<%BANNER%>

FGS



The Spring Creek Submarine Springs Group, Wakulla County, Florida
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094040/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Spring Creek Submarine Springs Group, Wakulla County, Florida
Series Title: Special publication - Florida Geological Survey ; 47
Physical Description: vi, 34 p. : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.), charts ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Florida Geological Survey
Florida -- Division of Resource Assessment and Management
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2001
Copyright Date: 2001
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Florida -- Big Bend Region   ( lcsh )
Coast changes -- Florida -- Gulf of Mexico   ( lcsh )
Karst conservation -- Florida -- Gulf of Mexico   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Big Bend Region   ( lcsh )
Environmental conditions -- Mexico, Gulf of   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 31-32).
Statement of Responsibility: by by Ed Lane.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 002799320
oclc - 48409668
notis - ANS7592
issn - 0085-0640 ;
System ID: UF00094040:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 11 MBs ) ( PDF )


Full Text



The 5


Springs


I


spring Creek Submarine


Group, Wakulla Countr,

Florida


SJ Lane


---"
J;"
~--..
C-""l~r~......
----""


Florida Cjeoloical 5urve

Special Publication No. 47


1"


*c;r;;;;;; -*C~rr
~*r ;-;rE--;;


hj














METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS


To eliminate duplication of parenthetical conversion of units in the text of reports, the Florida Geological
Survey has adopted the practice of inserting a tabular listing of conversion factors. For readers who pre-
fer metric units to the customary U.S. units used in this report, the following conversion factors are pro-
vided.


MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN

inches 25.4 millimeters
feet 0.3048 meters
miles 1.609 kilometers
cubic feet per second (cfs) 0.02832 cubic meters per second
cubic feet per second (cfs) 0.646 million gallons per day


TEMPERATURE: C = (OF 32) /1.8

SEA LEVEL: Sea Level refers to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 -- a geodetic datum
derived from a general adjustment of the first-order level nets of both the United States and Canada, for-
merly called "Sea Level Datum of 1929."



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS REPORT

FGS Florida Geological Survey
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
cfs cubic feet per second
ft feet
mgd million gallons per day
msl mean sea level
pers. com. personal communication


Front cover: View to the southwest across the boil (calm area) of Spring Creek Spring #2.










STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
David B. Struhs, Secretary




DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief









Special Publication No. 47


THE SPRING CREEK
WAKULLA


SUBMARINE SPRINGS GROUP,
COUNTY, FLORIDA


by

Ed Lane







Published by the


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2001


ISSN 0085-0640












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee
2001



Governor Jeb Bush
Tallahassee, Florida 32301


Dear Governor Bush:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department of
Environmental Protection, is publishing as Special Publication No. 47, The Spring Creek Submarine
Springs Group, Wakulla County, Florida, prepared by staff geologist Ed Lane. This investigation of Spring
Creek, one of Florida's major fresh-water spring systems, was done as part of the Survey's coastal
research program. Information on these springs is important to better understand the local hydrogeology
in the vicinity of the spring vents and the associated benthic ecosystem. This information is valuable to
State land managers who must make informed decisions when responding to proposals to utilize fresh
water discharge for various purposes.


Respectfully,




Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey










CONTENTS

METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS and ABBREVIATIONS .................. .inside front cover
A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ACKNOW LEDGEMENTS ........................................................... 1
IN T R O D U C T IO N ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... 2
P u rp o se . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .3
Location of Study Area ........................................................ .5
GEOLOGY ............................ .......... ................................5
Geomorphology and Marine Terraces .............................................. 5
Stratigraphy ........................................................ ......... 7
W ATER RESO URCES ............................................................8
Surface W ater ...................................... ............... ........... 8
Groundwater and Aquifers ............................................ .......... 9
Ground-Water Recharge and Discharge ........................................... 10
Potentiometric Surface ....................................... ................ 10
Regional Fracture Systems, Conduit Geometry, and Ground-Water Flow .................. .10
SPRING CREEK SUBMARINE SPRINGS GROUP ................................ . . 15
Previous Investigations ................. ................... ......... ........ .15
W oodville Karst Plain Project .................................... ............... 15
Physical Descriptions of Springs ...................................... .......... .15
Pulsating Flow ................. ................................... .... ....... 19
Ground-Water Chemistry ................. ................... ................ 19
SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS ................................................... .28
REFERENCES ......................................................... ......... 31

APPENDIX 1 Water quality data for eight Spring Creek springs, 1973 ........................ 33
APPENDIX 2 Water quality data for Spring 1 (Spring Creek Rise), 1972 and 1973 .............. 34

FIGURES

1. Approximate location of the shoreline of the Florida Platform when sea level was about 300
to 400 feet lower than present ................ ................. ........... .2
2. Map of Florida showing locations of 16 submarine springs ............................ 3
3. Map of Wakulla County showing location of study area and major springs .............. .. .5
4. Marine terraces of Wakulla County ................ .................. ........... .6
5. Shallow stratigraphic column, with corresponding hydrogeologic units, in Wakulla County .......7
6. Potentiometric surface map of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Wakulla County during
May, 1990 .............. .............................................9
7. Lineament map of the western Woodville Karst Plain of Wakulla County .......... .......... .11
8. Block diagram showing the main conduits supplying water to Wakulla Springs ............. .12
9. Detail map showing the flooded caverns, from the Leon Sinks Geological Area to Wakulla
Springs, and nearby areas ................... ............................... 13
10. Northeasterly oblique aerial view of the Spring Creek area from an altitude of 1,000 feet,
October 1998 ........................................................... 14
11. Map showing locations of the numbered submarine springs of the Spring Creek Springs Group .16
12. Map of Stuart Cove showing cross sections of submarine karst features ............... .. .18
13. Photograph of Spring 1, November 3, 1997 ...................................... 20
14. Aerial photograph of Spring 1, October 1998 ..................................... 20
15. Spring 2, plan and cross section ................ ................... ............ 21
16. Photograph of Spring 2, November 3, 1997 .................. . . . . . . ..... .22
17. Photograph of Spring 2, November 3, 1997 ...................................... 22














Spring 3, plan and cross section ..........

Spring 8, plan and cross section ..........

Spring 9, cross section .................

Spring 10, plan and cross section .........

Spring 11, cross section ...............

Photograph of Spring 10, November 3, 1997 .

Photograph of Spring 11, November 3, 1997 .

Photograph of Spring 11, November 3, 1997 .


TABLES


Water quality data for Spring Creek Springs Group, September 12, 1995 ................. 28

Water quality data for Spring Creek Springs Group, December 4, 1998 ................. .30


...........

...........

...........

...........

...........

...........

...........

...........






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


THE SPRING CREEK SUBMARINE SPRINGS GROUP,
WAKULLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

by

Ed Lane, P.G. 141

ABSTRACT

Submarine springs are offshore discharges of groundwater. In Florida they are associated with coastal
karst areas. Submarine karst springs and sinkholes on the Florida Platform constitute integral parts of
Florida's hydrogeological regime. They are some of the ultimate down-gradient discharge points for fresh
water from Florida's aquifers. Knowledge of their location, hydrology, and stratigraphy will add to an under-
standing of the overall structure and extent of Florida's aquifer systems. Conceivably, they may represent
supplementary sources for fresh water supplies. In addition, they are micro-environments for fish nurs-
eries; manatees use some of them; and some are known archaeological sites. They are key elements in
the linked Earth systems among Florida's environments and ecosystems: the uplands, the coasts, and the
continental shelf marine realms.

The Florida Geological Survey is gathering information on these karst features as part of ongoing Florida
coastal research programs. This report documents the results of the first investigation, on the Spring Creek
Springs Group, Wakulla County, Florida.

The Spring Creek Springs Group is comprised of at least 13 submarine springs situated in the mouth of
Spring Creek and adjacent Stuart Cove, along the Gulf of Mexico coastline in Wakulla County, Florida.
Combined flow of the group is about 2,000 cubic feet per second. The springs are fed by conduits, like-
ly developed along fractures in the underlying carbonates. Analysis of local fracture trends suggests that
one surface water source for the spring flow is Lost Creek, a stream captured by a sinkhole about six miles
northwest of the springs. Regional groundwater of the Floridan aquifer system also supplies a portion of
the total spring flow. Seismic surveys and depth-recorder profiles were conducted across 12 of the
springs. The springs' cross-sectional profiles show them to be cone-shaped sinks, typical of springs devel-
oped in Florida karst. Water chemisty data collected at nine of the springs showed variation suggestive
of mixing and possibly differing surface and ground-water sources for the springs. All the springs exhibit
pulsating flow, alternating surges of boiling surface turbulence caused by rapidly upwelling water, followed
by relatively quiescent flow. This suggests that the complex conduit system supplying the springs may be
influenced by local recharge events and by tidal stage.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Particular thanks go to Jim Ladner, who provided support services for the boats and equipment used dur-
ing the investigations. Special thanks go to Don Hargrove, who provided his own boat and depth recorder
for the 1995 investigations. Jim Balsillie deserves specific thanks for making available his personal SITEX
sonar depth recorder, which he extensively modified to operate from the FGS survey craft. Jim also col-
lected the bathymetric data describing physiographic details of the springs used in Figures 15, 18, 19, 20,
and 21, and is credited with the photos depicted in Figures 23, 24, and 25. Joseph Donoghue and Henry
Freedenberg assisted at various times in the fieldwork. Paula Poison did the AutoCad drafting and
Photoshop detailing of the report figures. Frank Rupert created digital images of the photographs and
assembled the final report in QuarkXPress. The author expresses his appreciation to the staff of the
Florida Geological Survey who assisted by editing this manuscript: Walter Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, Tom
Scott, Steve Spencer, Frank Rupert, Rodney DeHan, and Deborah Mekeel. Joseph Donoghue, of Florida
State University's Department of Geological Sciences, also reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful
suggestions.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



INTRODUCTION

During the Pleistocene Epoch world sea levels are known to have fluctuated between 100 feet above pres-
ent, to as much as 400 feet below present. Between these extremes, many smaller oscillations and still-
stands occurred at intermediate elevations. Figure 1 shows the shape of the Florida Platform when sea
level was at its lowest, between 300 to 400 feet below present, placing the shoreline over 100-miles west
of Tampa. Periods of lowered sea level exposed vast areas of the platform to subaerial erosion and karst
/










Glacial Shoreline
(300-400 feet below/
present sea level)





\ Scale
0 80 kms

l 0 50 Miles


Figure 1. Approximate location of the shoreline of the Florida Platform when sea level was about
300 to 400 feet lower than present (Fairbanks, 1989).




processes, creating the many documented submarine springs and sinkholes. Such features continue to
be discovered and explored from time to time (Land et al., 1995; Bowen, 1994; Wilson, 1991; Rupert and
Arthur, 1990; Hine et al., 1988; Popenoe et al., 1984; Fanning et al., 1981 and 1982; Malloy and Hurley,
1970; Brooks, 1961; Jordan, 1954; Stringfield and Cooper, 1951).

Submarine springs occur on continental shelves around the world. A few are known to issue from lava
tubes offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, but all others appear to be associated with offshore outcrops of
carbonate rocks. Figure 2 shows the location of submarine springs and sinkholes known to occur on the
offshore Florida Platform. The Florida Geological Survey has several ongoing coastal research programs
along the coastline of Florida. One important goal of these programs is to gather information on springs,
sinkholes, and other karst features that occur in the submarine realm. This report documents the results
of the first investigation of submarine springs, on the Spring Creek Springs Group, Wakulla County,
Florida.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Figure 2. Map of Florida showing locations of 16 submarine springs described by
Rosenau et al. (1977).


Purpose

There are few literature references to the submarine springs and sinkholes that occur on the offshore
Florida Platform. The purpose of investigating the submarine karst features that occur on the Florida
Platform is to determine the role that they play in Florida's linked Earth systems and how they relate to the
hydrogeologic regime of the Florida Platform.

The immediate goal of the present investigation is to gather background information and hydrogeological
data on the largest known group of submarine springs in Florida, the Spring Creek Springs Group. The


SUBMARINE SPRINGS
1. Bear Creek Spring
2. Cedar Island Spring
3. Cedar Island Springs
4. Choctawhatchee Springs
5. Crays Rise
6. Crescent Beach
7. Crystal Beach Spring
8. Freshwater Cave
9. Mud Hole
10. Ocean Hole Spring
11. Ray Hole Spring
12. Red Snapper Sink
13. Spring Creek Springs Group
14. Tarpon Springs
15. Jewfish Hole
16. Unnamed Spring No. 4







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


long-term goal for future research will be to determine the linkages between the land and the ocean. More
specifically, what are the linkages among the ecosystems and environments of the uplands, the coast, the
coastal marshes, the marine realm, and the springs and sinkholes that occur on all of them?

The land-ocean linkages question is multifaceted, and involves climate, nutrient dynamics, pollution,
hydrogeology, atmospheric and oceanic physics, ecology, physiology, and societal pressures.
Understanding these land-ocean linkages and their scope within the regional environmental context is cru-
cial to decision making processes in the private and public sectors.

This region is dominated by a wealth of good quality surface- and ground-water resources, and diverse
ecosystems, including waterways, extensive shorelines, and broad marshes. Historically, the area is
prone to natural disasters, including droughts, flooding, and wind damage from thunderstorms and hurri-
canes. There are tight links among atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. However, the interests and
impacts of the linkages questions extend well beyond an academic interest into climate, hydrogeology,
atmospheric chemistry, and ocean science.

Recent proposals to use some of the submarine springs on the Florida Platform as sources for large quan-
tities of fresh water, which will be diverted to other drainage basins, have created an imperative need for
investigations into the springs' hydrogeology. Major issues involved in assessing the environmental
impacts of the proposed usage of these springs include the tangible impacts of human intervention, such
as:

1. WATER MANAGEMENT -- The modeling of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in carbonate
karstt) aquifer systems requires viewing karst aquifers as a composite of porous media and conduit flow.
Without the parameters of these major components of the hydrogeological systems, the modeling of water
resources at the regional level would be inadequate, resulting in the inability to assess many environ-
mental impacts. Data obtained as a result of this and similar research are needed to sensibly consider the
full range of mitigation and adaptation options. The results and conclusions will enhance our ability to
improve water management strategies across local or regional districts.


2. HAZARD REDUCTION -- Issues include improved public health and safety, through better understand-
ing of the relationship between ground-water pollution and karst features, and increased environmental
conservation.


3. ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS -- Although beyond the scope of this study, local biotic ecosystems are
dependent upon a delicate balance of physiochemical parameters, which may be controlled at least in part
by submarine spring flow. Alteration of variables such as rate of flow, salinity, water clarity, or nutrient load
may significantly affect the viability of these communities. Such changes impact the local human econo-
my (see below).


4. ECONOMIC IMPACTS -- The regional economy as well as recent population and land use trends must
be considered when studying the interaction between the geology and changes in the local and regional
linkages. Obviously, any significant changes in the local or regional ecosystems could impact the econo-
my and possibly land usage. For example, changes in the fresh-salt water interface, or changes to the
salinities of bays, estuaries, or near-shore marine waters, could have major effects on floral and faunal
assemblages, which would affect such industries as fishing, crabbing, scalloping and oystering, as well as
tourism.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


MILES
0 1 2 3 4 5
012345
0 2 4 6 8
0246KILOMETERS
KILOMETERS


'TT -FF WSON
_FLEON J
0--


OF MEXICO


EXPLANATION
I TOWNS
- MAJOR HIGHWAYS( ( S
0 FE[
5 MAJOR SPRINGS
1. INDIAN SPRINGS
2. KINI SPRING
3. NEWPORT SPRING
4. PANACEA MINERAL SPRINGS
5. RIVER SINK SPRING
6. WAKULLA SPRINGS
7. SPRING CREEK SPRINGS
WOODVILLE KARST PLAIN


Figure 3. Map of Wakulla County showing location of study area and major springs (after
Rupert and Spencer, 1988). Inset map shows extent of Woodville Karst Plain
(Scott, 2000, in preparation).

5. SOCIETAL RESPONSES -- The results of these investigations should become a part of the decision
making process. They are needed to understand and respond to the increasingly complex social issues
involved in policy and regulatory decisions, which affect the private and public sectors.



Location of Study Area

The study area is located on the southern coast of Wakulla County, in the Big Bend area of the Florida
panhandle (Figure 3). This portion of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is a zero to low energy coast, char-
acterized by muddy or fine grained sediments, small tidal ranges (1-3 feet), extensive marshes, and low
gradient tidal streams.

GEOLOGY

Geomorphology and Marine Terraces

Puri and Vernon (1964) placed all of Wakulla County within the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic
province. Scott (2000, in preparation) placed this region in the newly-named Ocala Karst District. From
south to north, the topography of Wakulla County slopes very gently upward from sea level at the Gulf







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LEON COUNTY
4''
7 Tni
e



". jrL: =


:I
,:' ;':'- : : L. '- '


' AICllMCO TERRACE

O PENHOLCV/WAY TERRACE
S-TALBOT TERRACE
E PAMLICO TERRACE
' SILVER BLUFF TERRACE
(Modified from Healy(1975) and YDN (1966))


Elevation
in feet MSL
70 100


Figure 4. Marine terraces of Wakulla County (Rupert and Spencer, 1988).

coast, with some maximum spot-elevations being between 100 to 105 feet on the sand hills in the north-
western part of the county.

A marine terrace is a surface formed along a coast by wave erosion and deposition. Marine terraces are
the former bottoms of shallow seas, usually floored with deposits of sand, silt, clay, and shells, and are
bounded along their inner margin by shoreline features such as relict beach ridges, swales, or inner
lagoons, seaward facing wave-cut scarps or sea cliffs, and offshore and bay bars (Healy, 1975). These
step-like marine terraces that occur throughout Florida are the result of fluctuations in sea level, which
were associated with the repeated growth and melting of great continental glaciers during the Pleistocene
"Ice Ages."

Based on topographic elevations, Healy (1975) delineated five marine terraces in Wakulla County (Figure
4). These terraces step-down from higher to lower elevations: the Wicomico (70 100 ft. above mean sea
level (msl)), the Penholoway (42 70 ft.), the Talbot (25 42 ft.), the Pamlico (10 25 ft.), and the Silver
Bluff (0 10 ft.).

The coastal marshes and their tidal streams lie within the zone of the Silver Bluff terrace. The step-like
nature of other low-relief, relict marine beach ridges, dune fields and marine terraces can best be seen by
traveling on roads that cross the terraces in a south-to-north direction.

The Woodville Karst Plain, a major geomorphic subdivision of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands, was named by
Hendry and Sproul (1966). It encompasses the entire eastern half of Wakulla County, extending eastward







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


I HYDROSTRATI-
SSYSTEM SERIES LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC GRAPHIC
UNIT UNIT
LU
HOLOCENE SURFICIAL
QUATERNARY UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY AQUIFER
PLEISTOCENE SYSTEM

PLIO- UPPER
SCENE LOWER
INTERMEDIATE
> UPPER AQUIFER
I't' SYSTEM OR
o CONFINING
M I-- UNIT
O I MIOCENE MIDDLE
N I-
0 LOWER
Z ST. MARKS FORMATION 0
W FLORIDAN
O OLIGO- UPPER STIFEMR
SCENE LOWER SUWANNEE LIMESTONE

D Absent in wells

Figure 5. Shallow stratigraphic column, with corresponding hydrogeologic units, in Wakulla
County (after Rupert and Spencer, 1988; and Scott et al., 1991).

into Jefferson County, and northward to the Cody Scarp at Tallahassee in Leon County. The extent of this
karst plain has been expanded around the Big Bend coast to the southeast, to the Steinhatchee River,
Taylor County (Scott, 2000, in preparation) (Figure 3).

Stratigraphy

Since this investigation is concerned with rocks down to depths of 500 feet or less below ground surface,
only the shallow stratigraphy will be discussed (Figure 5). The Oligocene Suwannee Limestone is the old-
est rock that crops out in Wakulla County, restricted to a small area in the extreme southeastern part of
the county, in a narrow band along the coast and extending about five miles inland along the Wakulla -
Jefferson county line (Rupert and Spencer, 1988; Yon, 1966). Yon (1966) reported that dolomitized
Suwannee Limestone was exposed offshore of Jefferson County.

The Suwannee Limestone is a white to light-tan or a brown, recrystallized, calcarenitic limestone, that is
frequently dolomitic and may be silicified in places. Foraminifera are the most common fossils, but echi-
noid fossils are also found (Rupert and Spencer, 1988; Yon, 1966). In the study area, the top of the
Suwannee Limestone is between 125 and 150 feet below sea level, and the formation is more than 250-
feet thick, extending to depths of over 400 feet below sea level (Rupert and Spencer, 1988). Examination
of rock samples taken during the exploration of Wakulla Springs showed that the springs' main conduits
are developed in Suwannee Limestone (Stone, 1989; Rupert, 1988).

Limestones of the Miocene St. Marks Formation underlie most of the county, cropping out in much of east-
ern Wakulla County, especially along the southeastern coast (Rupert, 1993; Yon, 1966). The St. Marks
Formation is a pale orange, light gray to white, calcarenitic marine limestone (Rupert and Spencer, 1988).
It is generally very fossiliferous, with foraminifera and mollusks being most common (Rupert and Spencer,
1988). In the study area, the St. Marks Formation either crops out or lies within 20 feet of the surface. In
the Spring Creek area, it is about 100-feet thick (Rupert and Spencer, 1988). Many of the county's springs
and sinks are developed in the St. Marks Formation, and most of the freshwater wells tap this source
(Rupert and Spencer, 1988). Limestones of the St. Marks Formation and the Suwannee Limestone under-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lie the coastal marsh and estuarine sediments, and the shelf at shallow depths, or they subcrop on the
shelf.

Undifferentiated siliciclastics form a surface veneer over all of Wakulla County (Rupert and Spencer,
1988). In the study area they range in thickness from zero to 20 feet. They generally consist of clean,
white, nutrient-poor, quartz sand, with small percentages of silt and clay. Holocene alluvial and aeolian
deposits are mostly fine quartz sand and are difficult to distinguish from Pleistocene sediments (Rupert
and Spencer, 1988).


WATER RESOURCES

The region's climate is semi-tropical and an occasional hurricane delivers enough rain to cause extensive
flooding. Convective storms and thunderstorms occur year-round, many of which drop large quantities of
rain in a short time. For the 30-year period of record from 1951 to 1980, average annual rainfall was
between 56 and 60 inches. Also, during this time the maximum amount of rainfall for the entire state dur-
ing any 12-month period, 107 inches, was recorded at St. Marks, just 7 miles east of Spring Creek (Fernald
and Patton, 1984). Because of this large amount of annual rainfall, the water table is usually close to land
surface. Even in periods of low rainfall, the water table only drops a few feet.

Surface Water

The Woodville Karst Plain has very poorly developed surface drainage, with only two major streams:
Wakulla River and St. Marks River (Figure 3). The Wakulla River originates at Wakulla Springs, flows
southeasterly for approximately seven miles, where it joins the St. Marks River, which flows about one mile
before emptying into Apalachee Bay. The St. Marks River originates in northeastern Leon County, flows
southward through eastern Wakulla County, and empties into Apalachee Bay.

Another surface stream, Lost Creek, originates outside the Woodville Karst Plain, in southwestern Leon
County, and flows southeasterly for several miles. When it reaches the western margin of the Woodville
Karst Plain, about one mile west of Crawfordville, all of its flow disappears underground and does not reap-
pear.

These streams' floodplains are narrow, have little relief, and are usually swampy. All of these streams'
channels are shallow and incised into the karst plain's thin, unconsolidated sediments and the limestone
bedrock.

Several smaller streams, such as Spring Creek, flow for short distances across the narrow coastal marsh
belt. These streams are tidal through most of their runs. Some are known to have springs in their beds,
such as Bear Creek, a tributary of the Ochlockonee River, about one-mile upstream of Ochlockonee Bay
(Mike Wisenbaker, pers. com., 1997).

The flat, sandy terrain of Wakulla County has large areas of poorly drained swamps. These are karst
swales that were formed by dissolution of limestone and the subsequent subsidence of the sandy over-
burden. Most of them are only a few feet deep, but they still intercept the shallow water table. Although
they contain standing water for much of the year, they may dry up during prolonged droughts, when the
local water table drops below their bottoms.

Hundreds of large sinkholes occur throughout the county, and contain freestanding bodies of water all year
long. For many of them, karst dissolution of the limestone bedrock has advanced to the point that they
extend well below the lower limit of the water table's annual fluctuations. Under these conditions, they are
assured of a year-round supply of groundwater, and they only experience water level fluctuations of a few
feet between dry and wet spells.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Groundwater and Aquifers

Groundwater is water that fills the voids and pores in the rocks and sediments beneath the Earth's sur-
face. Aquifers are units of rocks and sediments that are porous and permeable enough to permit ground-
water to flow freely enough through their interstices to produce useable quantities of water for human activ-
ities, usually through pumpage.

Wakulla County's aquifers, and their relationship to lithostratigraphic units, are shown on Figure 5. The
hydrogeological framework of Wakulla County is discussed in Scott et al. (1991), and their usage is fol-
lowed here. The Floridan aquifer system underlies all of Wakulla County. Miller (1986) defined the Floridan


Figure 6. Potentiometric surface map of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Wakulla County during
May, 1990 (after Meadows, 1991).


aquifer system as a vertically continuous sequence of carbonate rocks having generally high permeabili-
ty, and that are hydraulically connected in various degrees. In the study area, the Floridan aquifer system
extends from land surface to about 2,400 feet below sea level (Scott et al., 1991).

The St. Marks Formation and the Suwannee Limestone constitute the upper part of the Floridan aquifer
system in the study area, and supply all of the potable groundwater used. In the Woodville Karst Plain
there are no low-permeability units between land surface and the carbonate aquifer units, so the Floridan
aquifer system is unconfined (i.e., it is at atmospheric pressure) and its potentiometric surface is essen-
tially the elevation of the water table (Figure 6).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ground-Water Recharge and Discharge

The ultimate source of all recharge to the aquifers in the study area is precipitation (Davis, 1996). The
eastern part of Wakulla County (the Woodville Karst Plain) is classified as a high recharge area to the
Floridan aquifer system, with rapid infiltration of rainfall through the thin layer of clean sand that overlies
the limestone aquifer, as well as direct recharge through karst features, such as sinkholes, that breach the
overburden (Scott, et al., 1991). In addition, large quantities of groundwater move down gradient from
adjacent areas, supplying water to Wakulla Springs and the Spring Creek Springs Group.

Discharge from the aquifers is from pumpage, springs, upward leakage and evaporation from open bod-
ies of water that intercept the water table, and diffuse submarine discharge that takes place offshore along
the coast. It is probable that undetermined quantities of groundwater alternately recharge or discharge
through interbasin flow, especially when their locally adjacent potentiometric surfaces fluctuate irregularly
due to uneven distribution of rainfall, or during droughts.

Potentiometric Surface

The regional potentiometric surface slopes in a southeasterly direction from Gadsden and Leon Counties
(Figure 6). The gentle, flat slope is suggestive of high transmissivity. The deep reentrant in northeastern
Wakulla County probably indicates that large quantities of groundwater are being discharged to provide
base flow for the Wakulla and St. Marks Rivers.

During high, onshore tidal surges caused by hurricanes, reversal of flow into Spring 1 of the Spring Creek
Group (Figure 11) has been observed, taking brackish estuarine water and flotsam into the aquifer (Mr.
Spears, pers. com., 1995). The reversal of flow caused by the relatively small amount of increased head
over Spring 1's orifice due to hurricane tidal surge indicates that its potentiometric surface is so low that
its flow is in tenuous balance with the marine environment. By inference, then, it appears that a change of
only a few inches of head on the upland side of the aquifer system can make the difference between dis-
charge from, or recharge to, the local aquifer system supplying the springs. The same thing could happen
if the springs are exploited and pumped to such an extent that salt-water intrusion is induced.

Regional Fracture Systems, Conduit Geometry, and Ground-Water Flow

Ground-water flow in the karst drainage system of the upper Floridan aquifer system of the Woodville Karst
Plain is likely controlled in part by the fracture lineamentt) pattern in the carbonate bedrock (Figure 7). A
primary underground conduit trend, extending northwest to southeast through the western Woodville Karst
Plain, has been mapped by cave divers (see Figure 9). This trend closely mirrors the flow direction expect-
ed from the shape of the local potentiometric surface (Figure 6).

All of the surface streams exhibit angularity in segments of their channels, flowing generally from north-
west-to-southeast, then, in near-right angle bends, flowing from northeast-to-southwest. Figure 7 is a lin-
eament map of the western Woodville Karst Plain in Wakulla County, based on the orientation of segments
of surface stream channels, and the alignment of sinkholes and karst depressions. This map illustrates
further the preferential northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest orientation patterns.

The Wakulla Springs Project (Stone, 1989) mapped 2.3 miles of underwater tunnels that supply water to
Wakulla Springs (Figure 8). This exploration established that the cavernous tunnels are preferentially
developed along two primary lineament directions oriented north-south and east-northeast by west-south-
west, and their maps show the angular, underground, drainage pattern following these orientations (Stone,
1989). Also, unpublished maps, done by cave divers, of the underground drainage systems of the Leon
Sinks Geological Area show that sinkholes and associated conduits align in these same angular directions
(Rupert, pers. com., 1998; and unpublished FGS maps) (Figure 9). The Leon Sinks cave system runs








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Gadsde

Jeffe
ULiberty Wa l e


-' Map
z Location


LEGEND
Lineaments-based on stream segments
and other surface water drainage patterns

\ Possible underground flow from Lost Creek -N
to Spring Creek

Lost Creek goes underground at edge of
Woodville Karat Plain

0 05 1 2 3 4Mies
0 1 2 3 4 6 8 KLTmeAer
SCALE


Figure 7. Lineament map of the western Woodville Karst Plain in Wakulla County (from topo-
graphic maps and aerial photographs).








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


S GEOLOGIC SAMPLE
LOCATIONS
DEPTH INTERVALS COLLECTED NEAR
EACH NUMBERED LOCATION:
1. 9-150 FEET (in spring pool
and cave mouth).
2. 160-190 FEET
3. 200-230 FEET
4. 240-170 FEET
5. 280-290 FEET
6. 296-304 FEET


Figure 8. Block diagram showing the main conduits supplying water to Wakulla Springs
(Rupert, 1988).







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Sinks and Mapped

Caves of the Woodville

Karst Plain


LEON SINKS
GEOLOGICAL AREA


WOODVILLE


Pond


Indian springs


McBride's Slough
g Spring


LEGEND


Mapped
Cave

Sink


0 .5 1 Mile
0 .5 1 1.5 Kilometers


Figure 9. Detail map showing the flooded caverns, from the Leon Sinks Geological Area to
Wakulla Springs, and nearby areas (Wisenbaker, 1999).


MAP
LOCATION







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


uninterrupted for more than 17 miles (Ringle, 1999).

Previous geological studies in various parts of Florida have shown the role of stratigraphy, fractures, and
bedding planes in controlling the orientation and development of surface and ground-water drainage sys-
tems and, hence, in controlling regional ground-water flow. Vernon (1951) mapped large scale fracture
trends of the northern portion of the Florida peninsula; one set trending northeast-southwest and one set
trending northwest-southeast. He noted that the stream patterns in the counties commonly parallel these
trends. Moore (1955) also reported angular stream patterns in Jackson County that paralleled the same
orientations. Rupert (pers. com., 1998, using unpublished FGS data) showed similarly oriented lineaments
throughout the panhandle and the northern peninsula.

Locally, other geological investigations have come to the same conclusions regarding lineament-control of
surface and underground drainage systems. Hendry and Sproul (1966) noted two systems of lineations of
geological features in Leon County; one bearing northeast-southwest and another bearing northwest-
southeast. Yon (1966) observed similar lineaments in Jefferson County, projecting into eastern Wakulla
County. Observing that some segments of stream channels flowed parallel to these linear trends, he spec-
ulated that preferential dissolution of the limestone bedrock might be responsible for such parallel chan-
nel development.

The underground drainage system that supplies water to the Spring Creek springs is analogous to that
supplying Wakulla Springs. That system has been shown to extend to the northwest from Wakulla Springs
at least to the Leon Sinks Geological Area, a distance of approximately six miles. All of the flow of Lost
Creek goes underground about 1.3 miles southwest of Crawfordville (Figure 7), a distance of approxi-
mately six miles northwest of Spring Creek. Based on the predominant ground-water pattern of the


Figure 10. Northeasterly oblique aerial view of the Spring Creek area from an altitude of 1,000
feet, October 1998. FGS photograph.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Woodville Karst Plain, and the trend of the lineaments associated with both Lost Creek and Spring Creek,
it is postulated that the upgradient source of groundwater supplying the Spring Creek springs is, at least
in part, the surface water from Lost Creek.

SPRING CREEK SUBMARINE SPRINGS GROUP
Previous Investigations

Spring Creek is a low-gradient tidal stream in the northwestern part of Apalachee Bay (Figures 3, 7, 10
and 11). It is aptly named, for there may be as many as 14 submarine springs in its lower reaches.
Rosenau et al. (1977) showed the locations of eight springs, and assigned numbers 1 through 8 to them
(Figure 11). In 1972, 1973, and 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water quality samples and
estimated flow rates for the spring group. The results of their investigations were reported by Rosenau et
al. (1977), and are summarized here, in Appendices 1 and 2.

On May 30, 1974 the U.S. Geological Survey measured aggregate stream flows of about 2,000 cubic feet
per second (cfs) (3,096 million gallons per day (mgd)), attributable to the eight springs, and apparently to
many other submarine springs thought to exist in the area (Rosenau et al., 1977). For comparative pur-
poses, the maximum recorded flow of Wakulla Springs was 1,910 cfs (2,957 mgd) on April 11, 1973
(Rosenau et al., 1977).

As part of a U.S. Geological Survey hydrogeologic investigation of Leon County, river-discharge meas-
urements were made at Spring Creek and Wakulla River, on November 1, 1996 (Davis, 1996). Spring
Creek's discharge was 307 cfs (475 mgd), and the Wakulla River's was 350 cfs (542 mgd). Rivers in the
area were at base-flow conditions due to several months of low rainfall.

Woodville Karst Plain Project

The Woodville Karst Plain Project is a continuing program to map the underground conduit systems that
link the sinkholes and springs throughout the plain. The project was formally initiated in 1986, although
sporadic, uncoordinated, cave diving activities go back to the 1950s. Investigations under the present
project are conducted by experienced, certified cave divers. The main thrust has been to find and map, or
otherwise prove, direct connections between the up-gradient components of the karst drainage system,
starting at the Leon Sinks Geological Area, in Leon County, and the main down-gradient discharge point,
which is thought to be Wakulla Springs.

Physical Descriptions of Springs

Spring Creek and its tributaries meander through low-lying coastal marshes. The streams' beds are most-
ly covered by a veneer of silt, mud, and mollusk debris. However, at extremely low tide, and when the
water is clear, fragments of limestone of the St. Marks Formation can be seen in places around the rims
of some of the springs' basins, apparently exposed where the springs' discharge scours away the thin
sediments.

Several of these submarine springs were investigated by the Florida Geological Survey in August and
September 1995, and water quality samples were taken (see Table 1). Another reconnaissance was made
in November 1997, to gather background data on them. At that time, three new springs, not described by
Rosenau et al. (1977), were located by their boils (springs 9, 10, 11 on Figure 11). Springs 1, 2, 3, and 8
were located by their surface boils, but springs 4, 5, 6, and 7 of Rosenau et al. (1977) were not located;
their flows may have been too small to create surface boils at the time of these investigations. In
November 1998, Jim Ladner (FGS) reported finding two more previously unreported spring boils in Stuart
Cove, just east of Spring Creek. These are springs number 12 and 13 (Figure 11). Water quality samples
were collected from them on December 4, 1998 (see Table 2).

On May 21, 1999, several seismic survey lines were run up the main channel of Spring Creek, across







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Cutoff
Island

Figure 11. Map showing locations of the numbered submarine springs of the Spring Creek
Springs Group (after Rosenau et al., 1977).

Stuart Cove, and up the unnamed, northwest-trending, headwater creek of Stuart Cove. The seismic sys-
tem used was an FGS/FSU 3.5 kHz acoustic profiling system, consisting of a Geopulse 5430A transmit-
ter, Massa TR57A piezoelectric transducers and an EPS GSP-1086 recorder. (Any use of trade names is
for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the FGS). Springs 4 and 6, in the main
channel of Spring Creek, were located by seismic survey, although they showed no surface boils. Several
runs were made across the approximate location of spring 7, but it was not found. Several seismic runs
were made across Stuart Cove, which showed several large, karst-like features on the bottom (Figure 12).
The seismic profiles indicated minimal sediment infill of the tidal channels and the spring mouths. No indi-
cation of submarine karst features was found up the unnamed creek.

A Sitek Model HE-203 sonic depth indicator, with a strip-chart recorder, was modified to obtain continuous
cross-section bottom profiles of the individual springs. To obtain depth recordings, several boat-runs were







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


made over each spring, from varying directions, in order to get the best quality print-out. Some spot-depths
were taken using a calibrated boat pole and a lead line. The springs' basins and pools appeared to be
relatively symmetrical, varying from broad, shallow bowl-shaped pools to steep-walled, conical shapes, as
shown on Figures 15 through 21.

Spring 1 (Spring Creek Rise) (Figures 13 and 14): It was not possible to obtain a depth profile across
Spring 1 due to the enormous amount of discharge, which created so much upwelling, surface turbulence
that the boat could not be held steady over the spring. The active boil is about 40 to 50 feet in diameter
and, in places, can rise nearly a foot above the level of the stream's surface. Rosenau et al. (1977) report-
ed its depth as being 100 feet. During very low water it is possible to see a ledge of resistant limestone on
the northwestern side of the spring's pool, and the wall of the pool drops precipitously here. Several round,
karst pipes were noted in the limestone that floors the shallow stream bed surrounding the spring's basin;
they were about one foot in diameter and were filled with dark sediment.

Spring 2 (Figures 15, 16, 17): This spring's basin is about 75-feet across. A small, partly manmade canal
extends to the northeast, and a narrow channel on its southeastern side connects to Spring 3. This spring
has the largest and deepest basin of any measured during this investigation. Approaching the pool from
any direction the floor falls away precipitously, dropping to 90-feet deep or more. Based on the sizes of the
surface boil and the pool, this spring has enormous flow.

Spring 3 (Figure 18): This spring's pool is circular, about 50 feet in diameter, and its pool floor drops pre-
cipitously to about 40-feet deep. At low tide irregular limestone blocks can be seen rimming its central pool.
This spring has a substantial flow. Crumbling concrete and cement-block walls outline its southeastern
side. These walls enclose what appears to be a very shallow, rectangular, wading pool, possibly the rem-
nants of an old spa or hotel, which no longer exists.

Spring 4: This spring's basin appears to be elongated in a northwest-southeast direction, with a steep con-
ical pool over its orifice.

Spring 6: This spring appears to have a relatively small, cone-shaped pool, about 15-feet deep.

Spring 8 (Figure 19): This spring's basin is about 80 feet in diameter, resembling a shallow bowl in cross
section, whose bottom slopes at about a 60-degree angle, to over 45-feet deep. Although not as deep as
Spring 2, it appeared to have a large flow, since its surface boil was about as large and as turbulent as
that of Spring 2.

Spring 9 (Figure 20): This spring was located by a surface boil that was about 30 feet in diameter in the
channel of Spring Creek, several hundred feet to the southwest of Spring 1. Its basin appears to have a
symmetrical cone shape, with a depth of about 30 feet. The size and turbulence of its surface boil indi-
cated a large flow. In November 1997, it was the only spring observed to be discharging muddy water. On
December 4, 1998, its water was murky.

Spring 10 (Figures 21, 23) : The basin of this spring is circular, about 75 feet in diameter, with a narrow
canal entering its northern side. The pool has a steeply sloping bottom, creating a bowl over 45-feet deep.
As with Spring 8, the large, turbulent boil indicated considerable flow.

Spring 11 (Figures 22, 24, 25): This spring was located by a surface boil that was about 30 feet in diame-
ter in the channel of Spring Creek, several hundred feet to the southwest of Spring 10. Its pool resembles
that of Spring 9, although not as deep. The size and activity of its boil indicated significant flow.

Spring 12: This spring's surface boil was about 40-feet wide on December 4, 1998, and rose about 6-inch-
es above the calm surface of the Cove's water, indicating significant flow. Soundings with a boat pole indi-
cated that the sides of this spring's pool drop precipitously.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


0


j C


Location
of
cross-sections


oi
0

01 _
0 B
0


o



aD


0I
01~

U'n


0

ME


HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SCALE
0 100 Ft
0 30 Meters


LEGEND
s Water level, and indicates location
of karst feature on inset map


Figure 12. Map of Stuart Cove showing cross sections of submarine karst features.



18


-N-



I







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Spring 13: This spring lies less than 100 feet east of Spring 12, so close that their boils nearly coalesce.
On December 4, 1998, its boil was at least 20 feet in diameter, indicating a large flow. Soundings with a
boat pole indicated that the sides of the spring's pool drop steeply.

Pulsating Flow

All the springs were observed to exhibit pulsating flow, a phenomenon characterized by alternating surges
of boiling surface turbulence, caused by large quantities of rapidly upwelling water, followed by relatively
quiescent flow. Each phase could take as long as several minutes to complete. Some of the more active
boiling phases had noisy, splashing turbulence, that was created by what appeared to be surges of water
that suddenly erupted above the stream surface.

A possible explanation for this phenomenon may lie in the spring group's underground karst drainage sys-
tem. It seems reasonable to assume that the springs are fed by a complex, even tortuous, interconnected
network of large-diameter tunnels, similar to those supplying Wakulla Springs (Figure 8) (Stone, 1989;
Rupert, 1988; Rosenau et al., 1977), which lies only 10 miles north on the Woodville Karst Plain. Scuba
divers have established that some of Wakulla Springs' largest conduits' flows change direction, and that
their local source of water also changes (George Irvine, Director, Woodville Karst Plain Project, pers. com.,
March, 1998).

This phenomenon may be controlled in part by the state of Wakulla Springs' local potentiometric surface.
Large rains over Wakulla Springs' recharge basin may temporarily change its potentiometric surface so
that groundwater is routed differently within the underground drainage system supplying the springs. This
balance of recharge-discharge routing within the underground drainage system is so sensitive to changes
in head that it also appears to be influenced by tidal effects on the springs (Irvine, pers. com., 1998). The
water surface of Wakulla Springs' main pool is less than five feet above sea level, and the Wakulla River
is tidally influenced at least as far upstream as the bridge at US 365, about two-miles downstream from
the springs, and possibly even further upstream to the spring-head, itself.

Given that the Spring Creek Springs Group probably has a similar maze-like "plumbing" system, it is easy
to visualize how enormous quantities of water, moving rapidly and turbulently through the complex of con-
duits, could create both pressure and flow surges that would propagate through the system. In this sce-
nario, a tunnel feeding a particular spring that had a pressure surge would momentarily get more of the
system's water, resulting in an increase in its discharge. That surge would relieve pressure in that part of
the system and the spring's discharge would decrease; then another tunnel would experience an increase
in pressure, causing a pulse of water to its orifice; and so on.

Ground-Water Chemistry

Predominant flow paths along fractured, high-transmissivity trends affect ground-water chemistry.
Conduits extending from recharge to discharge areas can transmit "plumes" of groundwater of differing
quality, thereby providing a "drain" along which adjacent waters converge and mix. During the Wakulla
Springs Project, this phenomenon was observed in the main conduits of Wakulla Springs, where murky
water discharging from one conduit was seen to mix with clear water from other conduits (Stone, 1989).
A similar phenomenon may be occurring at Spring No. 9, which was observed on two separate occasions
to be discharging murky water, while all other springs' waters appeared to be clear.

Water-quality data were obtained for this investigation with a Grant/YSI 3800 water-quality meter. This
instrument has a fast response time, enabling several parameters to be taken quickly at each station. This
is an important consideration when trying to keep the boat stationary in a spring's surface boil. Results of
water quality tests are given in Tables 1 and 2.

The U.S. Geological Survey tested the water quality of eight springs in 1972 and 1973. The results of those
analyses are reprinted in Appendix 1.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 13. Photograph of Spring 1, view to the northeast, at low tide. Spring boil is the slick
area in front of the sea wall, November 3,1997. FGS photograph.


Figure 14. Aerial photograph of Spring 1, view downstream, October 1998. Spring boil shows as
circular sun-glint directly to the right of the straight bulkhead in the lower left. Magnitude of the
spring's discharge is indicated by its semi-circular slick, which extends half-way across the
picture. FGS photograph.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


71

.65 *65


* spot depth


4/i


0 25 feet
I I I I

5 meters
Horizontal and Vertical Scale


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP /
Spring No. 2 \
I 90+

Figure 15. Spring 2, plan and cross section. Measurements taken at high tide, August 7, 1995.
Tidal range is about 2-3 feet.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 16. Photograph of Spring 2, view to northwest across boil (circular ripples), at low tide,
November 3, 1997. FGS photograph.


Figure 17. Photograph of Spring 2, view to northwest across boil (circular ripples), at low tide,
November 3, 1997. FGS photograph.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP
Spring No. 3








-N-

1t


t~5~


A-
A -


0 25 feet


5 meters
Horizontal and Vertical Scale


' 39+


Figure 18. Spring 3, plan and cross section. Measurements taken at low tide, September 12,
1995. Tidal range is about 2-3 feet.


walls


shallow
pool
area






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP
Spring No. 8


* spot depth


0 2~


5


Feet


meters


Horizontal and Vertical Scale


A -


I45
| 45


Figure 19. Spring 8, plan and cross section. Measurements taken at high tide, August 7, 1995.
Tidal range is about 2-3 feet.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP
Spring No. 9


approx. 30' dia.
surface boil


stream
flow


NW


0 25 feet


5 meters
Horizontal and Vertical Scale


S/ 30+


Figure 20. Spring 9, cross section. Measurements taken at extreme low tide, November 3, 1997.
Tidal range is about 2-3 feet. This was the only spring that was noted to discharge muddy water.


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP
Spring No. 10 A


canal

-N-





0 25 feet


5 meters
Horizontal and Vertical Scale





A- .A'


I 45

Figure 21. Spring 10, plan and cross section. Measurements taken at low tide, September 12,
1995. Tidal range is about 2 3 feet.


d
a
(i





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SPRING CREEK SPRINGS GROUP
Spring No.11


approx. 30' dia.
surface boil


stream
flow


NW


0 25 feet
I I I I I I
LLyLI
5 meters
Horizontal and Vertical Scale


Figure 22. Spring 11, cross section. Measurements taken at low tide, September 12, 1995. Tidal
range is about 2 3 feet.


Figure 23. Photograph of Spring 10, view to northeast and upstream showing boil, at low tide.
November 3, 1997. FGS photograph.


' 20


1400'000 40







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


Figure 24. Photograph of Spring 11, view to northwest, approaching the mid-channel boil from
downstream. The fresh-water boil is about 30 feet in diameter, November 3,1997.
FGS photograph.


Figure 25. Photograph of Spring 11 showing surface boil about 30 feet in diameter. Turbulence
on upstream side, caused by magnitude of flow, created an audible rippling sound. This view
directly downstream shows the raised upwellings that are commonly seen over these springs'
main vents. November 3, 1997. FGS photograph.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS

The one geological element that controls or greatly influences much of Florida's coastal environments and
ecosystems is the karstified limestones that underlie the state. These karstified limestones form a com-
mon, unifying linkage among the uplands, the coastal and estuarine environments, and the continental
shelf marine realms -- they link the terrestrial environments to the marine environments. Also, they con-
stitute the major part of the Floridan aquifer system, which supplies most of the state's fresh-water
resources.

A significant portion of the Floridan aquifer system's dominant secondary porosity and permeability is like-
ly developed along zones of weakness in the rocks, or fractures. Understanding fluid flow in dissolutional
conduits formed along fracture trends is important in ground-water resource development, in the detec-
tion, disposal, and cleanup of hazardous waste, and in determining pollutant migration flow paths. Use of
fracture data is a paramount requirement when modeling regional flow and solute transport in karstic car-
bonate aquifers. High permeability trends preferentially developed along fracture systems can create
large-scale variations in flow rates and can determine if and where inter-basin flow will occur and, thus,
the extent of regional flow systems. In these situations, many common assumptions about flow and trans-
port in porous media are inappropriate. Conduits developed along fractures may be an important factor
influencing the potentiometric surface configuration of the Woodville Karst Plain. They provide rapid, near-
ly linear routes for ground-water travel.

This study concludes that: (1) the Spring Creek Springs Group comprises a series of conduit-fed discharge
points for waters of the Floridan aquifer system; (2) the configuration of the springs' cross-sectional pro-
files show them to be cone-shaped sinks, typical of springs developed in Florida karst; (3) based on an
analysis of fracture trends and local lineaments, a likely source for at least part of the spring flow is Lost
Creek, a surface stream captured by karst drainage six miles northwest of the springs; (4) regional
ground-water flows into the system through unmapped conduits, supplying the remainder of the spring


Table 1. Water-quality data for Spring Creek Springs Group, September 12, 1995.

Spring Depth pH Temp. oC(oF) 02 Cond. Salinity Eh
number

......... ........................ .5.................... 5 ............. .2..... .. ...... ................. ..... . ...............4 :6 2 ................... .......................................
.........2........................5......................................................................
......... ...................... ............. 7 :6 2............. 2.2 ................... 0... .................... 4 2 ................... 2 ................. 2. ..............

2 .........3... ...............76 .............22 ...............0..... .1 227
...... ................................................3....................38:2........... :4......... 27............6.1.......
..........3 .................... 2 7.............. .76 2............ 0(.2 71 .................... 0 .09 4.94 2.7 161

......... .... .............. .. .......... ...............2 2 .................. .. ................ .............................................................
3 38.2 7.75 22i..1 (1. 0.14 5.32 2.9 127





Spring number = keyed to Figure 11. Cond. = specific conductivity, mS/cm
Depth = feet below water surface. Salinity = parts per thousand, ppt.
Temp. = water temperature, C (F). Eh = reducing potential, millivolts.
02 = dissolved oxygen, mg/L.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


flow; (5) variations in water chemistry and clarity in different springs indicate differing ground- and surface
water sources within the spring system; and (6) pulsating flow observed at some of the springs may also
reflect a complex conduit plumbing system supplying the springs, and flow rates in this system may be
influenced by local recharge events and by tidal stage.

Exploitation of the Spring Creek Springs Group as a high-capacity source of freshwater could threaten the
tenuous balance among the surface water and ground-water regimes, as well as the ecosystems associ-
ated with Spring Creek and Stuart Cove. Questions about the societal issues involved in large inter-basin
transfers of fresh water are beyond the scope of this study.

By hydrogeological inference, therefore, these conclusions apply generally to all similar submarine springs
on the Florida Platform. Each spring or spring system, however, must be studied individually to determine
its range of hydrogeological parameters. These, in turn, will determine each site's usefulness for, or vul-
nerabilities to, exploitation.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 2. Water quality data for Spring Creek Springs Group, December 4, 1998. Data from Angela
Chelette, Northwest Florida Water Management District. All readings were taken about 1 foot below
water surface.

Spring Number Temp. C (F) Specific Conductivity (mS/cm)

1 21.5 (70.7) 19.50
............................................................................................................................................................... .............. .1. 9 ;5 0.........................................
19.61
19.41
19.29
19.36
19.44
............................................................................. .. .... ... ........ .................... ................................................................................
................................................................................... .... .... .... ........................ . ............................................................................
21.1 (70.0) 6.76
....................................................................................;..... ........ ...................................................................... 6;,53 ........................................
21.1 (70.0) 6.53
....................................................................................;..... ......... ...................................................................... 6;2.. ........................................
21.1 (70.0) 6.24
......................................................................................... ......... ...................................................................... 6;,6o ........................................


....................................................................................;..... ......... ...................................................................... 6;5.. .......................................
............... 21.1 (70.1) 6.60.........


...................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................
................... ... ... ... .. ..



......................................................................................... ............................ ............................................... .......................................
21.1 (70.0) 6.54.................. ...


................................................................................ .... ..... .... ..................................................................... .. .. ......................................
21.1 (70.0) 6.65






......................................................................................... ........................ ................................................... .......................................
aterwassomewhatmu21.2 (70.2) 6.51 *







.................................................. ........................... ..... . ........ . .... ...
.................................................................................................... ......................................................................... .... ....... .............................
21. 4 (70. 5) 18.59.... ...................................................................
21.4 (70.5) 18.45












................................................................................ .... ... .... ...................................................................... ........................................
21.4 (70.5) 18.35














.......................................................................................... ......................... .................................................. ........................................
Wat-er*.... wa* s somewh** at-- 'w- **- murk-y.--y -21 7" (' 71.)192**7*** .... 2-7-* "-











............. ............................................................... 2.1....4.... .7. .0 .) ....................................................................... 1 ..9;40 ........................................

............ ................................ ................................. ......... ........ .. ...................... ............................................ 1.. 9....... ......................................


................................................................................ ......... .................
21.2* surface grab sample19.45 *







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47


REFERENCES

Bowen, C., 1994, The Green Banana Sink: DeepTech Journal, v. 1, no. 1, p. 14-15.

Brooks, H.K., 1961, The submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida: Quarterly Journal of the Florida
Academy of Sciences, v. 24, p. 122-134.

Davis, H., 1996, Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan
aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for
selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources
Investigations Report 95-4296, 55 p.

Fairbanks, R.G., 1989, A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on
the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation: Nature, v. 342, p. 637-642.

Fanning, K.A., Byrne, R.H., Breland II, J.A., Betzer, P.R., Moore, W.S., Elsinger, R.J., and Pyle, TE., 1981,
Geothermal springs of the west Florida continental shelf: evidence for dolomitization and radionuclide
enrichment: Earth and Planetary Letters, v. 52, p. 345-354.

Fanning, K.A., Breland II, J.A., and Byrne, R.H., 1982, Radium-226 and radon-222 in the coastal waters
of west Florida: high concentrations and atmospheric degassing: Science, v. 215, p. 667-670.

Fernald, E.A., and Patton, D.J., 1984, Water Resources Atlas of Florida: Tallahassee, Florida, Institute of
Science and Public Affairs, Florida State University, 291 p.

Healy, H.G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Map Series 71.

Hendry, C.W., Jr., and Sproul, C.R., 1966, Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 47, 178 p.

Hine, A.C., Belknap, D.F., Hutton, J.G., Osking, E.B., and Evans, M.W, 1988, Recent geological history
and modern sedimentary processes along an incipient, low-energy, epicontinental-sea coastline:
northwest Florida: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 58, n. 4, p. 567-579.

Jordan, G.F., 1954, Large sink holes in Straits of Florida: American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin, v. 38, p. 1810-1817.

Land, L.A., Paull, C.K., and Hobson, B., 1995, Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial
exposure: Straits of Florida: Geology, v. 23, n. 10, p. 949-951.

Lane, E., 1994, Florida's geological history and geological resources: Florida Geological Survey, Special
Publication 35, 64 p.

Malloy, R.J., and Hurley, R.J., 1970, Geomorphology and geologic structure: Straits of Florida: Geological
Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, p. 1947-1972.

Meadows, P. E., 1991, Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer system in the Northwest
Florida Water Management District, Florida, May, 1990: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
90-586.

Miller, J.A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of
Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-B, 91 p.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Moore, W.E., 1955, Geology of Jackson County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 37, 101 p.

Popenoe, P., Kohout, F.A., and Manheim, F.T., 1984, Seismic-reflection studies of sinkholes and limestone
dissolution features on the northeastern Florida shelf, in Beck, B.F. (ed.) Proceedings of the First
Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes: Sponsored by the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute,
College of Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, p. 43-57.

Puri, H.S., and Vernon, R.O., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic
exposures: Florida Geological Survey, Special Publication 5 (revised), 312 p.

Ringle, K., 1999, North Florida springs: National Geographic Magazine, March, v. 195, no. 3, p. 40-59.

Rosenau, J.C., Faulkner, G.L., Hendry, C.W., Jr., and Hull, R.W., 1977, Springs of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey, Bulletin 31 (revised), 461 p.

Rupert, F.R., 1988, The geology of Wakulla Springs: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report 22, 18
P.

__ 1993, Geologic map of Wakulla County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Map Series
30.

___, and Arthur, J.D., 1990, The Geology and geomorphology of Florida's coastal marshes: Florida
Geological Survey, Open File Report 34, 12 p.

___, and Spencer, S., 1988, Geology of Wakulla County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin
60, 46 p.

Scott, TM., 2000 (in preparation), Geomorphic map of the State of Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Map
Series.

Scott, T.M., Lloyd, J.M., and Maddox, G., 1991, Florida's ground water quality monitoring program -
hydrogeological framework: Florida Geological Survey, Special Publication 32, 97 p.

Stone, W.C., 1989, The Wakulla Springs Project: Derwood, Maryland, U.S. Deep Caving Team, 210 p.

Stringfield, V.T., and Cooper, H.H., Jr., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic features of an artesian submarine
spring east of Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigation 7, Part II, p. 57-72.

Vernon, R.O., 1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 33,
256 p.

Wilson, W.L., 1991, Record U.S. deep dive at Red Snapper Sink: Underwater Speleology, v. 18, no. 4, p.
2.

Wisenbaker, M., 1999, Unraveling the mysteries of the maze: NSS News (National Speleological Society),
v. 57, n. 7, p. 196-199, 214.

Yon, J.W., Jr., 1966, Geology of Jefferson County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 48, 119 p.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47



APPENDIX 1

Water quality data for eight Spring Creek springs, 1973

The U. S. Geological Survey sampled eight springs of the Spring Creek Springs Group on August 14,
1973. The results of the water quality analyses of those samples are reprinted here (Rosenau et al., 1977,
p. 447). Analyses by field methods; units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise indicated.

Spring No. 1 (Spring Creek Rise) 2
Depth (ft) Surface 20' 41' Surface 40' 79'
Temp.C 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0
pH7(units) 7 '.1 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.4""
..H... u.. n.-.... ................... 7.. .... .......................-.. ................... .. .............................................................................. .................... .................. ..............
HCO3 99 99 82 86 99 110
S'Cond. 4,100 4,100 4,390 1,000 1,100 1,600
Chloride 1,250 1,260 1,200 270 285 455
Hardness 570 520 510 220 200 255
Calcium 78 82 55 52 50 58


Spring No. 3 4
Depth (ft) Surface 20' 37' Surface 20' 42'
Temp...C 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.5 22.5 22.5
pH7(units) 7 '.1 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.2''
HCO3 96 96 96 96 98 98
.C ....r... e. .....................-.... ......................O O...................... ........................................................................... ................ ,0 3 0 ............ .
Chloride 195 200 195 500 1,030 1,150
Hardness 180 185 210 270 455 490
Calcium 46 47 47 56 70 52


Spring No. 5 6
Depth (ft) Surface 10' 24' Surface 10' 19'
Temp.C...C 23.0 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5
pH7(units) 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.0 7.2 7.2'""
HCO3 96 116 122 94 96 96
... .....................9 5 O.................5... O ............ : ..... .................................................................... .. ...................... ..1..0................... 2 00..........
Chloride 950 5,700 7,780 205 210 200
Hardness 450 2,005 2,755 190 180 190
Calcium 67 42 48 47 47 46


Spring No. 7 8
Depth (ft) Surface 10' 21' Surface 10' 23'
Temp.0"C"'"22'.5 22'.5' "22'.522.5 22.522.5
pH (units)""""7.27 7.2 7.2 7.0 7.3 7.5
.. ... .. ................. ......................... ........................... ................................................................ .. ... O ................... 2 .1.0 ................ ....0 ............
HCO3 97 98 102 96 97 104


Hardness 395 445 445 190 195 195
Calcium 60 64 68 46 49 48





33






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




APPENDIX 2

Water quality data for Spring 1 (Spring Creek Rise), 1972 AND 1973

The U. S. Geological Survey sampled Spring 1 (Spring Creek Rise) on March 17, 1972 and August 14,
1973. The results of the water quality analyses of those samples are reprinted here (Rosenau et al., 1977,
p. 451). Units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise indicated.

Date of collection March 17, 1972 August 14, 1973

adnesaum (M) 92 89
S o d u m ...(N .a ) .............................................................................. .. 0................................................................... 3................................................
Potasskirn (K) "'""""""""""""'"""26"'"40
sB... ... ... . ............................2 ...... ............................................................ .................................................
NBicarbo"nate (hCardess 1C3O347' 0 82440
.Carb onae (C03) .................
s u a ........................................................................... 3 ...............................................
Chloride (l) 1,200 1,200r i


f rn i.. .. F ... .......................................................... 0.3
Dissoved solids calculatet ) .......................... 4 20

Noncarbonate hardness as CaCO3 470 440
..A .k i.n ^ .. .C. a. C O 3. ........................ .......................... .................................................................... ..................................................

Specific conductance (pmhos/cm
at 25 .C) 4,300 4,390
.C o itor.. )!a.t .n.u m ..co.ba l u n ............................................... ..................................................................................................................
p i um. ..C................. ..............................
. u i.. ............ ..................................................... .................................................................... 2..................................................
Total ..ioranic carbon (TIC). 19
T o.............................................................................................................................
Tota!..l .c.cacarbon.n3 .2.. ..
o .a .. r...n.. ). .. ..................................................... ........ ................................................
Ammo nm (NH4 asN) 0.05
N.itrite.............................................
N itr ite (N 0 as) ........ ............................................................1 0.0

Total phosphorus (P) (pg/L) 0.04
... ..Boron..(.B)220.. ............... .... .




Copper (Cu) 1 i 0
Lead..(Pb................ ........4.............
..A..rz .... @. ). .... .............................................................................- -..................................................................... 8






I..ro..n(F...........ese). 30
4 0............. . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .. . . . . .










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700


ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION
Walter Schmidt, Chief and State Geologist
Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant Rodney DeHan, Environmental Administrator
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Deborah Mekeel, Librarian


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION
Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
Jon Arthur, Petrologist Eric Harrington, Engineering Tech. II
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist Edward Marks, Research Assistant
Paulette Bond, Research Geologist Harley Means, Geologist II
Susanne Broderick, Research Assistant Michael O'Sullivan, Research Assistant
Ken Campbell, Sedimentologist David Paul, Research Assistant
Jim Cowart, Research Associate Angela Richardson, Secretary Specialist
Marco Cristofari, Computer Res. Assistant Drew Robertson, Research Assistant
Cindy Fischler, Research Assistant Frank Rush, Lab Technician
Dale Frierson, Research Assistant Jennifer Stalvey, Research Assistant
Mabry Gaboardi, Research Assistant Jim Trindell, Driller
Rick Green, Stratigrapher Holly Tulpin, Research Assistant
Katie Hacht, Research Assistant Chris Werner, Research Assistant


MINERAL RESOURCES
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
Brian Cross, Research Assistant Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
Adel Dabous, Research Assistant John Marquez, Comp. Prog. Analyst
Joe Donoghue, Research Associate Clint Penfield, Research Assistant
Ace Fairley, Network Administrator Paula Poison, CAD Analyst
Henry Freedenberg, Env. Geologist Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist
Ted Kiper, Engineer I Jennifer Stern, Research Assistant
Michelle Lachance, Research Assistant Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic
Alan Willett, Research Assistant


OIL AND GAS SECTION
David Curry, Environmental Program Administrator
Paul Attwood, Asst. District Coordinator Ed Garrett, Geologist
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Don Hargrove, Engineer
Ed Gambrell, District Coordinator Charles Logan, Professional Engineer II
Carolyn Stringer, Staff Assistant







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 47