Definition, 1986, Hydrogeological units of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special
Publication 28, 8 p.

Veatch, O., and Stevenson, L. W., 1911, Geology of the coastal plain of Georgia: Georgia Geologic
Survey Bulletin 26, 466 p.

Vernon, R. O., 1951, Surface occurrences of geologic formations in Florida (geologic map): in
Association of American State Geologists Forty-fourth Annual Meeting Field Trip
Guidebook A summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the Cenozoic
exposures of a portion of the State, 116 p., 5 plates.

Vernon, R.O., and Puri, H.S., 1964, Geologic map of Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Map
Series 18.

Webb, S.D., and Crissinger, D.B., 1983, Stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of the central
and southern Phosphate District of Florida: in Central Florida Phosphate District,
Geological Society of America, Southeast Section Field Trip Guidebook, p. 28-72.

White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula: Florida Bureau of Geology
Bulletin 51, 164 p.

Zullo, V.A., Harris, W.B., Scott, T.M., and Portell, R.W., (eds.), 1993, The Neogene of Florida
and adjacent regions Proceedings of the Third Bald Head Island Conference on Coastal
Plains Geology: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 37, 112 p.