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First magnitude springs of Florida
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 Material Information
Title: First magnitude springs of Florida
Series Title: Open file report - Florida Geological Survey ; 85
Physical Description: x, 138 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Means, Guy H.
Scott, Thomas M
Florida -- Division of Resource Assessment and Management
Florida Geological Survey
Means, Ryan C.
Meegan, Rebecca P.
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2002
Copyright Date: 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Surveys -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 135-137)
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas M. Scott ... <et al>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 002889207
oclc - 50787516
notis - APC0514
issn - 1058-1391 ;
System ID: UF00094037:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover i
    Front Matter
        Front cover ii
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
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Full Text
First Magnitude Springs
L of Florida .


























































Cover: Alexander Spring, Lake County (photo by Tom Scott).









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
David Struhs, Secretary




DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief





Open File Report No. 85



FIRST MAGNITUDE SPRINGS OF FLORIDA






By

Thomas M. Scott, Guy H. Means,
Ryan C. Means, and Rebecca P. Meegan


Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2002























































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
2002

ISSN 1058-1391


ii










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee, Florida
2002



Governor Jeb Bush
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Bush:

The 2001 Florida Legislature funded the Florida Springs Initiative to investigate the
first order magnitude springs in the State. In response to the initiative's mandate, the
Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department
of Environmental Protection, is publishing as its Open-file Report No. 85, First Magnitude
Springs of Florida, by Thomas M. Scott, Guy H. Means, Ryan C. Means, and Rebecca P.
Meegan. The physical characteristics, water chemistry and bacteriology of Florida's first
order magnitude springs are discussed and described in this report. The information here-
in on Florida's largest springs, unique and treasured natural resources, provides data to be
used by scientists, planners, environmental managers and the citizens of Florida.

Respectfully,





Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey


































































iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Introduction ........................................................ 1. 1
Acknowledgements ................................... .................. 3
Florida Spring's Task Force ............................................... 3
Task Force Members and Advisors ........................................ 5
Classification of Springs ................................................... 6
Archaeological Significance of Springs ...................................... .. 8
Hydrogeology of Florida Springs .................................. ....... .9
W ater Quality ....................................................... 13
M ethodology ................................................... .... 13
Field Parameters ..................................... .......... .13
W ater Sam ples ................................................. 14
Additional Data ...................................... .......... .14
Discharge Measurements .......................................... 14
Characteristics of Spring W ater ...................................... . 16
Descriptions of Analytes ............................................. 16
Physical Field Param eters ............................................. 17
Dissolved Oxygen ..................................... .......... .17
pH ............ .......................................... 17
Specific Conductance ................ ............................ .17
W ater Temperature ................................... .......... .18
Discharge ........................................... .......... .18
Other Field Data ..................................... .......... .18
Laboratory Analytes ...................................... .......... .18
Alkalinity ........................................... .......... .18
Biochemical Oxygen Demand ........................................ 18
Chloride .................................................... .. 18
Color ....................................................... 18
H ardness ......................................... .......... 18
Nitrate + Nitrite ...................................... .......... .19
Organic Carbon ...................................... .......... .19
Orthophosphate ...................................... .......... .19
Potassium .......................................... .......... .19
Sodium ................... .................................... 19
Sulfate ................... .................................... 19
Total Ammonia ...................................... .......... .20
Total Dissolved Solids ............................................. 20
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen ........................................... .20
Total Nitrogen ....................................... .......... .20
Total Suspended Solids ........................................... .. 20
Turbidity ...................................................... 20
Trace M etals ........................................ .......... .20
Biological Analytes ..................................... ...... .... 21
Descriptions of Individual Springs and Results of Analyses ................. .... .23
Alachua County ......................................... .......... .23
Hornsby Spring ...................................... .......... .23









Bay County .........................
Gainer Springs Group ..............
Gainer Spring No. C ...........
Gainer Spring No. 2 ............
Gainer Spring No. 3 ............
Citrus County .......................
Chassahowitzka Springs Group ......
Chassahowitzka Main Spring .....
Chassahowitzka No. 1 ..........
Homosassa Springs Group ..........
Homosassa Springs Nos. 1, 2 and 3
Kings Bay Springs Group ...........
Hunter Spring ................
Tarpon Hole Spring ............
Columbia County .....................
Columbia Spring ..................
Ichetucknee Springs Group ..........
Ichetucknee Head Spring ........
Blue H ole ....................


Cedar Head Spring .
Mission Springs ...
Santa Fe River Rise ..
Treehouse Spring .....
Gilchrist County ..........
Devil's Ear Spring .....
Siphon Creek Rise .....
Hamilton County .........
Alapaha River Rise ....
Holton Creek Rise .....
Hernando County .........
Weeki Wachee Spring .
Jackson County ..........
Jackson Blue Spring ...
Jefferson County .........
Wacissa Springs Group .
Spring No. 2 ......
Big Spring (Big Blue
Lafayette County .........
Lafayette Blue Spring .
Troy Spring ..........
Lake County ............
Alexander Spring .....
Leon County .............
St. Marks River Rise ...
Levy County .............
Fanning Springs ......
Manatee Springs ......
Madison County ..........
Madison Blue Spring ...


Spring)


......


:I::::::











M arion County ....................
Rainbow Springs Group .........
Rainbow No. 1 .............
Rainbow No. 4 .............
Rainbow No. 6 .............
Bubbling Spring ............
Silver Glen Springs .............
Silver Springs Group ............
M ain Spring ...............
Reception Hall .............
Blue Grotto ................
Suwannee County .................
Falmouth Spring ...............
Taylor County ....................
N utall Rise ...................
Steinhatchee River Rise .........
Union County .....................
Santa Fe Spring ...............
Volusia County ....................
Volusia Blue Spring ............
W akulla County ...................
Spring Creek Springs Group ......
Spring Creek No. 1 ..........
Spring Creek No. 2 ..........
W akulla Spring ................
Springs Information Resources on the Web .
R eferences ...........................
G lossary ............................

Figures


Old photograph of the bath house at White Springs, Hamilton
Springs Task Force members at Madison Blue Spring ......
Location of first order magnitude springs...............
Native American artifacts ............................
Generalized geologic map of Florida ....................
Karst areas related to first magnitude springs ............
An FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001 ...................
Jackson Blue Springs aerial photo ......................
H ornsby Spring ....................................
Hornsby Spring location map .........................
Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C ........................
Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 .........................
Gainer Springs Group location map ....................
Chassahowitzka Main Spring .........................
Chassahowitzka No. 1 ...............................
Chassahowitzka Springs Group location map .............
Homosassa Springs Group ............................


County, 1920s
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............


.100
.100
.100
.101
.101
.101
.105
.108
.108
.111
.111
.112
.112
.115
.115
.118
.121
.121
.124
.124
.128
.128
.128
.131
.132
.135
.135
.138


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.










18. Homosassa Springs Group location map ................................... 36
19. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring ................................ 39
20. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring .............................. 39
21. Kings Bay Springs Group location map .................................. 41
22. Columbia Spring .................................................... 43
23 Columbia Spring location map ................... ........................ 44
24. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring ........................ 46
25. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring .............................. 46
26. Ichetucknee Springs Group location map .................................. 48
27. Santa Fe River Rise ................................................... 51
28. Santa Fe River Rise location map ........................................ 52
29. Treehouse Spring ..................................................... 54
30. Treehouse Spring location map .......................................... 55
31. Devil's Ear Spring .................................................... 57
32. Devil's Ear Spring location map .........................................58
33. Siphon Creek Rise .................................................... 60
34. Siphon Creek Rise location map ......................................... 61
35. Alapaha River Rise ...................................... ............ 63
36. Alapaha River Rise location map ......................................... .64
37. Holton Creek Rise ....................................................66
38. Holton Creek Rise location map .........................................67
39. W eeki W achee Spring ................................................. 69
40. W eeki W achee Spring location map ...................................... .70
41. Jackson Blue Spring ................... ................. ...... .... ...72
42. Jackson Blue Spring location map ................. .................... .73
43. W acissa Springs Group, Big Blue Spring .................................. 75
44. W acissa Springs Group location map .................................... .76
45. Lafayette Blue Spring ................................................. 79
46. Lafayette Blue Spring location map ..................................... .80
47. Troy Spring ...................................... .................. 82
48. Troy Spring location m ap ............................................... 83
49. Alexander Spring ..................................................... 85
50. Alexander Spring location map .......................................... 86
51. St. Marks River Rise ..................................................88
52. St. M arks River Rise location map ...................................... .89
53. Fanning Spring ......................................................91
54. Fanning Spring location map ................... ......................... 92
55. Manatee Springs main spring ........................................... 94
56. Manatee Springs location map ..........................................95
57. M adison Blue Spring .................................................. 97
58. M adison Blue Spring location map ...................................... .98
59. Rainbow Springs Group ............................................... 100
60. Rainbow Springs Group location map ................................... .102
61. Silver Glen Springs ..................................... ........... 105
62. Silver Glen Springs location m ap ...................................... .106
63. Silver Springs Group ................................................ 108












64. Silver Springs Group location map ..................................... .109
65. Falmouth Spring location map ........................................ .113
66. Nutall Rise ...................................... ................... 115
67. N utall Rise location m ap ............................................. 116
68. Steinhatchee River Rise ............................................... 118
69. Steinhatchee River Rise location map ................................... .119
70. Santa Fe Spring ..................................................... 121
71. Santa Fe Spring location map ...........................................122
72. Volusia Blue Spring A Old Photo around 1900; B 1970s photo ............ 124
73. Volusia Blue Spring location m ap ...................................... .126
74. Spring Creek Springs Group ...................................... ...... 128
75. Spring Creek Springs Group location map ................................ 129
76. Wakulla Spring .....................................................132
77. Wakulla Spring location map ........................................... 133


Tables


Sampling order .............................
Units of measurement for each analyte .............
Hornsby Spring water quality analysis .............
Hornsby Spring bacteriological analysis ............
Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses ........
Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses .......
Chassahowitzka Springs Group bacteriological analyses
Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses
Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses ....
Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses ...
Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses .....
Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses ....
Columbia Spring water quality analysis ............
Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis ...........
Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses ...
Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses ...
Santa Fe River Rise water quality analysis .........
Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analysis .........
Treehouse Spring water quality analysis ...........
Treehouse Spring bacteriological analysis ...........
Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis ...........
Devil's Ear Spring bacteriological analysis ..........
Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis ...........
Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ..........
Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis ..........
Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis .........
Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis ...........
Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ..........
Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis ........


. . . . . . . . . . 1 4
. . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
. . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
. . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
. . . . . . . . . . . 3 0


..34




..42





















..65
. . . . . . . . . 3 2
. . . . . . . . . 3 4
. . . . . . . . 3 7
. . . . . . . . . 3 8
. . . . . . . .4 2
. . . . . . . .4 2
. . . . . . . . . . .4 5
. . . . . . . . . . .4 5
. . . . . . . . .4 9
. . . . . . . . .5 0
. . . . . . . . . . .5 3
. . . . . . . . . . .5 3
. . . . . . . . . . .5 6
. . . . . . . . . . .5 6
. . . . . . . . . . .5 9
. . . . . . . . . . .5 9
. . . . . . . . . . .6 2
. . . . . . . . . . .6 2
. . . . . . . . . . .6 5
. . . . . . . . . . .6 5
. . . . . . . . . . .6 8
. . . . . . . . . . .6 8
. . . . . . . . . . .7 1









30. Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. .71
31. Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .74
32. Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. .74
33. Wacissa Springs Group water quality analyses ............................ 77
34. Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analyses ........................... 78
35. Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................. 81
36. Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. .81
37. Troy Spring water quality analysis ..................................... 84
38. Troy Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... 84
39. Alexander Spring water quality analysis ................................. .87
40. Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis ................................ 87
41. St. Marks River Rise water quality analysis .............................. 90
42. St. Marks River Rise bacteriological analysis .............................. .90
43. Fanning Spring water quality analysis .................................. 93
44. Fanning Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. 93
45. Manatee Springs water quality analysis ................................. 96
46. Manatee Springs bacteriological analysis ................................ 96
47. Madison Blue Spring water quality analysis .............................. 99
48. Madison Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. 99
49. Rainbow Springs Group water quality analyses ........................... .103
50. Rainbow Springs Group bacteriological analyses .......................... .104
51. Silver Glen Springs water quality analysis .............................. 107
52. Silver Glen Springs bacteriological analysis .............................. .107
53. Silver Springs Group water quality analyses ............................. .110
54. Silver Springs Group bacteriological analyses ............................. .111
55. Falmouth Spring water quality analysis ................................ 114
56. Falmouth Spring bacteriological analysis ................................ .114
57. Nutall Rise water quality analysis ...................................... 117
58. Nutall Rise bacteriological analysis .................................... 117
59. Steinhatchee River Rise water quality analysis ........................... .120
60. Steinhatchee River Rise bacteriological analysis ........................... 120
61. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis ................................. .123
62. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis ................................ 123
63. Volusia Blue Spring water quality analysis .............................. 127
64. Volusia Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. 127
65. Spring Creek Springs Group water quality analyses ................... ..... 130
66. Spring Creek Springs Group bacteriological analyses ................... ..... .131
67. Wakulla Spring water quality analysis ................................. 134
68. Wakulla Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .134






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


FIRST MAGNITUDE SPRINGS OF FLORIDA
by
Thomas M. Scott, P.G. #99, Guy H. Means, Ryan C. Means, Rebecca P. Meegan


INTRODUCTION

The bank was dense with magnolia and loblolly bay, sweet gum and gray-barked ash. He
went down to the spring in the cool darkness of their shadows. A sharp pleasure came over
him. This was a secret and a lovely place. Marjory Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling, 1938

Mysterious, magical, even "awesome" springs elicit an emotional response from near-
ly everyone who peers into the crystalline depths. The cool, clear, azure waters of Florida's
springs have long been a focus of daily life during the humid, hot months of the year. Many
Floridians have a lifetime of memories surrounding our springs. Visit any spring during the
muggy months and you will find people of all ages partaking of Nature's soothing remedy -
spring water! Marjory Stoneman Douglas, the granddame of Florida environmentalists,
stated that "Springs are bowls of liquid light." Al Burt (writer/author) observed that
"Springs add a melody to the land."

Springs and spring runs have been a focal point of life, from prehistoric times to the
present. Undoubtedly, the ancient issuing of cool, fresh water attracted animals now long
absent from Florida's landscape. Many a diver has recovered fossil remains from the state's
spring runs and wondered what the forest must have looked like when the animals roamed
the spring-run lowlands.

Human artifacts, found in widespread areas of the state, attest to the importance of
springs to Florida's earliest inhabitants. The explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to
John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the subterranean discharges of
fresh water that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and set-
tlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becom-
ing sites of missions, towns and steamboat landings. Spring runs provided power for grist-
mills. Baptisms were held in the clear, cool waters and the springs often served as water
supplies for local residents. Today, even bottled water producers are interested in utilizing
these waters. Some springs have been valued for their purported therapeutic effects and
people flocked to them to soak in the medicinal waters (Figure 1).

The recreational opportunities provided by the state's springs are numerous.
Swimming, snorkeling, diving and canoeing are among the most common activities center-
ing around Florida's springs. The springs and spring runs are magnets for wildlife and, sub-
sequently, draw many individuals and groups to view these animals in their natural sur-
roundings.

Spring water is a natural discharge from the Floridan aquifer system, the state's pri-
mary aquifer, and the springs provide a "window" into the aquifer allowing for a measure of
the health of the aquifer. Chemical and biological constituents that enter the aquifer
through recharge processes may affect the water quality and flora and fauna of springs and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Old photograph of the bath house at White Springs, Hamilton County, 1920s.

spring runs. As water quality in the aquifer has declined, the flora and fauna associated
with the springs and cave systems have been negatively affected. The change in water qual-
ity is a direct result of Florida's increased population (increased eight-fold since 1940) and
changed land use patterns. These changes and subsequent degradation of our springs have
led to the efforts to save and restore Florida's treasured springs.

In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bul-
letin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947).
This was revised in 1977, adding many springs previously undocumented and many new
water quality analyses of the spring water (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida Geological
Survey's report on first magnitude springs (this open-file report) is the initial step in revis-
ing the Springs of Florida bulletin. Nearly 300 springs were known in 1977. In 2001, at
least 700 springs have been recognized in the state and more are reported each year. To
date, 33 first order magnitude springs (>100 cubic feet per second 64.6 million gallons of
water per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country
(Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A com-
prehensive understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection
and wise use.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge a number of individuals and thank them for their
assistance in creating this volume. Gary Maddox, Laura Morse, Gail Sloane, Margaret
Murray, Tom Biernacki, Cindy Cosper, Andy Roach, Paul Hansard, and Jay Silvanima, from
Division of Water Resource Management, Watershed Monitoring and Data Management
Section guided the spring water analyses effort. Without their knowledge and experience,
the sampling, analyses and data quality and delivery could not have been accomplished
within the requisite timeframe.

We would also like to acknowledge the efforts of numerous people from various Water
Management Districts and State Parks who were so helpful in either collecting or helping to
collect data for this project. In particular, the authors wish to thank David Hornsby from
the Suwannee River Water Management District for contributing his time and expertise.
We also thank Tony Countryman and Nick Wooten from the Northwest Florida Water
Management District; Eric DeHaven, David DeWitt, Joe Haber, and Chris Tomlinson from
the Southwest Florida Water Management District; Richard Harris from Blue Springs State
Park, and Will Ebaugh from the U.S. Forest Service. There are many other anonymous
individuals whose efforts benefited this project.

Many thanks go to staff members of the Florida Geological Survey. Frank Rupert
organized the text, figures, tables and photographs into the digital publishable format. John
Marquez, Alan Baker and Jim Cichon, with their cartographic expertise, created the many
maps utilized in this report. Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Rodney DeHan, Rick Copeland and
Jackie Lloyd reviewed the text and data, supplying many su--.-I Di .n- and corrections.

Many Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) employees assisted
with this project. They are: Division of Water Resource Management, Bureau of
Laboratories Sampling Training: Russel Frydenborg, Tom Frick; Bureau of Laboratories -
Chemistry and Biology Analyses: Yuh-Hsu Pan, Kate Brackett, Maria Gonzalez, Amzad
Shaik, Harrison Walker, Chris Armour, Tom Ebrahimizadeh, Chris Morgan, Colin Wright,
Matt Curran, Dave Avrett, Rick Kimsey, Latasha Fisher, Elena Koldacheva, Keith Tucker,
Elliot Healy, Dawn Dolbee, Blanca Fach, Ping Hua, Anna Blalock, Patsy Vichaikul, Akbar
Cooper, Richard Johnson, Paula Peters, Gary Dearman, Virginia Leavell, Ceceile Wight,
Travis Tola, Dale Simmons, Latasha Fisher, Rob Buda, Melva Campos, Karla Whiddon,
Daisys Tamayo; Bureau of Watershed Management, Watershed Monitoring and Data
Management Section: Tracy Wade, Thomas Seal; Division of Waste Management: Bill
Martin, David Meyers. We appreciate the efforts of all these individuals.

Finally, the Florida Geological Survey Springs Team Members wish to thank Jim
Stevenson, Florida Springs Task Force Chairman, for his tireless dedication to Florida's
springs.

FLORIDA SPRINGS TASK FORCE

David Struhs, Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, direct-
ed the formation of a multi-agency Florida Springs Task Force to provide recommended
strategies for the protection and restoration of Florida's springs. The Task Force, consisting
of sixteen Floridians who represent one federal and three state agencies, four water man-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 2. Springs Task Force members at Madison Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).

agement districts, a state university, a regional planning council, the business community,
and private citizens, met monthly from September 1999 to September 2000 (Figure 2). These
scientists, planners, and other citizens exchanged information on the many factors that
impact the viability of Florida's springs and the ecosystems that the springs support. They
listened to guest speakers with expertise in topics relating to spring health. They discussed
the conflicting environmental, social, and economic interests that exist in all of Florida's
spring basins.

The Task Force members participated in the February 2000 Florida Springs
Conference, Natural Gems Troubled Waters, attended by over 300 people, including sci-
entists, business owners, representatives of environmental groups, and residents from all
over Florida. During the months that the Task Force met, they developed recommendations
for the preservation and restoration of Florida's rich treasury of springs. The implementa-
tion of the recommendations contained in the Task Force report (Florida Springs Task
Force, 2000) will help ensure that Florida's "bowls of liquid light" will sparkle for the grand-
children of the children who play in Florida's springs today.

The 2001 Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative authorizing funds
for the Department of Environmental Protection to begin investigating the status of Florida
springs and strategies for protecting this precious resource.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Task Force Members and Advisors

Task Force Chairman Jim Stevenson, Division of State Lands, FDEP

Technical Writer and Editor Frances M. Hartnett,
Technical and Creative Writing Services

Task Force Members
Dianne McCommons Beck, FDEP
Jeff Bielling, Florida Department of Community Affairs
Greg Bitter, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council
Hal Davis, U.S. Geological Survey
Russel Frydenborg, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, FDEP
Jon Martin, University of Florida
Gregg Jones, Southwest Florida Water Management District
Jack Leppert, Citizen
Gary Maddox, Division of Water Resource Management, FDEP
Pam McVety, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP
Doug Munch, St. Johns River Water Management District
Tom Pratt, Northwest Florida Water Management District
Tom Scott, Florida Geological Survey, FDEP
Wes Skiles, Karst Environmental Services
Kirk Webster, Suwannee River Water Management District

Technical Advisors
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Karl Kurka, Office of Water Policy
Kathleen Toolan, Office of General Counsel
Joe Hand, Division of Water Resource Management
Jennifer Jackson, Division of Water Resource Management
Jim McNeal, Division of Water Resource Management
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Richard Deadman
Florida Department of Health
Tim Mayer
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Kent Smith
Karst Environmental Services
Tom Morris
St. Johns River Water Management District
David Miracle
Bill Osburn
Suwannee River Water Management District
David Hornsby
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Jim Valade






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS

There are two general types of springs in Florida, seeps (water table springs) and karst
springs (artesian springs). Rainwater, percolating downward through permeable
sediments, may encounter a much less permeable or impermeable formation, forcing the
water to move laterally. Eventually the water may reach the surface in a lower lying area
and form a seep (for example the steephead seeps along the eastern side of the Apalachicola
River). Karst springs form when groundwater discharges to the surface through a karst
opening. The vast majority of Florida's more than 700 springs and all of the first order mag-
nitude springs are the karst spring type.

Springs are most often classified based upon the average discharge of water. The clas-
sification listed below was utilized by Rosenau et al. (1977):

Magnitude Average Flow (Discharge)

1 100 cfs or more (64.6 mgd or more) cfs = cubic feet per second
2 10 to 100 cfs (6.46 to 64.6 mgd) mgd = million gallons per day)
3 1 to 10 cfs (0.646 to 6.46 mgd) gpm = gallons per minute
4 100 gpm to 1 cfs (448 gpm) pint/min = pints per minute
5 10 to 100 gpm
6 1 to 10 gpm
7 1 pint to 1 gpm
8 Less than 1 pint/min

Current Florida springs tabulations list 33 first order magnitude springs (modified after
Rosenau et al., 1977) (Figure 3). The list includes individual springs, spring groups and
river rises. This listing has created some confusion due to the grouping of hydrogeological-
ly unrelated springs into groups and the inclusion of river rises and karst windows (Wilson
and Skiles, 1989). Often, individual springs comprising a group do not have the same water
source region or spring recharge basin and are not hydrogeologically related. The individ-
ual spring vents within a group may not discharge enough water to be classed as first mag-
nitude. Wilson and Skiles (1989) recommended grouping only hydrogeologically related
springs into spring groups. Spring groups are used in the report as presented by Rosenau
et al. (1977).

River rises are the resurgence of river water that descended underground through a
sinkhole some distance away. The resurging water may contain a significant portion of
aquifer water but are primarily river water therefore should not be classified as a spring
(Wilson and Skiles, 1989). River rises have continued to be considered in the first magni-
tude listing for this report.

Karst windows are where the roof of a cave collapsed exposing an underground stream
for a short distance. One karst window is included in this report.

Future springs recharge basin delineations will identify the hydrogeological relation-
ships between springs and facilitate changes in the first magnitude springs list and will
address these issues. This will be done considering the recommendations put forth by
Wilson and Skiles (1989) and by hydrogeologists representing the government, private sec-








OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


FIRST MAGNITUDE SPRINGS OF FLORIDA


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


tor and academia.

There have been inconsistencies in the naming of springs. We have attempted to make
names more clear in this volume. For example, a spring site that physically has one vent is
no longer referred to as springs Wakulla Springs becomes Wakulla Spring. Also, if a river
rise was called a spring, the term river rise now replaces the spring.

There are many Blue Springs in Florida. FDEP scientists have adopted the convention
of referring to these springs with the county name placed before the name "Blue Spring."
Thus, Blue Spring in Jackson County becomes Jackson Blue Spring.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SPRINGS

Archaeological research has shown that Florida's springs have been important to
human inhabitants for many thousands of years. Prehistoric peoples exploited the concen-
tration of resources found in and around springs. Water, chert and game animals were all
available in and near springs. Today, springs serve as recreation areas and continue to
attract people because of their unique beauty.

Florida's first people, called paleoindians, left behind evidence of their culture in the
form of chert, bone and ivory tools that date to more than 12,000 years before present
(Figure 4) (Dunbar et al., 1988). These people coexisted with large now extinct megafaunal
animals like mastodon, mammoth, ground sloth, giant beaver, and giant armadillo. During
the late Pleistocene, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, sea level was as much as 300 ft (100 m)
below present levels. Deep springs and sinkholes may have been some of the only sources
of fresh water in ancient Florida. Investigations at Wakulla Spring, Hornsby Spring,
Ichetucknee Springs, and the Wacissa River have shown that paleoindians were living
around springs and utilizing the resources of these areas.

One example of prehistoric human utilization of springs comes from Warm Mineral
Springs, located in Sarasota County. Archaeologists recovered human remains from a ledge
located 43 ft (13 m) below the water level that contained preserved brain material. The
remains were radiocarbon dated and produced an age of 10,000 +/- 200 years before present
(Royal and Clark, 1960). Other archaeological material and fossils were recovered from this
site, which has proven to be one of the most important archaeological sites in the south-
eastern United States.

As the Pleistocene Epoch came to a close in Florida, many environmental changes were
taking place. The large megafaunal animals that once had roamed the Florida landscape,
were becoming extinct. Global weather patterns changed, and sea level began to rise. As
these drastic changes were taking place, Florida's human inhabitants had to adapt. As
water tables rose, springs became more abundant and people continued to exploit the
resources in and around the springs. Prehistoric peoples living around springs built large
shell middens and mounds as they disposed of the inedible portions of their food items.
Numerous examples of these mounds exist throughout the state with some of the best exam-
ples being located along the St. Johns, Ocklawaha, and the Aucilla/Wacissa River systems.
Abundant supplies of fresh water, aquatic food sources, chert and clay sources, and the sheer
beauty of Florida's springs made them perfect habitation sites.





OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


I


I
/


r-,..oa *....O..I-- l | --"**.-- a


*z I
S, .. .....' .,


Figure 4 Native American artifacts (from the Coastal Plains Institute collection).


Florida's springs are time capsules that contain valuable information about our cultur-
al past. Prehistoric Floridians valued our state's spring resources and now modern
Floridians are the stewards of a tradition that has lasted for more than 12,000 years. As
our state continues to grow, more and more people will be putting demands on our natural
resources. It is our modern culture's responsibility to see that Florida's springs be preserved
in their natural beauty and ecological health for future generations.

HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA SPRINGS

Florida enjoys a humid, subtropical climate throughout much of the state (Henry, 1998).
Rainfall, in the area of the major springs, ranges from 50 inches (127 cm) to 60 inches (152
cm) per year. As a result of this climate and the geologic framework of the state, Florida has
an abundance of fresh groundwater. Scott (2001) estimated that more than 2.2 quadrillion
gallons of fresh water are contained within the Floridan aquifer system (FAS).

The Florida peninsula is the exposed portion of the broad Florida Platform. The Florida
Platform, as measured between the two hundred meter below sea level contour (approxi-
mately 600 ft), is more than 300 miles (483 km) wide. It extends more than 150 miles (241
km) under the Gulf of Mexico off shore from Crystal River and more than 70 miles (113 km)
under the Atlantic Ocean from Fernandina Beach. The Florida peninsula is less than one
half of the total platform.


cnB

I3~


r L I- ill






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Florida Platform is composed of a thick sequence of variably permeable carbonate
sediments, limestone and dolostone, lying on older igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
rocks. The carbonate sediments may exceed 4,000 ft (1,220 m) in thickness. A sequence of
sand, silt and clay with variable amounts of limestone and shell overlie the carbonate
sequence (see Scott [1992 a, b] for discussion of the Cenozoic sediment sequence). In por-
tions of the west-central and north-central peninsula and in the central panhandle, the car-
bonate rocks, predominantly limestone, occur at or very near the surface. Away from these
areas, the overlying sand, silt and clay sequence becomes thicker. The complex Floridan
aquifer system (FAS) occurs within this thick sequence of permeable carbonate sediments
(see Miller, 1986; Berndt et al., 1998 for discussion of the FAS).

Natural recharge to the FAS by rain water, made slightly acidic by carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere and organic acids in the soil, dissolved portions of the limestone. The dis-
solution enhanced the permeability of the sediments and formed cavities and caverns.
Sinkholes formed by the collapse of overlying sediments into the cavities. Occasionally, the
collapse of the roof of a cave creates an opening to the land surface.

Karst springs occur both onshore and offshore in Florida. Little is currently known
about the offshore springs with the exception of the Spring Creek Group of springs the
largest spring in Florida (more than one billion gallons of water discharged per day) (Lane,
2001). In order to better understand the water resources of the state, the FGS has initiat-
ed a program to investigate the occurrence, discharge and water quality of the offshore
springs.

Florida's first magnitude springs occur in the northern two-thirds of the peninsula and
the central panhandle where carbonate rocks are at or near the land surface (Figure 5). All
of these springs produce water from the upper FAS (Berndt et al., 1998) which consists of
sediments that range in age from Late Eocene (approximately 38 36 million years old [my])
to mid-Oligocene (approximately 33 my). Miocene to Pleistocene sediments (24 my to 10,000
years) may be exposed in the springs.

The geomorphology physiographyy) of the state, coupled with the geologic framework,
controls the distribution of springs. The springs occur in areas where karst features (for
example, sinkholes and caves) are common and the surface elevations are low enough to
allow groundwater to flow at the surface. These areas are designated karst plains, karst
hills and karst hills and valleys on Figure 6. The state's springs occur primarily within the
Ocala Karst District and the Dougherty Karst Plain District (Scott, in preparation). Three
springs, Alexander, Silver Glen and Volusia Blue occur in the Central Lakes District (Scott,
in preparation).

Recharge to the FAS occurs over approximately 55% of the state (Berndt et al., 1998).
Recharge rates vary from less than one inch (2.54 cm) per year to more than ten inches (25.4
cm) per year. Recharge water entering the upper FAS that eventually discharges from a
spring has a variable residence time. Katz et al. (2001) found that water flowing from larg-
er springs had a groundwater residence time of more than 20 years.

Discharge, water quality and temperature of the first order magnitude springs remain
reasonably stable over extended periods of time (Berndt et al., 1998). However, because dis-






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


A\


N

+
50 0 50 100 150 Kilometers
30 0 30 60 Miles






LEGEND


Holocene
Pleistocene
Pliocene/Pleistocene
Pliocene
Miocene
Oligocene
Eocene


A- J
> k



,-
,*3 "*>


Figure 5. Generalized geologic map of Florida (modified from Scott et al., 2001).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


50 0 50 100 150 Kilometers
30 0 30 60 Miles








LEGEND

Karst Hills
Karst Hills & Valleys
Karst Plains
Other


Aj


Figure 6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs
(modified from Scott, in preparation).






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


charge rates are driven by the rate of recharge, climatic fluctuations often have a major
effect on spring flow. During 1998 2001, Florida suffered a major drought with a rainfall
deficit totaling more than 50 inches (127 cm). The resulting reduction in recharge from the
drought and normal withdrawals caused a lowering of the potentiometric surface in the
FAS. Many first order magnitude springs experienced a significant flow reduction. Some
springs, such as Hornsby Spring, ceased flowing completely. The flow data given for each
first order magnitude spring (see individual spring descriptions) reflects the drought-influ-
enced flows.

WATER QUALITY

Methodology

Seventeen springs, eight spring groups/systems, seven river rises, and one karst win-
dow (49 vents total) were sampled from 25 September 2001 through 15 November 2001.
Tidally influenced springs (10) were sampled at low tide to minimize the influence of salt
water on the water-quality samples. Standard FDEP sampling protocols were followed for
each sampling event (Morse et al., 2001).

Field Parameters

Temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured using
Hydrolab Quanta and YSI data sonde (model no. 6920) and data logger (model no. 6100).
Instruments were calibrated twice daily, before and after sampling events. For quality
assurance purposes, field reference standards were analyzed every five to ten samples and
ten equipment blanks were submitted to the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories throughout the
sampling period.

To begin each sampling event, two stainless steel weights were attached to polyethyl-
ene tubing (3/8" O.D. x 0.062" wall) which was then lowered into the spring vent opening,
ensuring the intake line was not influenced by surrounding surface water. Masterflex tub-
ing was attached to the other end, run through a Master Flex E/S portable peristaltic pump
(model no. 07571-00), and the discharge line was fed directly into a closed system flow cham-
ber. The data sonde was inserted into the flow chamber and water was pumped through
with a constant flow rate between 0.25 and 1 gallon/minute. No purge was required because
springs are considered already purged. The field parameter values were recorded after the
field meter displayed a stable reading (approximately 10 minutes). The flow chamber was
removed and sampling was conducted directly from the freshly cut masterflex discharge
line.

Two exceptions to this sampling method occurred at Wakulla Spring and Homosassa
Springs. Both springs have pre-set pipes running down into the cave systems where the
spring vents are located. In the case of Homosassa Springs, tubes from the three vents con-
verge at an outlet box with three valves inside, one for each vent. Sampling is conducted
from these valves. At Wakulla Spring, the pipe runs to a pump on shore from which sam-
pling is conducted. The sampling system was designed and operated by Northwest Florida
Water Management District (NWFWMD) (Wakulla Spring) and Southwest Florida Water
Management District (SWFWMD) (Homosassa Springs). Each tube is purged for 10 min-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


utes as there are gallons of water remaining in tubes from the last sampling effort. FDEP
standard operating procedure for water quality sampling is then applied.

Water Samples

Seven bottles and three whirlpacks were filled with water from spring vents and ana-
lyzed by the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories following Environmental Protection Agency or
Standard methods. All bottles were pre-rinsed with sample water prior to filling. Four bot-
tles and three whirlpacks were filled with unfiltered water samples. A GWV high capacity
in-line filter (0.45 /im) was attached to the microflex tubing and the remaining three bottles
were filled with filtered water samples. Bottles were filled in the order shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Sampling order.

Order Container Analyses Sample Preparation
1 1 liter plastic BOD Unfiltered
2 1 liter plastic Turbidity, Alkalinity, Color Unfiltered
3 500 ml plastic Nutrient Unfiltered; H2SO4 acidification
4 500 ml plastic Metals Unfiltered; HN03 acidification
5 4oz whirlpacks (3) Bacteria Unfiltered
6 500 ml plastic Anion, Alkalinity, Color Filtered
7 500 ml plastic Nutrient Filtered; H2SO4 acidification
8 250 ml plastic Metals Filtered; HN03 acidification

Whirlpacks were placed on ice immediately after filling. Bottles for filtered and unfil-
tered nutrients (bottle nos. 3 and 7) were preserved with sulfuric acid followed by acidifica-
tion of bottles for filtered and unfiltered metals (bottle nos. 4 and 8) using nitric acid. pH
litmus paper was used to confirm acidity of pH less than or equal to 2. All water samples
were placed on ice and delivered to the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories within 24 hours.
Tubing and filters were discarded after each sampling event.

Additional Data

General descriptions of each spring vent were made and included the aquatic, wetland,
and upland (where applicable) surroundings. Water depth was measured using a hand held
Speedtech sonar depth gauge. Distances were measured with a Bushnell Yardage Pro 500
range finder. Secchi depth was obtained using a secchi disk. A Trimble XR Pro GPS sys-
tem with a TDC1 data logger was used to record latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates.
Field parameter, weather conditions, sampling times, water and secchi depth, and
microland use information were also input into the GPS unit. Micro land uses within 300 ft
of spring vent were identified and sketched.

Discharge Measurement

Where available, discharge data was obtained from the Water Management Districts,
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and published sources. Methodology for each discharge
technique is described below.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


The USGS Tallahassee office operates continuous recording gauges on Fanning and
Manatee Springs. Discharge rates are calculated using continuous data for gauge height
and stream velocity. The latest discharge measurement used to define the rate at each
spring was used in this report.

Discharge for the Devil's Ear Spring complex was measured by FDEP using an Acoustic
Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). ADCP measurements were performed following the
guidelines established in the most current ADCP manuals by RD Instruments. ADCP meas-
urements included 5 cross-sectional traverses of the stream. The discharge values from each
traverse were summed and a mean was calculated to determine the discharge.

Recording gauges, operated by NWFWMD, are located on Econfina Creek above and
below the Gainer Springs complex. Readings are recorded in ten-minute increments. The
difference in discharge between the two recorder stations, incorporating an eleven hour lag
to travel the approximate six miles between each station, was calculated as the Gainer
Springs Group flow. An average discharge rate for the day of sampling was calculated.

The NWFWMD operates a submerged flow meter within the cave system of Wakulla
Springs main vent. The meter is surfaced monthly and discharge measurements are calcu-
lated from the velocity data. The most current reading was included in this report.

The discharge for Kings Bay Group was obtained from a publication prepared by the
SWFWMD (Jones et al., 1998) in connection with the ambient ground-water quality moni-
toring program.

Provisional discharge data for Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, and Weeki Wachee springs
were obtained from USGS, Tampa office. Mean discharge per day is calculated using phys-
ical discharge measurements at the springs, the stage and nearby groundwater well. The
measurements control the equation and are compiled over the water year, therefore the data
are provisional and subject to change when the site is computed at the end of the water year.
See Yobbi and Knochenmus (1989) for more information on this methodology.

Discharge rates of the remaining nineteen springs were measured with Price-AA and
Pygmy current meters by the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD)
(Alapaha Rise, Lafayette Blue, Madison Blue, Columbia, Falmouth, Hornsby, Ichetucknee,
Santa Fe Spring, Tree House, Troy), USGS Orlando office (Alexander, Rainbow, Silver Glen,
Silver Springs, Volusia Blue), and by FGS (Holton Creek, Jackson Blue, Nutall Rise, St.
Marks). Vertical-axis meter discharge measurements were conducted at intervals across
the spring channel such that no partial section contained more than 5 percent of the flow
from the spring. At least 20 sectional readings were obtained per spring. When water depth
was less than 2.5 ft (0.8 m), one velocity measurement was recorded at six-tenths of total
depth. For water depths greater than 2.5 ft (0.8 m), the two-point method (velocity meas-
urements at two-tenths and eight-tenths of total depth) was used primarily for velocity
measurement in a partial section. The discharge values for each partial section were
summed to obtain the total discharge measurement.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Characteristics of Spring Water

Spring water discharges provide a means of determining the quality of water in the
aquifer from which the water flows. Upchurch (1992) states that a number of factors influ-
ence ground-water chemistry. These include the precipitation chemistry, surface conditions
at the site of recharge, soil type in the recharge area, mineralogy and composition of the
aquifer system, nature of aquifer system porosity and structure, flow path in the aquifer,
residence time of the water in the aquifer, mixing of other waters in the aquifer system, and
aquifer microbiology. Refer to Upchurch (1992) for a detailed discussion of the factors affect-
ing the chemistry of groundwater.

Descriptions of Analytes

Water quality of springs is determined by collecting and analyzing water samples
(Figure 7). A series of field analytes are measured on site during sample collection. When
combined, field and Bureau of Laboratories data give a snapshot of water quality at that
particular time. Comparing similar data, taken over time, can give information about how
water quality changes and what may be causing these changes. Analyte descriptions uti-
lized data from Baker (1994), Champion and Starks (2001), Hornsby and Ceryak (1998),
Jones et al. (1998), Maddox et al.(1992), and Smith (1992). Table 2 gives the units of meas-
ure for each analyte.

Table 2 Units of measurement for each analyte.


Analyte Abbreviation Unit of Measure

Temperature C
Dissolved Oxygen DO mg/L
pH -units
Specific Conductance Sp. Cond. u S/cm at 25 C
Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD mg/L
T y JTU (Historical)
Turbidity
NTU (Current)*
Platinum Cobalt
Color Units
Units
Alkalinity as CaCO3 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids TDS mg/L
Total Suspended Solids TSS mg/L
Chloride Cl mg/L
Sulfate SO4 mg/L
Fluoride F mg/L
Total Organic Carbon TOC mg/L
Total Nitrogen NO3 NO2 mg/L
Total Ammonia NH3 NH4 mg/L
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TKN mg/L
Total Phosphorus P mg/L
Orthophosphate as P P04 mg/L
*JTU and NTU are approximately equivalent though not identical


Unit of
Analyte Abbreviation
Measure
Calcium Ca mg/L
Potassium K mg/L
Sodium Na mg/L
Magnesium Mg mg/L
Arsenic As u g/L
Aluminum Al u g/L
Boron B u g/L
Cadmium Cd u g/L

Cobalt Co u g/L
Chromium Cr u g/L
Copper Cu u g/L
Iron Fe u g/L
Manganese Mn u g/L
Nickel Ni u g/L
Lead Pb u g/L
Selenium Se u g/L
Tin Sn u g/L
Strontium Sr u g/L
Zinc Zn u g/L






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Physical Field Parameters

Measurements of field analytes are taken directly in the field prior to water sampling.
They include dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, water temperature and discharge.
Other data collected in the field include local geology, weather conditions and adjacent land
use practices.

Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen readily dissolves in water. The source of oxygen can be atmos-
pheric or biological. Typically, springs that discharge water from a deep aquifer source have
a low dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, relative to springs, the dissolved oxygen
content in river rise water is high. This is due to a greater exposure to the atmosphere and
an increase in biological activity.

pH pH measures the acidity or
alkalinity of water. It is defined
as the negative log of the activity
of the hydrogen ion in a solution.
Values range between 0 and 14.
A low pH represents acidic, and a
high pH represents alkaline con-
ditions. A pH near 7 indicates
the water is near neutral condi-
tions.

Rainwater has a low pH and is ..
naturally acidic. As moisture
passes through the atmosphere, J,
it picks up dissolved carbon diox-
ide, forming carbonic acid. In
Florida, as rainwater passes
through soil layers it incorpo-
rates organic acids and the acidi- -
ty increases.

When acidic water enters a
limestone aquifer, the acids react
with calcium carbonate in the ii.
limestone and dissolution occurs. ... -
Generally, most spring water Figure 7. An FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001
falls within a pH range of 7 to 8. (photo by Tom Scott)
During heavy rain events, spring water can drop in pH as tannic acids, from nearby surface
waters, are flushed into the spring system. It should be noted that sampled river rises tend
to have a lower pH than the spring systems, due to the surficial component of the water.

Specific Conductance Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a substance, in
this case spring water, to conduct electricity. The conductance is a function of the amount
and type of ions in the water. The variability of the specific conductance of spring water can
be quite high when the spring is discharging saline water or when the spring is discharging
into the marine environment.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Water Temperature Geologic material is a good thermal insulator. It tends to buffer
changes in the temperature of spring water. Thus, spring water temperature does not vary
much and tends to reflect the average annual air temperature in the vicinity of the spring.
This temperature can range from 680F to 75F (200C to 24C), plus or minus several tenths
of a degree. Temperature plays a role in chemical and biological activity within the aquifer
and can help in determining residence time of the water in the aquifer.

Discharge Discharge, or springflow, is controlled by the potentiometric levels in the FAS.
Discharge generally changes slowly in response to fluctuations in the water levels in the
aquifer. Discharge is measured in cubic feet per second or gallons per day.

Other Field Data During sample collection, total water depth, sample depth, local geolo-
gy, adjacent land use and current weather conditions are noted at each spring. This gener-
alized information can be useful in helping to determine certain water quality-related issues
of the spring.

Laboratory Analytes

Alkalinity The alkalinity of spring water is affected primarily by the presence of bicar-
bonate, hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Highly alkaline waters are usually associated with
high pH, dissolved solids and hardness which, when combined, may be detrimental to the
aquatic environment.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the
quantity of molecular oxygen utilized in the decomposition of organic material, during a
specified incubation time, by microorganisms such as bacteria. When the BOD is high, the
depletion of oxygen can have a detrimental effect on aquatic organisms. BOD is measured
in mg/L. In Florida, there is no set standard for BOD in groundwater.

Chloride (Cl-) Chloride is the most abundant constituent in seawater, and springs that
are tidally influenced have high chloride concentrations. Chloride is added to the atmos-
phere via marine aerosols from the ocean. In most of Florida's springs, chloride is intro-
duced to the spring system via rainfall. Chloride is chemically conservative and reacts very
little with spring water. When chloride concentrations in drinking water exceed 250 mg/L
it is considered unfit for drinking. This is the secondary standard established by the State
of Florida.

Color The color of spring water can be affected by factors such as the presence of metallic
ions, tannic acids, biological activity and industrial waste. Generally, spring water in
Florida is clear. Color measurements are made on filtered water samples so the true color
of the water is determined. Color is reported in either color units or Platinum Cobalt units
(Pt/Co). In Florida, the secondary (aesthetic) standard for groundwater is 15 color units.

Hardness The hardness of water is a function of the presence of calcium, magnesium, and
other alkali metal ions. The higher the calcium/magnesium content of the water, the hard-
er the water. Hard water forms insoluble residues on surfaces where evaporation has taken
place. Hard water, when used with soap, can also form residues on surfaces. The hardness
of water is expressed either in parts per million, or in milligrams per liter, and is usually a
measure of the calcium carbonate dissolved in the water.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Nitrate + Nitrite (NOa, N02) Nitrate and nitrite are both found in spring water in
Florida. Nitrate contamination recently has become a problem in Florida's springs. Nitrate
found in spring water originates from fertilizers, septic tanks and animal waste that enters
the aquifer in the spring recharge area. Nitrate, being a nutrient, encourages algal and
aquatic plant growth in spring water, which may lead to eutrophication of the spring and
associated water body. Nitrite, which is much less of a problem, can originate from sewage
and other organic waste products. When nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/L in drinking water, it
is potentially hazardous to infants, causing methemoglobinemia or "blue baby syndrome".
For this reason, the FDEP has set the Primary Drinking Water Standard for nitrate in
groundwater at 10 mg/L and nitrite at 1 mg/L.

Organic Carbon Natural and non-naturally occurring organic carbon are present in vary-
ing concentrations in spring water in Florida. The primary source of naturally occurring
organic carbon is humic substances (decaying plant material). Synthetic organic represent
a minor component. There are no standards set for naturally occurring organic carbon in
drinking water however, synthetic organic carbon compounds are regulated on an individ-
ual basis in Florida.

Orthophosphate (PO4-3) Phosphate is an essential nutrient and occurs in spring water in
Florida. Unfortunately, an excess of phosphate can cause run-away plant growth and the
eutrophication of surface waters. The Hawthorn Group, a geological unit in Florida, is the
primary source of phosphate in spring water. Other sources include organic and inorganic
fertilizers, animal waste, human waste effluent and industrial waste. In Florida, there is
no regulation nor standard for phosphate.

Potassium (K) Potassium occurs in trace amounts in Florida's spring water and is derived
primarily from sea water. Therefore, it occurs in higher concentration along the coast. The
weathering of feldspars and clays can contribute potassium to spring water. In addition,
because potassium is an essential nutrient, it is a component of fertilizers. In Florida, there
is no standard for potassium and it is considered to be beneficial in moderate concentrations.

Sodium (Na) In Florida, sodium occurring in spring water has several sources. Marine
aerosols, mixing of sea water with fresh water and the weathering of sodium bearing min-
erals like feldspars and clays are the primary sources. The Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation, in 1994, set the maximum allowable concentration of sodium in
drinking water at 160 mg/L. Concentrations exceeding this standard can occur in springs
that discharge from deep Floridan aquifer sources and in coastal areas where spring water
and marine water mixing may occur.

Sulfate (SO4) Sulfate is commonly found in aquifer waters in Florida and has several
sources. The two most common sources are from sea water and the dissolution of gypsum
and anhydrite (naturally occurring rock types within Florida's aquifer systems). Sulfate is
often used as a soil amendment to acidify soils, and thus is associated with agricultural
activities. Finally, disposal and industrial waste activities release sulfate to ground water.
Sulfate rich spring water can potentially be toxic to plants. In higher concentrations it
affects the taste of drinking water. For this reason, the FDEP established a Secondary
Drinking Water standard for sulfate of 250 mg/L.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Total Ammonia (NH3 + NH4+) Ammonia (NH3) occurs in groundwater primarily as the
ammonium ion (NH4 ) because of the prevalent pH and reduction-oxidation potential
(Upchurch, 1992). Microbial activity within the soil and aquifer can convert other nitroge-
nous products to ammonium. There is no set standard for ammonia in Florida groundwa-
ter.

Total Dissolved Solids Total dissolved solids is a measure of the dissolved chemical con-
stituents, primarily ions, in spring water. Concentrations in Florida's spring water vary
widely. Since most of Florida's spring water issues from carbonate aquifers, the total dis-
solved solid concentrations are fairly high. Higher concentrations are found in springs that
are tidally influenced and springs that discharge into the marine environment. The Florida
Secondary Drinking Water Standard for total dissolved solids is 500 mg/L.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen This is a measure of the sum of the ammonia nitrogen and
organic nitrogen in the spring water sample. The ammonia nitrogen, mainly occurring as
ammonium (NH4+), occurs in trace amounts in spring water (see ammonia (NH3) above).
Organic nitrogen originates from biological sources including sewage and other waste. DEP
regulates nitrogen, in the form of nitrates and nitrites, in drinking water in Florida (see pre-
vious descriptions above).

Total Nitrogen The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, when
summed, gives the total nitrogen content of spring water. See description of each nitrogen
compound for regulation standards in Florida.

Total Suspended Solids This refers to the amount of solid material suspended in the
water column. As opposed to turbidity, total suspended solids does not take into account the
light scattering ability of the water. Total suspended solids are filtered out of the water
sample and are measured in mg/L.

Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the colloidal suspension of tiny particles and precip-
itates in spring water. High turbidity water impedes the penetration of light and can be
harmful to aquatic life. Most Florida springs discharge water low in turbidity. Turbidity is
measured in Nephlometric Turbidity Units (NTU's).

Trace Metals

Trace metals analyzed for this report include: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cal-
cium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe),
lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se),
strontium (Sr), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn). Trace metals, when present in spring water, are found
in very low concentrations and are measured in parts per billion (ppb), or micrograms per
liter (pAg/L). In Florida, calcium and magnesium occur in higher concentrations and are
therefore measured in milligrams per liter.

The naturally low abundance of trace metals in Florida's groundwater can be attributed
to several factors including low natural abundance in aquifer rocks, low solubility of metal
bearing minerals, high adsorption potential of metal ions on clays and organic particulates,
and precipitation in the form of sulfides and oxides (Upchurch, 1992). Many biochemical
processes require small amounts of trace metals however, higher concentrations can be






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


toxic. Industrialization and increased demand for products containing trace metals has
overwhelmed the natural biogeochemical cycle, and anthropogenic sources for trace metals
now far outweigh natural sources (Smith, 1992).

In Florida, lead is one of the most important metal contaminants found in groundwater.
This contaminant, along with other metals, is primarily distributed in the atmosphere,
water, soil and sediments. Atmospheric pollutants are often the primary source of water-
borne metals. These pollutants are introduced into the atmosphere by mining operations,
smelting, manufacturing activities and the combustion of fossil fuels (Smith, 1992).

Contamination of groundwater by lead is caused primarily by combustion of fossil fuels
containing lead additives. Lead additives were phased out of fuels in the U.S. and Canada
by 1990, but other sources of contamination including mining, smelting and refining of lead
and other metals still persist. Lead bioaccumulates in aquatic organisms affecting the high-
er trophic levels the most. In humans, lead causes severe health problems including meta-
bolic disorders, neurological and reproductive damage and hypertension. In Florida, the
Primary Standard for lead in drinking water is 15 mg/L.

When trace metals are released into the environment, they present major problems
because they are not biodegradable. These pollutants tend to stay in the environment and
accumulate in foodwebs and ecosystems. In higher concentrations, other trace metals, like
arsenic and cadmium, can have adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial environments.
There are Primary Standards for other trace metals found in groundwater in Florida
(Florida DEP Ground Water Guidance Concentrations, 1994).

Biological Analytes

Spring water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli
(E. coli), and Enterococci. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring
water and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The pri-
mary source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When
detected in numbers that exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL), coliforms may
indicate that the spring has been contaminated by domestic sewage overflow or non-point
sources of human and animal waste. Measurements made on these biological analytes are
reported in colonies per 100 milliliters.

Total coliform bacteria are a group of closely related, mostly harmless bacteria that live
in the digestive tract of animals. The extent to which total coliforms are present in spring
water can indicate general water quality and the amount of fecal contamination. By further
examining fecal coliforms, E. coli and Enterococci, it is possible to estimate the amount of
human fecal contamination of the sample. Human contact with water that is contaminated
with fecal wastes can result in diseases of the digestive tract including gastroenteritis and
dysentery. Typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and cholera are also related to contact with fecally
contaminated water.

Currently, there are criteria for bacteriological quality in Florida's ground water.
Groundwater in the state has a limit on total coliform bacteria of 4 colonies per 100 milli-
liters. E. coli and Enterococci do not currently have water quality standards in Florida.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8. Jackson Blue Spring aerial photo (photo by J. Stevenson).






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL SPRINGS AND RESULTS OF ANALYSES

ALACHUA COUNTY


Hornsby Spring


Figure 9. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 290 51' 01.3" N, Long. 820 35' 35.5" W (NE 1/ NE 1/ SE 1/ sec. 27, T. 7 S, R.
17 E). Hornsby Spring is located on Camp Kalaukua 1.4 miles (2.3 km) north of High
Springs. From the intersection of US 441 and US 41 in High Springs, drive northeast on CR
236 and follow signs to Camp Kalaukua. The spring is inside the campgrounds about 300
ft (91 m) northwest of the camp entrance.

Description Hornsby Spring has a circular spring pool measuring 155 ft (48 m) north to
south and 147 ft (45 m) east to west. Its depth is 34.5 ft (10.6 m). The water is clear and
slightly greenish blue. The spring has an underwater limestone ledge on the north side
under a floating walkway. Algae patches are growing on limestone substrates. The spring
run flows generally westward into the Santa Fe River. A small spring boil is visible near
the wooden walkway. This spring is situated on the edge of the lowland floodplain of the
Santa Fe River. The floodplain is forested with cypress, gum, and maple. High ground on
the east side of the spring rises steeply to 6 ft (2 m) above water level, then gently rises to
approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) and is a rolling sandhills terrain. The uplands are open and
grassy.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HORNSBY SPRING


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Figure 10. Hornsby Spring location map.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 3. Hornsby Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1972
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.5 22.8
DO 0.47
pH 8.8 7.15
Sp. Cond. 390 494
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.511 -
Turbidity 0.15
Color 5 U
Alkalinity 130 163 J 163 A
Sp. Cond. 490 A
TDS 313
TSS 4 U
Cl 12 12 12
SO4 60 83 82
F 0.4 0.26 0.22
Nutrients
TOC 1I -
NO3 + N02 0.00 0.3 J 0.3
NH3+NH4 0.0111 0.0111
TKN 0.096 I 0.094 I
P 0.073 0.072
PO4 0.075


A=Average Value


2001
Analytes 1972
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 5.7 74.3 74.2
K 0.6 1 0.98
Na 8.5 8.46 8.55
Mg 9.6 12.8 12.6
As 3U 3U
Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 35 U 35 U
Mn 16.7 16.2
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 1140
Zn 5U 5U


U.K= Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit


I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit



Utilization Hornsby Spring is the center feature of Camp Kalaukua, and it is developed
into a swimming and recreation area. There are numerous boardwalks over and around the
spring. A slide leads into the spring pool on the north side. Full facilities are located near-
by.


Discharge Historical measurements were
obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al., 1977).
All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


April 19, 1972
April 25, 1975
October 16, 2001


250
76
14.1


Table 4. Hornsby Spring
bacteriological analysis.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 10 Q
Enterococci 4 Q
Fecal Coliform 6 Q
Total Coliform 20 Q


Water Quality-Analyses conducted by the Florida
Geological Survey and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of
Laboratories. Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31, Revised
(Rosenau et al., 1977).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BAY COUNTY

Gainer Springs Group


Figure 11. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott).


Figure 12. Gainer Springs Group
Vent 2 (photo by H. Means).


Group Location Lat. 300 25' N, Long. 850 32' W
(southern half of sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Gainer
springs complex is located 0.4 miles (0.7 km) down-
stream from the SR 20 bridge on Econfina Creek It
is best accessed by canoe, however, there is a gated
dirt track on Northwest Florida Water Management
District (NWFWMD) land that leads to the springs
group on the east side of the creek.

Group Description At least 5 known springs asso-
ciated with Gainer Springs Group are along both
sides of Econfina Creek. The uplands surrounding
this group are high rolling sand hills that are forest-
ed with sand pine plantations and patches of longleaf
pine-turkey oak community. High ground adjoining
the west side of the creek near Spring No. 2 and
Spring No. 3 rises to 27 ft (8 m) above water surface
and is densely forested with mixed hardwoods and
pines. The creek floodplain is forested with cypress
and hardwoods. Land on the west side of the






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Econfina Creek at Gainer Springs is owned by Patronis, Inc (out of Panama City, Fla). The
east side of the creek is owned and managed by the NWFWMD.

GAINER SPRING NO. 1C Lat. 300 25' 39.6" N, Long. 850 32' 46.0" W (SW14 NW14 SE14 sec.
4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Gainer Spring Nos. 1A, 1B, and 1C form a 820 ft (250 m) long spring
run that enters Econfina Creek on the east side directly across from Spring No. 2. Spring
No. 1C is the first spring encountered approximately 495 ft (150 m) upstream from the
creek, and its pool is adjacent to the run on the southeast side. Spring pool dimensions are
approximately 72 ft (22 m) east to west and 33 ft (10 m) north to south. Water issues upward
from a vertical tunnel in the limestone. Shell and sand particles are suspended in the spring
flow. Pool depth is 20 ft (6.1 m) measured over the vent opening. There is very little aquat-
ic vegetation, however, algae patches in spring pool are common. The adjoining, swampy
lowlands are heavily forested with cypress and mixed hardwoods. The nearest uplands to
the southeast support a mixed hardwood and pine forest. There is no high ground adjacent
to the spring pool.

GAINER SPRING NO. 2 Lat. 300 25' 38.6" N, Long. 850 32' 54.0" W (SW/4 NE14 SW/4 sec.
4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). This spring is located directly across from the mouth of Gainer Spring
No. 1 run along the west side of Econfina Creek. Spring water issues forcefully from the
base of the riverbank and forms a pool along the edge of the creek. Pool diameter is approx-
imately 60 ft (18 m) east to west and 62 ft (17 m) north to south. Pool depth is 5 ft (1.5 m).
Vent diameter is approximately 5 ft (1.5 m). There is little or no aquatic vegetation, but
patches of dark green algae are present. The water is light greenish blue. A concrete wall
forms the south side of the spring pool. Two parallel pipes that extract drinking water run
from inside the spring vent toward the top of the bluff and beyond. There are at least three
other smaller vents issuing from the bank just above this spring. A 23 ft (7 m) high bluff
meets Econfina Creek at Spring No. 2. A mixed hardwood and pine forest inhabits the bluff
face and high ground.

GAINER SPRING NO. 3 Lat. 300 25' 44.3" N, Long. 850 32' 53.9" W (NE/4 NE14 SW/4 sec.
4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). This spring is located along the west side of Econfina Creek, and is about
655 ft (200 m) upstream of Spring No. 2. It is at the head of a 325 ft (100 m) long spring
run. There are at least three vent complexes in the combined spring pool. The depression
is large and mostly shallow with a sandy bottom and limestone boulders. The combined
spring pool diameter is about 305 ft (93 m) east to west and 125 ft (39 m) north to south.
There is a forested island in the center of the combined spring pool. Some emergent vege-
tation exists along the pool's shores, but there is very little aquatic vegetation. Dark green
algal mats are ubiquitous throughout the bottom of the spring pool. The western vent issues
out of a limestone sidewall and has a small boardwalk nearby. The north vent where water
quality was sampled is the largest and deepest. This spring is about 15 ft (5 m) south of a
wooden wall presumably constructed for shore erosion management. Light greenish blue
water issues vertically from the bottom of a 16 ft (5 m) diameter conical depression and pro-
duces a boil at the surface. The depression is 7.4 ft (2.3 m) deep over the vent. Vent diam-
eter is about 1.5 ft (.5 m). On the eastern side of the combined spring pool, there are at least
3 other vents. Uphill to the north, there are picnic tables under a pavilion in a grassy open-
ing. The rest of the uplands adjoining the spring pool to the west are forested with mixed
hardwoods and pines.

Utilization Gainer Spring No. 2 is owned by Patronis, a bottled-water company. Econfina







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GAINER SPRINGS GROUP


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Figure 13. Gainer Springs Group location map.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 5. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses.


Vent #1 Vent #2 Vent #3
Analytes 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 21.0 21.5 21.1 22.0 21.4 21.1 21.5 21.6
DO 2.8 2.12 2.5 2.27 3.0 2.18
pH 7.4 7.9 8.00 7.3 7.8 8.19 7.2 7.8 8.20
Sp. Cond. 115 127 142 82 108 113 115 125 121
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U 0.2 U 0.2 U
Turbidity 0.25 0.2 0.1
Color 2 5 5U 7 5 5U 2 10 5 U
Alkalinity 57 55 66 67 38 48 52 52 A 53 54 56 56
Sp. Cond. 160 130 A 130
TDS 79 60 61
TSS 4U 4U 4U
Cl 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 2.0 2.3 2.3 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8
SO4 1.6 0.0 2.4 2.5 0.4 0.0 2.3 2.3 0.8 0.0 2.1 2
F 0.1 0.1 0.0341 0.0351 0.1 0.1 0.031 0.0291 0.2 0.1 0.031 0.0291
Nutrients
TOC 1.1 I 0.0 1.21 1U
NO3+NO,2 0.10 0.17 0.16 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.09 0.19 0.18
NH3+NH4 0.038 0.01U 0.035 0.01 U 0.01U 0.01 U
TKN 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U
P 0.014 0.014 0.02 .013A 0.013 0.013 0.012
PO4 0.08 0.015 0.48 0.02 0.012 0.15 0.012
Metals
Ca 19 19 22.7 22.5 13 16 17.5 17.2 18 17 18.1 17.8
K 0.2 0.3 0.26 0.26 0.2 0.2 0.25 0.25 0.1 0.2 0.24 0.25
Na 2.0 1.8 1.64 1.44 1.7 1.4 1.45 1.34 1.9 1.8 1.68 1.61
Mg 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.9
As 3U 3U 10 3U 3U 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75U 75 U
B 10U 10U 10U
Cd 0.75 U 0.5U 0 0.75 U 0.5U 0.75 U 0.5 U
Co 0.75 U 0 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 0.7 U 0.5U 0 0.7U 0.5U 0.7U 0.5 U
Cu 2U 2U 0 2U 2U 2U 2U
Fe 25U 20 U 30 25U 20U 25 U 20 U
n 0.5 U 0.5U 0 0.5 U 0.5U 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U
Pb 5U 3U 2 5U 3U 5U 3U
Se 3.5 U 3.5U 3.5U 3.5U 3.5U 3.5U
Sn 9U 9U 9U
Sr 80 76.1 70 41.5 50 42.4
Zn 4U 3.5 U 30 4U 3.5 U 4U 3.5U
A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Creek flows into Deerpoint Lake, which is a public water supply utilized by the community
in Panama City area. Land around the spring group is pristine and forested. Swimming
and canoeing occur frequently in all of Gainer Springs.

Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). Discharge reported here represents the total flow of the Gainer Springs complex. All
discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


April 11, 1962
September 11, 1962
January 30, 1963
September 26, 2001


150
174
159
556


Table 6. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Vent No. 1 Vent No. 2 Vent No. 3
Escherichia coli 10 Q 6 Q 4 Q
Enterococci 10 Q 18 Q 8 Q
Fecal Coliform 14 Q 18 Q 12 Q
Total Coliform 100 Q 100 Q 80 Q






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


CITRUS COUNTY

Chassahowitzka Springs Group


Figure 14. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means).

Smnnnrimn frifTwT


Figure 15. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Group Location Lat. 280 42' N, Long. 820 34' W (both spring vents are located in the cen-
ter of sec. 26, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). The springs are 5.5 miles (9 km) southwest of the town of
Homosassa Springs on the Chassahowitzka River. From Homosassa Springs, drive south on
US 98/19 3.5 miles (5.8 km) from town. Turn west on CR 480 and follow down to the public
boat access area at the end, about 1.5 miles (2.5 km).

Group Description Chassahowitzka Springs form the headwaters of the Chassahowitzka
River, which flows westerly to the Gulf of Mexico approximately 6 miles (10 km) through low
coastal hardwood hammock and marsh. As many as five springs flow into the upper part of
the river (Rosenau et al., 1977). The entire river is tidally influenced.

CHASSAHOWITZKA MAIN SPRING Lat. 28 42' 55.9" N, Long. 820 34' 34.3" W (NE 1 NE
% SW % sec. 26, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). This spring is at the head of a large pool that measures
147 ft (45 m) north to south and 135 ft (41 m) east to west. Depth measured over the vent
is 13.5 ft (4.1 m). The spring is surrounded by lowland hardwood swamp forest with mixed
hardwoods, cypress, and palm. Water is clear and greenish. The spring run from
Chassahowitzka No. 1 Spring flows into the spring pool from the east. There is a boat ramp
with facilities on the southwest side of the pool. Aquatic vegetation is common, including
Hydrilla and algae. No limestone was exposed. Spring has sandy bottom. Boil is visible at
low tide.

CHASSAHOWITZKA NO. 1 Lat. 280 42' 58.3" N, Long. 820 34' 30.3" W (NW 1 NW 1 SE
% sec. 26, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues vertically from a small cavern in bedrock
limestone. The spring pool measures 69 ft (21 m) north to south and 81 ft (25 m) east to
west. Depth over the vent is 8.3 ft (2.5 m). There is an inundated natural bridge of lime-
stone over the vent, causing two
entrances. A small tannic stream flows Table 7. Chassahowitzka Springs Group bac-
into the northeast side of the spring pool. teriological analyses.
There is a thin layer of algae covering | Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) I


most of the bedrock limestone bottom of
the spring pool. The surroundings are
low lying land heavily forested with
hardwoods and palm. The spring run
flows southwest approximately 350 ft


Analyte Main No. 1
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 20 Q


(107 m) and into Chassahowitzka Main
Spring pool. Several other spring vents boil up from the bottom of the spring run about half
way to the Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool.

Utilization Chassahowitzka Springs and River are within the Chassahowitzka National
Wildlife Refuge (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). They are used for swimming, snorkeling,
and pleasure boating. Manatees frequent the springs and river year round, especially in
winter.

Discharge The average discharge from 1930 through 1972 (81 measurements) was 138.5
ft3/s (Rosenau et al., 1977). Current discharge estimate is provisional.

Maximum (May 18, 1966) 197.0 ft3/s
Minimum (July 8, 1964) 31.8 ft'/s
October 15, 2001 53 ft3/s







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85




CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRINGS GROUP
H. omosassa
I Springs


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Figure 16. Chassahowhitzka Springs Group location map.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 8. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses.


Main No. 1
Analytes 1946 1970 1971 1972 1975 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 23.9 26.0 24.5 23.5 22.2 22.9 23.2
DO 6.1 5.4 3.68 4.10
pH 7.5 8.2 7.6 8.2 7.65 7.71
Sp. Cond. 470 500 530 1370 564 2790 1080
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 2.5 0.2 U 0.2 AU
Turbidity 3 2 1.3 0.45
Color 8 10 10 10 10 5 U 5 U
Alkalinity 140 140 140 130 150 152 150 152 A
Sp. Cond. 2800 1100 A
TDS 1470 562
TSS 4U 4U -
Cl 53 70 79 320 110 680 680 220 200
SO4 13 13 16 56 21 110 110 39 40
F 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.13 J 0.11 0.12 J 0.11
Nutrients
TOC U 1U
NO3+N2O, 0.26 0.45 J 0.46 J 0.49 J 0.5 J
NH3+NH4 -- 0.01 U 0.025 0.01 U 0.011
TKN 0.121 0.121 0.0861 0.11
P 0.033 0.02 0.018 0.018
PO4 -- 0.021 0.021
Metals
Ca 49 46 48 55 47 65.2 63.4 54.5 52.8
K 1.5 1.6 1.8 6.3 2.5 14.7 14.3 4.8 4.5
Na 29 36 40 180 60 393 411 131 121
Mg 13 11 13 29 13 54.5 54.2 23.5 22.3
As 3U 3U 7U 3U
Al 75 U 75U
B 186 681
Cd 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U
Co 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe -- 921 381 35 U 35U
Mn -- 4.1 1.5 I 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 5 - U 4U 5U 4U
Se -- 8.6 U 4U 8.6 U 4U
Sn 20 U 20 U
Sr 200 200 800 310 511 262
Zn 5U 5U 5U 5U
A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Homosassa Springs Group


Figure 17. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by J. Stevenson).


Group Location Lat. 280 47' 57.6" N, Long. 820 35' 17.2" W (NE 1 SW 1 NE 14 sec. 28, T.
19 S, R. 17 E). The springs are located in the town of Homosassa Springs on the Homosassa
River. From US 98 in Homosassa Springs, turn west on CR 490A, then south on access road
to Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park. Spring vent, through which all three vents issue,
is just below the underwater viewing platform in the manatee rehabilitation area. Actual
spring vents are within a cave system.

Group Description Homosassa Springs Group forms the head of the Homosassa River,
which flows west approximately 6 miles (10 km) to the Gulf of Mexico. Downstream from
the head springs about a mile, Halls River flows in from the north. The entire river system
is tidally influenced.

HOMOSASSA SPRINGS NOS. 1, 2, and 3 All three vents issue out of the same spring pool.
The pool measures 189 ft (58 m) north to south and 285 ft (89 m) east to west. Depth for
each of the vents is 67, 65, and 62 ft (20.4, 19.8, and 18.8 m) for spring nos. 1, 2, and 3,
respectively. The springs issue from a conical depression with limestone outcropped along
the sides and bottom of the spring pool. Pool is teeming with saltwater and freshwater fish-
es. Water is clear and light blue. There is a large boil in center of pool. Surrounding land
is Gulf Coastal Lowlands with thick hardwood-palm forest cover. Approximately 1000 ft
(305 m) downstream, a fence spans across the river to keep boats out of the spring pool.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HOMOSASSA SPRINGS GROUP


Gu


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. .
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2-


A. Mexico


1.1 2 5 A.\h/


0 Spnng Locaoons

Incorporated Place;


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SPRING GROUP I



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I Homosassa
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Count\


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ISprings I


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sa
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.2 C It n t I tT 7/ 1 5 Iet'
i l i.- -i '


Figure 18. Homosassa Springs Group location map.


Lecanto







i, :: : [ I ,.. : '


CH.A55. HOWtTZK-A
5PiNCS CROUP


Sugarmill
Woods


State Highta\ s


-H L High a\


' I "


,


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J "


.I' :. - .. r
i-' "'

_d _







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 9. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses.

1972 1972 No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
1972 1972
Analytes 1956 1966 2001 2001 2001
6 (apr)(oc) Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.6
DO 4.3 3.97 3.86 4.09
pH 8.2 7.5 6.9 7.9 7.67 7.62 7.81
Sp. Cond. 2590 2900 2370 3740 5250 6330 1980
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.1 0.681 0.861 0.761
Turbidity 1 1.3 0.5 0.25
Color 3 0 0 10 5U 5U 5 U
Alkalinity 110 110 120 110 120 115 120 117 110 112
Sp. Cond. 5200 6200 2000
TDS 2830 3310 1020
TSS 4U 4U 4U -
Cl 680 780 640 1100 1500 1500 1900 1900 520 510
SO4 95 111 84 150 220 220 260 260 74 72
F 0.3 0.2 2.0 0.14 0.12 0.14 0.13 0.1 0.0931
Nutrients
TOC 0 1U 1U U -
NO3+NO, 0.26 0.20 0.51 0.51 J 0.5 0.5 J 0.53 0.55 J
NH3+NH4 0.028 0.021 0.034 0.026 0.011 0.0121
TKN 0.151 0.121 0.131 0.121 0.0911 0.111
P 0.02 0.028 0.029 I 0.034 I 0.029 0.048 Q 0.026
PO4 0.01 0.018 J 0.021 J 0.011 J
Metals
Ca 54 55 48 65 69.2 70 75.8 77.3 47.6 46.3 A
K 18 12 20 28.8 29.8 35.5 35.5 9.84 0.45
Na 420 340 600 815 814 972 986 267 3.7
Mg 56 57 48 86 100 103 123 124 39.1 37.5 A
As 0 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U
B 60 344 422 125
Al 75 U 75 U 75U
Cd 0 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U 0.75U
Co 0 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 0 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 0 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 10 300 891 190 521 370 35U
Mn 0 21.4 13.5 5.8 4.9 19.9 0.5 U
Ni 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5U 1.5 U
Pb 0 5U 4U 5U 4U 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U
Sn 10U 10U 10U
Sr 490 5000 858 1030 372
Zn 10 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U
A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Manatees frequent the spring pool and river year round, especially in winter. The springs
are tidally influenced.

Utilization The main spring pool and adjacent land are within Homosassa Springs State
Wildlife Park. The area is developed into an interpretive center for manatee and Florida
wildlife education. There is a floating observation deck in the spring pool with a downstairs
aquatic observation room with glass windows. Injured and rehabilitating manatees are cap-
tive in the spring pool for year round observation. Swimming is not allowed.

Discharge The average discharge for Homosassa main spring from 1931 through 1974 (90
measurements) was 106 ft3/s (Rosenau et al., 1977). Current discharge estimate is provi-
sional.
Maximum (August 18, 1966) 165 ft3/s
Minimum (September 19, 1972) 80 ft'/s
October 16, 2001 87 ft3/s


Table 10. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Kings Bay Springs Group


Figure 19. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

..... ...ce~~ ~ur--


Figure 20. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means).


39






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Group Location Lat. 280 53' N, Long. 820 35' W (sections 28 and 21, T. 18 S, R 17 E). The
springs are located in Kings Bay west of the City of Crystal River. Kings Bay is approxi-
mately 60 miles (96 km) north of Tampa and 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Ocala.

Group Description Kings Bay is the head of Crystal River. There are about 30 known
springs, including Tarpon Hole and Hunter Spring, that either issue from the bottom of
Kings Bay or flow into the bay from side creek heads. Their combined flow feeds Crystal
River, which flows approximately 7 miles (11 km) west to the Gulf of Mexico. Surrounding
land is Gulf Coastal Lowlands with brackish marsh and hardwood-palm hammock to the
west and the City of Crystal River to the east. The whole system is tidally influenced, and
Kings Bay is brackish. Rosenau et al. (1977) referred to these springs as the Crystal River
Springs Group.

HUNTER SPRING Lat. 280 53' 40.0" N, Long. 820 35' 33.0" W (NW 1 SW 1 SE 1 sec. 21,
T. 18 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues vertically from the bottom of a conical depression near
the head of a side creek channel feeding the eastside of Kings Bay. Another spring is at the
head of the channel. Hunter Spring pool is circular and measures 210 ft (64 m) in diameter.
Depth measured over the vent is 13 ft (4 m). Spring has sandy bottom with some limestone
near the vent. The spring bottom is choked with dark green filamentous algae, and some
Hydrilla is present. Water is clear and bluish. There is a large boil in pool center. Land on
the north rises to approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above water and is a county maintained recre-
ational park. Land on all other sides of spring pool is extensively developed with apart-
ments and houses. A concrete sea wall entirely surrounds pool except for outflow and inflow.
There is a square swimming dock floating in the center of the spring pool. This spring was
closed to swimming during summer 2001 due to high coliform bacteria levels detected in the
water (Eric Dehaven, SWFWMD, pers. comm.).

TARPON HOLE SPRING Lat. 280 52' 54.6" N, Long. 820 35' 41.3" W (NW 1 NW 1 SW 1
sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues from a deep, conical depression underneath
Kings Bay on the south side of Banana Island. The spring pool measures approximately 450
ft (137 m) north to south and 550 ft (168 m) east to west. Depth measured over the vent is
58 ft (17.6m). Water is typically clear and bluish, but can be cloudy during high tide. There
is a large boil present in center of pool. Visibility was low when visited in October 2001.
Algae cover limestone substrates. Vent is a large circular hole in limestone. Nearby islands
to the north are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge and have marsh grasses
and hardwood-palm hammock. Land to the east is privately owned with many houses and
a marina. This spring is a favorite scuba diving location and manatee observation area.

Utilization All of Kings Bay and most of its springs are used for swimming, manatee
observation, pleasure boating, and scuba diving. The west side of Kings Bay and some
islands within are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. The city of Crystal
River nearly adjoins the east side of Kings Bay.

Discharge Jones et al. (1998): 975 ft3/s







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


KINGS BAY SPRINGS GROUP


Citrus


- C .


G u If


of



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Incorporated Place;


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SPRINGS GROUP


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SHunter Spring
1 '-1"" -%. . ,

Isla -d ".- .- ,, -'
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Col' tlur In teT,7/15 teet
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:-


Figure 21. Kings Bay Spring Group location map.


Springs -


**9 2E

I Tarpon Hole
Spring .


Ii/Ai


- -.'r,, j-t -


29


k.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 11. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses.


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.9 23.0 -
DO 2.09 5.09 -
pH 7.72 8.02 -
Sp. Cond. 2130 541 -
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U 0.2 AU -
Turbidity 6.8 0.95 -
Color 5 U 5U -
Alkalinity 124 123 87 87
Sp. Cond. 2200 530 -
TDS 960 263 Q
TSS 4 U 4 U -
Cl 540 550 96 94
SO4 78 81 20 20
F 0.0911 0.12 A 0.065 I 0.0711
Nutrients
TOC 1 U 1U -
NO3 +NO2 0.17 0.18 J 0.4 0.39 J
NH3+NH4 0.01 U 0.014 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN 0.0841 0.12I 0.06 U 0.06 U
P 0.042 0.033 I 0.023 0.024
PO4 0.029 0.028


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 52.8 53.9 30.6 31 A
K 10.2 10.3 2.1 2 A
Na 289 290 54.9 52.9 A
Mg 39.4 40 10.4 10.3 A
As 3U 3U 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75 U
B 128 33 1
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 130 I 35 U 35 U 35 U
Mn 13.4 7.2 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 2U 2U 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U 4U 4U
Sn 10 U 10 U
Sr 362 131
Zn 5U 5U 5U 5U


A= Avera
ge Valt e L ,K= Com Dound no t de
I=Value is less than practical quan station limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit


Table 12. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses.


Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Tarpon Hole Hunter
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


COLUMBIA COUNTY

Columbia Spring


~- ~ - "-


Figure 22. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).


Location Lat. 290 51' 14.8" N, Long. 820 36' 43.0" W (NW14 SE14 NE14 sec. 28, T. 7 S, R.
17 E). Columbia Spring is located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of High Springs on the Santa
Fe River and can be accessed by small boat. From High Springs, drive north on US 441/41.
Turn left at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. Spring is in a cove on
the northeast bank of the river, 900 ft (275 m) downstream from the boat ramp.

Description Columbia Spring has an oval shaped pool that measures 75 ft (23 m) north to
south and 150 ft (46 m) east to west. Depth is 25 ft (7.6 m). Water is typically clear, but
was tannic in October 2001. It has a 30 ft (9 m) wide spring run that flows approximately
600 ft (183 m) westward to the Santa Fe River. There are native aquatic grasses in the
spring run and some algae is present on most substrates. Spring run has a jagged limestone
and sandy bottom. There is a 1-2 ft (0.5 m) tall man-made line of rocks that stretches across
the spring run about 90 ft (27 m) west of the vent. The entire spring and spring run are
within the lowland flood plain of the Santa Fe River. The flood plain in this area is heavily
forested with cypress and other swamp inhabiting hardwoods. The nearest high ground is
approximately 600 ft (183 m) east of the spring, and it rises to nearly 10 ft (3 m) above the
flood plain. It is generally forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. A house sits atop the
high ground to the east of the spring.

Utilization This privately owned spring is a local swimming hole with pristine surround-
ings.


Discharge November 1, 2001:


39.5 ft"/s







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


COLUMBIA SPRING

SICHE TUCKNEE
SPRINCS CROUP


Fort'
White


I SPHON CREEK
RiSE



DE il t SEAR
SPRING
i - -i -


Riter; Inter;tate;


Count\


State Ihghtha\ s


Water Li S HLgha\


.) .;. ,' / ,. .- -, -'
,9 .' .. .-v- -- -I.- c,, C,
.-' *. _- .... t..rI > .t.
-:7


S/ Columbia Spng



R: I k&

I s'"
' Horns -- .S n-- S r


/ /, ..... i _' --"
,,. t _. i .. .. -- :) -, ;-- I
t . ...
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_~ ', I == ;, ,
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N iu.e Srce I 241 11.1 USGS ToI.,tLrlC,7hL Quadheelt'
Con itLr Itn tervl 5 eet
I. 1.1 5 u 5 ,\Alhe


Figure 23. Columbia Spring location map.


SPRi.C


I





- l --U


2 5 5 ,AlUe


Spring Locaoon;

incorporated Place;


.

_


I;;


, f







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 13. Columbia Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 20
AnalyteUnfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.4 -
DO 2.29
pH 7.19
Sp. Cond. 270
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.23 I
Turbidity 2.1 -
Color 250
Alkalinity 54 54
Sp. Cond. 270
TDS 217
TSS 4U -
Cl 28 27
SO4 34 34
F 0.14 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 39 -
NO3 +N02 0.089 0.088 J
NH3+NH4 0.062 0.038
TKN 1.3 1.1
P 0.3 0.21
PO4 0.19


2001
Analytes 2
Ana s Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 33.6 31.5
K 2 1.8
Na 12.7 12
Mg 7.1 6.6
As 3U 3U
Al 530
B 291
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 640 500
Mn 30.3 23.9
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 358
Zn 5 5U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Table 14. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 26 Q
Enterococci 158 Q
Fecal Coliform 38 Q
Total Coliform 340 Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ichetucknee Springs Group


3~ ,,.+.'.+. "+. + T~-
c-,

Figure 24. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott).

k4K' 4.- :, ': E, :', ,. ;' + .J-t!f ,:r ,::
:, ,,:,-,, ': ',. : -'+ im .I.,;pI t. ,-."ji l~d~r-'.Ii ... .r .= l


Figure 25. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott).






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Group Location Lat. 290 59' N, Long. 820 45' W (section 12, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., section 7, T
6 S, R 16 E). The Ichetucknee Springs Group is located within the Ichetucknee Springs
State Park approximately 10 miles (16.5 km) northeast of Branford. From Brandford, drive
east on US 27 for 7 miles (11.2 km). Turn north onto CR 137 and continue for 1.3 miles (2
km). Turn right and go 4.2 miles (6.8 km) through the north park entrance to the parking
area.

Group Description These springs comprise a group of nine named and many unnamed
springs along the upper 2.5 mile (4 km) stretch of the Ichetucknee River. The most norther-
ly spring forms the head of the river and is named Ichetucknee Spring. From here, the river
flows about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south, then 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest to discharge into the
darker tannic water of the Santa Fe River. Of the springs sampled for water quality, all are
located within Columbia County except for Ichetucknee Head Spring, which is located just
inside Suwannee County.

ICHETUCKNEE HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 59' 03.1" N, Long. 820 45' 42.7" (SE 1 NE 1 NE
1 sec. 12, T. 6 S, R. 15 E). This spring forms the head of the Itchetucknee River. The spring
pool measures 102 ft (31 m) east to west and 87 ft (27 m) north to south. Depth measures
17 ft (5m) over the vent. Water is clear and sky blue and issues vertically from a crack in
the bedrock limestone forming a visible boil. A thin, transparent layer of algae carpets most
of the bottom of the spring. Spring has sandy and rocky bottom with little or no aquatic veg-
etation. North and east shorelines have thick emergent grass and shrubs, west shore is near
high ground sloping to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) above water. All surrounding land is
densely forested. Restroom facilities are about 200 ft (61 m) west. This spring is easily
accessed by a path and is a well used swimming hole.

BLUE HOLE Lat. 290 58' 49.9" N, Long. 820 45' 30.4" (SW 1 SW 1 NW 1 sec. 7, T. 6 S, R.
15 E). This spring is located in the spring run channel of Cedar Head Spring, which is north
of Blue Hole. The spring pool and outflow greatly widens the incoming spring run, and
the combined run flows south a short distance to the Ichetucknee River. The spring pool
measures 87 ft (27 m) east to west and 117 ft (36 m) north to south. Depth measured over
the vent is 37 ft (11.3 m). The water is sky blue, and the boil is visible on the pool surface.
Water issues vertically from a cavern in bedrock limestone. The pool has a sandy and rocky
bottom with abundant aquatic grass and some algae. Land around spring is heavily forest-
ed with mixed hardwoods and palm. Spring run is fenced off approximately 100 ft (31 m)
south of vent. This is a swimming spot with a wooden boardwalk for spring access. A foot
path leads to the spring from the north.

CEDAR HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 58' 59.8" N, Long. 820 45' 31.3" (SW 1 NW 1 NW 1 sec.
7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This is a small spring at the head of a stream that flows south into Blue
Hole Spring. Spring pool is approximately 20 ft (6 m) east to west. Depth measures 6 ft (1.8
m) over the vent. No boil was present on the pool surface during October 2001 visit,
although outflow stream was flowing lightly. The bottom is sandy with logs and particulate
deposition. Water is clear but doesn't appear blue due to dark particulate layer on bottom.
The vent is a small upwelling in the sand. A steep bank is along the west side of the spring
and rises to 8 ft (2 m) above water level. There is higher ground 150 ft (46 m) east of spring
across a small lowland flood plain. Cypress, gum, and maple forest occur in lowlands near
water with mixed hardwood forest on higher ground. Access is limited to an obscure foot
path from the west. The spring is not used for swimming because of low water level and lim-
ited access.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGS GROUP

COLUMBIA
12 49 COUNTY 4

ICHETUCKNEE



41
-Ii u / SPRINGS GROUP






6 BFort





OU TY ,s
/ COUNTY 0 2 Miles

S Spring Locations Rivers hInterstates State Highways
Incorporated Places County Water U.S Highways





O-/ I i . . Co o' u T .n.'1 i.--SIPHON CREEK-elf,
______ I U1 5 Miles
SSpring Locations Rivers Interstates State Highways






C2 r








) Iicji l
(~ I\^ <> 0 r otu nevl5 etJ ^ > -i-- -f /y

j^/rT^TA~ 0 12 _Mi l^


Figure 26 Ichetucknee Springs Group location map.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 15. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses.


Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Analytes 1946 1975 2001 2001 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.2 21.0 22.0 21.9 21.9 21.8
DO 4.5 3.52 2.01 2.98 0.63
pH 7.7 7.6 7.91 7.49 7.41 7.91
Sp. Cond. 329 290 319 287 299 312
Lab Analytes
BOD 2.0 0.2 UJ 0.2 UJ 0.2 UJ 0.2 UAJ
Turbidity 1 0.05 U 0.1 0.05 U 0.05 U
Color 0 1 5U 5 U 5U 5U -
Alkalinity 140 154 154 145 145 151 151 148 147
Sp. Cond. 320 290 300 310
TDS 183 171 168 172
TSS 0 4U 4U 4U 4U
Cl 3.6 4.4 3.6 3.7 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.9 5.4 5.4 A
SO4 8.4 6.9 8.3 8.5 4.8 4.9 5.3 5.4 8.7 8.8 A
F 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.097 0.11 0.11 0.A 0.1 0.0911 0.14 0.13
Nutrients
TOC 0.0 1U 1U 1U 1U
N03 + N02 0.37 0.83 0.84 0.7 0.72 0.86 0.89 0.51 0.53
NH3+NH4 0.015 I 0.012 I 0.011 0.01 U 0.011 0.011 I 0.01 U 0.019
TKN 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U
P 0.05 0.023 0.022 J 0.048 0.048 J 0.033 0.034 J 0.059 0.05 JA
P04 0.05 0.02 0.044 0.027 0.056
Metals
Ca 58 52 54.5 52.5 47.9 48.4 54 51.2 49.7 48.6
K 0.3 0.3 0.15 0.14 0.31 0.33 0.22 0.22 0.46 0.48
Na 3.1 3.4 2.12 2.02 2.67 2.45 2.37 2.26 3.65 3.53
Mg 6.6 6.0 5.8 5.8 4.7 4.8 5.3 5.2 6.3 6.4
As 1 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75 U 75 U 75 U
B 25 U 25 U 25 U 25 U
Cd 0 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 3 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 4.41 2.5 U
Fe 30 340 35 U 20 U 35 U 20 U 35 U 20 U 35 U 20 U
Mn 20 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 0 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 7 5U 4U 5U 4U 5U 4U 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U 4U
Sn 10 U 10 U 10 U 10 U
Sr 170 156 76 105 107
Zn 0 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U 5U
A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MISSION SPRINGS Lat. 290 58' 34.4" N, Long. 820 45' 28.4" (SE 14 NW 14 SW 14 sec. 7, T.
6 S, R. 15 E). Mission Springs is comprised of two springs that emerge from the base of high
banks about 250 ft (76 m) east of the Ichetucknee River. A small spring vent, with very low
discharge, is located at the head of two shallow spring runs and is sometimes referred to as
Singing Springs. One of its small runs flows northwest and the other flows southwest. Both
meet the river approximately 250 ft (76 m) from each other. There is a high, forested island
with steep limestone banks on its north side is the two spring runs. Another spring, some-
times referred to as Roaring Springs, discharges forcefully out of a cavern in a limestone
ledge on the north side of the island into the northwest flowing run. At this point, the trick-
ling northwest run becomes a high velocity, turbulent run with swaying aquatic grasses.
Water quality was sampled for Roaring Springs. Its spring pool measures 10 ft (3 m) east
to west and 15 ft (5 m) north to south. Depth measured near the limestone ledge is 3 ft (1
m). The ledge rises steeply to approximately 12 ft (4 m) above the water level. Water is clear
and bluish. Algae coat the aquatic grasses in the spring run. The uplands east of the spring
rise to nearly 20 ft (6 m) above the springs and are heavily forested with mixed hardwoods
lower and pines on the hilltops. An historic Spanish mission once stood atop the high
ground approximately 200 ft (61 ft) east of the springs.

Utilization The springs, river, and surrounding forested land are owned by Ichetucknee
Springs State Park from the US 27 bridge northward. The park is a high quality natural
area that is partly developed and whose heavy public use is highly regulated in order to not
disturb the natural quality. Camping, hiking, swimming, tubing, and canoeing are some of
the activities that are offered in the state park

Discharge Historical discharge rate for Ichetucknee Springs Group was obtained from
Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al., 1977).

May 17, 1946 197.2 ft3/s
October 3, 2001 186 ft3/s




Table 16. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ 2 Q 1 AKQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ 42 Q 1 AKQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 2 Q 1 AKQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 20 Q 1 AKQ






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Santa Fe River Rise


Figure 27. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 290 52' 26.0" N, Long. 820 35' 29.9" W. (SW14SW 1 SW1 sec. 14, T. 7 S, R.
17 E). River rise is 3 miles (5 km) north of High Springs on the Santa Fe River within River
Rise State Preserve. Drive north on US 441/41 from High Springs and follow signs to the
river rise. During low water levels, spring must be accessed by land.

Description Santa Fe Rise is the re-emergence of the underground Santa Fe River. The
spring pool measures 175 ft (53 m) east to west and 165 ft (50 m) north to south. There is
a vertical limestone ledge on the northeast side of the pool, and the depth just south meas-
ures 49 ft (15m). The water color is typically that of the Santa Fe River, which may be tan-
nic or clear depending mainly on rainfall. No boil was observed during the October 2001
visit. The river flows southward from the vent and is approximately as wide (east to west)
as the spring pool. There is a narrow band of cypress growing around pool perimeter. There
are patches of duckweed around the periphery of the pool, and no aquatic vegetation could
be seen through the tannic water. Several hundred yards of the Santa Fe River below Santa
Fe Rise is choked with water hyacinth, and boat access to the rise is nearly impossible. Land
around the river rise quickly rises to approximately 8 ft (2.5 m) above water level and lev-
els off into a flat mesic hardwood hammock.

Utilization The Santa Fe River Rise is a pristine, state-owned natural area.

Discharge January 2, 2002: less than 75 ft3/s (D. Hornsby, pers. comm.).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




SANTA FE RIVER RISE




A:N TE E
l 1 PRi P
Fort --- 1 1
White I
III



SiPHON CREEK COLLUBil TREE HOiSEI
RiSE SPR'NC ,PR.I.
S- ; r i La Cros
I -, HORNSB) La Cros
SI PRiv |

DE.i..L S R -
SPRINC

SSprings -

orI .\.Alachua -


..2 5 5 I -
I II

0 Spring Locaton; Ri.er; Inter ,ate; State ihgh-,a\

S incorporated Place; Count\ 1ater L S High.a\.

--


,* I 1
I 1 T-) S
D El g . I i, '* ") - ' .'
-- H 0












II
___ _1 __ ______ -_ -- 1.




-'15 14.f'







Figure 28. Santa Fe River Rise location map
-- --- M -







-C - .-- - .. 5 ' -t . - '
'. -I ,.1 ,, '- .../ *, -- ' .' .-" I
| i2" u l '5-_ .. .Al.... ,


Figure 28. Santa Fe River Rise location map.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 17. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes
Analytes Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.5 -
DO 3.5
pH 6.67
Sp. Cond. 259
Lab Analytes
BOD 1.8 -
Turbidity 1.9
Color 250
Alkalinity 43 J 42
Sp. Cond. 260
TDS 228
TSS 4 U -
C1 31 32
SO4 34 34
F 0.12 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 36 -
NO3 +NO2 0.058 J 0.059
NH3+NH4 0.051 J 0.06
TKN 1.2 J 1.2 A
P 0.23 0.22 A
PO4 0.2


2001
Analytes
Analyses Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 35 A 28.2
K 2.2A 1.9
Na 15.1 A 12.8
Mg 8.3 A 6.6
B 33 1
Al 630 A
As 3U 3U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 3.5 I
Fe 810 A 570
Mn 43.7 A 33.5
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 388 A
Zn 6.71 5U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= held past time limit


Table 18. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 8 Q
Enterococci 12 Q
Fecal Coliform 6 Q
Total Coliform 60 Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Treehouse Spring


figure 2U. Ireehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson).


Location Lat. 290 51' 17.6" N, Long. 820 36' 10.4" W (SW1/ NE1% NW14 sec. 27, T. 7 S, R.
17 E). Treehouse Spring is approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) north of High Springs on the east
bank of the Santa Fe River. The spring can be accessed by boat from a public boat ramp
downstream from the spring. From High Springs, drive north on US 441/41. Turn left at
public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. The spring is 0.6 miles (1 km)
upstream from the boat ramp.

Description Treehouse Spring is in a circular cove on the east side of the Santa Fe River.
The spring discharges westward into the adjacent river. Spring pool diameter measures 125
ft (38 m) north to south and 175 ft (53 m) east to west. Pool depth is 31 ft (9.4 m). Water
color was tannic, and there was no spring boil during October 2001. Water hyacinth was the
only non native plant species observed in the spring pool. No other vegetation could be seen
through the dark water. Land adjacent to this spring is a forested lowland flood plain. The
nearest high ground is approximately 150 ft (46 m) to the east, and it rises 10-12 ft (3-4 m)
higher than the flood plain and is forested with mixed hardwoods and pines.

Utilization This spring is privately owned with pristine surroundings. There is a small
rope swing on the east side and the spring is a local swimming spot.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Fort --
Whitel




I SIPHON CREEK
Ri SE




IDEi L SEAR




i : : i .
I2 ,/ e' ..
,ili 11


TREEHOUSE SPRING


\ '_ -- i .. l.-- ---:

-.- S \ T-.ArE iE--
I I




SAN..A FE - I-
SRiER RiE I
iCO LL IBLA. i : '
SPRINGC TREEHOLISE
__ s~PRiNc \ I La Crosse
- HORNSB~ i
SPRI7 I,


Springs


....,-\


Spnng Locatons

S Incorporated Place;


Riers -


Count\


Interstate; State Higha\ s

Water UL S Highta\


% / -,, I. L ? , . , -- _. .


/ ..- -
. . . L't *l. . 7 ." ,. "
- K' _. -' I .L "1.. .7, i /.}n .7 t L "., '.',,
-,, O -..














Iy I .. -----t-,7; - r- .... -- -, .. .. ---
SColumbia Spring Treehou eSpri
Spring
L08 .

-- '. .







A.~ TI"1,7'e So/rce 124 "i U G, T'I L "-ZI, Qu,-d'hett
,,,I .5- Il C--noA"[t" -.







Figure 30. Treehouse Spring location map.


I IL ,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 19. Treehouse Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes
Analytes Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 21.9
DO 2.09
pH 7.31
Sp. Cond. 279
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 UA
Turbidity 1.4
Color 250
Alkalinity 57 56
Sp. Cond. 280
TDS 225
TSS 4 U -
C1 27 27
SO4 37 37
F 0.14 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 38
NO3+NO2 0.091 0.091 J
NH3+NH4 0.034 0.028 A
TKN 1.1 1.1
P 0.2 0.19
PO4 0.19


2001
Analytes 2
Analyses Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 31.9 32.8
K 1.9 1.8
Na 12 11.8
Mg 6.8 7
As 3U 3U
Al 370
B 281
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 510 490
Mn 25.2 23.6
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8 U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 370
Zn 5U 5U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= exceeded holding time limit


Table 20. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 14 Q
Enterococci 46 Q
Fecal Coliform 20 Q
Total Coliform 180 Q


Discharge 1998 measurement was obtained from Hornsby and Ceryak (1998).


May 26, 1998
October 30, 2001


405.96 ft3/s
39.9 ft3/s






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


GILCHRIST COUNTY

Devil's Ear Spring

Location Lat. 290 50' 07.3" N,
Long. 820 41' 47.8" W (SE14 SW4
SNE 4 sec. 34, T. 7 S, R. 16 E).
e c Devil's Ear is located among a
s complex of springs on the south
bank of the Santa Fe River. The
spring is approximately 7.5
miles (12 ki) northwest of the
town of High Springs within the
privately owned Ginnie Springs
Resort. From the intersection
with US 41, drive 6.6 miles (10.6
km) west on SR 340. Turn north
on a graded road and go 1.2
miles (1.9 km) to the Ginnie
Springs Resort entrance. Follow
the road around to the back of
the office and towards the river.
Turn right just before the bath-
house and follow the sand road
to the parking area. Devils Ear
is in a complex of three vents
and is the vent nearest the Santa
Fe River.
Figure 31. Devil's Ear Spring (photo by H. Means). Description Devil's Ear Spring
is part of a complex of nearby springs. It is situated in the mouth of a 375 ft (114 m) long
spring run that enters into the Santa Fe River from the south trending side. It is an elon-
gated limestone fissure that discharges directly into the adjacent Santa Fe River. Dark
water from the river contrasts distinctly with clear bluish water issuing along the side of the
river. There is a large boil over the spring vent. The spring pool measures approximately
105 ft (32 m) east to west and 60 ft (18 m) north to south. The vent is an oval shaped open-
ing in bedrock limestone with steep sides leading down to a depth of 34 ft (10.5 m). Native
aquatic grasses are common around the vent opening, and some algae are on grass blades
and limestone walls. The banks on the south trending side of the river (and therefore the
spring) rise steeply to approximately 3 ft (1 m) above water level, then levels off. On top of
the bank, a mesic hardwood forest with interspersed clearings is present.

Utilization Devil's Ear Spring is part of the privately owned Ginnie Springs Resort. The
spring is heavily used for swimming and scuba diving and is a hotspot for cave diving. Full
facilities are located nearby to the east.

Discharge Devil's Ear Complex, September 5, 2001: 206.59 ft3/s







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



DEVIL'S EAR SPRING





I 2.
SFort . .


L_- i s.ANT FE
IP SPHON CREE COLU.\ IBiA 0 R R Ri
1.. SE .. S PRI C TREE HOISE
'_I ( ~ ~-SPRINC
.? -a ' ;O R'i y -:.
HORNSBY
DEL L S EAR.1CPI C ,
I SPRilNC
[. ----High
Springs I J

I I I -
I *- I


SBell I
I I
X\- 7A









4, hl .










Devil's Earl 35
S Spring LoaSpringnter tate
. . - . ,p 1 t . . .. (- .- ( i t











I re 3' DIce 1 2 UG Topo, 1 rc ad4o i .
T. ."^ ', r" \ ', ,'-. ' T " -


SFigure 32. Devil's Ear Spring location map. .
II -I ," i ^ '" ^ ' ^ 'J I ' - " '*' --

, -,-' ,' *S ing r -.-.- ....,
' ;^ -. ... ,-- ' *..' -_ -.- = -- _-

-. -- -St _f._ ,.'*-- t . if'"- .t .',7 -:. -, ,".,



- - - I H "1 I -- ". - - .



Figure 32. Devil's Ear Spring location map.






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 21. Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 20
Analyte Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.6 -
DO 3.09
pH 7.21
Sp. Cond. 372
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.36 I
Turbidity 0.05 U
Color 5 U -
Alkalinity 175 A 175
Sp. Cond. 380
TDS 215
TSS 4U -
C1 6.9 6.9
SO4 13 13
F 0.11 0.0941
Nutrients
TOC 1U -
NO3+NO2 1.3 J 1.4
NH3+NH4 0.013 0.032
TKN 0.06 U 0.1
P 0.047 0.098
P04 0.047


2001
Analytes 2
____An s Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 62 62.5
K 0.43 0.44
Na 3.84 4.05
Mg 6.5 6.4
As 3U 3U
Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 35 U 35 U
Mn 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8 U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 151
Zn 5U 5U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Table 22. Devil's Ear Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 AKQ
Enterococci 2 AQ
Fecal Coliform 1 AQ
Total Coliform 25 AQ






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Siphon Creek Rise


Figure 33. Siphon Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 290 51' 22.3" N, Long. 820 43' 59.0" W (SW14SW 1/ SE1/ sec. 20, T. 7 S, R.
16 E). The rise is approximately 4 miles (6.4 k'm) south of Fort White on the Santa Fe River.
Take SR 47 south from Fort White to the boat launch on the Santa Fe River. River rise is
upstream approximately % mile (1.2 km). The creek rise is boiling up on the south trending
side of the river at the mouth of Siphon Creek.

Description Siphon Creek Rise is a spring that discharges from a single vent along the
west bank of the Santa Fe River in the mouth of Siphon Creek. The spring pool measures
45 ft (14 m) north to south and 90 ft (27 m) east to west. Spring pool depth is 11.8 ft (3.6m).
The water is tannin stained, like that of the adjacent Santa Fe River. There is a voluminous
boil over the vent. Native aquatic grass grows in the vicinity of the vent, and it sways back
and forth in the powerful current. The adjacent west riverbank rises steeply to 2 ft (0.6 m)
above the water, exposing a fresh water shell marl. All land adjacent to the spring is low-
land river floodplain with cypress, gum, and maple.

Utilization Land around Siphon Creek Rise is pristine and owned by the SRWMD.


Discharge Estimated by D. Hornsby, SRWMD, October 11, 2001:


120 ft'/s







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


SIPHON CREEK RISE


;I ;


'N






II





Bell


) Sprnng Locatons


Incorporated Place-


Fort -- - --- 1
White ,



I .SANTA FE
.. SiPHONCREEK -OLUIBL RR RiSE
RiSE_ PR-N TREEHOLSE
,._ _, S P- _\ n N C

HORNBT
I DEiLL SEAR
S SPRINC -

Springs ,11
--------- aI 1 Is t -
I 41


.I I _ 2 5 5 hle_


Ri ers Interstates State Higha\ s


Count\


VWater U- SU Higha\ s


20
I '




.\ -


Siphon Creek I
Rise --F -' -'


"A


h,.7;e Soirce 1 24 .11.1 USGS Topo',.7phc Q .n4iheet4
S N Cot our I te'r~a,5 fett


1' -





1/ .1


"I


28 /'-


ii 5 1., 5 A\ i, I.
,I


Figure 34. Siphon Creek Rise location map.



61


i.)


'I





"1
3C _
'-[


'~i


%







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 23. Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes
Analyses __Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.5
DO 3.96
pH 7.39
Sp. Cond. 325
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.43 I
Turbidity 0.9
Color 50 A
Alkalinity 146 147
Sp. Cond. 370
TDS 215
TSS 4U -
Cl 13 13 A
SO4 24 24 A
F 0.13 0.11
Nutrients
TOC 6.9
NO3 + NO2 0.7 0.7
NH3+NH4 0.026 J 0.027
TKN 0.34 JA 0.24
P 0.09 0.086
PO4 0.092


2001
Analytes
____An s Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 56.3 56.4
K 0.79 0.84
Na 6.29 7.4
Mg 6.4 6.7
As 3U 3U
Al 801
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 1101 841
Mn 16.3 9.9
Ni 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 245
Zn 5U 5U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeded holding time limit


Table 24. Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis.

Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 20 Q
Enterococci 80 Q
Fecal Coliform 24 Q
Total Coliform 260 Q






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


HAMILTON COUNTY

Alapaha River Rise


Figure 35. Alapaha River Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 300 26' 20.3" N, Long. 830 05' 22.4" W (NW 1 SW 1 SE 14 sec. 35, T. 1 N, R.
12 E). The river rise is approximately 19 miles (31 km) southeast of Madison on the north
side of the Suwannee River. Drive 8.7 miles (14 km) east of the Withlacoochee River on SR
6. Turn south and drive 2.8 miles (4.5 km), then 1 mi (1.6 km) east across the Alapaha River
and 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of a park and boat launching area on the Suwannee River.
The spring is approximately .3 miles (.5 km) east.

Description The Alapaha River Rise is the re-emergence of the underground Alapaha
River. The river, issuing out of the spring vent, flows south for approximately 900 ft (274
m) until reaching the Suwannee River. The spring is composed of a single vent at the head
of a circular depression, and the water is stained dark by tannins. The spring pool meas-
ures 75 ft (23 m) southeast to northwest and 108 ft (33 m) north to south. Pool depth is 71
ft (21.6 m). Some algae are present on submerged rocky substrates. There is no visible boil,
however, the issuing river flows swiftly to the Suwannee River. This depression has deeply
scalloped vertical limestone sidewalls that are estimated to rise 30 ft (9 m) above water
level. High ground around the spring is densely forested with pines and oaks.

Utilization Land around the river rise is state owned and in pristine condition.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ALAPAHA RIVER RISE


A DilSON
BLUE
SPRINC
St


R..ER Ri.H
RFl.R RiS


-



HOL TON
' CREEK RiSE


F.\ IOUTH
S SPRING


1.12 5 Alde/


Spring Locaton;

Incorporated Place;









34 '
B I i .


Ri ers 1 Interstates


Count\


Water


State Ihgh'a\ s
Li S Higha\ s


I~ ,I k





* /* I\

t.


C .v. .,:I ;
h --: I 1,r.,rte ..v-- ,
.I I, "

N" F C ito r hl' r f l l.r i te11. e
,'T ,', -^ ,,-- 2 Ad e


36








I.





I -.


i 2V


Figure 36. Alapaha River Rise location map.



64


p~"'' R
)
II,







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


November 25, 1975
April 2, 1976
April 27, 1976
May 21, 1976
August 2001


508
699
594
632
594


Table 25. Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1975
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 19.0 21.3
DO 1.5 0.48
pH 7.6 7.11
Sp. Cond. 225 242
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.561
Turbidity 1.2
Color 60 100
Alkalinity 83 93 J 92
Sp. Cond. 240
TDS 160
TSS 4U
Cl 5.3 6.7 A 6.6
SO4 18 20 A 19
F 0.2 0.15 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 12
NO3+NO2 0.4 J 0.4
NH3+NH4 0.024 J 0.038 A
TKN 0.43 J 0.4
P 0.13 0.13
PO4 0.14


A=Average value


2001
Analytes 1975 2
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 33 39.8 34.7
K 0.7 1.3 1.1
Na 4.2 5.68 4.87
Mg 5.0 6.5 5.6
As 3U 3U
Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 310 370
Mn 29.6 25.2
Ni 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 90 63
Zn 5U 5U


UK= Compounc not detected, value shown is the method de t


I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= exceeded holding time limit


Table 26. Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis.

Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ


' '






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Holton Creek
INMA1907


Rise
'.


Figure 37. Holton Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 300 26' 16.5" N, Long. 830 03' 27.4" W (NW/4 SE1i SW1i sec. 31, T. 1 N, R.
13 E). The river rise is 11 miles (17 km) northwest of Live Oak on SRWMD land. From Live
Oak, drive northwest on CR 751 (Noble's Ferry Rd.). Take the second right on a graded road
after crossing over the Suwannee River. Follow SRWMD signs to Holton Creek. The spring
is at the head of the creek.

Description Holton Creek Rise discharges through Holton Creek, a run that meanders
generally southeast approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the Suwannee River. The spring pool
measures 225 ft (69 m) northwest to southeast and 177 ft (54 m) northeast to southwest.
The water is tea colored, stained by tannic acids (water was reported as clear in Bulletin 31,
revised). There is very little aquatic and emergent vegetation in the spring pool. The north
shore is a vertical limestone ledge dropping immediately off to a depth of 100 ft (29 m); how-
ever, the bottom is highly irregular in the rest of the depression. No boil was observed dur-
ing October 2001. The spring has steep sandy banks that rise to approximately 25 ft (8 m)
above water level, and the high ground is forested with pines and oaks

Utilization Land around the spring is pristine and owned by the SRWMD. The Florida
National Scenic Trail leads along the north side of Holton Creek.

Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977) and Springs of the Suwannee River Basin in Florida (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998). All







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


HOLTON CREEK RISE
: _\


lasper


I -


N
i : :" : . .



i .R LP.: .-/
s Rt ER RiSE





F fAL IOLJTH


-- |--

HOL TON
CREEK RiSE


i i" '
-Ilil- I


2 5 5 .Ahie
II


Spnng Locatons
Incorporated Place;


I i


Rnier; Interstate; State Higha\ s
Count\ Water Li S High% a s;


1


1'


'* I h'i -

Holton Creek I i
Rise ;-

4..
_L-- RieI,. --"-' ,-\




t7-
, I ,- I- ,
, .. ,- ,:. ( L
S' ,


1 1 r -i ,ii UG T .' 2,, ,. .7- t Q ,uad heet
_ CI Il r Inler.. al i leet
5A .. .5 Al,,'.
II j. .. "~ ; ,. "" ', ,
.. /;,,.s,,, ,_i,,,,., s .p.,,p,, <- ,,a. ... ",

',+, -- -l. ., c, ,, /. '',' '* ./ I
.t .Ih : . ...


-,
L, AS



- 5
* I3 *'~


Figure 38. Holton Creek Rise location map.



67


.\LDiSON
BLUE
SPRING


:1


*^s






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.

February 13, 1976 482
March 31, 1976 313
April 28, 1976 69
June 8, 1998 167
December 7, 2001 0

Table 27. Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 2001
__________ Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.1
DO 0.49
pH 7.00
Sp. Cond. 290
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.6 AI -
Turbidity 2
Color 140
Alkalinity 115 J 115
Sp. Cond. 300
TDS 213
TSS 4U -
C1 6.6 6.5
SO4 31 30
F 0.17 0.14
Nutrients
TOC 17 -
NO3+NO2 0.004 U 0.004 U
NH3+NH4 0.13 J 0.13
TKN 0.56 J 0.55 A
P 0.15 0.15
PO4 0.16


A=Average Value
I=Value is less than


2001
Analytes 2001
____ Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 35.6 41.7
K 0.85 1
Na 5.65 5.3
Mg 7.5 9
As 3U 3U
Al 1301
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 420 500
Mn 30.4 35.8
Ni 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 101
Zn 5U 5U


U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= held past time limit


Table 28. Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 KQ
Enterococci 12 Q
Fecal Coliform 2 Q
Total Coliform 10 Q






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


HERNANDO COUNTY

Weeki Wachee Spring


Figure 39. Weeki Wachee Spring (photo by R. Means).
Location Lat. 280 31' 01.9" N, Long. 820 34' 23.4" W (NE 1/ SW 1% NE 1% sec. 2, T. 23 S, R.
17 E). Spring is located in the town of Weeki Wachee on the west side of US 19. From the
intersection of US 19 and CR 50, drive south .2 miles (.3 km). Turn right into Weeki Wachee
Springs Park parking lot. Spring vent is in the large pool used for mermaid shows.

Description Weeki Wachee Spring discharges from the bottom of a conical depression
with gentle side slopes and a deep center. Spring depth is 45 ft (13.7 m) over the vent in the
center of the pool. The spring pool measures 165 ft (50 m) east to west and 210 ft (64 m)
north to south. Bare limestone is located near the vent, but none crops out around the pool
edges. The water is clear and light greenish blue, and a boil is visible in the center of the
pool. Thick, filamentous algae cover the majority of the spring bottom, and there are some
native aquatic grasses in the spring pool. The spring is rich with fresh and saltwater fish-
es and aquatic turtles. The issuing Weeki Wachee River flows westward approximately 5
miles (8 km) into the Gulf of Mexico. The river flows through low-lying, densely forested
swamp. The nearest high ground east of the spring is rolling sandhills terrain and gently
rises to 15 ft (5 m) above the water level. All uplands and land adjacent to spring are devel-
oped. U.S. 19 is approximately 225 ft (69 m) east of the spring.

Discharge Historical discharge data for Weeki Wachee Springs were measured at the
Weeki Wachee River and include the flow of Weeki Wachee Spring, Little Springs, Unknown
Spring No. 3, and flow from the bed of the river and the run from Little Springs. The aver-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WEEK WACHEE SPRING


Weeki
Wachee
Gardens t\EEKi
l tlACHEE
SPRINGl


I Brooks ill


A e xico


Hernando
Beach

-_


I Spring
Hill


21.1 5 M\


0 Spring Locaoon;

Incorporated Place;


Rners

Count\


- Interatate

after r


State HIghta\%

- U S Hight a\ a


r; l
i-- ;L "s.


Figure 40. Weeki Wachcee Spring location map.


Gu lf


; : ;


f ------
1~







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


age discharge from 1917 through 1974 (364 measurements) was 176 ft3/s (Rosenau et al.,
1977). Current discharge estimate is provisional.


Maximum (October 19, 1964)
Minimum (24, 1956)
October 18, 2001


275 ft3/s
101 ft3/s
161 ft3/s


Utilization Weeki Wachee Spring is extensively developed into a tourist attraction that
features underwater mermaid shows with submerged glass windows for viewing. It was
recently purchased from private ownership by the Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD). The District leases the land to a private firm for the continuation of
the mermaid shows. Shops and facilities are located all around the spring.


Table 29. Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1964 1969 1974 U F
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 24.0 21.5 23.7
DO 2.0 1.3
pH 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.7
Sp. Cond. 262 275 284 320
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.761 -
Turbidity 0.4 -
Color 3 5 1 5U -
Alkalinity 130 130 140 147 147
Sp. Cond. 320
TDS 176 -
TSS 4U -
Cl 4.0 8.0 4.6 6.7 6.6 A
SO4 6.4 9.6 7.4 9.2 9.2 A
F 0 0.1 0.1 0.0841 0.1
Nutrients
TOC 1U -
NO3+N2 0.67 0.66 J
NH3+NH4 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN 0.06 U 0.06 U
P 0.005 I 0.007 I
PO4 0.005 I -


A=Average Value


2001
Analytes 1964 1969 1974 U
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 44 48 50 49.5 50.7
K 0.3 5.0 0.6 0.31 0.32
Na 3.0 3.2 4.0 3.78 3.93
Mg 7.8 5.0 6.0 5.9 6
As 7 3U 3U
Al 100 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 1 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 0 10 10 35 U 35 U
Mn 0 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 14 2U 2U
Pb 1 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 150 174
Zn 0 5U 5 U


UK= Compo md not detected, value shown is the method detection limit


I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit


Table 30. Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


JACKSON COUNTY

Jackson Blue Spring


Figure 41. Jackson Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 300 47' 25.9" N, Long. 850 08' 24.3" W (SW 1 SE 1 NW 14 sec. 33, T. 5 N, R.
9 W). Blue Spring is about 5 miles (8 km) east of the city of Marianna at the northeast end
of Merritts Mill Pond. From Marianna, drive east 1 mile (1.6 km) on U.S. 90, north 1 mile
(1.8 km) on SR 71, east 3.3 miles (5.3 km) on SR 164. The spring is 0.1 mile (.2 km) south-
east.

Description Numerous springs feed Merritts Mill Pond. Jackson Blue Spring is the main
spring at the head of the pond. It is situated about 10 ft (3 m) west of the diving board plat-
form. Clear bluish water issues vertically from a conical depression. Maximum depth over
the vent is 16.5 ft (5 m). Vent diameter is about 5 ft (1.5 m). Limestone is exposed near the
vent, and it bears backhoe scars. Spring pool diameter is approximately 240 ft (73 m) south-
west to northeast and 233 ft (71 m) northwest to southeast. The boil is slightly visible at the
surface. There is approximately 40% algae coverage on the pool bottom and very little
aquatic or emergent vegetation. The spring pool is a designated swimming area separated
from the rest of Merritts Mill Pond by a chain link fence across the channel approximately
100 yds (92 m) downstream. The southern shore of the spring pool meets a lowland cypress-
gum forest. The northern half of the pool is bordered by high ground sloping upward to
nearly 20 ft (7 m) above water level. Most of the high ground is cleared and grassy. All near-
by uplands are developed with numerous buildings, concrete retaining wall near shore,
slides, diving board, picnic tables, and parking area.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


JACKSON BLUE SPRING
S r
II I .Greenwood

I ~-I


iCottondale
I


.ACKSON BLUE
SPRING
-- --


S1.1 5 MAle'

Spring Locanon; Riter; Inter;tate; State Higha\ s

SIncorporated Place; Count\ 1\ater Li S Highwa\ %


.' ' ; s r 1 '




I i I
q..j .. R i

C r I I t l I '




I ,

'i g 4- J acSon Bu Spng .



'j - rRam rp N Ir [ P .
-- "~"I 7,e S",rce 1 24 Iu USGS T, l 0 II et '"
Fi.gr, 42,JacksonBl''ue Spring l-catin ma
' - ', .. '* .' ,, \, ,' _'. ." 3 ; "

,:. "^' '. .. B.I a. .. ." ,' ; ". -.. .' \ (, i- '
, i I i .-





.,\'\ *' **M .7 1.1.1 1.1 5 .y4 .- B a .
Figure 42. Jackson Blue Spring location map.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Utilization Jackson Blue Spring is a county swimming and recreational park.

Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). Current discharge measurement was calculated at Turner Landing, below the dam
at Merritts Mill Pond. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


January 24, 1929
December 22, 1934
May 20, 1942
November 15, 1946
January 30, 1947
August 6, 1973
December 17, 2001


134
56
265
178
178
287
61


Table 31. Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1924 1946 1972 20
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 20.5 20.9 -
DO 7.8 7.26 -
pH 7.5 7.5 7.58 -
Sp. Cond. 220 243 -
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.0 0.2 AU -
Turbidity 0 0.05 U
Color 0 5U
Alkalinity 98 108 109
Sp. Cond. 270 -
TDS 139
TSS 4U
Cl 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.7 3.8A
SO4 2.4 0.9 0.0 1 1.1 A
F 0.0 0.1 0.036 10.0351
Nutrients
TOC 0.0 1 U
NO3+NO2 1.4 3.3 3.3
NH3+ NH4 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN 0.0741 0.06 U
P 0.02 0.023 0.022
PO4 0.02 0.02


A=Average Value


U,K=Compound not detected, value


I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit


2001
Analytes 1924 1946 1972 U
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 43 38 37 44.5 43.6
K 0.4 0.2 0.29 0.29
Na 2.3 1.7 1.6 1.73 1.54
Mg 1.0 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.1
As 10 3U 3U
Al 75 U
B 0 30 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.5U
Co 0 0.75 U
Cr 1 2U 2U
Cu 10 2U 2U
Fe 25 U 20 U
Mn 0.5U 0.5U
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 2 5U 3U
Se 3.5 U 3.5 U
Sn 7U
Sr 40 321
Zn 4U 3.5U


shown is the method detection limit
J=Estimated value


Table 32. Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 K
Enterococci 1 K
Fecal Coliform 1 K
Total Coliform 1 K






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


JEFFERSON COUNTY

Wacissa Springs Group


Figure 43. Wacissa Springs Group, Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) (photo by R. Means).

Group Location Lat. 300 20' N, Long. 830 59' W (Sections 2 and 12, T. 2 S, R. 3 E). The
Wacissa Springs are approximately 19 miles (30 km) southwest of Tallahassee and 1.2 miles
(2 km) south of the town of Wacissa. SR 59 runs south out of Wacissa and turns sharply to
the west after less than 1 mile (1.2 km). At this sharp right turn, a paved county road con-
tinues straight and ends 0.6 miles (0.9 km) beyond at a county park and boat ramp adjoin-
ing the head of the Wacissa River on the east side.

Group Description The Wacissa Springs Group consists of at least 12 springs that give
rise to the Wacissa River (Rosenau et al., 1977). Several springs are located at the head of
the river near the county park. The rest are scattered along the upper 2 miles (3 km) of the
river. Land along the upper part of the river is low and flat, and it supports a lush mixed
hardwood-palm forest.

SPRING NO. 2 Lat. 300 20' 23.6" N, Long. 830 59' 29.3" W (SE14 SE14 NE14 sec. 2, T. 2 S,
R. 3 E). This spring is located 15 ft (5 m) south of the diving board platform at the county
park. There are multiple small vents near this spring. The maximum depth of the spring
pool measures 8 ft (2.4 m). Spring pool diameter measures 45 ft (14 m) north to south. The
spring pool is choked with Hydrilla, and algae are present throughout the pool. There are
no adjacent uplands. Land near the spring supports cypress swamp forest and mesic hard-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



WACISSA SPRINGS GROUP

-LN
0

-- -

Tallahassee







S_ I -I

0. : .:" : """'"










I S 2 .
', _.____L E.I A1.' A












N Sp ring Locaon eer 5ntertae State Htgheta\


Figure 44. Wacissa Springs Group locaterion map. Hgha\
1---r
j .^ 1*, ,-


. I ..
- -- ': I T : .^ -,



.:- I F' ,- ., -


l -'ur;t' I 4 TL ph Qihcl .' --- -- ',.,-- _
' .-. ," . ,,., _,'^ ,W;t ,c), U .. Bl .. .




F 4 i S .r u i -.



Figure 44. Wacissa Springs Group location map.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Table 33. Wacissa Springs Group water quality analyses.

Big S ring Spring No. 2 (Aucilla)
Analytes 1946 1960 2001 1 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 20.0 20.5 20.5 21.0
DO -0.9 3.2 5.6
pH 7.4 7.9 7.4 8.0 7.6
Sp. Cond. 320 318 326 267 272
Lab Analytes
BOD- 0.311 0.6 0.2 U
Turbidity 0.1 1 0.25
Color 2 5 5U 5 5 U
Alkalinity 150 163 163 120 132 132
Sp. Cond. -370 300
TDS 184 -159
TSS 4U 4U -
Cl 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.1 6.0 4.9 4.9
SO4 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.6 5.2 5.3 5.4
F 0.1 0.2 0.13 0.13 0.3 0.14 0.14
Nutrients
TOC 1 I 0 1
NO3+N02 -0.16 0.16 0.2 0.41 0.41
NH3+NH4 0.01 U 0.01 U 0.01 I 0.02 I
TKN 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.06 U 0.078 I
P 0.051 0.046 0.02 0.037 0.036
PO4 0.045 0.02 0.036
Metals
Ca 52 52 53.8 52.9 37 41.4 40.9 A
K 0.8 0.6 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.41 0.41 A
Na 3.1 3.6 2.94 2.92 A 3.6 2.81 2.88
Mg 8.6 9.8 8.4 8.2 7.9 8.3 8.2 A
As 3U 3U 290 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75 U
B 30U 10 30 U
Cd- 0.75 U 0.5 U 0.75 U 0.5 U
Co- 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 0 2U 2U
Cu 2U 2U 0 2U 2U
Fe 37 I 20 U 40 25 U 20 U
Mn 7.1 1.74 1.91 0.751
Ni 2U 2U 2U 2U
Pb-- 5U 3U 2.0 5U 3U
Se 3.5 U 3.5 U 3.5 U 3.5 U
Sn 7U 7U -
Sr 71.4 140 68.4
Zn -- 4U 3.5 U 50 4U 3.5 U
A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


wood forest. A sand and gravel parking lot borders the east side of the spring pool.

BIG SPRING (BIG BLUE SPRING) Lat. 300 19' 39.8" N, Long. 83 59' 05.4" W (NW14 SE4
NW% sec. 12, T. 2 S, R. 3 E). This spring is located approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) south of
Spring No. 2 on the east side of the Wacissa River. It has two spring runs. The larger is
about 66 ft (20 m) wide and flows 1300 ft (400 m) northwest and west to the Wacissa River.
The other run is about 33 ft (10 m) wide and it flows southwest 1000 ft (300 m) to the
Wacissa. Big Spring has one main vent nearly 6 ft (2 m) in diameter at the bottom of the
circular spring pool. Pool diameter is 150 ft (47 m) northwest to southeast, 160 ft (48 m)
northeast to southwest. Maximum depth of pool is 42 ft (12.8 m). The water is light green-
ish blue with large particles suspended, and the bottom is just visible. A boil is present on
pool surface. Hydrilla covers nearly 50% of the depression, and some algae is present.
There is no high ground immediately near the spring. The surrounding lowland forest is
completely intact and is a mixture of cypress, hardwoods, and cabbage palm. A rope swing
is located on the southwest side of the pool, and there is a floating wooden platform near the
beginning of the larger spring run.

Utilization Many of these springs are used as swimming and recreation areas, especially
Spring No. 2 and Big Spring. The land around entire Wacissa River was purchased by the
state of Florida, Conservation and Recreation Lands (CARL).

Discharge Historical measurements reported are a combined total for the northwest and
southwest runs of Big Spring (Rosenau et al., 1977). Current discharge measurement is for
the Wacissa Springs group. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.

July 16, 1942 69.4
December 7, 1960 64.5
October 12, 1972 280
April 17, 1973 605
October 2, 2001 293

Table 34. Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Big Spring Spring No. 2
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 2Q
Enterococci 1 KQ 46Q
Fecal Coliform 1 AQ 4Q
Total Coliform 1 KQ 270Q






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


LAFAYETTE COUNTY

Lafayette Blue Spring

y ^c '^M^-WW~$$
^^^ .^3


Figure 45. Lafayette Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 300 07' 33.0" N, Long. 830 13' 34.1"W (NW 1 SE 1 NW 1 sec. 21, T. 4 S, R.
11 E). Lafayette Blue Spring is located 7 miles (11 km) northwest of Mayo on the west side
of the Suwannee River. From Mayo, drive northwest on US 27 for 4.3 miles (6.9 km). Turn
right on CR 251 B and continue for 2.1 miles (3.4 km) on a gravel road. Turn east onto a
dirt road and go 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the county park entrance. Spring vent is east of the
parking area in the pool farthest from the river.

Description Lafayette Blue Spring discharges from a single horizontal vent in the south
side of the sink depression. The spring pool measures 57 ft (17 m) north to south and 102 ft
(31 m) east to west. Spring depth measures 21 ft (6.4 m). The water is clear and is light
bluish green. Algae are very thick on rocky and sandy substrates within the spring pool and
run. The issuing spring run flows east approximately 300 ft (91 m) before reaching the
Suwannee River. Clear water from the spring contrasts sharply with the tannin colored
water of the river. Limestone crops out throughout the spring pool and run. A 20 ft (6 m)
wide land bridge stretches north to south across the spring run approximately 120 ft (37 m)
east of the vent. There is a narrow band of a few cypress trees near the spring run. The
spring pool is steep sided with limestone below and sand above. Adjacent high ground is
approximately 20 ft (6 m) above the water level, and it is sparsely forested with a few pines
and oaks.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TAYLOR
COUNTY


LAFAYETTE


Miles COUNTY


Figure 46. Lafayette Blue Spring location map.







OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


Utilization This spring is developed into a county swimming and recreation park with
facilities.

Discharge Historical measurement was obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


November 23, 1973
October 24, 2001


92.8
45.9


Table 35. Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1973
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 21.5 21.7
DO 2.0 0.92
pH 7.2 7.17
Sp. Cond. 400 382
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 AU
Turbidity 0.1
Color 5 5 U
Alkalinity 170 200 200
Sp. Cond. 430 -
TDS 233
TSS 4U
Cl 7.0 9 9.2
SO4 8.1 13 13
F 0.0 0.1 0.0881
Nutrients
TOC 1U -
NO3 +NO2 1.8 1.8
NH3+NH4 0.059 0.022
TKN 0.161 0.11
P 0.041 A 0.041
PO4 0.045


2001
Analytes 1973
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 54 67.2 65.3
K 1.0 0.84 0.86
Na 4.2 4.68 4.88
Mg 11 11.7 11.8
As 3U 3U
Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 35 U 35 U
Mn 3.7 3.4
Ni 1.5 U 1.5 U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 0 94
Zn- 5U 5U


A= Average Value UK= Compound not detect< d, value shown is the method detection limit
I= Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit


Table 36. Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 2 Q
Enterococci 10 Q
Fecal Coliform 6 Q
Total Coliform 40 Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Troy Spring


Figure 47. Troy Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 300 00' 21.7" N, Long. 820 59' 51.0" W (NW 1 NE 1 SE 1 sec. 34, T. 5 S, R.
13 E). Troy Spring is located 5.5 miles (8.5 km) northwest of Branford and flows into the
Suwannee River. From the intersection of US 129 and US 27 in Branford, travel northwest
on US 27 for 5.3 miles (8.5 km). Turn right on a paved road across highway from white
house and go north 1.3 miles (2 km). As the paved road curves left, there is a small green
house trailer on the right. Turn onto the dirt road that runs between the trailer and a fence
line, and travel 0.6 miles (1 km) to the spring.

Description Troy spring is an inundated sink hole with vertical limestone sidewalls. Pool
depth is 61 ft (18.6 m). Pool diameter measures 138 ft (42 m) north to south and 118 ft (36
m) east to west. The spring run is about 325 ft (100 m) long and flows in a straight path
eastward to the Suwannee River. A thick layer of dark green filamentous algae covers near-
ly all aquatic substrates. There is little to no other aquatic or emergent vegetation. Water
color is distinctively greenish. Limestone is exposed around the spring pool and has a scal-
loped appearance. High ground surrounds the spring and rises to approximately 18 ft (6 m)
above water surface. The uplands are generally forested with pines and hardwoods. There
is a nearby cabin to the south.

Utilization This spring is a swimming, snorkeling, and scuba diving hotspot. There are
no public facilities. A small boat dock is located about half way down the run on the east
side. Land around the spring is owned by the SRWMD.





OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


TROY SPRING

S'SUWANNEE
COUNTY 12



27\ TROY SPRING


\ \. ,^
Branford

LAFAYETTE
COUNTY

0 2.5 5 Miles

Spring Locations Rivers Interstates State Highways
Incorporated Places County Water U.S Highways

..tI ^I "- ',k$ ? \-







._ / i' -. "' -.r' -. .. ., : '



34 3
0 '5 1., ' .
Figure 48. Troy Spring location map.
-J i A_ ? .. 44,,,,,,,3t_ ,,, i,'
S/ 35 --


i Co,, ,r I, r. 5 tt ---

1Figure 48. Troy Spring location map.
le~i/ v---- -I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.


July 17, 1942
November 26, 1960
May 28, 1963
October 16, 1973
October 30, 2001


149
161
148
205
106


Table 37. Troy Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1960 1973 20
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 21.7 21.5 21.7 -
DO 1.4 0.85 -
pH 7.8 7.1 7.49
Sp. Cond. 307 358 357
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 0.251 -
Turbidity 1 0.15
Color 5 0 5U -
Alkalinity 150 150 163 164
Sp. Cond. 350 -
TDS 196 -
TSS 4U -
Cl 3.0 4.0 5.3 5.2
SO4 6.0 5.6 12 12
F 0.1 0.1 0.0851 0.091
Nutrients
TOC 0.0 1.8I -
N03+NO2 0.96 2.3 2.2
NH3+NH4 0.0121 0.01 U
TKN 0.075 I 0.067 I
P 0.03 0.034A 0.03 A
PO4 0.02 0.024 J


2001
Analytes 1960 1973 2
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 54 56 57.3 59.3
K 0.2 1.3 0.9 0.97
Na 2.4 2.6 2.68 2.45
Mg 6.7 6.4 7 7.3
As 3U 3U
Al 75U
B 25 U
Cd 0 0.75 U 0.5 U
Co 0 0.75 U -
Cr 0 2U 2U
Cu 10 2U 2U
Fe 25 U 20 U
Mn 0.731 0.311
Ni 1.5U 1.5U
Pb 6 5U 3U
Se 3.5U 3.5U
Sn 7U -
Sr 240 66.8
Zn 4 U 3.5 U


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value is the method detection limit
I=Value less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=exceeding holding time limit


Table 38. Troy Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


LAKE COUNTY

Alexander Spring

Location Lat. 290 04' 52.7" N, Long.
810 34' 33.2" W (Levy Grant 39, T. 16 S,
R. 27 E). Alexander Spring is approxi-
mately 17 miles (27.5 km) northwest of
Deland in the Ocala National Forest.
Travel west on SR 40 from Ocala. Turn
right on CR 445A just before the town of
Astor. Follow 445A past the sharp turn
to the east. Entrance to Alexander
.. Springs Recreation Area will be on the
right. Follow signs to parking area.

Description Alexander Spring issues
vertically from a conical depression and
has a large spring pool that measures
300 ft (91 m) north to south and 258 ft
(79 m) east to west. Depth is 25 ft (7.7
m). The water is clear and sky-blue.
There is a large boil on the pool surface
over the vent. Native aquatic grasses
are plentiful. The bottom is mostly
sandy with limestone outcropped near
the vent with a vertical ledge running
north to south near vent. There are
multiple vents in a tight cluster. Thin
algae patches are present on rocky sub-
Figure 49. Alexander Spring (photo by T. Scott). state. High ground to the south rises
gently to 12 ft (4 m) above water level.
A rock wall forms the south shoreline. There is a mixed hardwood and palm forest around
the spring. Alexander Spring Run flows east trending approximately 8 river miles (13 km)
until reaching the St. Johns River.

Utilization Alexander Spring is owned by the Ocala National Forest, however, the spring
is developed and operated by private concession. Camping, swimming, scuba diving, and
canoeing are available with full facilities.

Discharge Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31 (Rosenau et al.,
1977). All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.

February 12, 1931 112
February 7, 1933 124
April 13, 1935 162
October 15, 1935 74.5
December 3, 1935 131
April 2, 1946 101







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ALEXANDER SPRING

"'illr.-

.I -
Astor'

I I i


ALE XiNDER
SPRING


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0 Spnng Locaoons
Incorporated Place;


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.. 'I- -


e- Alexander Spring -,

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Rectt


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It-7-e 50. Bay2 "e:d r.7'ng lo.c Qi ma-p


Figure 50. Alexander Spring location map. 39 '

Figure 50. Alexander Spring location map.


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OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 85


April 23, 1956 136
November 16, 1960 124
June 8, 1960 124
April 25, 1967 146
June 22, 1967 114
July 2, 1969 109
April 19, 1972 103
September 12, 2001 94.2

Table 39. Alexander Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes 1946 1972 21
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 24.0 23.6
DO 1.13
pH 6.9 7.9 7.55
Sp. Cond. 920 1050 1026
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.1 0.2 AU
Turbidity 0.05
Color 0 5 5U -
Alkalinity 120 82 82
Sp. Cond. 1000
TDS 547
TSS 4U -
Cl 192 230 230 230
SO4 56 60 63 62
F 0.9 0.5 0.11 0.11
Nutrients
TOC 3.0 1 U
NO3+NO2 0.03 0.04 0.044
NH3+NH4 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN __ 0.06U 0.0741
P 0.04 0.048 0.044
PO4 0.04 0.045


A=Average Value


2001
Analytes 1946 1972 U
Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 41 44 43.4 J 43.4
K 2.3 2.0 3.9 3.9
Na 100 130 122 117
Mg 18 20 20 19.9
As 0 3U 3U
Al 75U
B 180 471 -
Cd 0 0.75U 0.75U
Co 0 0.75 U
Cr 0 2U 2U
Cu 0 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 30 10 35 U 35 U
Mn 0.0 0.5 U 1U
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10U
Sr 722
Zn 10 5U 5 U


U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit


I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit


Table 40. Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis.


Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ
Total Coliform 10 Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LEON COUNTY

St. Marks River Rise


Figure 51. St. Marks River Rise (photo by H. Means).
Location Lat. 300 16' 33.8" N, Long. 84 08' 56.2" W (NE 1 SW 1 SE 1 sec. 29, T. 2 S, R.
2 E). St. Marks River Rise is located 0.6 miles (0.9 km) south of Natural Bridge Battlefield
Park. The River Rise is on private property but can be accessed by small boat. From the
intersection of SR 267, drive east on US 98 to the public boat ramp sign on the east side of
the St. Marks River. St. Marks River Rise is 6.5 miles (10.5 km) upstream from the boat
ramp.

Description St. Marks River Rise issues from an elongated fracture in the limestone. The
river rise pool diameter measures 315 ft (96 m) east to west and 195 ft (59 m) northwest to
southeast. Just south of the vent, the St. Marks River widens to 420 ft (128 m) northwest
to southeast. The vent is nearly circular and its diameter is approximately 90 ft (27 m).
River Rise pool depth measures 62 ft (15.7 m). The vent is limestone with almost a sheer
drop on northeast side from 18 ft (5.5 m) to 48 ft (15 m). Area near the vent is choked with
Hydrilla, and there is abundant native aquatic grass farther downstream. Some water
hyacinth is present. Uplands near the spring rise gently to approximately 5 ft (1.7 m) above
water level and are generally forested with a mix of pines, oaks, and cabbage palms.

Utilization Land around the river rise is privately owned and access is restricted to dirt
4 x 4 tracks. A pipe leads into the vent from the north.

Discharge December 18, 2001: 452 ft3/s.