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FGS



Springs of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094032/00001
 Material Information
Title: Springs of Florida
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 66
Physical Description: xviii, 377 p. : ill. (chiefly col.), maps, charts ; 28 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: Scott, Thomas M.
Means, Guy H.
Florida Geological Survey
Meegan, Rebecca P.
Means, Ryan C.
Upchurch, Sam B.
Copeland, R. E.
Jones, James
Roberts, Tina
Willet, Alan
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Environmental Resources
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2004
Copyright Date: 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 343-347.
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas M. Scott ... et al. ; published for the Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource and Assessment Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 003134883
oclc - 57345518
System ID: UF00094032:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
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Full Text
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700


Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist


Karen Achille, Administrative Secretary
Carol Armstrong, Librarian
Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant
Paulette Bond, Research Geologist
Kenji Butler, Research Assistant
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Michael Miller, Research Assistant
Chris Poarch, Systems Programmer


Jeremy Poarch, IT Assistant
Paula Polson, CAD Analyst
Andrew Rudin, GIS Analyst
Frank Rupert, Research Geologist
Christie Seale, Secretary Specialist
Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst
Susan Trombley, Secretary Specialist


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION
Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist


Jon Arthur, Hydrogeology Program Supervisor
David Arthur, Research Assistant
Kristin Bailey, Research Assistant
Alan Baker, Hydrogeologist
Kristy Baker, Research Assistant
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist
Craig Berninger, Driller
Lee Booth, Driller's Assistant
Jonathan Bryan, Research Associate
Ken Campbell, Drilling Supervisor
James Cichon, Hydrogeologist
Bridget Coane, Research Assistant
Rick Copeland, Hydrogeologist
Brian Cross, Research Assistant
Adel Dabous, Research Associate
Roberto Davila, Research Assistant
Kevin DeFosset, Research Assistant
Rodney DeHan, Senior Research Scientist
Erin Dorn, Research Assistant
Will Evans, Senior Research Associate
Cindy Fischler, Research Assistant


Rick Green, Stratigrapher
Tom Greenhalgh, Hydrogeologist
Jacob Halfhill, Research Assistant
Eric Harrington, Engineering Technician
Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Research Program Supervisor
Robby Jones, Research Assistant
Clint Kromhout, Research Assistant
Robert Kurtz, Research Assistant
Michelle Lachance, Research Assistant
Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
James McClean, Research Associate
Harley Means, Research Geologist
Ryan Means, Research Assistant
Rebecca Meegan, Research Assistant
Elizabeth Moulton, Research Assistant
David Paul, Research Associate
Dan Phelps, Coastal Geologist
Steve Spencer, Economic Mineralogist
Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic
Alan Willet, Research Assistant
Alex Wood, Hydrogeologist


OIL AND GAS SECTION
David Curry, Environmental Administrator


Paul Attwood, Asst. District Coordinator
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator
Brett Cimbora, Research Assistant
Ed Garrett, Geologist
Al Keaton, Engineer


John Leccese, District Coordinator
Tracy Phelps, Secretary
David Taylor, Engineer
Joel Webb, Research Assistant


Cover: Fern Hammock Spring, Marion County (photo by Tom Scott).









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Colleen M. Castille, Secretary




DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief






Bulletin No. 66



SPRINGS OF FLORIDA






By

Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means,
Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means,
Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland,
James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan Willet


Version 1.1
Revised October 12, 2004



Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2004






















































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
2004

ISSN 0271-7832



ii









PREFACE


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee, Florida
2004




The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and
Management, Department of Environmental Protection, is publishing as its Bulletin No. 66,
Springs of Florida. In 2001, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative to
further the State's ability to conserve and protect our valuable freshwater spring resources.
As part of this larger program the FGS began a three year project to update and complete
the state's inventory of these resources. The original report by the FGS on Florida's springs
was published in 1947, as Bulletin No. 31. This was revised in 1977. In recent decades,
much has been learned about additional spring resources unreported in earlier compila-
tions. In addition, a great deal of water chemistry information has been gathered to enable
long-term trend analysis and interpretative dynamics of our subsurface aquifer flow
regimes. Further data is being compiled to better define various springsheds to aid policy
makers as they try to address land-use decisions to foster sustainable fresh water resources.
The information contained in this report, provides data for scientists, planners, environ-
mental managers, and the citizens of Florida.







Walter Schmidt, Ph.D, PG
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey


































































iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Introduction ................................................ ......... .1
Acknowledgements .............................................. .......... 3
Definitions and Terms ........... .............................. ...........5
Florida Springs Task Force .................................................... 5
Task Force Members and Advisors ............... ........................ .7
Classification of Springs ............ .................................. .8
Archaeological and Paleontological Significance of Springs ....................... 11
Hydrogeology of Florida Springs ................. ........................... .13
Springsheds ................ ............................ .19
Spring W ater ..................... ................. .....................23
Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality ............................23
Indicators of Water Quality Problems ..................................24
O offshore Springs .......................................... ............ 26
W ater Q quality ................... .........................................27
Methodology ........... .................................. .............27
Field Parameters .................................... ... ...........28
Water Samples ................................................ 29
Additional Data ....................................................29
Discharge Measurements ............... ..........................29
Characteristics of Spring Water ................... ........................ 31
Descriptions of Analytes .................................................. 31
Physical Field Parameters ...........................................31
Dissolved Oxygen ..................................... ..........31
pH ............................................ ............ 31
Specific Conductance ............... .......................... 32
W ater Temperature .................................. ...........32
Discharge ........... ...... ....................................32
Other Field Data .................................... ...........33
Secchi Depth .................................... ... ...........33
Laboratory Analytes .................................... ...........33
Alkalinity ............ ...... ..................................33
Biochemical Oxygen Demand ................. ................... 33
Chloride (Cl) .................................... ... ........... 33
Color ....................... ............... ................... 33
Nitrate + Nitrite (NO, + NO,) as N ................................33
Organic Carbon ..................................... ...........34
Orthophosphate (P04) ...................................... 34
Potassium (K) ............. ..... ........ ..................... 34
Radium 226 and 228 (Ra226 and Ra228) ............................. 34
Sodium(Na)........................................34
Sodium (Na) ..................................................... 34
Sulfate (S04) ...............................................34
Total Ammonia (NH, + NH4) ....................... .. ......... .34
Total Dissolved Solids ...........................................34
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen ............... ........................35


v











Total Nitrogen ..................................... ...........35
Total Suspended Solids ..........................................35
Turbidity ................................. ..... ........ .... 35
Trace M etals ............. ................... ....... ............ 35
Biological Analytes ................................... .............36
Descriptions of Individual Springs and Results of Analyses ..................... .. 37
Alachua County ............ ........................................... 38
Hornsby Spring ........................................ ...........39
Poe Spring ........................................... ............ 41
Santa Fe River Rise ..................................... ...........44
Treehouse Spring .................................... ...........46
Bay County .......... ................................................48
Gainer Springs Group .................................... .......... 49
Gainer Spring No. 1C ................. ........................49
Gainer Spring No. 2 ................................... ........... 50
Gainer Spring No. 3 .............................. .... ........ 51
Bradford County .......................................... ............ 53
Calhoun County .......................................... ............ 54
Citrus County ........................................... ............ 55
Chassahowitzka Springs Group ....................................... .56
Chassahowitzka Main Spring ................................... .57
Chassahowitzka No. 1 ............................ ..............57
Citrus Blue Spring ..................................... ...........59
Homosassa Springs Group ............................ ..............61
Homosassa Springs Nos. 1, 2 and 3 .............................. . 61


Kings Bay Springs Group ......
Hunter Spring ...........
Tarpon Hole Spring ........
Clay County ...................
Green Cove Springs ...........
Columbia County .................
Columbia Spring ............
Ichetucknee Springs Group .....
Ichetucknee Head Spring ...
Blue Hole ................
Cedar Head Spring ........
Roaring Spring ..........
Santa Fe Spring ..............
Dixie County ..................
Copper Spring ................
Guaranto Spring .............
Steinhatchee River Rise ........
Duval County ....................
Franklin County .................
Gadsden County .................
Gilchrist County .................
Devil's Ear Spring ...........
Gilchrist Blue Spring ..........
Ginnie Spring ...............


................................... 64
...................................... 65
................................... 65
...................................... 67
.................. ....................68
.................. ....................71
........................... ...........72
................ ................ .74
................ ................ .75
........................... ...........75
................ ........ ...........75
........................... ...........77
........................... ...........78
.................. .................... 80
......................................81
. .......................................84
................ ................ .86
. .......................................88
.................. .................... 89
.................. ....................90
.......................................91
.................. ....................92
.................. ....................95
.................. ....................97










Hart Springs ................
Otter Spring .................
Rock Bluff Springs ............
Siphon Creek Rise ............
Sun Springs .................
Hamilton County .................
Alapaha River Rise ...........
Holton Creek Rise ............
Rossetter Spring ..............
Hernando County ................
Gator Spring .................
Little Spring .................
Magnolia Spring ..............
Salt Spring ..................
Weeki Wachee Spring .........
Hillsborough County ..............
Buckhorn Main Spring ........
Lithia Spring Major ...........
Sulphur Spring ..............
Holmes County ..................
Holmes Blue Spring ...........
Ponce de Leon Spring .........
Jackson County .................
Baltzell Spring ...............
Blue Hole Spring .............
Hays Spring .................
Jackson Blue Spring ..........
Shangri-La Springs ...........
Spring Lake Springs ..........
Black Spring .............
Double Spring ............
Gadsen Spring ...........
Mill Pond Spring ..........
Springboard Spring ........
Jefferson County .................
Wacissa Springs Group ........
Spring No. 2..............
Big Spring (Big Blue Spring)
Lafayette County .................
Allen Mill Pond Springs .......
Lafayette Blue Spring .........
Mearson Spring ..............
Owens Spring ................
Ruth Spring .................
Troy Spring ..................
Turtle Spring ................
Lake County ....................
Alexander Spring .............
Apopka Spring ...............


................... ................. 99
........................... ..... . 102
................... ................ 104
........................... ..... . 107
................... ................ 109
........................... ..... .112
................... ................ 113
........................... ..... .115
................... ................ 117
........................... ..... .119
................... ................ 120
........................... ..... . 122
................... ................ 125
........................... ..... . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 3 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 3 7
................... ................ 140
........................... ..... . 143
................... ................ 144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 4 6
................... ................ 149
........................... ..... . 150
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1 5 2
........................... ..... . 154
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 5 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 5 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 6 1
........................... ..... . 16 1
........................... ..... . 163
........................... ..... . 165
........................... ..... . 16 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 6 9
........................... ..... . 17 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 7 2
........................... ..... . 172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .1 74
........................... ..... . 175
........................... ..... .176
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 7 8
........................... ..... . 180
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 18 2
........................... ..... . 184
........................... ..... . 186
........................... ..... . 188
........................... ..... . 190
........................... ..... . 19 1
........................... ..... . 194










Bugg Spring .................
Leon County ....................
Horn Spring .................
Natural Bridge Spring .........
Rhodes Springs ...............
Rhodes Springs No. 1 ......
Rhodes Springs No. 2 ......
Rhodes Springs No. 4 ......
St. Marks River Rise ..........
Levy County .....................
Fanning Springs ..............
Levy Blue Spring .............
Manatee Spring ..............
M adison County .................
Madison Blue Spring ..........
Suwanacoochee Spring ........
Manatee County .................
M arion County ..................
Fern Hammock Springs ........
Juniper Springs ..............
Orange Spring ...............
Rainbow Springs Group ........
Rainbow No. 1 ............
Rainbow No. 4 ............
Rainbow No. 6 ............
Bubbling Spring ..........
Salt Springs .................
Silver Glen Springs ...........
Silver Springs Group ..........
Main Spring ..............
Reception Hall ...........
Blue Grotto ..............
Orange County ..................
Rock Springs ................
Wekiwa Spring ..............
Pasco County ...................
Crystal Springs ..............
Pinellas County .................
Putnam County .................
Beecher Spring ...............
Welaka Spring ...............
Sarasota County .................
Warm Mineral Spring .........
Seminole County .................
Sanlando Springs .............
Starbuck Spring ..............
Sumter County ..................
Fenney Spring ...............
Gum Spring Main ............


. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 19 6
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 19 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 19
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 7









Suwannee County ......................................................279
Branford Spring ................................................... 280
Ellaville Spring ................. .................. ............ . 282
Falmouth Spring ................................................. 284
Ichetucknee Head Spring ............................................286
Little River Spring ..................................................286
Running Springs ...................................................288
Suwannee Spring ...................................................290
Telford Spring .....................................................293
Taylor County ........................................................ 295
Nutall Rise ....................................................... 296
Waldo Spring ......................................................298
Union County ........................................................ 301
Volusia County ....................................................... 302
DeLeon Spring .....................................................303
Volusia Blue Spring ................................................. 306
Wakulla County ...................................................... 308
Cray's Rise ....................................................... 309
Newport Spring ....................................................311
Sheppard Spring ...................................................313
Spring Creek Springs Group ......................................... 315
Spring Creek No. 1 ...............................................317
Spring Creek No. 2 ............................................. 317
Wakulla Spring ....................................................318
W alton County ........................................................ 321
Morrison Spring ....................................................322
W ashington County .....................................................324
Beckton Spring ...................................... ............ 325
Brunson Landing Spring ............................................ 327
Cypress Spring .................................................. 329
Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee .............................. .332
W ashington Blue Springs Econfina ................................... .335
Williford Spring ................................................... 338
Springs Information Resources on the Web .................................... .341
References ......................................................... 343
Appendix A Glossary ......................................................349
Appendix B Florida Springs Locations ...................................... 359
Appendix B 1 Springs visited by FGS springs teams .................... .359
Appendix B 2 Location of additional known or reported
springs in Florida not visited by FGS spring teams .................... .371
Appendix C Descriptions of additional springs visited by FGS spring teams ........ .379

Figures

1. Old Florida spring photos and moments ............... .................... 2
2. Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003 ......................... 6
3. Location of Florida's springs. .............................................10
4. Native American artifacts from Florida Springs ............................. 12



ix









5. Generalized geologic map of Florida ...................................... 16
6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs ............................ 17
7. Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) ............. .18
8. Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected first magnitude springs in Florida .. .19
9. Idealized springshed delineation ............... ...................... .21
10. Potentiometric map of springshed ................. ..................... 22
11. Offshore springs .......... ............................... ...........26
12. Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region ................... .. .27
13. The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001 ..................................... 28
14. SCUBA diver in Silver Springs (photo by G. Maddox) ..................... .. 37
15. Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County ............................... 38
16. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... ..39
17. Poe Spring (photo by R. Means) ..........................................41
18. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................. 44
19. Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson) ............................... 46
20. Springs visited by FGS in Bay County ................................. . .48
21. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott) ......................... 49
22. Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott) ........................... 50
23. Gainer Springs Group Fracture (photo by H. Means) ...................... .. 51
24. Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County ............................... 53
25. Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County ............................... 54
26. Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County ................................ 55
27. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means) ........................ .56
28. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) .............................. 56
29. Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) ............... ................. 59
30. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means) ........................... 61
31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan) ............... .64
32. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means) ............ 64
33. Springs visited by FGS in Clay County ................................. 67
34. Green Cove Springs (photo by T. Scott) ................................. 68
35. Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County .............................. 71
36. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) .................................. 72
37. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott) ........ 74
38. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... 74
39. Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .78
40. Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County ................................. 80
41. Copper Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) ................................ 81
42. Guaranto Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .84
43. Steinhatchee River Rise (photo by R. Means) .............................. 86
44. Springs visited by FGS in Duval County ................................ 88
45. Springs visited by FGS in Franklin County ............................... 89
46. Springs visited by FGS in Gadsden County ................................. 90
47. Springs visited by FGS in Gilchrist County .......................... . 91
48. Devil's Ear Spring (photo by H. Means) ................................. 92
49. Gilchrist Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................... 95
50. Ginnie Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... .97









51. Hart Springs (photo by T. Scott) ............... ................... .. ..99
52. Otter Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... ..102
53. Rock Bluff Springs (photo by H. Means) .................................. .104
54. Siphon Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .107
55. Sun Springs (photo by H. Means) ...................................... .. 109
56. Springs visited by FGS in Hamilton County ............................. 112
57. Alapaha River Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................... .113
58. Holton Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................. . .115
59. Rossetter Spring (photo by H. Means) ................................... .117
60. Springs visited by FGS in Hernando County ............................. 119
61. Gator Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..120
62. Little Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..122
63. Magnolia Spring (photo by R. Means) ................................. . .125
64. Hernando Salt Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 128
65. Weeki Wachee Spring (photo by R. Means) .............................. 131
66. Springs visited by FGS in Hillsborough County ........................... 133
67. Buckhorn Main Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................. 134
68. Lithia Spring Major (photo by R. Means) ............................... 137
69. Sulphur Spring circa 1930 (anonymous) ............... ................ 140
70. Sulphur Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .140
71. Springs visited by FGS in Holmes County .............................. 143
72. Holmes Blue Spring (photo by R. Meegan) ............................... 144
73. Ponce de Leon Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 146
74. Springs visited by FGS in Jackson County ............... .............. 149
75. Baltzell Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .150
76. Blue Hole (photo by R. Means) ............... ................... .. ..152
77. Hays Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .. 154
78. Jackson Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ................................ 156
79. Jackson Blue Spring aerial photo (photo by T. Scott) ................... ... 156
80. Shangri-La Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................... 159
81. Black Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..161
82. Double Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .163
83. Gadsen Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .165
84. Mill Pond Spring (photo by R. Means) ................. ............. ...167
85. Springboard Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................... 169
86. Springs visited by FGS in Jefferson County .............................. 171
87. Wacissa Springs Group, Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) (photo by R. Means) ...... 172
88. Springs visited by FGS in Lafayette County ............................. 175
89. Allen Mill Pond Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 176
90. Lafayette Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... ............... 178
91. Mearson Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) ................................ . .180
92. Owens Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .182
93. Ruth Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... ..184
94. Troy Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... ................... .. ..186
95. Turtle Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .188
96. Springs visited by FGS in Lake County ................................ 190










97. Alexander Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .191
98. Alexander Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ........................ 192


99. Apopka Spring (photo by R. Means)


100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.


Bugg Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..........
Springs visited by FGS in Leon County ...
Horn Spring (photo by H. Means) ........
Natural Bridge Spring (photo by R. Means)
Rhodes Spring No. 4 (photo by H. Means)
St. Marks River Rise (photo by H. Means)
Springs visited by FGS in Levy County ...
Fanning Springs (photo by T. Scott) ......
Levy Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) .....
Manatee Spring (photo by T. Scott) .......
Springs visited by FGS in Madison County
Madison Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..
Suwanacoochee Spring (photo by R. Means)
Srings visited by FGS in Manatee County
Springs visited by FGS in Marion County
Fern Hammock Springs (photo by T. Scott)
Juniper Springs (photo by H. Means) .....
Orange Spring (photo by R. Means) ......


Rainbow Springs Group aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ................... 232
Rainbow Springs Group head spring (photo by T. Scott) ................... .. .232
Rainbow Springs Group rocks underwater (photo by T. Scott) ................ 233
Salt Springs (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .. 237
Silver Glen Springs circa 1930 (anonymous) ............................ 240
Silver Glen Springs (photo by T. Scott) ................................ . .240
Silver Springs Group, Main Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ........... 243
Silver Springs Group, Main Spring (photo by Steve Specht) ................. .243
Springs visited by FGS in Orange County ............................... 247
Rock Springs (photo by T. Scott) ....................................... ..248
W ekiwa Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .251
Springs visited by FGS in Pasco County ............... ................ 254
Crystal Spring (photo by H. Means) ..................................... .255
Springs visited by FGS in Pinellas County ............... .............. 258
Springs visited by FGS in Putnam County ............... ............... 259
Beecher Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... 260
Welaka Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... 262
Springs visited by FGS in Sarasota County ............................. 264
Warm Mineral Spring (photo by R. Means) .............................. 265
Springs visited by FGS in Seminole County .............................. 268
Sanlando Springs (photo by R. Means) ................................... .269
Starbuck Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .272
Springs visited by FGS in Sumter County ............................... 274
Fenney Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .275
Gum Springs Main (photo by R. Means) ............... ................ 277


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 6
.............................. 199
.............................. 200
.............................. 202
.............................. 205
.............................. 209
................................ 2 11
.................. ........... 2 12
.............................. 2. 214
.............................. 2. 216
.............................. 2. 218
.............................. 2. 219
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 1
.............................. 223
.............................. 224
.............................. 225
.............................. 227
.............................. 230









143. Springs visited by FGS in Suwannee County ............................. 279
144. Branford Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..................................... .280
145. Ellaville Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .282
146. Falmouth Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... 284
147. Little River Spring (photo by R. Means) ............... ................ 286
148. East Running Springs (photo by R. Means) .............................. 288
149. Suwannee Springs (photo by R. Means) ................................ 290
150. Telford Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .293
151. Springs visited by FGS in Taylor County ............... ............... 295
152. Nutall Rise (photo by R. Means) ....................................... ..296
153. W aldo Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .298
154. Springs visited by FGS in Union County ............................... 301
155. Springs visited by FGS in Volusia County ............................... 302
156. DeLeon Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .303
157. Volusia Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ................................ 306
158. Springs visited by FGS in Wakulla County .............................. 308
159. Cray's Rise (photo by R. Means) ........................................ 309
160. Newport Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .311
161. Sheppard Spring (photo by R. Means) ................................... .313
162. Spring Creek Springs Group (photo by J. Stevenson) ................... ... .315
163. W akulla Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .318
164. Spring visited by FGS in Walton County ............................... 321
165. Morrison Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .322
166. Springs visited by FGS in Washington County .......................... .324
167. Beckton Spring (photo by H. Means) .................................... .325
168. Brunson Landing Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................ 327
169. Cypress Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .329
170. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee (photo by R. Means) ............... 332
171. Washington Blue Spring Econfina (photo by R. Means) ..................... .335
172. Williford Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .338

Tables

1. Florida's spring classification system (from Copeland, 2003) ................. 11
2. List of analytes sampled at first magnitude springs and measured by the FDEP
laboratory for the Springs Initiative during Fall 2001, Winter 2002,
and Spring 2002 .......................................... ...........30
3. Units of measurement .................................... ............ 32
4. Hornsby Spring water quality analyses ................................. 40
5. Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses ................................ 40
6. Poe Spring water quality analyses ....................................... .42
7. Poe Spring bacteriological analyses ................. ................. .. 43
8. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses .............................. 45
9. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses ............................. 45
10. Treehouse Spring water quality analyses ............... ................ 47
11. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses ............................... 47









12. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses ............................... 52
13. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses ................. ............ 52
14. Chasahowitzka Springs Group bacteriological analyses ....................... 57
15. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses ................... ... 58
16. Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses ................................. .60
17. Citrus Blue Spring bacteriological analyses ................................. 60
18. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses ........................... 62
19. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses ......................... 63
20. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses ............................66
21. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses ........................... 66
22. Green Cove Spring water quality analyses ................................. .69
23. Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses ................................ .70
24. Columbia Spring water quality analysis ................................... .73
25. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .73
26. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses .......................... .76
27. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses ..........................77
28. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis .................................... 79
29. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 79
30. Copper Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 82
31. Copper Spring bacteriological analysis . ................................ .82
32. Guaranto Spring water quality analysis .............................. . 85
33. Guaranto Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .85
34. Steinhatchee River Rise water quality analysis ............................. .87
35. Steinhatchee River Rise bacteriological analysis ............................. 87
36. Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis .................................. 93
37. Devil's Ear Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .93
38. Gilchrist Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .96
39. Gilchrist Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 96
40. Ginnie Spring water quality analysis ..................................... .98
41. Ginnie Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .98
42. Hart Spring water quality analysis ....................................... 100
43. Hart Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 101
44. Otter Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 103
45. Otter Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .103
46. Rock Bluff Springs water quality analysis ................................. 105
47. Rock Bluff Springs bacteriological analysis ............................... .106
48. Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis ................................. 108
49. Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ................................ .108
50. Sun Springs water quality analysis ...................................... 110
51. Sun Springs bacteriological analysis ...................................... 110
52. Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis ................................ .114
53. Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis .............................. 114
54. Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis ................................. 116
55. Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ................................ .116









56. Rossetter Spring water quality analysis .................................. .118
57. Rossetter Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 118
58. Gator Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 121
59. Gator Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... 121
60. Little Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 123
61. Little Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... 124
62. Magnolia Spring water quality analysis .................................. .126
63. Magnolia Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .127
64. Hernando Salt Spring water quality analyses .............................. 129
65. Hernando Salt Spring bacteriological analyses ............................. 130
66. Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis .............................. 132
67. Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. .132
68. Buckhorn Main Spring water quality analysis ............................. .135
69. Buckhorn Main Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. 136
70. Lithia Spring Major water quality analysis ................................ 138
71. Lithia Spring Major bacteriological analysis ............................... 139
72. Sulphur Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .141
73. Sulphur Spring water quality analysis ................................... .142
74. Holmes Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .145
75. Holmes Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 145
76. Ponce de Leon Springs water quality analysis .............................. 147
77. Ponce de Leon Springs bacteriological analysis ............................. 148
78. Baltzell Spring water quality analysis .................................... 151
79. Baltzell Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .151
80. Blue Hole Spring water quality analysis .................................. 153
81. Blue Hole Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .153
82. Hays Spring water quality analysis ..................................... .155
83. Hays Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... .155
84. Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .157
85. Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. .158
86. Shangri-La Spring water quality analysis ................................. 160
87. Shangri-La Spring bacteriological analysis ................................ 160
88. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring water quality analysis ................... .162
89. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring bacteriological analysis ................... 163
90. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring water quality analysis ................. .164
91. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring bacteriological analysis .................. 164
92. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring water quality analysis ................. .166
93. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring bacteriological analysis ................ .166
94. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring water quality analysis ............... .168
95. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring bacteriological analysis ............... 168
96. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring water quality analysis ............. .170
97. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring bacteriological analysis ............ .170
98. Wacissa Springs Group water quality analysis ............................. 173









99. Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analysis ............................174
100. Allen Mill Pond Springs water quality analysis ............................ .177
101. Allen Mill Pond Springs bacteriological analysis ............................177
102. Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis .............................. 179
103. Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .179
104. Mearson Spring water quality analysis ................................... 181
105. Mearson Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .181
106. Owens Spring water quality analysis .................................... .183
107. Owens Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... 183
108. Ruth Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 185
109. Ruth Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 185
110. Troy Spring water quality analysis ..................................... 187
111. Troy Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 187
112. Turtle Spring water quality analysis ..................................... 189
113. Turtle Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .189
114. Alexander Spring water quality analysis .................................. 193
115. Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. 193
116. Apopka Spring water quality analysis .................................... 195
117. Apopka Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .195
118. Bugg Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 197
119. Bugg Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 198
120. Horn Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 201
121. Horn Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 201
122. Natural Bridge Spring water quality analysis ............................ 203
123. Natural Bridge Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .204
124. Rhodes Springs water quality analysis ................................... .207
125. Rhodes Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. 208
126. St. Marks River Rise water quality analysis ............................... 210
127. St. Marks River Rise bacteriological analysis .............................. 210
128. Fanning Springs water quality analysis .................................. .213
129. Fanning Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. .213
130. Levy Blue Spring water quality analysis .................................. 215
131. Levy Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. 215
132. Manatee Spring water quality analysis ................................... 217
133. Manatee Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .217
134. Madison Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... 220
135. Madison Blue Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. 220
136. Suwanacoochee Spring water quality analysis ............................. .222
137. Suwanacoochee Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .222
138. Fern Hammock Springs water quality analysis ............................ .226
139. Fern Hammock Springs bacteriological analysis ............................226
140. Juniper Springs water quality analysis ................................... 228
141. Juniper Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. .228









142. Orange Spring water quality analysis ................................... .231
143. Orange Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .231
144. Rainbow Springs Group water quality analysis ............................ .234
145. Rainbow Springs Group bacteriological analysis ............................235
146. Salt Springs water quality analysis ...................................... 238
147. Salt Springs bacteriological analysis ...................................... 239
148. Silver Glen Springs bacteriological analysis ............................... .241
149. Silver Glen Springs water quality analysis ................................ 242
150. Silver Springs Group bacteriological analysis .............................. 245
151. Silver Springs Group water quality analysis ............................... 246
152. Rock Springs water quality analysis ..................................... .249
153. Rock Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. . 250
154. W ekiwa Spring water quality analysis .................................... 252
155. Wekiwa Spring bacteriological analysis ................. ................. 253
156. Crystal Springs water quality analysis .................................... 256
157. Crystal Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. 257
158. Beecher Spring water quality analysis ................................... .261
159. Beecher Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .261
160. Welaka Spring water quality analysis ................................... .263
161. Welaka Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .263
162. Warm Mineral Spring water quality analysis .............................. 266
163. Warm Mineral Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. 267
164. Sanlando Spring water quality analysis ................ ................. .270
165. Sanlando Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 271
166. Starbuck Spring water quality analysis ................................ .273
167. Starbuck Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 273
168. Fenney Spring water quality analysis ................................... .276
169. Fenney Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .276
170. Gum Springs Main water quality analysis ................................ .278
171. Gum Springs Main bacteriological analysis ................................ 278
172. Branford Spring water quality analysis ................................... 281
173. Branford Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 281
174. Ellaville Spring water quality analysis ................................... .283
175. Ellaville Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .283
176. Falmouth Spring water quality analysis .................................. 285
177. Falmouth Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .285
178. Little River Spring water quality analysis ................................ .287
179. Little River Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... .287
180. Running Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. 289
181. Running Springs water quality analysis .................................. 289
182. Suwannee Springs water quality analysis ................................. 291
183. Suwannee Springs bacteriological analysis ................................ 292
184. Telford Spring water quality analysis .................................... .294









185. Telford Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .294
186. Nutall Rise water quality analysis ....................................... 297
187. Nutall Rise bacteriological analysis ...................................... 297
188. Waldo Spring water quality analysis .................................... .299
189. W aldo Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .300
190. DeLeon Spring water quality analysis ................................... .304
191. DeLeon Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 305
192. Volusia Blue Spring water quality analysis ................................ 307
193. Volusia Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 307
194. Cray's Rise water quality analysis ....................................... 310
195. Cray's Rise bacteriological analysis ...................................... .310
196. Newport Spring water quality analysis ................... ............... 312
197. Newport Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .312
198. Sheppard Spring water quality analysis .................................. .314
199. Sheppard Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .314
200. Spring Creek Springs Group water quality analysis ......................... 316
201. Spring Creek Springs Group bacteriological analysis ........................317
202. Wakulla Spring water quality analysis ................................... .319
203. W akulla Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .320
204. Morrison Spring water quality analysis ................................... 323
205. Morrison Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .323
206. Beckton Spring water quality analysis ................................... .326
207. Beckton Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 326
208. Brunson Landing Spring water quality analysis ........................... 328
209. Brunson Landing Spring bacteriological analysis ........................... 328
210. Cypress Spring water quality analysis ................................... .330
211. Cypress Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .331
212. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee water quality analysis ............. .333
213. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee bacteriological analysis ............. 334
214. Washington Blue Spring Econfina water quality analysis ................... .336
215. Washington Blue Spring Econfina bacteriological analysis .................. .337
216. W illiford Spring water quality analysis ................................... 339
217. W illiford Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .340






BULLETIN NO. 66


SPRINGS OF FLORIDA
by
Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means,
Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means,
Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland,
James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan Willet


INTRODUCTION

The bank was dense with magnolia and loblolly bay, sweet gum and gray-barked ash. He
went down to the spring in the cool darkness of their shadows. A sharp pleasure came over
him. This was a secret and a lovely place. Marjory Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling, 1938

Mysterious, magical, even "awesome" springs elicit an emotional response from near-
ly everyone who peers into their crystalline depths. The clear, azure waters of Florida's
springs have long been a focus of daily life during the humid, hot months of the year. Many
Floridians have a lifetime of memories surrounding our springs. Florida's often warm,
humid weather rendered the state's springs a welcome relief from the effects of the climate.
Many children, on a hot summer day, 1. ..i.I their parents to take them to those cool, clear
inviting pools so that, after hours in the water, the air's warmth actually felt good! The draw
of the mysterious, pristine water issuing from caves and sand boils was unmistakable. Visit
any spring during the muggy months and you will find people of all ages partaking of
Nature's soothing remedy spring water! Marjory Stoneman Douglas, the grandame of
Florida environmentalists, stated that "Springs are bowls of liquid light." Writer and
author Al Burt observed that "Springs add a melody to the land."

Springs and spring runs have been a focal point of life from prehistoric times to the pres-
ent. Undoubtedly, the ancient flow of cool, fresh water attracted animals now long absent
from Florida's landscape. Many a diver has recovered fossil remains from the state's spring
runs and wondered what the forest must have looked like when mastodons and giant sloths
roamed the spring-run lowlands.

Human artifacts, found in widespread areas of the state, attest to the importance of
springs to Florida's earliest inhabitants. The explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to
John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the subterranean discharges of
fresh water that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and set-
tlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becom-
ing sites of missions, towns and steamboat landings. Spring runs provided power for grist-
mills. Baptisms were held in the clear, cool waters and the springs often served as water
supplies for local residents. Today, even bottled water producers are interested in utilizing
these waters. Some springs have been valued for their purported therapeutic effects, and
people flocked to them to soak in the medicinal waters (Figure 1).

Recreational opportunities provided by the state's springs are numerous. Swimming,
snorkeling, diving and canoeing are among the most common activities centering around
Florida's springs. The springs and spring runs are magnets for wildlife and, subsequently,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Sprlnq fJiws 3J.100 CGaJ~lb

MRBBK


.
WIN gigei RI


4'


i


ir 7,v


wa s*^


L-'r.1


, aJ,.


Figure 1. Old Florida spring photos and moments. Clockwise from top left, interior of bath house at White
Springs, Hamilton County, 1920s; exterior of bath house at White Springs; Silver Springs, Marion County, auto decal, 1950s;
Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, brochure, 1950s; Sulphur Spring, Hillsborough County, early 1900s; boating at Troy
Spring, Lafayette County, 1960s; cars at Silver Springs, 1930s; Panacea Mineral Springs Motel, Wakulla County 1930s.


f -. j.. nPh P-. l-. wL'l:1. 'nZrnF. rF lln.


SILVER
FIORIDI


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BULLETIN NO. 66


draw many individuals and groups to view these animals in their natural surroundings. The
economic impact of the springs has been well documented (Bonn and Bell, 2003).
Ichetucknee, Wakulla, Homosassa and Volusia Blue Springs alone generated more than $65
million in 2002.

Spring water is a natural discharge that comes primarily from the Floridan aquifer sys-
tem, the state's primary aquifer. The springs provide a "window" into the aquifer, allowing
for a measure of the health of the aquifer. Chemical and biological constituents that enter
the aquifer through recharge processes may affect the water quality, flora and fauna of
springs and spring runs. As water quality in the aquifer has declined, the flora and fauna
associated with the springs and cave systems have been negatively affected. The change in
water quality is a direct result of Florida's increased population and changed land-use pat-
terns. The state's population has increased from approximately two million in 1940 to more
than 17 million in 2004 and is projected to exceed 24 million by 2030. These changes and the
subsequent degradation of our springs have led to the efforts to protect and restore Florida's
treasured springs.

In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bul-
letin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947).
This publication was revised in 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and
many new water-quality analyses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida
Geological Survey's report on first magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step
in once again updating and revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin
includes the spring descriptions and water-quality analyses from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly
300 springs were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized
in the state and more are reported each year. To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a
flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second or approximately 64.6 million gallons of water
per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country (Rosenau et
al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A comprehensive
understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection and wise use.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge a number of individuals and thank them for their
assistance in creating this volume. Gary Maddox, Laura Morse, Gail Sloane, Margaret
Murray, Tom Biernacki, Cindy Cosper, Andy Roach, Paul Hansard, and Jay Silvanima from
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), Division of Water Resource
Management, Bureau of Watershed Management guided the spring water analyses effort.
Without their knowledge and experience, the sampling, analyses and data quality and deliv-
ery could not have been accomplished within the requisite timeframe.

We would also like to acknowledge the efforts of numerous people from various water
management districts and state parks who were so helpful in either collecting or helping to
collect data for this project. In particular, the authors wish to thank David Hornsby from
the Suwannee River Water Management District for contributing his time and expertise.
We also thank Angela Chelette, Tom Pratt, Tony Countryman and Nick Wooten from the
Northwest Florida Water Management District; Eric DeHaven, David DeWitt, Joe Haber,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and Chris Tomlinson from the Southwest Florida Water Management District; David Toth,
Jim Peterson and Bill Osburn from the St. John's River Water Management District; Will
Ebaugh from the U.S. Forest Service; Richard Harris from Blue Springs State Park; Sandy
Cook from Wakulla Spring State Park; Larry Arrant from Suwannee River State Park; Sally
Lieb from Manatee Spring State Park; Alvin and Edith Hamlin, Lafayette Blue Spring;
Steve Davenport from Fanning Springs State Park; Mike Jacobs from Weeki Wachee
Springs; Steve Specht, Bob Gallager and Mike Young from Silver Springs; Guy Marwick
from the Silver River Museum; Robert LaMont from the Silver Springs State Park; Mark
Ludlow and Bill Maphis from Florida Caverns State Park; Boyd Blihovde and Rick "Bubba"
Owen from Wekiwa Springs State Park; the staff at Silver Glen Springs, Alexander Spring,
Juniper Spring and Fern Hammock Springs in the Ocala National Forest; Mark Wray of
Ginnie Springs Resort; Celeste and Hoch Shitama (Running Springs); the Branham family
(Bugg Spring); Amos Philman (Hart Spring); Ed Olman (Warm Mineral Spring); Jeffrey and
Trudy Williams (Manatee Mineral Spring); Harold Vickers (Cypress and Beckton Springs);
Jeffrey DiMaggio from Waccasassa Bay State Preserve; the land owners at Crystal Springs
and Meg Andronaco, who provided access to Crystal Springs. Joe Follman and Richard
Buchanan's Springs Fever website was a great help to us, and we appreciate their willing-
ness to help. There are many other anonymous individuals whose efforts benefited this proj-
ect.

Several individuals gave a significant amount of their personal time to lead FGS staff
into remote areas. William Shirling spent several days guiding us along Holmes Creek and
showing us the multitude of springs in that region. William Barton also spent time with FGS
springs teams, leading us to the Spring Lake area. To both of these individuals we are
greatly indebted. Joe Follman, author of Springs Fever, graciously provided his editorial
expertise.

Many thanks go to staff members of the Florida Geological Survey. Frank Rupert
organized the text, figures, tables and photographs into the digital format for publication.
John Marquez, Alan Baker, Andrew Rudin and Jim Cichon, provided cartographic expert-
ise. Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Rodney DeHan, Rick Green, Tom Greenalgh, Jackie Lloyd,
Frank Rupert and Steve Spencer reviewed the text and data, offering many suggestions and
corrections. Kenji Butler and James McClean spent time in the field with the springs teams.

Many FDEP employees assisted with this project. They are: Division of Resource
Assessment and Management, Bureau of Laboratories Sampling Training: Russel
Frydenborg, Tom Frick. Bureau of Laboratories Chemistry and Biology Analyses: Yuh-Hsu
Pan, Kate Brackett, Maria Gonzalez, Amzad Shaik, Harrison Walker, Chris Armour, Tom
Ebrahimizadeh, Chris Morgan, Colin Wright, Matt Curran, Dave Avrett, Rick Kimsey,
Latasha Fisher, Elena Koldacheva, Keith Tucker, Elliot Healy, Dawn Dolbee, Blanca Fach,
Ping Hua, Anna Blalock, Patsy Vichaikul, Akbar Cooper, Richard Johnson, Paula Peters,
Gary Dearman, Virginia Leavell, Ceceile Wight, Travis Tola, Dale Simmons, Latasha
Fisher, Rob Buda, Melva Campos, Karla Whiddon, and Daisys Tamayo. Bureau of
Watershed Management, Watershed Monitoring and Data Management Section: Tracy
Wade, Thomas Seal. Division of Waste Management: Bill Martin, David Meyers. We appre-
ciate the efforts of all these individuals.

We would also like to thank individuals from the United States Geological Survey:
Stuart Tomlinson, Donna Schiffer, David Dale, Yvonne Stoker, Jack Regar, Hal Davis,






BULLETIN NO. 66


Brian Katz and Trudy Phelps.

FGS would also like to thank the current and past members of the Florida Springs Task
Force. In particular we would like to thank Mike Bascom, new Chair of the Springs Task
Force and Coordinator of the Florida Springs Initiative for his continued support.

Finally, the Florida Geological Survey Springs Team Members wish to thank Jim
Stevenson for his tireless dedication to Florida's springs. Jim retired from the FDEP and
the Florida Springs Task Force as Chair during the course of this study. Jim's long career
with the Department ended much like it began, with a passion for protecting Florida's nat-
ural resources for future generations of Floridians to enjoy. Governor Jeb Bush and the for-
mer FDEP Secretary, David Struhs recognized Jim's achievements and honored him by
naming the highest award given to FDEP employees the Jim Stevenson Resource Manager
of the Year Award. Without Jim, our springs would not have a voice. Thank you, Jim!

DEFINITIONS AND TERMS

Many terms relating to hydrogeology and springs may be unfamiliar. Copeland (2003)
compiled a glossary of springs terms which is included in Appendix A.

FLORIDA SPRINGS TASK FORCE

In 1999, David Struhs, Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP), directed Jim Stevenson of FDEP to form a multi-agency Florida Springs
Task Force (the first Springs Task Force TF I) to recommend strategies to protect and
restore Florida's springs. The Task Force, consisting of 16 Floridians who represented one
federal and three state agencies, four water management districts, a state university, a
regional planning council, the business community, and private citizens, met monthly from
September 1999 to September 2000. These scientists, planners, and other citizens
exchanged information on the many factors that impact the viability of Florida's springs and
the ecosystems that the springs support. They listened to guest speakers with expertise in
topics relating to springs health. They discussed the conflicting environmental, social, and
economic interests that exist in all of Florida's spring basins. During the months that the
Task Force met, members developed recommendations for the preservation and restoration
of Florida's rich treasury of springs. The implementation of the recommendations will help
ensure that Florida's "bowls of liquid light" will sparkle for the grandchildren of the children
who play in Florida's springs today.

The Task Force produced a report for the Secretary entitled Florida's Springs,
Strategies for Protection and Restoration (Florida Springs Task Force, 2000). Armed with
this report, Governor Jeb Bush requested funding from the 2001 Florida Legislature to
begin the Florida Springs Initiative. Funding in the amount of $2.5 million was approved
to support projects for springs restoration, research and protection. The Florida Springs
Initiative is funded through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection where
projects in research and monitoring, public education and outreach, and landowner assis-
tance are coordinated. The Governor's Springs Initiative is based on the 2000 Florida
Springs Task Force report.

In February 2000, the Springs Task Force sponsored the Florida Springs Conference,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Natural Gems Troubled Waters, attended by over 300 people, including scientists, business
owners, representatives of environmental groups and residents from all over Florida. The
meeting was such a success that it was held again in February 2003, drawing even more
attendees. Future conferences are planned for every other year, the next one being in 2005.
The makeup of the Task Force has changed since its original members published the Task
Force Report. Less emphasis was placed on having members from the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection. As such, the second Springs Task Force (TF II) was created
and meeting frequency was reduced to quarterly. The meetings were held at different
spring locations around the state and served as a forum for exchanging information on ongo-
ing projects and discussing future goals for the Florida Springs Initiative. In June 2003, Jim
Stevenson retired from FDEP and the Task Force. Mike Bascom succeeded Jim Stevenson
as the Springs Initiative Coordinator and Chairman of the Task Force. Mike implemented
several changes to the Task Force membership and created the current Task Force III (TF
III)(Figure 2).

Ms. Colleen Castille succeeded David Struhs as the Secretary of FDEP in March 2004.
Ms. Castille continues the support of the Florida Springs Initiative by the department.


Figure 2.- Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003
(photo by T. Scott).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Task Force Members and Advisors

Task Force Chairman Jim Stevenson, Division of State Lands, FDEP. TF I,II current
citizen member TF III
Mike Bascom, Division of State Lands, FDEP, TF III

Technical Writer and Editor Frances M. Hartnett,
Technical and Creative Writing Services

Task Force Members
Dianne McCommons Beck, FDEP, TF I
Jeff Bielling, Florida Department of Community Affairs, TF I, II, III
Greg Bitter, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I
Bruce Day, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I
Hal Davis, U.S. Geological Survey, TF I, II, III
Russel Frydenborg, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, FDEP, TF I,
current advisor
Jon Martin, University of Florida, TF I, II, III
Gregg Jones, Southwest Florida Water Management District, TF I, II
Jack Leppert, Citizen, TF I
Gary Maddox, Division of Water Resource Management, FDEP, TF I, current advisor
Pam McVety, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TF I, II, and currently a citizen
advisor
Dana Bryan, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TF III
Doug Munch, St. Johns River Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Tom Pratt, Northwest Florida Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Tom Scott, Florida Geological Survey, FDEP, TF I, current advisor
Wes Skiles, Karst Environmental Services, TF I, II III
Gary Maidhof, Citrus County, TF II, III
Brian McCord, Danone Waters of North America, TF II
Meg Andronaco, Zephyrhills, TF III
Kirk Webster, Suwannee River Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Kent Smith, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, TF II, III
Sam Upchurch, SDII Global Corporation, TF II, III
Kim Davis, Blue Spring Park, Inc., TF II
Don Bennink, North Florida Holsteins, Inc., TF II
Doug Shaw, The Nature Conservancy, TF II, III
Chuck Edwards, poultry farmer, TF III

Technical Advisors
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Karl Kurka, Office of Water Policy
Kathleen Toolan, Office of General Counsel
Joe Hand, Division of Water Resource Management
Jennifer Jackson, Division of Water Resource Management
Jim McNeal, Division of Water Resource Management
Harley Means, Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Richard Deadman






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Department of Health
Tim Mayer
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Kent Smith
Karst Environmental Services
Tom Morris
St. Johns River Water Management District
David Miracle
Bill Osburn
Suwannee River Water Management District
David Hornsby
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Jim Valade

CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS

There are two general types of springs in Florida, seeps (water-table springs) and karst
springs (artesian springs). Rainwater, percolating downward through permeable sedi-
ments, may encounter a much less permeable or impermeable formation, forcing the water
to move laterally. Eventually the water may reach the surface in a lower-lying area and
form a seep (for example the steephead seeps along the eastern side of the Apalachicola
River). Karst springs form when groundwater discharges to the surface through a karst
opening. Seeps may form in karst areas when water flow from the aquifer is more diffuse.
The vast majority of Florida's more than 700 identified springs and all of the first magni-
tude springs are karst springs.

Springs are most often classified based upon the average discharge of water. Individual
springs exhibit variable discharge depending upon rainfall, recharge and groundwater with-
drawals within their recharge areas. One discharge measurement is enough to place a
spring into one of the eight magnitude categories. However, springs have dynamic flows. A
spring categorized as being a first-magnitude spring at one moment in time may not con-
tinue to remain in the same category. This can result in a spring being classified as a first
magnitude spring at one point in time and a second magnitude at another. A spring assigned
a magnitude when it was first described continued with that magnitude designation even
though the discharge may have changed considerably through time. The Florida Geological
Survey has suggested that the historical median of flow measurements be utilized in classi-
fying spring magnitude. Therefore, the magnitude of the spring is to be based on the medi-
an value of all discharge measurements for the period of record and a historical category is
defined in the Florida Springs Classification System (Copeland, 2003).

The location of a discharge measurement is critical for defining the magnitude of a
spring. Whenever possible, a discharge measurement should be restricted to a vent or seep;
however, this is often impractical or logistically impossible. For example, the only place to
take a measurement may be in a spring run downstream where multiple springs have dis-
charged into the run. For this reason, whenever a discharge measurement or water sample
is taken, the springs (vents or seeps) included in the measurement need to be reported. The
exact location of the discharge measurement (using a Global Positioning System with
approved locational specifications) and a standardized locational reference point for each
measurement is encouraged (Copeland, 2003).






BULLETIN NO. 66


The flow-based classification listed below is adapted from Meinzer (1927):

Magnitude Average Flow (Discharge)

1 100 cfs or more (64.6 mgd or more) cfs = cubic feet per second
2 10 to 100 cfs (6.46 to 64.6 mgd) mgd = million gallons per day
3 1 to 10 cfs (0.646 to 6.46 mgd) gpm = gallons per minute
4 100 gpm to 1 cfs (448 gpm) pint/min = pints per minute
5 10 to 100 gpm
6 1 to 10 gpm
7 1 pint to 1 gpm
8 Less than 1 pint/min

Current Florida Geological Survey springs tabulations list 720 springs including 33 first
magnitude, 191 second magnitude and 151 third magnitude springs (Figure 3). The list
includes individual springs, spring groups, karst windows and river rises (Appendix B).
Wilson and Skiles (1989) believe this listing has created some confusion due to the grouping
of hydrogeologically unrelated springs into groups and the inclusion of river rises and karst
windows. Often, individual springs comprising a group do not have the same water source
region or spring recharge basin (springshed) and are not hydrogeologically related. The
individual spring vents within a group may not discharge enough water to be classed as first
magnitude. Wilson and Skiles (1989) recommended grouping only hydrogeologically relat-
ed springs into spring groups. However, for the purposes of this report, spring groups are
used in the report as presented by Rosenau et al. (1977) and by the Florida Springs Task
Force (2000).

River rises are the resurgence of river water that descended underground through a
sinkhole some distance away. Wilson and Skiles (1989) state that the resurging water may
contain a significant portion of aquifer water but is primarily river water and therefore
should not be classified as a spring. Due to the inclusion of a significant addition of ground-
water, river rises have continued to be considered as springs for this report.

Karst windows form when the roof of a cave collapses exposing an underground stream
for a short distance. Four karst windows are included in this report.

Future springshed (spring recharge basin) delineations will identify the hydrogeological
relationships between springs, facilitating changes in the springs list. The identification of
these hydrogeological relationships will be carried out considering the recommendations put
forth by Wilson and Skiles (1989) and by hydrogeologists representing government agencies,
the private sector and academia.

The Florida spring classification system (Copeland, 2003) (Table 1) is based on an
assumption that karst activities have influenced almost all springs in Florida. Thus the sys-
tem is based on geomorphology. Because of the simplicity of the system, the use of spring
descriptors is encouraged.

Under this system, all springs in Florida can be classified into one of four categories,
based on the spring's point of discharge. Is the point of discharge a vent or is it a seep and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


q *J*, o 3 _

--. -'.- -
'0
IIi
V.W


0 25 50 Miles A
Nme
0 00o Kilometers


- -
n ~ ~


o9
U


&- -



t -oG ? -

Ai '-


Ci


Figure 3. Location of Florida's springs.


is the point of discharge located onshore or offshore? Since all springs are either vents or
seeps, the classification can be simplified into the following:


Vent
Onshore
Offshore


Seep
Onshore
Offshore


Spring throat opening size is an extremely important characteristic of Florida springs.
A spring vent is defined as an opening that concentrates ground-water discharge to the
Earth's surface, including the bottom of the ocean. The opening is significantly larger than
that of the average pore space of the surrounding aquifer matrix. As an example, a vent
occasionally is considered to be a cave, and ground-water flow from the vent is typically tur-
bulent. On the other hand, a spring seep is composed of one or more small openings in which
water discharges diffusely (or "oozes") from the ground-water environment. The diffuse dis-
charge originates from the intergranular pore spaces in the aquifer matrix. Flow is typical-
ly laminar.


* 462 F(GS Visiled 'priair;
O 'prinp'N Database
_ Waler
- C:niunly Bnundariet


/


7_1


\






BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 1. Florida's Spring Classification System.
(from Copeland, 2003)

SPRING
Onshore Offshore
Vent Onshore Vent Offshore Vent
Examples: Examples:
Karst spring Offshore karst spring
Resurgence (River Rise) Unnamed offshore vent
Estavelle (intermittent Offshore estavelle vent
resurgence or exsurgence)
Subaqueous riverine vent
Subaqueous lacustrine vent
Sand boil
Seep Onshore Seep Offshore Seep
Examples: Examples:
Subaerial riverine seep Unnamed offshore seep
Subaqueous lacustrine seep Offshore estavelle seep


Using this scheme, individual springs type can
type of spring and the magnitude.


be accurately classified by defining the


Historically, there have been inconsistencies in the naming of springs. We have
attempted to make names more precise in this volume. For example, a spring site that phys-
ically has one vent is no longer referred to as springs Wakulla Springs becomes Wakulla
Spring. Also, if a river rise or a karst window was called a spring, the term river rise or
karst window now replaces "spring" in the name.

There are many "Blue Springs" in Florida. FDEP scientists have adopted the conven-
tion of referring to these springs with the county name placed before the name "Blue
Spring." Thus, Blue Spring in Jackson County becomes Jackson Blue Spring.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PALEONTOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE OF SPRINGS

Archaeological research has shown that Florida's springs have been important to
human inhabitants for thousands of years. Prehistoric peoples exploited the concentration
of resources found in and around springs. Fresh water, chert, clay, fish and game animals
were all available in and near springs.

Florida's first people, called paleoindians, left behind evidence of their culture in the
form of chert, bone and ivory tools that date to more than 12,000 years before present
(Figure 4) (Dunbar et al., 1988). These people coexisted with large, now extinct, megafau-
nal animals including mastodon, mammoth, ground sloth, giant beaver and giant armadil-
lo. During the latest Pleistocene Epoch, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, sea level was approxi-
mately 115 to 148 ft (35 to 45 m) below present levels (Balsillie and Donoghue, in prepara-
tion, 2004). Deep springs and sinkholes may have been some of the only sources of fresh
water in parts of ancient Florida. Investigations at Wakulla Spring, Hornsby Springs,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


\





















Figure 4. Native American artifacts from Florida springs
(from the Coastal Plains Institute collection -photo by H. Means).
Ichetucknee Springs, Silver Springs and the Wacissa River to name a few have shown
that paleoindians lived around springs and utilized the resources of these areas (Tesar and
Jones, 2004; Neill, 1958; Balsillie et al., in press).

Silver Springs has long drawn curious visitors to its shores (Schmidt, 2001). Before
glass-bottom boat tours and water slides invaded this magnificent spring, prehistoric people
had discovered its beauty and abundant resources. Evidence of their occupation lies buried
in sediments in and around the spring. W. T. Neill (1958) discovered the tools of ancient
people in sand that was being excavated near the spring for use in the park. An excavation
of the site produced a stratified column with paleoindian artifacts at the base and evidence
of younger cultures on top. This is one of many such excavations that have taken place
around the state at different springs and documents the long history of human occupation
at springs.

Divers and spring visitors have reported finding chert tools and fossils in and around
Florida's numerous springs and spring runs for many years. In 1927, the Simpson family
began to investigate the bottom of the Ichetucknee River (Simpson, 1935). The Simpsons
recovered thousands of stone and bone artifacts along with numerous remains of extinct
Pleistocene animals. In the 1950s the sport of SCUBA diving made the aquatic world acces-
sible. With this new technology, legendary diver Ben Waller began to survey the bottom of
many of central Florida's spring-fed rivers (Waller, 1983). He recognized quickly that these
springs and spring runs contained a long prehistoric record of human occupation spanning
some 12,000 years. After Ben's pioneering work, many others have followed and continue
to do so today.
More evidence of prehistoric human utilization of springs comes from Warm Mineral






BULLETIN NO. 66


Springs, located in Sarasota County. Archaeologists recovered human remains from a ledge
located 43 ft (13 m) below the current water level that contained preserved brain material.
The remains were radiocarbon dated and produced an age of 10,000 +/- 200 years before
present (Royal and Clark, 1960). Other archaeological material and fossils were recovered
from this site, which has proven to be one of the most important archaeological sites in the
southeastern United States.

Florida's abundance of springs does not stop at its present shoreline. Florida has an
undocumented number of offshore springs that provided resources to prehistoric people and
wildlife when sea level was lower. Evidence for occupation of offshore sites has been dis-
covered by researchers from the Florida State University Department of Anthropology. Dr.
Michael Faught and his students have conducted offshore surveys at and near some offshore
springs and have recovered an abundance of chert tools (Faught, in prep.). Although off-
shore springs may be discharging brackish to saline water today, they almost certainly dis-
charged fresh water during times of lowered sea levels when prehistoric human occupation
occurred at these sites. Further investigation of Florida's offshore springs is needed to
assess the role that these springs play in the hydrogeology and archaeology of the state.

As the Pleistocene Epoch came to a close in Florida, many environmental changes were
taking place. The large megafaunal animals that once had roamed the Florida landscape
were becoming extinct. Global weather patterns changed, and sea level began to rise. As
these drastic changes occurred, Florida's human inhabitants had to adapt. As water tables
rose, springs became more abundant and people continued to exploit the resources in and
around the springs. Prehistoric peoples living around springs built large shell middens and
mounds as they disposed of the inedible portions of their food items and other waste.
Numerous examples of these mounds exist throughout the state with some of the best exam-
ples being located along spring runs that drain into the St. John's River, the King's Bay
Spring Group near Crystal River and the spring-fed Wacissa River system. Abundant sup-
plies of fresh water, aquatic food sources, chert and clay sources made Florida's springs
highly desirable habitation sites.

Sediments in and around Florida's springs are time capsules that contain valuable
information about our environmental and cultural past. Prehistoric Floridians valued our
state's spring resources and now modern Floridians are the stewards of a tradition that has
lasted for more than 12,000 years. As our state's population continues to grow, more and
more people will be putting demands on our natural resources. It is our modern society's
responsibility to see that Florida's springs are preserved in their natural beauty and eco-
logical health for future generations.


HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA SPRINGS

Florida enjoys a humid, subtropical climate throughout much of the state (Henry, 1998).
Rainfall, in the region of the major springs, ranges from 50 inches (127 cm) to 60 inches (152
cm) per year. As a result of this climate and the geologic framework of the state, Florida has
an abundance of fresh groundwater. Scott and Schmidt (2000) and Scott (2001) estimated
that more than 2.2 quadrillion gallons of fresh water are contained within the Floridan
aquifer system (FAS) in Florida. Only a very small percentage of the fresh water is available
as a renewable resource for human consumption.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Florida peninsula is the exposed portion of the broad Florida Platform. The Florida
Platform, as measured between the 200 meter below sea level contour (more than 600 ft), is
more than 300 miles (483 km) wide. It extends more than 150 miles (240 km) westward
under the Gulf of Mexico offshore from Crystal River, and more than 70 miles (113 km)
under the Atlantic Ocean from Fernandina Beach. The present day Florida peninsula is less
than one half of the total platform.

The Florida Platform is composed of a thick sequence of variably permeable carbonate
sediments, limestone and dolostone, lying on older igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
rocks. The Cenozoic carbonate sediments may exceed 4,000 ft (1,220 m) thick. A sequence
of sand, silt and clay with variable amounts of limestone and shell overlie the carbonate
sequence (see Scott [1992 a, b] for discussion of the Cenozoic sediment sequence and the geo-
logic structure of the platform). In portions of the west-central and north-central peninsu-
la and in the central panhandle, the carbonate rocks, predominantly limestone, occur at or
very near the surface. Away from these areas, the overlying sand, silt and clay sequence
becomes thicker. As the sediments compacted and were subjected to other geologic forces,
fractures formed. These fractures allowed water to move more freely through the sediments
and provided the template for the development of Florida's many cave systems.

There are three major aquifer systems in Florida, The Floridan, the Intermediate and
the Surficial Aquifer Systems, all of which are very complex (Southeastern Geological
Society, 1986; Scott, 1992a). The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) occurs within a thick
sequence of permeable carbonate sediments (see Miller [1986] and Berndt et al. [1998] for
discussion of the FAS). In some areas, it is overlain by the intermediate aquifer system and
confining unit (IAS) which consists of carbonates, sand, silt and clay. The surficial aquifer
system (SAS) overlies the IAS, or the FAS where the IAS is absent, and is composed of sand,
shell and some carbonate. The vast majority of Florida's springs result from discharge from
the FAS.

Natural recharge to the FAS by rainwater, made slightly acidic by carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere and organic acids in the soil, dissolved portions of the limestone and
enlarged naturally occurring fractures. The dissolution enhanced the permeability of the
sediments and formed cavities and caverns. Sinkholes formed by the collapse of overlying
sediments into the cavities. Occasionally, the collapse of the roof of a cave creates an open-
ing to the land surface. See Lane (1986) for a description of sinkhole types common in
Florida.

Karst springs occur both onshore and offshore in Florida. Currently, little is known
about the offshore springs with the exception of the Spring Creek Group the largest spring
group in Florida averaging more than one billion gallons of water discharged per day (max-
imum flow estimated at more than two billion gallons of water per day [Rosenau et al.,
1977]) (Lane, 2001). In order to better understand the water resources of the state, a water
budget needs to include a comprehensive assessment of the total amount of recharge and
discharge occurring to and from the aquifer. To aid in this characterization, the FGS has ini-
tiated a program to investigate the occurrence, discharge and water quality of the offshore
springs.

Florida's springs occur primarily in the northern two-thirds of the peninsula and the






BULLETIN NO. 66


central panhandle where carbonate rocks are at or near the land surface (Figure 5). All of
these springs produce water from the upper FAS (Berndt et al., 1998) which consists of sed-
iments that range in age from Late Eocene (approximately 38 36 million years old [my]) to
mid-Oligocene (approximately 33 my). Miocene to Pleistocene sediments (24 my to 10,000
years) often are exposed in the springs.

The geomorphology physiographyy) of the state, coupled with the geologic framework,
controls the distribution of springs. The springs occur in areas where karst features (for
example, sinkholes and caves) are common, the potentiometric surface of the FAS is high
enough and the surface elevations are low enough to allow groundwater to flow at the sur-
face. These areas are designated karst plains, karst hills and karst hills and valleys on
Figure 6. The state's springs occur primarily within the Ocala Karst District and the
Dougherty Karst Plain District (Scott, in preparation, 2004). Other springs, including
Alexander, Silver Glen and Volusia Blue, occur in the Central Lakes District (Scott, in
preparation, 2004). Springs generally occur in lowlands near rivers and streams. There are
a number of springs known to flow from vents beneath rivers and many more are thought
to exist. Hornsby and Ceryak (1998) identified many newly recognized springs that occur in
the channels of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. Springs that have yet to be described
have been found beneath the Apalachicola River between Gadsden and Jackson Counties
(H. Means, personal communication, 2004).

Recharge to the FAS occurs over approximately 55% of the state (Berndt et al., 1998).
Recharge rates vary from less than one inch (2.54 cm) per year to more than ten inches (25.4
cm) per year. Recharge water entering the upper FAS that eventually discharges from a
spring has a variable residence time. Katz et al. (2001) and Katz (2004) found that water
flowing from larger springs had an average ground-water residence time of more than 20
years and may reflect the mixing of older and younger waters.

Discharge, water quality and temperature of springs remain reasonably stable over
extended periods of time (Berndt et al., 1998). However, because discharge rates are driv-
en by the rate of recharge, climatic fluctuations often have a major effect on spring flow.

During 1998 2002, Florida suffered a major drought with a rainfall deficit totaling
more than 50 inches (127 cm). The resulting reduction in recharge from the drought and
normal withdrawals caused a lowering of the potentiometric surface in the FAS. Many first
magnitude springs experienced a significant flow reduction. Some springs, such as Hornsby
Spring, ceased flowing completely. The flow data given for each first order magnitude spring
(see individual spring descriptions) reflect the drought-influenced flows. Some springs may
reverse flow in response to river water levels. Higher river levels may cause a reversal of
flow that introduces river water into the aquifer. Once river levels drop, the spring flow
resumes, pumping dark, tannic water until the river water is forced from the aquifer. The
appearance of the springs also changed during the drought as river and lake levels declined
reducing the size of the spring water body and exposing more sediments along the banks.

Factors affecting quality and quantity of spring water include the distribution of karst
features within a springshed, thickness of confining units, soil characteristics, topography,
potentiometric surfaces, as well as others. The Florida Geological Survey is currently
developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) model to estimate the relative vulnera-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Generalized Geologic Map
of the
State of Florida


S--.-


I'


li.% p..,-.1


1 .
I...r


LEGEND

Holocene
Pleistocene
Pliocene/Pleistocene
Pliocene
Miocene
SOligocene
SEocene


Figure 5. Generalized geologic map of Florida (modified from Scott et al., 2001).


S\
t






BULLETIN NO. 66


Karst Areas Related to
First Magnitude Springs


977


*kl.


%*p.,-


LEGEND
Karst Hills
Karst Hills & Valleys
Karst Plains
Other


Figure 6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs
(modified from Scott, in preparation).


,








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ability of Florida's aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA).
FAVA uses a statistical method, called Weights of Evidence, to quantify relationships
between spatial layers with measured contaminant occurrences. This yields a data-driven
predictive model or relative probability map of the aquifer being assessed. The model uti-
lizes many of the following spatial layers: depth to water table, thickness of confining units,
soil drainage and spatial distribution of karst features. FAVA will replace a formerly used
model and will more accurately define areas that are highly vulnerable to ground-water con-
tamination. FAVA will be a powerful tool for identifying highly vulnerable areas within
springsheds and is designed to assist land managers and urban planners in making
informed decisions about land use and ground-water resource conservation (Figure 7).










r 7 Wekiwa Spring
S Training Pints
W ekiva River SA
W County Boundaries
Calculated Response
L- aRelative uLnerabWiitv
Highest




W E

"- L 1Wekiva R. Topo Basin
Weknva R. GW Basin
C It River








F-o
W' .'..==" I t I ] I i t i











Figure 7. Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Springsheds

There has been increased emphasis in the last few years on the drainage basins that
supply water to Florida's springs as a result of awareness of increasing trends in contami-
nants, such as nitrate (Figure 8). The amount of water and the nature and concentrations
of chemical constituents that discharge from a spring are functions of the geology, hydrolo-
gy, and land uses within the ground- and surface-water drainage basins that collect water
for discharge from the spring.


Median Nitrate Concentrations in 13

Selected First-Magnitude Springs in Florida


1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0


1970


1980 1990 2000


Year

Figure 8. Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected
first magnitude springs in Florida.


Ground-water basins are traditionally identified through either (1) construction of a
flow net and identifying divergent flow lines that delineate the hydraulic divides of the
spring drainage system, (2) particle tracking within a computer-generated ground-water
flow model, or (3) dye or chemical tracing to identify sources that contribute to the spring
discharge. All of these methods have uncertainties. For example, delineation of a basin
boundary from a flow net or potentiometric surface map is limited to the accuracy and res-
olution of the map and the flow lines which are subject to change with variations in rainfall,
land use, and ground-water withdrawals. The accuracy of the computer model and our
understanding of the aquifer system limit the accuracy of particle-tracking procedures.
Dyes and other chemicals can be used to identify sources within a basin, but the chemicals
may not be detected if they are (1) too diluted in the aquifer, (2) removed from the water


I I I I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(movement is retarded) by chemical interactions with aquifer materials, (3) transported to
an un-monitored conduit system, or (4) travel times may be so slow that monitoring may not
be feasible.

A spring recharge basin, or springshed, consists of "those areas within ground- and sur-
face-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring" (DeHan, 2002; Copeland,
2003). The spring recharge basin consists of all areas where water can be shown to con-
tribute to the ground-water flow system that discharges from the spring of interest. Because
karst systems frequently include sinking streams that transmit surface water directly to the
aquifer, the recharge basin may include surface-water drainage basins that bring water into
the spring drainage from outside of the ground-water basin. This concept is important
because contaminated surface water may be introduced to the springshed from sources well
outside of the ground-water basin by streams that originate outside the basin.

The scenario shown in Figure 9 illustrates some possible contribution areas within a
spring recharge basin. Two components of the springshed are shown: the ground-water
basin and a surface-water basin. A portion of the ground-water basin is located within a
karst plain where recharge is rapid through features such as sinkholes. Another portion
extends under a highlands area where fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer retard
recharge and cause surface runoff and stream development. Because of the area of aquifer
confinement, the active recharge portion of the ground-water basin is limited to unconfined
portions of the basin. The surface-water basin may or may not extend outside the ground-
water basin. The stream that originates on the highlands discharges onto the karst plain
where it recharges the aquifer through a swallet. The hypothetical springshed (Figure 9)
suggests that a springshed may be subdivided into at least three recharge-potential cate-
gories. The semi-confined area of the ground-water basin has low recharge potential and,
therefore, low risk of ground-water contamination. The areas nearest the spring, where flow
lines converge and transport times from recharge points (i.e., sinkholes) are short, and areas
associated with swallets that receive surface water are highly vulnerable to ground-water
contamination. Finally, the portions of the karst plain within the ground-water basin that
are distant from the spring have an intermediate risk of contributing contamination to the
spring discharge because of possible long travel times of water to the spring and a high prob-
ability of dilution or retardation of constituents. The stream is a special problem because
storm water and permitted discharges upstream can cause contamination issues down gra-
dient of the swallet. Similarly, water sources that originate outside of the springshed can
cause potential contamination. For example, a sewage treatment plant that collects water
from outside of the basin and disposes of the treated wastewater by land application can con-
stitute a source that effectively extends the springshed to those portions of the wastewater
collection system outside of the springshed.

The Suwannee River Water Management District has developed high-resolution moni-
toring programs for a number of first-magnitude spring systems, including the Ichetucknee
Spring Group (Upchurch et al., 2001). High-resolution monitoring for water levels and
water quality involves placement of a large number of monitoring wells within the spring
basin. The number and spacing of the wells is determined by statistical methods (Upchurch,
et al., 2001; Upchurch and Champion, 2003). As a result of the numerous monitoring wells,
contour maps with higher resolution than normal (i.e., 1-foot contour intervals as opposed
to 5-foot intervals) can be prepared.





BULLETIN NO. 66


Ground
Water
Basin


Swallet


Primary
Contribution
Zone


Spring Run


SSpring C


Karst Plain


Figure 9. Idealized springshed delineation.


r
r


,c~citi
oo






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 10 is an example that incorporates many of the features of the hypothetical
springshed with a high-resolution potentiometric surface map used as a basis for delineation
of the ground-water basin. This map, prepared for data collected in September 2003, shows
the ground-water basin as defined by the potentiometric surface map of the upper FAS.
Maps prepared for other time periods suggest that the basin boundaries change slightly over
time. The zone where the isopotential lines are close together is the transition from the
unconfined karst plain (Ocala Karst District) to the highlands where the FAS is confined.
Up gradient from this transition zone, aquifer vulnerability is low; down gradient it is high.
Aquifer vulnerability is particularly high in the transition zone where streams coming off
the highlands discharge into swallets in the karst plain. The hatchered portion represents
the drainage basins of the more important of those streams. Lake City is located on this
transition zone and runoff from portions of the city as well as from a wastewater land appli-
cation area enters the shaded area.


Figure 10. Potentiometric map of a springshed.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Delineation of ground- and surface-water portions of springsheds, identification of
major swallets that receive storm water, and identification of land uses that may lead to con-
tributions of nutrients or other constituents into the ground-water system are important
steps in protecting Florida springs. High-resolution monitoring is an important aspect of
this effort where the margins of the ground-water basin may include significant contamina-
tion sources or ground-water withdrawals. In addition, it allows for recognition of vulnera-
ble recharge areas and potential jurisdictional issues.

Spring Water

Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality

In order to fully understand the water quality of Florida's springs, a rudimentary under-
standing of the origin and chemistry of Florida's groundwater is needed. Most people are
aware that Florida is surrounded on three sides by salt water. Many are unaware howev-
er, that salt water also underlies the entire state. The reason for this is that the Florida
Platform consists of carbonate rocks that were deposited in a shallow ocean. At the time of
deposition of the rocks under the ocean, salt water existed in their intergranular pore
spaces. Gradually over geologic time, sea level was lowered relative to its position when the
carbonate sediments were deposited. Through compaction and downwarping of sediments
on both sides of the Platform, a series of complex fracture patterns developed. The patterns
are often reflected at land surface and have actually influenced the pathways of many of
Florida's streams.

As sea level lowered, the central portion of the Florida Platform was exposed to the
atmosphere. Over time, rainfall percolated downward and eventually replaced the upper
portion of salt water in the carbonates with a fresh water "lens." Today, the "lens" is gen-
erally deepest in the central portion of the state and becomes narrower toward Florida's
coastline. The lens is over 2,000 feet thick at its maximum (Klein, 1975). It should be
understood that the base of the lens is transitional rather than a sharp boundary.
Groundwater in the deeper portion of the lens, and along our coasts, is mixed and has rela-
tively high concentrations of saline indicators such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and sulfate
(804).

Water discharging from Florida's springs has its ultimate source from rainfall. Much of
the rainfall reaching land surface flows overland to surface-water bodies, evaporates or is
transpired by plants. However, a portion of the rainfall percolates downward through the
sediments where it recharges our aquifers. During its travel downward from land surface
to the water table, and while water resides within Florida's aquifer systems, many factors
affect the water chemistry.

Residence time is the length of time that water is in contact with a particular portion of
an aquifer system (Upchurch, 1992). A long residence time may allow sufficient time for
chemical reactions between the water and the aquifer rock. As such, water chemistry
reflects the composition of the aquifer rock. Typical residence times range from several days
to thousands of years depending on the nature of the flow system (Hanshaw et al., 1965).

A second factor affecting ground-water chemistry is its flow path, which is the length
and depth of the path that the groundwater follows as it flows through an aquifer






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(Upchurch, 1992). In general, shallow, short flow paths, which are characteristic of the SAS,
result in low residence times for chemical reactions. Consequently, the total dissolved solid
(TDS) content is less than in longer flow-path systems. If the flow path is long (on the order
of tens of kilometers), such as commonly occurs in the FAS, reactions between rock and
water become more probable and the TDS content of the water increases as a result of con-
tinued rock-water chemical reactions. Because of its residence time and flow path, spring
water quality is typically reflective of the interactions of the major rock types of the source
aquifer and water within it.

A third factor that is of particular interest is intergranular porosity (pores through
which water passes between the individual rock matrix grains). Even though Florida's karst
features suggest the existence of large, secondary cavernous pores spaces, most of the pores
tend to be small (Upchurch, 1992). Fortunately, whenever the pore throats are very small,
they act as filters for microbes, small organic substances, and clay minerals. In general, this
results in very clean groundwater that is extremely desirable for both drinking water and
recreational purposes. Unfortunately, some contaminants originating from our land use
activities are not always removed and contaminate groundwater.

Indicators of Water Quality Problems

Spring water, when it is in the aquifer, is considered to be groundwater. However, once
spring water exits from the spring vent onto the earth's surface, it is considered to be sur-
face water. Because of this change, the question arises whether scientists and regulators
should apply ground-water or surface-water quality standards to the water. Contaminant
criteria thresholds may exist for an analyte while the water is considered groundwater, but
not for surface water; or vice versa. Nitrate (NO, + NO2 as N) is a good example. Based on
drinking water criteria, nitrate has a groundwater threshold value of 10 mg/1 (FDEP, 1994).
However, no nitrate criteria exist for surface water. The FDEP Division of Water Resource
Management is currently developing criteria for spring water. Until legal criteria are estab-
lished, it should be understood that any reference to threshold values in the following text
simply infers potential water-quality problems.

One of the more disturbing aspects about Florida's spring water quality has been the
documented steady increase of nitrate over the past several decades (Jones et al., 1996;
Champion and DeWitt, 2000; Means et al., 2003). Figure 8 displays the nitrate increase in
13 selected first-magnitude springs (Alexander, Chassahowitzka Main, Fanning,
Ichetucknee Main, Jackson Blue, Madison Blue, Manatee, Rainbow Group composite, Silver
Main, Silver Glen, Volusia Blue, Wakulla, and Wacissa #2 Springs) between the 1970s and
the early 2000s.

Of the 125 spring vents sampled in 2001-2002, none had nitrate concentrations exceed-
ing the 10 mg/1 threshold for drinking water. The natural background nitrate concentra-
tions in groundwater in Florida are less than 0.05 mg/1 (Maddox et al., 1992). Of the spring
vents sampled, 52 had nitrate concentrations exceeding 0.50 mg/1 (42%) and 30 (24%) had
concentrations greater than 1.00 mg/1. Thus, over 40% of the sampled springs have at least
a ten-fold increase in nitrate concentrations above background and approximately one quar-
ter of them have at least a 20-fold increase. The effect of the increased concentrations of
nitrate in surface water is not fully understood. Increasing nitrate concentrations may
adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem in springs and spring runs. Further research is still






BULLETIN NO. 66


needed and is currently being sponsored by the Springs Initiative.

The FDEP is aware of the nitrate issues and has worked with other governmental agen-
cies to develop a series of steps to reduce nitrate concentrations in our groundwater and
springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin where many of Florida's springs are located
(Copeland et al., 2000). The FDEP Bureau of Watershed Management and the Florida
Department of Community Affairs are active in coordinating the development of springs
protection measures. In addition, in September 2003, Governor Bush and the Florida
Cabinet voted unanimously to strengthen protection for Florida's freshwater springs.
Improvements to the Florida Springs Rule, currently being proposed by FDEP, are designed
to increase protection for water quality, flow and habitats.

Another spring-water quality concern is the influence of saline water. Sixteen of the
sampled springs are "salty." Of these 16 springs, 13 had concentrations of chloride (a saline
indicator) exceeding the 250 mg/1 threshold for drinking water. Springs with this type of
water tend to be located along Florida's coast and along the St. Johns River. The ultimate
source of the saline indicators is from naturally occurring saline water within the FAS
(Klein, 1975). The saline water may cause water-quality changes in spring water as the
result of natural circumstances such as drought and upwelling within the FAS. The changes
may also be attributed to ground-water withdrawal.

Bacteria, such as enterococci and fecal coliform, represent a third concern regarding
spring water quality. It is generally believed that these bacteria originate in fecal matter
from warm blooded animals (Center for Disease Control, 2004). Fecal coliform concentra-
tions in 23 springs (18%) exceed the drinking water threshold (FDEP, 1994) of four colonies
per 100 ml. However, because it has been determined that these bacteria can complete their
normal life-cycle outside of warm-blooded animals, especially in a warm environment as in
parts of Florida (Fjuioka and Byappanahalli, 2004), the concentrations of fecal coliform may
not necessarily represent a direct link to warm-blooded animal pathogens. Further research
is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the source of the fecal bacte-
ria.
FDEP encourages the development of best management practices (BMPs). BMPs are land
use strategies designed to reduce pollution to our environment. In an effort to reduce nitrate
concentrations in spring water FDEP cooperates with over 20 government and private
organizations to develop and implement BMPs for the middle Suwannee River Basin where
many of Florida's springs are located. It is believed that the net result of the BMPs will
ultimately result in a reduction of nitrate concentration in spring water in the region.

The Florida Springs Initiative addresses the nitrate and microbiological issues by pro-
viding funds for the monitoring of nitrate in springs and by sponsoring research on the
microbiology of caves and spring water. The FDEP also works very closely with the water
management districts in monitoring salt-water intrusion and in the establishment of mini-
mum flows for our streams and minimum levels for our aquifers. Florida law (Chapter 373,
Florida Statutes) requires Florida's water management districts to establish minimum flows
and levels (MFLs) for water courses, water bodies, and aquifers. The goal of the minimum
flows and levels program is "to establish minimum flows and levels in accordance with
Chapter 373.042, Florida Statutes, to protect Florida's water resources from significant
harm caused by water withdrawals or diversions." Minimum flows and levels are designed
to assure adequate quantities of water for our streams and springs. This statute also pro-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vides authority to reserve water from permit allocation to protect fish and wildlife (Chapter
373.223(4) Florida Statutes). These water reservations provide the highest level of protec-
tion allowed by law and will aid in protecting historical spring flows.

Offshore Springs

Offshore or submarine springs are known to exist off Florida's Atlantic and Gulf of
Mexico coastlines. These springs are most common in the offshore portion of the Florida
Platform from Tampa north and west to the Ochlocknee River south-southwest of
Tallahassee. Offshore springs have also been identified off the northern and southwestern
parts of the peninsula and the western panhandle (Rosenau et al., 1977) (Figure 11). Water-
quality data from some of these springs indicate that, at best, the water is brackish.
Anecdotally, there are reports of "fresh water" flowing from offshore springs.


Figure 11. Offshore springs (from Rosenau et al., 1977).


SUBMARINE SPRINGS
1. Bear Creek Spring
2. Cedar Island Spring
3. Cedar Island Springs
4. Choctawhatchee Springs
5. Grays Rise
6. Crescent Beach
7. Crystal Beach Spring
8. Freshwater Cave
9. Mud Hole
10. Ocean Hole Spring
11. Ray Hole Spring
12. Red Snapper Sink
13. Spring Creek Springs Group
14. Tarpon Springs
15. Jewfish Hole
16. Unnamed Spring No. 4






BULLETIN NO. 66


The area offshore from Tampa to the Ochlocknee River has carbonate rocks of the FAS
exposed on the sea bottom or slightly buried. At lower sea levels, particularly during the
Pleistocene, this area was exposed and dissolution created numerous karst features. Many
of these sinkholes are known to fisherman and divers (Figure 12). Some offshore karst fea-
tures are springs but how many of the karst features discharge water is not known.
However, to fully understand the water budget of the FAS, the determination of the flows is
necessary. The FGS, along with SRWMD and SWFWMD, are investigating offshore springs
to determine flow characteristics and water quality. Results of these investigations will be
published in the near future.


'r, ,.

-- 1 Lanark Sulfur Spring
2 Lanark Spring
3 FSUML Spring
.i 4 Bay North Spring
S5 ;.. < 5 Spring Creek Group
., 6 Ocean Hole
: 6 7 / 7 Freshwater Cave
8 V 8 Econfina Spring
101 9 Spring 22
S4 -- 10 Oyster Bar Spring
S 3 11 TAY0606991
S'1 12> K 12 Cedar Island Spring
12 13 Ray Hole
13- 14 Limerock
S"'15 Steinhatchee Spring
16 Spring 1 & 2
14 15 17 Lamb Spring
14 15 p-


16 17, -
16.



Figure 12. Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region.


WATER QUALITY

Methodology

One hundred eleven springs, two submarine springs, eight river rises, and four karst
windows were sampled from September 2001 through August 2003 (Figure 13). Tidally
influenced springs were sampled at low tide to minimize the influence of salt water on the
water-quality samples. Standard FDEP sampling protocols were followed for each sampling
event (Watershed Monitoring Data Management Section, Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, 1991). Any mention of brand names does not imply an endorse-
ment by the Florida Geological Survey or the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Field Parameters

Temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured using
either a Hydrolab Quanta or a YSI data sonde (model no. 6920) and data logger (model no.
6100). Instruments were calibrated at the beginning of each sampling day. A check was per-
formed at the end of each day to ensure calibration remained accurate throughout the sam-
pling events. If the end of the day check failed, field data were qualified for all vents sam-
pled that day. For quality assurance purposes, field reference standards were analyzed and
equipment blanks were submitted every five to ten samples throughout the sampling peri-
od.
To begin each sampling
event, two or three stainless steel
weights were attached to polyeth-
ylene tubing (3/8" O.D. x 0.062"
wall) which was then lowered
into the spring vent opening,
ensuring the intake line was not
influenced by surrounding sur-
face water. Masterflex tubing
was attached to the opposite end,
run through a Master Flex E/S
portable peristaltic pump (model
no. 07571-00), and the discharge
line was fed directly into a closed
system flow chamber. The data-
sonde was inserted into the flow
chamber and water was pumped .
through with a constant flow rate
between 0.25 and 1
gallon/minute. No purge was
required because springs are con-
sidered already purged. The field
parameter values were recorded
after the field meter displayed a
stable reading (approximately 10 Figure 13. The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001.
min.). The tubing was adequate-
ly flushed with spring water during the gathering of field parameters. The flow chamber was
removed and sampling was conducted directly from the masterflex tubing discharge line.
Two exceptions to this sampling method occurred at Wakulla Spring and Homosassa
Springs. Both springs have pre-set pipes running down into the cave systems where the
spring vents are located. In the case of Homosassa Springs, tubes from the three vents con-
verge at an outlet box with three valves inside, one for each vent. Sampling was conducted
from these valves. At Wakulla Spring, the pipe runs to a pump on shore from which sam-
pling is conducted. The Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD)
(Wakulla Spring) and Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)






BULLETIN NO. 66


(Homosassa Springs) designed and operated the sampling systems. Each tube was purged
for 10 minutes, as there are gallons of water remaining in tubes from the last sampling
effort. FDEP standard operating procedures were followed for water quality sampling

Water Samples

Seven to ten bottles and three Whirl-pack bags were filled with water from spring vents
and analyzed by the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories following Environmental Protection
Agency or Standard methods. All containers, with the exception of the Whirl-pak bags, were
pre-rinsed with sample water prior to filling. Four to seven bottles and three Whirl-pak
bags were filled with unfiltered water samples. A GWV high capacity in-line filter (0.45 um)
was attached to the microflex tubing and the remaining three bottles were filled with fil-
tered water samples. The number of bottles filled and the types of analytes sampled varied
between the first magnitude springs sampling effort and the second and third magnitude
spring sampling effort. The analytes sampled for each event are shown in Table 2.

Whirl-pak bags were placed on ice immediately after filling. Bottles for filtered and unfil-
tered nutrients were preserved with sulfuric acid followed by acidification of bottles for fil-
tered and unfiltered metals using nitric acid. Narrow range pH litmus paper was used to
confirm acidity of pH = 2. All water samples were placed on ice and delivered to the FDEP
Bureau of Laboratories within 24 hours. New tubing and filters were used at each sample
site.

Additional Data

General descriptions of each spring vent were made and included the aquatic, wetland,
and upland (where applicable) surroundings. Water depth was measured using a hand held
Speedtech sonar depth gauge. Distances were measured with a Bushnell Yardage Pro 500
range finder. Secchi depth (visibility depth) was obtained using a secchi disk. A Trimble
XR Pro GPS system with a TDC1 data logger was used to record latitudinal and longitudi-
nal coordinates. Field parameters, weather conditions, sampling times, water and secchi
depth, and micro-land use information were also input into the GPS unit. Micro-land uses
within 300 ft of spring vents were identified and sketched.

Discharge Measurement

Every effort was made to collaborate with various agencies to obtain the most recent
discharge rate for each spring. Discharge rates of the remaining springs were measured by
the FGS using either the Price-AA meter or the Marsh McBirney Flo-Mate. The source of
each discharge measurement is denoted in the spring descriptions with a superscript. The
legend is as follows:

(1) Rosenau et al. 1977
(2) Florida Geological Survey
(3) Northwest Florida Water Management District
(4) Suwannee River Water Management District
(5) Southwest Florida Water Management District
(6) St. Johns River Water Management District
(7) U.S. Geological Survey







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 2. Laboratory analytes and sample tests. Analyses performed by FDEP.



INDICATOR SAMPLE TYPE
Alkalinity Total
Alkalinity (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Ammonia Total
Ammonia (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Biological Oxygen Demand Total
Chloride Total
Chloride (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Color Total
E. coli (First magnitude only) Total
Enterococci Total
Fecal Coliform Total
Fluoride Total
Fluoride (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Metals = Arsenic, Boron, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron,
Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium,
Strontium, Tin, Zinc (First magnitude only) Total
Metals = Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Calcium, Cobalt, Chromium,
Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Radium 226,
Radium 228, Selenium, Sodium, Strontium, Tin, Zinc (Second and third only) Total
Metals = Arsenic, Aluminum, Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron,
Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, Zinc
(First magnitude only) Filtered
Metals = Arsenic, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese,
Magnesium, Nickle, Lead, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Zinc (Second and third
magnitude only) Filtered
Nitrite-Nitrate Total
Nitrite-Nitrate (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Orthophosphate Filtered
Orthophosphate (First magnitude only) Total
Specific Conductance Total
Sulfate Filtered
Sulfate (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Total Dissolved Solids Filtered
Total Dissolved Solids (First magnitude only) Total
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total; Filtered
Total Organic Carbon Total
Total Phosphorus Total; Filtered
Phosphorus (First magnitude only) Total
Total Suspended Solids Total
Turbidity Total



The FGS employed the discharge measurement methodology of Buchanan and Somers
(1969) and the DEP SOP for discharge measurement was also followed (FDEP, 2002). It
should be noted that the FGS Springs Teams visited, sampled and measured discharge dur-
ing the last phase of a major drought and early in the return to normal rainfall.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Characteristics of Spring Water

Spring water discharges provide a means of determining the quality of water in the
aquifer as well as the degree of human impact in the springshed. Upchurch (1992) states
that a number of factors influence ground-water chemistry. These include the precipitation
chemistry, surface conditions at the site of recharge, soil type in the recharge area, miner-
alogy and composition of the aquifer system, nature of aquifer system porosity and struc-
ture, flow path in the aquifer, residence time of the water in the aquifer, mixing of other
waters in the aquifer system, and aquifer microbiology. Refer to Upchurch (1992) for a
detailed discussion of the factors affecting the chemistry of groundwater.

Descriptions of Analytes

Water quality of springs was determined by collecting and analyzing water samples
(Figure 13). A series of field measurements were taken on site during sample collection.
When combined, field and analytical data give a snapshot of water quality at that point in
time. Comparing similar data, taken over time, can yield information about how water qual-
ity changes over time and what may be causing these changes. Analyte descriptions are
summarized in Champion and Starks (2001), Hornsby and Ceryak (1998), Jones et al.
(1998), Maddox et al. (1992), and Smith (1992). Table 3 gives the units of measure for each
analyte.

Physical Field Parameters

Field measurements were collected prior to water sampling. They include dissolved
oxygen, pH, specific conductance, water temperature and discharge. Other observations and
data recorded in the field include local geology, weather conditions and adjacent land use
practices.

Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen readily dissolves in water. The source of oxygen can be atmos-
pheric or biological. Typically, springs that discharge water from a deep aquifer source have
a low dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, relative to springs, the dissolved oxygen
content in river rise water is high. This is due to a greater exposure to the atmosphere and
an increase in biological activity.

pH pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water. It is defined as the negative log of the
activity of the hydrogen ion in a solution. Values range between 0 and 14. A low pH (below
7) represents acidic conditions, and a high pH (above 7) represents alkaline conditions. A
pH of 7 indicates the water is near neutral conditions.
As raindrops form they incorporate dissolved carbon dioxide, forming weak carbonic
acid. The resulting rain has a low pH. In Florida, as rainwater passes through soil layers it
incorporates organic acids and the acidity increases.

When acidic water enters a limestone aquifer, the acids react with calcium carbonate in
the limestone and dissolution occurs. Generally, most spring water falls within a pH range
of 7 to 8. During heavy rain events, spring water can drop in pH as tannic acids from near-
by surface waters are flushed into the spring system. It should be noted that sampled river
rises tend to have a lower pH than the clear-water spring systems, due to the surface-water
component of the river rise water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. Units of measurement.


Specific Conductance Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a substance, in
this case spring water, to conduct electricity. The conductance is a function of the amount
and type of ions in the water. The variability of the specific conductance of spring water can
be quite high when the spring is discharging saline water or when the spring is discharging
into the marine environment.

Water Temperature Geologic material is characteristically a good insulator. Rocks and
sediments tend to buffer changes in the temperature of spring water. Thus, spring water
temperature does not vary much and tends to reflect the average annual air temperature in
the vicinity of the spring. In Florida, this temperature can range from 680F to 75F (200 C
to 240 C), plus or minus several tenths of a degree. Temperature plays a role in chemical and
biological activity within the aquifer and can help in determining residence time of the
water in the aquifer.

Discharge Discharge, or spring flow, is controlled by the potentiometric levels in the FAS.


Unit of
Analyte Abbreviation
Measure
Temperature C
Dissolved Oxygen DO mg/L
pH units

Specific Conductance Sp. Cond. pS/cm at 25 C
Biochemical Oxygen BOD mg/L

Turbidity JTU (Historical)
NTU (Current)*
C r Platinum
Color
Cobalt Units
Alkalinity as CaC3 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids TDS mg/L
Total Suspended Solids TSS mg/L
Chloride Cl mg/L
Sulfate SO4 mg/L
Fluoride F mg/L
Total Organic Carbon TOC mg/L
Total Nitrogen NO3 NO2 mg/L
Total Ammonia NH3 NH4 mg/L
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TKN mg/L
Total Phosphorus P mg/L
Orthophosphate as P PO4 mg/L
*JTU and NTU are approximately equivalent though not identical


Unit of
Analyte Abbreviation
Measure
Calcium Ca mg/L
Potassium K mg/L
Sodium Na mg/L

Magnesium Mg mg/L
Arsenic As pg/L
Barium Ba gg/L
Boron B gg/L

Cadmium Cd gg/L

Cobalt Co gg/L
Chromium Cr gg/L
Copper Cu gg/L
Iron Fe gg/L
Manganese Mn gg/L
Nickel Ni gg/L
Lead Pb gg/L
Selenium Se gg/L
Tin Sn gg/L
Strontium Sr gg/L
Zinc Zn gg/L






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge generally changes slowly in response to fluctuations in the water levels in the
aquifer. Discharge is measured in cubic feet per second or gallons per day.

Other Field Data During sample collection, total water depth, sample depth, local geolo-
gy, adjacent land use and current weather conditions are noted at each spring. This gener-
alized information can be useful in helping to determine certain water quality-related issues
of the spring. The aquatic vegetation conditions were noted along with the occurrence of
algae. For specific information on the native and invasive aquatic vegetation, there is an
annual aquatic plant survey of public waters conducted by FDEP's Bureau of Invasive Plant
Management. For information on the survey, contact the Bureau at 850-245-2809.

Secchi Depth- A measure of the cloudiness or turbidity of surface water. This method uti-
lizes a Secchi disk, a disk divided into black and white quarters, used to gauge water clari-
ty by measuring the depth at which it is no longer visible from the surface.

Laboratory Analytes

Alkalinity The alkalinity of spring water is affected primarily by the presence of bicar-
bonate, hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Highly alkaline waters are usually associated with
high pH, dissolved solids and hardness which, when combined, may be detrimental to the
aquatic environment.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the
quantity of molecular oxygen utilized in the decomposition of organic material, during a
specified incubation time, by microorganisms such as bacteria. When the BOD is high, the
depletion of oxygen can have a detrimental effect on aquatic organisms. BOD is measured
in mg/1.

Chloride (Cl) Chloride is the most abundant constituent in seawater. Springs that are
tidally influenced may have high chloride concentrations. Chloride is added to the atmos-
phere via marine aerosols from the ocean. In most Florida's springs, chloride is introduced
to the spring system via rainfall. Chloride is chemically conservative and reacts very little
with spring water.

Color The color of spring water can be affected by factors such as the presence of metallic
ions, tannic acids, biological activity and industrial waste. Generally, spring water in
Florida is clear. Color measurements are made on filtered water samples so the true color
of the water is determined. Color is reported in either color units or Platinum Cobalt units
(Pt/Co).

Nitrate + Nitrite (NO, + NO,) as N Nitrate and nitrite are both found in spring water in
Florida. Nitrate contamination recently has become a problem in Florida's springs. Nitrate
found in spring water originates from fertilizers, septic tanks and animal waste that enter
the aquifer in the spring recharge area. Nitrate, being a nutrient, encourages algal and
aquatic plant growth in spring water, which may lead to eutrophication of the spring and
the associated water body. Nitrite, which is much less of a problem, can originate from
sewage and other organic waste products.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Organic Carbon Natural and non-naturally occurring organic carbon are present in vary-
ing concentrations in spring water in Florida. The primary source of naturally occurring
organic carbon is humic substances (decaying plant material). Synthetic organic carbon rep-
resents a minor component.

Orthophosphate (PO4) Phosphate is an essential nutrient and occurs in spring water in
Florida. Unfortunately, an excess of phosphate can cause run-away plant growth and the
eutrophication of surface waters. The Hawthorn Group, a geological unit in Florida, is the
most important source of phosphate in spring water. Other sources include organic and
inorganic fertilizers, animal waste, human waste effluent and industrial waste.

Potassium (K) Potassium occurs in trace amounts in Florida's spring water and is derived
primarily from seawater. Therefore, it occurs in higher concentration along the coast. The
weathering of mica, feldspar and clay minerals can contribute potassium to spring water. In
addition, because potassium is an essential nutrient, it is a component of fertilizers.

Radium 226 & 228 (Ra226 & Ra228) Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element
that is produced when uranium and thorium minerals decay ("break down") in the environ-
ment. Radium itself decays into other elements, and eventually to lead (Pb), but exists in
the environment long enough to be of concern in groundwater. Radium is of similar size and
nature to phosphorus and often substitutes for it. Consumption of radium isotopes can lead
to the incorporation of radium into bone and other body systems. Radium is a known car-
cinogen. Uranium-bearing minerals, the natural source of radium, are found in all of
Florida's aquifer systems in varying, usually minor, amounts.

Sodium (Na) In Florida, sodium occurring in spring water has several sources. Marine
aerosols, mixing of seawater with fresh water and the weathering of sodium-bearing miner-
als like feldspars and clays are the primary sources.

Sulfate (SO4) Sulfate is commonly found in aquifer waters in Florida and has several
sources. The two most common sources are from seawater and the dissolution of gypsum
and anhydrite (naturally occurring rock types within Florida's aquifer systems). Sulfate is
often used as a soil amendment to acidify soils, and thus is associated with agricultural
activities. Finally, disposal and industrial waste activities release sulfate to groundwater.
Sulfate-rich spring water can potentially be toxic to plants. In higher concentrations it
affects the taste of drinking water.

Total Ammonia (NH, + NH4) Ammonia (NH3) occurs in groundwater primarily as the
ammonium ion (NH4) because of the prevalent pH and reduction-oxidation potential
(Upchurch, 1992). Microbial activity within the soil and aquifer can convert other nitroge-
nous products to ammonium.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Total dissolved solids is a measure of the dissolved chem-
ical constituents, primarily ions, in spring water. Concentrations in Florida's spring water
vary widely. Since most of Florida's spring water issues from carbonate aquifers, the total
dissolved solid concentrations are fairly high. Higher concentrations are found in springs
that are tidally influenced and springs that discharge into the marine environment.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen This is a measure of the sum of the ammonia nitrogen and
organic nitrogen in the spring water sample. The ammonia nitrogen, mainly occurring as
ammonium (NH4), occurs in trace amounts in spring water (see ammonia [NH,] above).
Organic nitrogen originates from biological sources including sewage and other waste.
FDEP regulates nitrogen, in the form of nitrates and nitrites, in drinking water in Florida
(see previous descriptions above).

Total Nitrogen The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, when
summed, gives the total nitrogen content of spring water.

Total Suspended Solids This refers to the amount of solid material suspended in the
water column. As opposed to turbidity, total suspended solids does not take into account the
light scattering ability of the water. Total suspended solids are filtered out of the water
sample and are measured in mg/1.

Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the colloidal suspension of tiny particles and precip-
itates in spring water. High turbidity water impedes the penetration of light and can be
harmful to aquatic life. Most Florida springs discharge water low in turbidity. Turbidity is
measured in Nephlometric Turbidity Units (NTU's).

Trace Metals

Trace metals analyzed for this report include: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B),
calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe),
lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se),
strontium (Sr), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn). Trace metals, when present in spring water, are found
in very low concentrations and are measured in parts per billion (ppb), or micrograms per
liter (/l). In Florida, calcium and magnesium occur in higher concentrations and are there-
fore measured in milligrams per liter.

The naturally low abundance of trace metals in Florida's groundwater can be attributed
to several factors including: low natural abundance in aquifer rocks, low solubility of metal-
bearing minerals, high adsorption potential of metal ions on clays and organic particulates
and precipitation in the form of sulfides and oxides (Upchurch, 1992). Many biochemical
processes require small amounts of some trace metals; however, higher concentrations can
be toxic. Industrialization and increased demand for products containing trace metals have
overwhelmed the natural biogeochemical cycle, and anthropogenic sources of trace metals
now far outweigh natural sources (Smith, 1992).

In Florida, lead, mercury and arsenic are among metal contaminants locally found in
groundwater that are most detrimental to human health. These contaminants, along with
other metals, can be distributed throughout the ecosystem within the atmosphere, water,
and geological materials (soils, sediments and rocks). Atmospheric pollutants, such as mer-
cury, are often the primary source of waterborne metals. These pollutants are introduced
into the atmosphere by mining operations, smelting, manufacturing activities and the com-
bustion of fossil fuels (Smith, 1992).

Historically, contamination of groundwater by lead was caused primarily by combustion
of fossil fuels containing lead additives. Lead additives were phased out of fuels in the U.S.
and Canada by 1990. Other sources of contamination still persist. Lead bioaccumulates in






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


aquatic organisms, affecting the higher trophic levels the most. In humans, lead causes
severe health problems including metabolic disorders, neurological and reproductive dam-
age and hypertension. In Florida, the Primary Standard for lead in drinking water is 15
g/L.

When trace metals are released into the environment, they are characteristically not
biodegradable and tend to stay in the environment accumulating in foodwebs and impact
ecosystems. Trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and silver can have adverse
effects on aquatic and terrestrial environments at low concentrations.

Biological Analytes

Spring water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli
(E. coli), and Enterococci. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring
water and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The pri-
mary source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When spring
water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and
Enterococci bacteria. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring water
and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The primary
source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When detected in
numbers that exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL), coliforms may indicate that
the spring has been contaminated by domestic sewage overflow or non-point sources of
human and animal waste. Measurements made on these biological analytes are reported in
colonies per 100 milliliters.

Total coliform bacteria are a group of closely related, mostly harmless bacteria that live
in the digestive tract of animals. The extent to which total coliforms are present in spring
water can indicate general water quality and the amount of fecal contamination. By further
examining fecal coliforms, E. coli and Enterococci, it is possible to estimate the amount of
human fecal contamination of the sample. Human contact with water that is contaminated
with fecal wastes can result in diseases of the digestive tract including gastroenteritis and
dysentery. Typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and cholera are also related to contact with fecally
contaminated water.






BULLETIN NO. 66


DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL SPRINGS AND RESULTS OF ANALYSES

The FGS Springs Teams created brief descriptions for each spring group, spring, river
rise and karst window visited during 2001-2003. Data for the descriptions were derived from
field visits to the springs by FGS Springs Teams, FGS Bulletin 31 Revised (Rosenau et al.,
1977) and the Florida Springs website http://www.tfn.net/springs/. More elaborate descrip-
tions and links to maps are avail-
able on the websites listed in
Springs Information Resources on
the Web in this volume. The size,
shape and appearance of the
springs can vary in response to
rainfall and river and lake levels.
During the FGS effort to visit and
describe springs, the state was in
the last phase of a major drought.
As a result, springs often .
appeared different than had been
previously described by Rosenau
et al. (1977), Hornsby and Ceryak .
(1998) and others. Many springs
were visited and described but not 5
sampled for water quality. These
descriptions and the entire print-
ed volume are provided on the
enclosed CD.

The mileage in the springs
location information was deter-
mined using ArcView version 3.2.

NOTE : The legend for the
discharge measurements is:

(1) Rosenau et al., 1977, Springs
of Florida: FGS Bulletin No. 31
(Revised)
(2) Florida Geological Survey Figure 14. SCUBA diver in Silver Springs
(3) Northwest Florida Water (photo by G. Maddox).
Management District
(4) Suwannee River Water Management District
(5) Southwest Florida Water Management District
(6) St. Johns River Water Management District
(7) U.S. Geological Survey

Water Quality-Analyses were conducted by the Florida Geological Survey and the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Laboratories. Historical meas-
urements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31, revised (Rosenau et al., 1977).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ALACHUA COUNTY


FE RIVER RISE


TREEHOUSE


SPRING


ALA930971
POE SPRING


N

A
0 2.5 5 Miles


0 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
S3 1st Magnitude Springs
* 1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Additional Springs
( 3 2nd Magnitude Springs

0 3 3rd and 4th Magnitude Springs


Water
- Interstates

-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 15. Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County.


Santa Fe
River






BULLETIN NO. 66


Hornsby Spring


Figure 16. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott)


Location Lat. 290 51' 01.3" N., Long. 820 35' 35.5" W. (NE 1/ NE 1/ SE 14 sec. 27, T. 7
S., R. 17 E.). Hornsby Spring is located in Camp Kulaqua 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of High
Springs. From the US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) intersection in High Springs, drive
north on US 441/41 approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to Camp Kulaqua which will be on the
east (right) side of the road. Turn east (right) at Camp Kulaqua sign and follow road approx-
imately 1 mile (1.6 km) to campground entrance. The spring is located inside the camp-
ground about 300 ft (91.4 m) northwest of the camp entrance.

Description Hornsby Spring has a circular spring pool measuring 155 ft (47.2 m) north to
south and 147 ft (44.8 m) east to west. Its depth at the vent is 34.5 ft (10.5 m). The water
is clear and slightly greenish blue. The spring has an underwater limestone ledge on the
north side under a floating walkway. Algae patches are growing on limestone substrate.
The spring run is approximately 0.9 miles (1.5 km) long, 15 ft (4.6 m) wide and up to 5 ft (1.5
m) deep. It flows generally westward into the Santa Fe River. During the first FGS visit, the
spring was not flowing. The FGS sampled the spring during a subsequent visit when a small
spring boil was visible near the wooden walkway. This spring is situated on the edge of the
lowland floodplain of the Santa Fe River. The floodplain is forested with cypress, gum, and
maple. High ground on the east side of the spring rises steeply to 6 ft (1.8 m) above water
level, then gently rises to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) and is a rolling sand hills terrain. The
uplands are open and grassy. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Hornsby
Spring.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 4. Hornsby Spring water quality analyses.


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J-Estirmaed value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Utilization Hornsby Spring is the central feature of the privately-owned Camp Kulaqua.
The spring is developed into a swimming and recreation area. There are numerous board-
walks over and around the spring. A slide leads into the spring pool on the north side. Full
facilities are located nearby.

Discharge- All discharge rates are measured in ft/s.
April 19, 1972 250(1
April 25, 1975 76(1)
October 16, 2001 14.11'4
October 2, 2002 0.0(2)

Table 5. Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses.


2001
Analytes 1972 20
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.5 22.8
DO 0 17
pH 88 7 15
Sp. Cond. 390 494
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.51 I
Turbidir[ 0.15
Color 5 LI
Alkalinity 130 163 J 163 A
Sp. Condi. 190 A -
TDS 313
TSS 4LI
Cl 12 12 12
SOl 60 83 82
F 0.4 026 0 22
Nutrients
TOC II -
NOW; NO, 0.00 0.3 J 0.3
NH:+NH 0.011 1 0.011 I
TKN 0.096 I 0.094 I
P 0.073 0.072
PO, 0.075


S2001
Analytes 1972
Analytes 192 Unfilt.I Filter
Metals
Ca 5.7 74.3 74.2
K 0.6 1 0.98
Na 8.5 8.46 8.55
Mg 9.6 12.8 12.6
. .................. ................ ........................

Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2 U 2 U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 35 LI 35 LI
Mn 167 162
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5 U -I L
Se 4 U 4 U
Sn 20 U
n... .................. .. ..
Sr 1140
Zn 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 10 Q
Enterococci 4 Q
Fecal Colifbrm 6 Q
Total Coliform 20 Q






BULLETIN NO. 66


Poe Spring


Figure 17. Poe Spring (photo by R. Means).


Location Lat. 290 49' 32.58" N., Long. 820 38' 56.30" W. (SW 1% NW 1% NE 1% sec. 6, T. 8
S., R. 17 E.). Poe Spring is located within Poe Springs County Park, 3 miles (4.8 km) west
of High Springs. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive south-
west on US 41/27 for 0.6 miles (1 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road) and
travel 2.9 miles (4.7 km), then turn north (right) into the park at the park sign. The spring
is down a foot path along the Santa Fe River.

Description Poe Spring is bordered by a man-made retaining wall. It forms a circular
pool 120 ft (36.6 m) in diameter. The vent is on the south side of the pool at the bottom of a
conical depression where there is exposed limestone. The depth measures 18.7 ft (5.7 m)
over the vent and a boil is present on the spring surface. The water is clear with a blue-
greenish hue. The spring has an exposed sand bottom resulting from heavy use. Aquatic
vegetation and algae are sparse within the spring. A steep, underwater limestone ledge is
on the east side of the vent. The spring run is swift and short, flowing approximately 75 ft
(22.9 m) northwest into the Santa Fe River. The river in this vicinity is choked with exotic
aquatic vegetation, but none occurs within the spring or its run. Pavilions and picnic tables
are on the east side of the spring. A wooden boardwalk is on the south side of the pool. Land
around the spring is low-lying river flood plain. Dense mesic hardwood forest occurs to the
south and west of the spring.

Utilization Poe Spring is in a county recreational area with full facilities.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. Poe Spring water quality analyses.


2002
Analytes 1924 1946 1972 20
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 22 22.48
DO 0.38
pH 7.3 8.2 7.41
Sp. Cond. 437
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.361
Turbidity 0.05U
Color 5 5 5U
Alkalinity 170 179
Sp. Cond. 368 380 388.0
TDS 204 210 212 259
TSS 4U
C1 7 6.8 7 15
SO4 10 17 16 35
F 0.1 0.2 0.17
Nutrients
TOC 1.41
NO3 NO2 as N 0.27 0.20
NH3+NH4 0.01U
TKN 0.11 0.0751
P 0.11A 0.100
PO4 0.110
NO3 0.5 0.27
Metals
Ca 64 65 65 68.7 67.2
K 5.7 0.9 0.6 1 0.96
Na 5.7 4.4 4.7 9.3 9.1
Mg 4.7 6.4 5.3 7.8 7.6
Al 50U
As 3U 3U
B 211
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 0.75U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 3U 3U
Fe 50 70 25U 25U
Mn 89.8 88.9
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 3U 5U
Ra-226 0.3
Ra-228 0.9U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 7U
Sr 361.0
Zn 15U 2U
A=Average value U,K Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q Exceeding holding time limit






BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 7. Poe Spring bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1AKQ
Fecal Coliform 1AKQ




Discharge All discharge rates are measured in fts/s.
February 19, 1917 86.5 1)
January 31, 1929 75.1 1)
March 14, 1932 31.2 1)
December 13, 1941 84.0 1)
July 22, 1946 75.3 1)
May 2, 1956 39.2 1)
October 17, 1960 91.7 1)
April 18, 1972 93.1 1)
June 26, 1997 50.59 (4)
May 14, 2002 6.1(2)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Santa Fe River Rise


Figure 18. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location-Lat. 290 52' 26.0" N., Long. 820 35' 29.9" W. (SW1A SW1A SW1A sec. 14, T. 7 S.,
R. 17 E.). Santa Fe River Rise is located within O'Leno State Park/River Rise Preserve State
Park. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, head north on US 441/41
approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to O'Leno State Park entrance on the east (right) side of the
road. Directions to the river rise via park roads can be obtained at the park entrance.

Description-Santa Fe River Rise is the re-emergence of the underground Santa Fe River.
The spring pool measures 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west and 165 ft (50.3 m) north to south.
There is a vertical limestone ledge on the northeast side of the pool. The depth just south of
the ledge measures 49 ft (14.9m). The water color is typically that of the Santa Fe River,
which may be tannic or clear depending mainly on rainfall. No boil was observed during the
October 2001 visit. The river flows southward from the vent and is approximately as wide
(east to west) as the spring pool. There is a narrow band of cypress growing around the pool
perimeter. There are patches of duckweed around the periphery of the pool, and no aquatic
vegetation could be seen through the tannic water. Several hundred yards of the Santa Fe
River below Santa Fe Rise is choked with water hyacinth, and boat access to the rise is near-
ly impossible. Land around the river rise quickly rises to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above
water level and levels off into a flat mesic hardwood hammock.

Utilization- The Santa Fe River Rise is a pristine, state-owned natural area.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge January 2, 2002: less than 75 ft3/s (D. Hornsby, pers. comm.).

Table 8. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses.


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


Table 9. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses.


Analy2002
Unfiltered I Filtered
Field Measures
Temperature 22.50
DO 3.50
pH 6.67
Sp. Cond. 259.0
Lab Analytes
BOD 1.80
Turbidity 1.90
Color 250.00
Alkalinity 43J 42.0
Sp. Cond. 260.00
TDS 228.00
TSS 4U
Cl 31 32
SO4 34 34
F 0.12 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 36 1U
NO3+NO2 as N 0.058J 0.059
NH3 + NH4 0.051J 0.06
TKN 1.2J 1.2A
P 0.23 0.22A
PO4 0.2-


2002
Analytes 20
Ana s Unfiltered Filtered
Metals
Ca 35A 28.2
K 2.2A 1.9
Na 15.1A 12.8
Mg 8.3A 6.6
Al 630A
As 3U 3U
B 331
Cd 0.75U 0.75U
Co 0.75
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5U 3.51
Fe 810A 570.0
Mn 43.7A 33.5
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 20U
Sr 388A
Zn 6.71 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 8Q
Enterococci 12Q
Fecal Coliform 6Q
Total Coliform 60Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Treehouse Spring


Figure 19. Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson).


Location-Lat. 290 51' 17.6" N., Long. 820 36' 0.4" W. (SW1A NE1% NW14 sec. 27, T. 7 S.,
R. 17 E.). Treehouse Spring is approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) north of High Springs on the
east bank of the Santa Fe River. The spring can be accessed by boat from a public boat ramp
downstream from the spring. From the junction of US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) in
High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn west (left)
at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. The spring is 0.6 miles (1 km)
upstream from the boat ramp on the southeast side of the river.

Description- Treehouse Spring is in a circular cove on the southeast side of the Santa Fe
River. The spring discharges westward into the adjacent river. Spring pool diameter meas-
ures 125 ft (38.1 m) north to south and 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west. Pool depth over the vent
is 31 ft (9.4 m). Water color was tannic, and there was no spring boil during October 2001.
Water hyacinth was the only non-native plant species observed in the spring pool. No other
vegetation could be seen through the dark water. Land adjacent to this spring is a forested
lowland flood plain. The nearest high ground is approximately 150 ft (46 m) to the east, and
it rises 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) higher than the flood plain and is forested with mixed hardwoods
and pines. Treehouse Spring is also published as ALA112971 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998).

Utilization-the land surrounding this spring is privately owned and is pristine. There is a
small rope swing on the east side and the spring is a local swimming spot.










Discharge- All discharge rates
May 26, 1998
October 30, 2001


BULLETIN NO. 66


are measured in ft3/s.
405.96 (4)
39.9 (4)


Table 10. Treehouse Spring water quality analyses.


2001
Analytes
Analytes UI Lill. Filler
Field Measures


Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= exceeded holding time limit


Table 11. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses.


0.2 UA
1.4
250
57
280
225
4U
27
37
0.14

38
0.091
0.034
1.1
0.2
0.19


2001
Analytes fill.
Liiin il. Filler
Metals
Ca 31.9 32.8
K 1.9 1.8
Na 12 11.8
Mg 6.8 7
As 3U 3U
Al 370
B 281
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 510 490
Mn 25.2 23.6
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8 U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 370
Zn 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 14Q
Enterococci 46Q
Fecal Coliform 20Q
Total Coliform 180Q


21.88
2.09
7.31
279


56




27
37
0.12



0.091 j
0.028 A
1.1
0.19







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



BAY COUNTY


A.i /


0 2.5 5 Miles

o 2,5 5 7.5 Kilometers


INSET
APEA


Econfima
"\ River



) \

^ ~ i E-


-
I


N


Sampled Springs
* 1st Magnitude Spring Group
(3 vents)
Additional Springs
( 1 2nd Magnitude Spring Group
(2 vents)
* 3 3rd and Unknown Magnitude
Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 20 Springs visited by FGS in Bay County


Pallalfia CiN
I{.L'


C-i


i






BULLETIN NO. 66


Gainer Springs Group


Figure 21. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott).


Group Location Lat. 300 25' N., Long. 850 32' W. (southern half of sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13
W.). Gainer Springs Group is located 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the SR 20 bridge
over Econfina Creek. It is best accessed by canoe, however, there is a gated dirt track on
Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) land that leads to the springs
group on the east side of the creek. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 head west
on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek

Group Description At least five known springs associated with Gainer Springs Group are
along both sides of Econfina Creek. The uplands surrounding this group are high rolling
sand hills that are forested with sand pine and patches of longleaf pine-turkey oak commu-
nity. High ground adjoining the west side of the creek near Spring No. 2 and Spring No. 3
rises to 27 ft (8.2 m) above the water surface and is densely forested with mixed hardwoods
and pines. The creek floodplain is forested with cypress and hardwoods. Land on the west
side of the Econfina Creek at Gainer Springs is privately owned. The east side of the creek
is owned and managed by the NWFWMD.

GAINER SPRING NO. 1C Lat. 300 25' 39.6" N., Long. 850 32 45.83" W. (SW4 NW4
SE4 sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). Gainer Spring Nos. 1A, 1B, and 1C form a 820 ft (249.9 m)
long spring run that enters Econfina Creek on the east side directly across from Spring No.
2. Spring No. 1C is the first spring encountered approximately 495 ft (150.9 m) upstream
from the creek, and its pool is adjacent to the run on the southeast side. Spring pool dimen-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


sions are approximately 72
ft (21.9 m) east to west and
33 ft (10.1 m) north to
south. Water issues from a
vertical tunnel in the lime-
stone. Shell and sand par-
ticles are suspended in the
spring flow. Pool depth is
20 ft (6.1 m) measured over
the vent. There is very lit-
tle aquatic vegetation; how-
ever, algae patches in
spring pool are common.
The adjoining, swampy low-
lands are heavily forested
with cypress and mixed
hardwoods. The nearest
uplands to the southeast
support a mixed hardwood
and pine forest. There is no
high ground adjacent to the
spring pool. These springs
are also known as
McCormick Springs. .

GAINER SPRING NO. 2 .
Lat. 300 25' 38.61" N., .
Long. 850 32' 53.95" W.
(SW% NE% SW% sec. 4, T. .
1 S., R. 13 W.). This spring,
also known as Emerald
Spring, is located directly
across from the mouth of
Gainer Spring No. 1 run
along the west side of
Econfina Creek. Spring Figure 22. Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott).
water issues from the base
of the riverbank and forms
a pool along the edge of the creek. Pool diameter is approximately 60 ft (18.3 m) east to west
and 62 ft (18.9 m) north to south. Pool depth over the vent is 5 ft (1.5 m). Vent diameter is
approximately 5 ft (1.5 m). There is little or no aquatic vegetation, but patches of dark green
algae are present. The water is clear and light greenish blue. A concrete wall forms the
south side of the spring pool. Two parallel pipes that extract drinking water run from inside
the spring vent toward the top of the bluff and beyond. There are at least three other small-
er vents issuing from the bank just above this spring. A 23 ft (7 m) high bluff meets the
Econfina Creek at Spring No. 2. A mixed hardwood and pine forest inhabits the bluff face
and high ground.






BULLETIN NO. 66


GAINER SPRING NO. 3 Lat. 300 25'
44.30" N., Long. 850 32' 53.9" W.
(NE1% NE%1 SW1% sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13
W.). This spring is located along the
west side of Econfina Creek, and is
about 655 ft (199.6 m) upstream of
1Spring No. 2. It is at the head of a 325
ft (99.1 m) long spring run. There are
r at least three vent complexes in the
combined spring pool. The depression
is large and mostly shallow with a sand
bottom and limestone boulders. The
combined spring pool diameter is about
305 ft (93 m) east to west and 125 ft
(38.1 m) north to south. There is a
a forested island in the center of the com-
bined spring pool. Some emergent veg-
etation exists along the pool's shores,
but there is very little aquatic vegeta-
tion. Dark green algal mats are ubiq-
uitous throughout the bottom of the
spring pool. The western vent issues
out of a limestone sidewall and has a
small boardwalk nearby. The north
vent, where water quality was sam-
pled, is the largest and deepest. This
spring is about 15 ft (4.6 m) south of a
Figure 23. Gainer Springs Group fracture wooden wall presumably constructed
(photo by H. Means). for shore erosion management. Clear,
light greenish blue water issues from the bottom of a 16 ft (4.9 m) diameter conical depres-
sion and produces a boil at the surface. The depression is 7.4 ft (2.3 m) deep over the vent.
Vent diameter is about 1.5 ft (0.5 m). On the eastern side of the combined spring pool, there
are at least three other vents. Uphill to the north, there are picnic tables under a pavilion
in a grassy opening. The rest of the uplands adjoining the spring pool to the west are forest-
ed with mixed hardwoods and pines. In the surrounding forested area, there are karst win-
dows, dissolutionally-enlarged fractures and other karst features.

Utilization- The uplands around Gainer Spring No. 2 are privately owned. Econfina Creek
flows into Deerpoint Lake, which is a public water supply utilized by Panama City. Land
around the spring group is privately owned and is pristine and forested. Swimming and
canoeing occur frequently in all of Gainer Springs.

Discharge- Discharge reported here represents the total flow of the Gainer Springs com-
plex. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
April 11, 1962 150(1)
September 11, 1962 174(1)
January 30, 1963 159(1)
October 14, 2002 128.2(3)
January 5, 2004 192.8(3)








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 12. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses.
Vent #1 Vent #2 Vent#3
Analytes 2001 2001 2001
Analytes 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001
SUnfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color







SO4

NIII1I'lII(
I Ii '2

l iii + I iii4


I I



K
Na
Mg
As
Al
B
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


21.0
2.8
7.9
127




5







0.0
I I



II III







i'

1.8
2.9

















80


21.54
2.12
8.00
142

0.2 U
0.25
5U




4i i


2.4 2.5
I i ilL i ,I ii ,


I I -










1.64 1.44
2.7 2.8
3U 3U
I 75 U
10U -
0.75 U 0.5 U
0.75 U -
0.7 U 0.5 U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5 U 1.5 U
5U 3U
5 U 375 U






3.5U 3.5U
9U
76.1
4U 3.5 U


21.1

7.3
82




7







0.4
I I








II J4



I I
1.7
1.8


22.0
2.5
7.8
108




5





II
0.0
II


II II









I I
1.4
2.4
10



0
0
0
0
30
0

2



70
30


21.4
2.27
8.19
113

0.2 U
0.2
5U







2.3 2.3
J IT




1 I1 1 1 1 -. T




II Illi II I II I i







1.45 1.34
2.4 2.4
3U 3U
75 U
10U -
0.75U 0.5U
0.75 U
0.7 U 0.5U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5U 0.5U
1.5U 1.5U
5U 3U
3.5U 3.5U
9U
41.5
4U 3.5U


21.1

7.2
115




2







0.8
I"













1.9
3.2


21.5
3.0
7.8
125




10


4II



0.0



I-
I I I I 'i








I I ..
1.8
2.8


21.6
2.18
8.20
121

0.2 U
0.1
5U

I "




2.1 2


I 1
I II 1
III I II I i


IIIll i i III
111112 -

I\I I

1.68 1.61
2.9 2.9
3U 3U
75 U
10U
0.75 U 0.5 U
0.75 U
0.7U 0.5 U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 3U
3.5U 3.5 U
9U
42.4
4U 3.5 U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit

Table 13. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses.






BULLETIN NO. 66


BRADFORD COUNTY


Lawtey


HEILBRONN


Hampton


A
N
0 2.5 5 Miles

o 2.5 5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Water
-- US and State Roads


Incorporated Places


Figure 24. Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County.
Spring description provided on enclosed CD.


Santa Fe
River






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CALHOUN COUNTY


GROTTO SPRINGS-

SALLY SPRING-


Altha
_1


HAMILTON SPRING---

Chipola
River


Blountstown


0


B


Apalachicola
River







A
D 2.5 5 Miles


D 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
0 3 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads


Incorporated Places


Figure 25. Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County.
Spring descriptions provided on enclosed CD.








BULLETIN NO. 66



CITRUS COUNTY


CITRUS BLUE SPRING


LITTLE HIDDEN SPRING


Wlthlacoochee
River


ALLIGATOR SPRING
BANANA SPRING
BEAR SPRING
BLUE HOLE SPRING
HOMOSASSA SPRING #1
HOMOSASSA SPRING #2
HOMOSASSA SPRING #3
BLUEBIRD SPRINGS


Ih rtIOf


POTTER SPRING
RUTH SPRING
TROTTER MAiN"



RAIRI
1 BAIRI


0 2.5 5 Miles


0 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #2
CRAB SPRING
CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING MAIN
CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #1


BAIRD SPRING #3
BAIRD SPRING #4


Sampled Springs
S2 1st Magnitude Springs
2 1st Magnitude Spring
Groups (5 vents)

" 1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Additional Springs

( 5 2nd Magnitude Springs

S 21 3rd and Unknown Magnitude
Springs
2 3rd Magnitude Spring
Groups (5 vents)


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 26. Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County.


BLACK


/






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Chassahowitzka Springs Group
-aa??^ B


Figure 27. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means).


Figure 28. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).


56






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 280 42' N., Long. 820 34' W. (Both spring vents are located in the
center of sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are 5.8 miles (9.3km) southwest of
Homosassa Springs on the Chassahowitzka River. From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State
Park, drive south on US 98/19 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive
about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area,

Group Description Chassahowitzka Springs form the headwaters of the Chassahowitzka
River, which flows westerly to the Gulf of Mexico approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) through
low coastal hardwood hammock and marsh. Rosenau et al. (1977) report as many as five
springs flow into the upper part of the river and many more springs are known to exist in
the lower portion. The entire river is tidally influenced.

CHASSAHOWITZKA MAIN SPRING Lat. 280 42' 55.87" N., Long. 820 34' 34.33" W.
(NE 14 NE 14 SW 14 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka Main Spring is 360 ft ( 110
m) northeast of the boat ramp and is in the middle of the run. This spring is at the head of
a large pool that measures 147 ft (44.8 m) north to south and 135 ft (41.1 m) east to west.
The depth measured over the vent is 13.5 ft (4.1 m). The spring has a sand bottom. No lime-
stone was exposed. Water is clear and greenish. The spring run from Chassahowitzka No.
1 Spring flows into the Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool from the east. There is a boat
ramp with facilities on the southwest side of the pool. Aquatic vegetation is common, includ-
ing exotic aquatic vegetation and algae. A boil is visible at low tide. The spring is sur-
rounded by lowland hardwood swamp forest with mixed hardwoods, cypress, and palm.

CHASSAHOWITZKA NO. 1 Lat. 280 42' 58.24" N., Long. 820 34' 30.32" W. (NW 1% NW
14 SE %4 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka # 1 is at the head of a spring run that
flows into the Chassahowitzka River from the north approx 250 ft upstream from
Chassahowitzka Main or 550 ft upstream from the boat ramp. This spring issues from a
small cavern in bedrock limestone. The spring pool measures 69 ft (21 m) north to south
and 81 ft (24.7 m) east to west. There are two closely spaced openings through which the
flow issues. The depth over the vents is 8.3 ft (2.5 m). The water is clear and light blue. A
small tannic stream flows into the northeast side of the spring pool. There is a thin layer of
algae covering most of the limestone bottom of the spring pool. The surrounding land is low
lying and heavily forested with hardwoods and palm. The spring run flows southwest
approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) into Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool. There are several
other spring vents along the spring run about half way to the Chassahowitzka Main Spring
pool.

Utilization Chassahowitzka Springs and River are used for fishing, swimming, snorkel-
ing, and pleasure boating. Manatees frequent the springs and river year round, but are
especially common in winter.

Discharge Current discharge estimate is
provisional. All discharge rates are meas- Table 14. Chassahowitzka Springs Group
ured in ft3/s. bacteriological analyses.
I Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)


Average 1930 1972 138.5(1)
(81 measurements)
Maximum (May 18, 1966) 197.0(1)
Minimum (July 8, 1964) 31.8'1)
October 15, 2001 53(2)


Analyte Main No. 1
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 20Q







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Table 15. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses.

Main No. 1
Analytes 1946 1970 1971 1972 1975 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Ntriiir'nl
TO
NO. NO-)
NH. NH,
TKN
P
P(C,



K

NI

Asb
Bi
B
C d




Fc
N ii

Pb
Sc
SI
Si
ZII


23.9

7.5
470


23.5

8.2
1370




10
140


0.2
3
8 10
140


22.2
5.4

564




10
130


320 110
56 21
II II "


- '1111I


2111 X I II


22.9
3.68
7.65
2790

0.2 U
1.3
5U
150
2800
1470
4U
680
110
II | J

Ili
ii 45 J
II I1 Ii
II ;2 1

IIIlIl






>5 s
14"

54 5






'LI



41
- 5 l
4 I

Xi I i

SI'


152




680
110
iill




II llI'
11 11





II 4
14

411
542

"511




2 I



1 5 I

4 1'
4 1'
Sl I
I U


23.2
4.10
7.71
1080


0.2 AU
0.45
5U
150
1100 A
562
4U
220
39
i1l2J


I1 i
1 4" J

1 I I i I

II ilS
11111



545
4 s
1j;1

"I

isl
II 5 Li



11 5 lI



I 5 l_i
5 1 _i

s,, Ii
2'' I'i
I, ,.
5I'


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


152 A




200
40
Jill
II 1I





iiill I
Jill
11111i




45
121








211 5 L





4 _i
-1Ul






BULLETIN NO. 66


Citrus Blue Spring


Figure 29. Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means).


Location Lat. 280 58' 09.60" N., Long. 820 18' 52.34" W. (SW 14 NE 1/ SW 14 sec. 33, T.
17 S., R. 20 E.). Citrus Blue Spring is located along the Withlacoochee River approximate-
ly 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dunnellon. From the US 41 bridge over the Withlacoochee
River in Dunnellon travel south on US 41 approximately 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the intersec-
tion with CR 39. Head east (left) on CR 39 and travel approximately 7.6 miles (12.2 km) to
the intersection with CR 200. Head northeast (left) and travel 0.1 mile (.2 km) to the bridge
over the Withlacoochee River at Stokes Ferry. A boat launch is on the southeast side of the
river. The spring can be accessed by boating 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the CR 200
bridge in Stoke's Ferry. The spring is situated on the south (right) side of the river.

Description Citrus Blue Spring has a roughly circular pool that measures 120 ft (36.6 m)
in diameter. The east side of the spring pool is partly enclosed by a man-made, five foot high
dike. The spring depression is relatively shallow and uniform except at the vent in the cen-
ter where depth measures 22 ft (6.7 m). A slight boil was observed over the vent during
October 2002. The color of the water is bluish-green, and the sand bottom has substantial
aquatic grass cover with sparse algae. Spring flow is directed northwestward through a 30
ft (9.1 m) wide man-made canal, eventually discharging into the Withlacoochee River
approximately 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream. The canal has a sand bottom with abundant
detritus as well as abundant aquatic vegetation. Before the dike was constructed, the
spring apparently discharged eastward approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) into the river. The
spring is within the forested Withlacoochee River floodplain. The spring reportedly has an
extensive cavern system that opens southward to a depth of at least 180 ft (54.9 m) below
the spring surface (Rosenau et al., 1977).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Utilization Citrus Blue Spring is surrounded by private property and is used locally for
swimming.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
March 15, 1932 11.1(1)
March 7, 1961 17.7(1)
June 19, 1961 19.6(1)
May 25, 1972 15.11
October 16, 2002 16.3(2)




Table 16. Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses.


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit



Table 17. Citrus Blue Spring water bacteriological analyses.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ


2002
Analytes 1975 20
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 23 22.65
DO 1.4
pH 7.9 7.33
Sp. Cond. 333
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2U
Turbidity 0.1
Color 5U
Alkalinity 140 146
Sp. Cond. 302 318.0
TDS 164 172
TSS 4U
Cl 6 5.2
SO4 6.8 13.0
F 0.2 0.0641
Nutrients
TOC 1U
NO3+NO2asN 0.04 0.51
NH3 +N H 0.01U
TKN 0.091 0.06U
P 0.032Q 0.033
PO4 0.04
NO3 0.18


2002
Analytes 1975 2
Dissolved Total
Metals
Ca 58 62.8 61.4
K 0.2 0.2A 0.17
Na 2.5 3.27A 2.84
Mg 2.1 2.7A 2.7
Al 10U
As 3U 3U
B 10U
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 1U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2U 4U
Fe 5.11 7U
Mn 0.25U 0.5U
Ni 1U 2U
Pb 5U 5U
Ra-226 0.5
Ra-228 1.1U
Se 5U 7U
Sn 26U
Sr 140 135
Zn 10.6 5.41






BULLETIN NO. 66


Homosassa Springs Group


Figure 30. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means).


Group Location Lat. 280 47' 56.65" N., Long. 820 35' 18.70" W. (NE % SW 1 NE 14
sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife
State Park and form the headwaters of the Homosassa River. Coming from the north on US
19/98 into Homosassa Springs, turn west (right) on CR 490A and travel 0.5 mile (0.8 km).
Turn south (left) on access road to Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park and travel 0.3
mile (0.5 km) to park entrance. The spring pool, into which all three vents issue, is just
below the underwater viewing platform in the manatee rehabilitation area.

Group Description Homosassa Springs Group forms the head of the Homosassa River,
which flows west approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to the Gulf of Mexico. Downstream from
the head springs about a mile, the spring-fed Halls River flows in from the north. The entire
river system is tidally influenced.

HOMOSASSA SPRINGS NOS. 1, 2, and 3 All three vents issue into the same spring pool.
The pool measures 189 ft (57.6 m) north to south and 285 ft (86.9 m) east to west. The depth
for each of the vents is 67, 65, and 62 ft (20.4, 19.8, and 18.9 m) for spring nos. 1, 2, and 3,
respectively. The springs issue from a conical depression with limestone exposed along the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 18. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses.


1972 1972 No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
1972 1972
Analytes 1956 1966 2001 2001 2001
( Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4
Metals
Ca
K
Na
Mg
As
B
Al
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


23.5

8.2
2590


23.5
4.3
7.5 6.9
2900 2370


0.1
1
3 0 0
110 110 120




680 780 640
95 111 84
0.3 0.2

0
0.26


23.5

7.9
3740




10
110




1100
150
2.0



0.20


54 55 48
18 12
420 340
56 57 48
0
60

0
0
0
0
0
10
0

0


490 5000
10


23.4
3.97
7.67
5250

0.68
1.3
5U
120
5200
2830
4U
1500
220
0.14


115




1500
220
0.12


1U
0.51 0.51 J
0.028 0.02
0.151 0.121
0.0281 0.029
0.018 J -

69.2 70
28.8 29.8
815 814
100 103
3U 3U
344
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U -
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
300 891
21.4 13.5
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
858
5U 5U


23.3
3.86
7.62
6330

0.86
0.5
5U
120
6200
3310
4U
1900
260
0.14


117




1900
260
0.13


1U
0.5 0.5 J
0.034 0.026
0.131 0.121
0.0341 0.029
0.021 J

75.8 77.3
35.5 35.5
972 986
123 124
3U 3U
422
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
190 521
5.8 4.9
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
1030
5U 5U


23.6
4.09
7.81
1980

0.76
0.25
5U
110
2000
1020
4U
520
74
0.1


112




510
72
0.093 I


1U
0.53 0.55 J
0.01 0.0121
0.091IQ 0.111
0.048 Q 0.026 I
0.011 J

47.6 46.3 A
9.84 0.45
267 3.7
39.1 37.5 A
3U 3U
125
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
370 35U
19.9 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
372
5U 5U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value






BULLETIN NO. 66


sides and bottom of the spring pool. The pool is teeming with salt water and freshwater fish-
es. Water is clear and light blue. There is a large boil in center of pool. Surrounding land
is Gulf Coastal Lowlands with thick hardwood-palm forest cover. Approximately 1,000 ft
(304.8 m) downstream, a fence spans across the river to keep boats out of the spring pool.
There also is a barrier immediately outside the spring area which keeps the captive mana-
tees in the spring pool. Manatees frequent the spring pool and river year round, but are
especially common in winter. The springs are tidally influenced year round, especially in
winter.

Utilization The main spring pool and adjacent lands are within Homosassa Springs
Wildlife State Park. The area is developed into an interpretive center for manatee and
Florida wildlife education. There is a floating observation deck in the spring pool with a sub-
merged aquatic observation room. Injured and rehabilitating manatees are captive in the
spring pool for year round observation. Swimming is not allowed.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
Average 1931 1974 106(1) (90 measurements)
Maximum (August 18, 1966) 165(1)
Minimum (September 19, 1972) 80 (1)
October 16, 2001 87'2) (Estimate is provisional)



Table 19. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Kings Bay Springs Group


Figure 31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan).


.' .1; :Fr~j^ is' **^ ^ jm 'BiB B


Figure 32. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 280 53 N., Long. 820 35' W. (sections 20, 21 and 28, T. 18 S., R.
17 E.). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of Crystal River. Coming
into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King's Bay can be accessed via numerous
boat landings north and south of the Bay.

Group Description There are about 30 known springs, including Tarpon Hole and Hunter
Spring, that either issue from the bottom of Kings Bay or flow into the bay from side creeks.
Their combined flow feeds Crystal River, which flows approximately 7 miles (11.3 km)
northwest to the Gulf of Mexico. Surrounding land is coastal lowlands with brackish marsh
and hardwood-palm hammock to the west and the City of Crystal River to the east. The
whole system is tidally influenced, and Kings Bay is brackish. Rosenau et al. (1977) referred
to these springs as the Crystal River Springs Group.

HUNTER SPRING Lat. 280 53' 40.0" N, Long. 820 35' 33.0" W (NW % SW % SE % sec. 21,
T. 18 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues vertically from the bottom of a conical depression near
the head of a side creek channel feeding the eastside of Kings Bay. Another spring is at the
head of the channel. Hunter Spring pool is circular and measures 210 ft (64 m) in diameter.
Depth measured over the vent is 13 ft (4 m). The spring has a sand bottom with some lime-
stone near the vent. The spring bottom is choked with dark green filamentous algae, and
some Hydrilla is present. Water is clear and bluish. There is a large boil in pool center.
Land on the north rises to approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above water and is a county main-
tained recreational park. Land on all other sides of spring pool is extensively developed with
apartments and houses. A concrete sea wall entirely surrounds the pool except for outflow
and inflow. There is a square swimming dock floating in the center of the spring pool. This
spring was closed to swimming during summer 2001 due to high coliform bacteria levels
detected in the water (Eric Dehaven, SWFWMD, pers. comm.).

TARPON HOLE SPRING Lat. 280 52' 54.64" N., Long. 820 35' 41.33" W. (NW 1 NW 1
SW % sec. 28, T. 18 S., R. 17 E.). This spring issues from a deep, conical depression in Kings
Bay on the south side of Banana Island. The spring pool measures approximately 450 ft
(137.2 m) north to south and 550 ft (167.6 m) east to west. The depth measured over the
vent is 58 ft (17.7m). Water is typically clear and bluish, but can be cloudy during high tide.
There is a large boil present in center of pool. Visibility was low when visited in October
2001. Algae cover limestone substrates. The vent is a large circular hole in limestone.
Nearby islands to the north are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge and have
marsh grasses and hardwood-palm hammock vegetation. Land to the east is privately
owned with many houses and a marina. This spring is a favorite scuba diving location and
manatee observation area.

Utilization All of Kings Bay and most of its springs are used for swimming, manatee
observation, pleasure boating, and scuba diving. The west side of Kings Bay and some
islands are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. The city of Crystal River
nearly adjoins the east side of Kings Bay.

Discharge Kings Bay Group 1965-1977: 975 ft3/s(7)average







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 20. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses.


A=Average valu: U.K= Compound not de
I= Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


Table 21. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses.


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.9 23.0
DO 2.09 5.09
pH 7.72 8.02
Sp. Cond. 2130 541
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U 0.2 AU
Turbidity 6.8 0.95
Color 5U 5 U
Alkalinity 124 123 87 87
Sp. Cond. 2200 530
TDS 960 263 Q
TSS 4U 4 U
Cl 540 550 96 94
SO4 78 81 20 20
F 0.0911 0.12 A 0.065 0.0711
Nutrients
TOC 1U 1 U
NO3 + NO2 0.17 0.18 J 0.4 0.39 J
NH3 + NH4 0.01 U 0.0141 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN 0.0841 0.121 0.06U 0.06U
P 0.042 0.033 I 0.023 0.024
PO4 0.029 0.028


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 52.8 53.9 30.6 31 A
K 10.2 10.3 2.1 2 A
Na 289 290 54.9 52.9 A
Mg 39.4 40 10.4 10.3 A
As 3U 3U 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75 U
B 128 33 -
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 130 35 U 35 U 35 U
Mn 13.4 7.2 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 2U 2U 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U 4U 4U
Sn 10 U 10 U
Sr 362 131
Zn 5U 5U 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Tarpon Hole Hunter
Escherichia coli 1KQ 1KQ
Enterococci 1KQ 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ 1KQ
Total Coliform 1KQ 1KQ


___1__ -.1- -__-,- -. -Li- .--- --1-1- -1 -1 --1-- --1-' ,- 1 *-L






BULLETIN NO. 66

CLAY COUNTY


Orange
Park


WW GAY 1
WW GAY 2


St. Johns
River


Green Cove
Springs


Keystone
Heights /

o 2.5 5 Miles

/ 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring
6 3 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads
Incorporated Places


Figure 33 Springs visited by FGS in Clay County.


SPRING


r__






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Green Cove Spring


Figure 34. Green Cove Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 290 59' 36.24" N., Long. 810 40' 40.48" W. (Land Grant 38, T. 6 S., R. 26
E.). Green Cove Spring is located within the town of Green Cove Springs. From the inter-
section of SR 16 and US 17 in Green Cove Springs, drive one block north on US 17. Turn
east (right) on Spring Street and drive one block to the city park. The spring is within a his-
toric city park.

Description Green Cove Spring is entirely enclosed by a circular brick wall that measures
15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter. Spring depth is 28 ft (8.5 m). The spring vent consists of a deep
vertical cave whose walls are visible through clear, slightly greenish water. No vegetation
or algae are observed in the spring pool, and the spring water emits a sharp hydrogen sul-
fide odor. Spring water is channeled into a concrete swimming pool. A narrow spring run
exits the swimming pool, cascading over a 3 ft (0.9 m) tall wall, and travels approximately
450 ft (137.1 m) eastward into the St. Johns River. The 5 ft (1.5 m) wide spring run has a
sand bottom. There is a view of the nearly 2 mile (3.2 km) wide St. Johns River to the east.
To the west, high ground rises into downtown Green Cove Spring 10 ft (3.1 m) higher than
the spring surface. There are several piers and boat docks on the river near the spring
mouth. Picnic tables, walkways, benches, and shade trees abound in the park. The City
Hall and a bathhouse are on the north side of the swimming pool. The spring has an exten-
sive cavern and cave system associated with it. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that a cavern
can be accessed through a 2 ft (0.6 m) wide orifice in the bottom of the spring. The cavern
extends northeastward toward the St. Johns River.







BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 22. Green Cove Spring water quality analyses.


Analytes 1924 1946 1972 2003
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 25.0 24.36
DO 0.4
pH 7.3 8.0 7.55
Sp. Cond. 294
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.6AI
Turbidity 0.05U
Color 0 5 5U
Alkalinity 79 86A
Sp. Cond. 289 290 270.0
TDS 170 171 199 165.0
TSS 4U
C1 5.7 6.1 6.0 6.4
SO4 49 51 55 55
F 0.2 0.4 0.27
Nutrients
TOC 1U
NO3 NO2 as N 0.004U
NH3+NH4 0.038
TKN 0.06U 0.0761
P 0.015U 0.015U
P04 0.0051
NO3
Metals
Ca 28 28 28 27.9 28.6
K 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4
Na 2.4 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.04
Mg 16 15 16 14.8 15
Al 10U
As 3U 3U
B 11I
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 1U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 3.5U 4U
Fe 30 60 5U 7U
Mn 0.25U 0.5U
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 5U
Ra-226 0.5
Ra-228 0.9U
Se 8U 8U
Sn 111
Sr 1230
Zn 2.5U 4U
A=Average value U,K Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Utilization Green Cove Spring is located within a city park and is a popular swimming
area. No swimming is allowed in the actual spring. Water from the spring directly supplies
the water for the swimming pool. In the 19th century, the spring was a popular health spa.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s
February 12, 1929 5.4(1
April 18, 1946 4.42(1)
November 4, 1950 4.15(1)
June 18, 1954 2.68(1)
April 25, 1956 2.74(1)
October 19, 1960 3.52(1)
March 8, 1972 3.03(1)
January 8, 2003 2.79'2'



Table 23. Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ







BULLETIN NO. 66


COLUMBIA COUNTY


River


BLUE HOLE SPRING
CEDAR HEAD SPRING
ROARING SPRING-"F
MILL POND SPRINGS
COL917971 P -
SUNBEAM SPRING
WILSON SPRING- '
COL928971


0 5 10 Miles


0 5 10 15 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
j 2 1st Magnitude Springs
1 1st Magnitude Spring
Group (3 vents)


SANTA FE SPRING


COL428981
COLUMBIA SPRING


COL101974
JONATHAN SPRING
RUM ISLAND SPRING


Additional Springs
* 1 1st Magnitude Springs

6 2nd Magnitude Springs

10 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
Interstates

-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 35 Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 36. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).


Location Lat. 290 51' 14.80" N., Long. 820 36' 43.03" W. (NW14 SEE1 NE1 sec. 28, T.
7 S., R. 17 E.). Columbia Spring is located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of High Springs on
the Santa Fe River and can be accessed by small boat. From the junction of US 441/41 and
CR 236 in High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn
west (left) at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. Spring is in a cove on
the northeast bank of the river, 900 ft (274.3 m) downstream from the boat ramp.

Description Columbia Spring has an oval-shaped pool that measures 75 ft (23 m) north
to south and 150 ft (45.7 m) east to west. The depth at the vent is 25 ft (7.6 m). Water is
typically clear, but was tannic in October 2001. It has a 30 ft (9.1 m) wide spring run that
flows approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) westward to the Santa Fe River. There are native
aquatic grasses in the spring run and some algae are present on most substrates. The
spring run has a jagged limestone and sand bottom. There is a 1-2 ft (0.3 0.6 m) tall man-
made line of rocks that stretches across the spring run about 90 ft (27.4 m) west of the vent.
The entire spring and spring run are within the lowland flood plain of the Santa Fe River.
The flood plain in this area is heavily forested with cypress and other swamp inhabiting
hardwoods. The nearest high ground is approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) east of the spring,
and it rises to nearly 10 ft (3 m) above the flood plain. It is generally forested with mixed
hardwoods and pines. A house sits on the high ground to the east of the spring.

Utilization The land surrounding the spring is privately owned. The spring is a local
swimming hole with pristine surroundings.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge November 1, 2001: 39.5 ft'/s(4



Table 24. Columbia Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes
iiAnalys inili. Filler
Field Measures


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Table 25. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis.


Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P


22.39
2.29
7.19
270

0.231
2.1
250
54
270
217
4U
28
34
0.14

39
0.089
0.062
1.3
0.3
0.19


2001
Analytes 2001
Liniiilt. Filler
Metals
Ca 33.6 31.5
K 2 1.8
Na 12.7 12
Mg 7.1 6.6
As 3U 3U
Al 530
B 291 -
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 640 500
Mn 30.3 23.9
Ni 1.5U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 358
Zn 51 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 26Q
Enterococci 158Q
Fecal Coliform 38Q
Total Coliform 340Q


54




27
34
0.12



0.088 j
0.038
1.1
0.21







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ichetucknee Springs Group


-4


Figure 37. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott).
INqMkl~ )k- Kqm113i f y Wv 19,W.


Figure 38. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 290 59' N., Long. 820 45' W. (sections 12 and 13, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.
and section 7, T. 6 S., R. 16 E.). The Ichetucknee Springs Group is located within the
Ichetucknee Springs State Park which is approximately 10 miles (16.1 km) northeast of
Branford. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford, drive east on US 27/129
for 7 miles (11.2 km). Turn north (left) onto CR 137 and continue for 1.3 miles (2.1 km).
Turn east (right) and go 4.2 miles (6.8 km) through the north park entrance to the parking
area.

Group Description These springs comprise a group of nine named and many unnamed
springs along the upper 2.5 mile (4 km) stretch of the Ichetucknee River. The most norther-
ly spring forms the head of the river and is named Ichetucknee Head Spring. From here,
the river flows about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south, then 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest to discharge
into the normally darker tannic water of the Santa Fe River. Of the springs sampled for
water quality, all are located within Columbia County except for Ichetucknee Head Spring,
which is located just inside Suwannee County.

ICHETUCKNEE HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 59' 03.10" N., Long. 820 45' 42.73" W. (SE 1
NE 4 NE 4 sec. 12, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring forms the head of the Ichetucknee River.
The spring pool measures 102 ft (31.1 m) east to west and 87 ft (26.5 m) north to south. The
depth measures 17 ft (5.2 m) over the vent. Water is clear and light blue and issues from a
fracture in the limestone forming a visible boil. A thin layer of algae carpets most of the bot-
tom of the spring. The spring has sand and limestone bottom with little or no aquatic veg-
etation. North and east shorelines have thick emergent grass and shrubs, and the west
shore is near high ground sloping to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above water. All sur-
rounding land is densely forested. Restroom facilities are about 200 ft (61 m) west. This
spring is easily accessed by a path and is a popular swimming hole.

BLUE HOLE Lat. 290 58' 49.91" N., Long. 820 45' 30.44" W. (SW 1 SW 1 NW 1 sec.
17, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring is located in the spring run channel of Cedar Head Spring,
which is north of Blue Hole. The spring pool and outflow greatly widens the incoming spring
run, and the combined run flows south a short distance to the Ichetucknee River. The spring
pool measures 87 ft (26.5 m) east to west and 117 ft (35.6 m) north to south. The depth
measured over the vent is 37 ft (11.3 m). The water is clear and light blue, and a boil is vis-
ible on the pool surface. Water issues from a cavern in limestone. The pool has a sand and
limestone bottom with abundant aquatic grass and some algae. The land around the spring
is heavily forested with mixed hardwoods and palm. The spring run is fenced off approxi-
mately 100 ft (30.5 m) south of vent. This is a swimming spot with a wooden boardwalk for
spring access. A foot path leads to the spring from the north.

CEDAR HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 58' 59.88" N., Long. 820 45' 31.32" W. (SW 1 NW 1
NW 4 sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This is a small spring at the head of a stream that flows
south into Blue Hole Spring. The spring pool diameter is approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) east
to west. The depth measures 6 ft (1.8 m) over the vent. No boil was present on the pool sur-
face during the October 2001 visit, although outflow stream was flowing. The bottom is cov-
ered with sand, logs and organic matter. Water is clear but does not appear blue due to dark
particulate layer on bottom. The vent is a small upwelling in the sand. A steep bank occurs
along the west side of the spring and rises to 8 ft (2.4 m) above water level. There is high-
er ground 150 ft (45.7 m) east of spring across a small lowland flood plain. Cypress, gum,
and maple forest occur in lowlands near water with mixed hardwood forest on higher







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 26. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses.


Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Analytes 1946 1975 2001 2001 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4
Metals
Ca
K
Na
Mg
As
Al
B
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


22.2

7.7
329




0


21.0
4.5
7.6
290

2.0
1
1
140


0
3.6 4.4
8.4 6.9
0.1 0.4

0.0
0.37



0.05
0.05


- 0
0


3
30 340
20
0
7



170
0


21.95
3.52
7.91
319

0.2 UJ
0.05 U
5U
154
320
183
4U
3.6
8.3
0.1


154




3.7
8.5
0.097 I


1U
0.83 0.84
0.015 1 0.0121
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.023 0.022 J
0.02

54.5 52.5
0.15 0.14
2.12 2.02
5.8 5.8
3 U 3U
75U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5 U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
156
5U 5U


21.9
2.01
7.49
287


0.2 UJ
0.1
5U
145
290
171
4U
4.3
4.8
0.11


145




4.3
4.9
0.11 A


1U
0.7 0.72
0.0111 0.01U
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.048 0.048 J
0.044

47.9 48.4
0.31 0.33
2.67 2.45
4.7 4.8
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
76
5U 5U


0.2 UJ
0.05 U
5U
151
300
168
4U
3.9
5.3
0.1


151




3.9
5.4
0.091


1U
0.86 0.89
0.0111 0.0111
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.033 0.034 J
0.027

54 51.2
0.22 0.22
2.37 2.26
5.3 5.2
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
105
5U 5U


21.8
0.63
7.91
312


0.2 UAJ
0.05 U
5U
148
310
172
4U
5.4
8.7
0.14


1U
0.51 0.53
0.01 U 0.0191
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.059 0.05 JA
0.056

49.7 48.6
0.46 0.48
3.65 3.53
6.3 6.4
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
4.41 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
107
5U 5U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


147




5.4 A
8.8 A
0.13






BULLETIN NO. 66


ground. Access is limited to an obscure foot path from the west. The spring is not used for
swimming because of its low water level and limited access.

ROARING SPRING Lat. 290 58' 34.44" N., Long. 820 45' 28.44" W. (SE 1 NW 1 SW 1
sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). Roaring Spring is the largest spring in a complex of springs often
referred to as Mission Springs. Roaring Spring along with Singing Spring and other small
springs emanate from the base of high banks about 250 ft (76.2 m) east of the Ichetucknee
River. Roaring Spring discharges out of a cavern in a limestone ledge on the north side of
the island into the northwest flowing run. Its spring pool measures 10 ft (3 m) east to west
and 15 ft (4.6 m) north to south. The depth measured near the limestone ledge is 3 ft (0.9
m). The ledge rises steeply to approximately 12 ft (3.7 m) above the water level. Water is
clear and bluish. Algae coat the aquatic grasses in the spring run. There are two small
runs; one flows to the northwest and the other flows southwest. Both meet the river approx-
imately 250 ft (76.2 m) from each other. At this point, the trickling northwest run becomes
a turbulent run with swaying aquatic grasses. The uplands east of the spring rise to nearly
20 ft (6.1 m) above the springs and are heavily forested with mixed hardwoods at lower ele-
vations and pines on the hilltops. An historic Spanish mission once stood on the high ground
approximately 200 ft (61 m) east of the springs.

Utilization The springs, river, and surrounding forested land are part of Ichetucknee
Springs State Park from the US 27 bridge northward. The park is a high quality natural
area that is partly developed and whose heavy public use is highly regulated in order to min-
imize damage to the environment. Camping, hiking, swimming, tubing, and canoeing are
some of the activities that are offered in the state park.

Discharge -All discharge rates are measured in fts/s. Discharge is measured for the entire
group.
May 17, 1946 197.2 ft3/s(1)
October 3, 2001 186 ft3/s(4


Table 27. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Escherichia coli 1KQ 1KQ 2Q 1AKQ
Enterococci 1KQ 1KQ 42Q 1AKQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ 1KQ 2Q 1AKQ
Total Coliform 1KQ 1KQ 20Q 1AKQ






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Santa Fe Spring (formerly COL61981)


Figure 39. Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location-Lat. 290 56' 05.30" N., Long. 820 31' 49.51" W. (NW14 SEE1 SEE1 sec. 29, T. 6
S., R. 18 E.). Santa Fe Spring is located approximately 8 miles (12.9 km) northeast of High
Springs on the west bank of the Santa Fe River. From the intersection of US 441/41 and CR
236 in High Springs head north on US 441/41 approximately 6.2 miles (10 km) to the O'Leno
State Park sign on the east (right) side of US 441/41. Turn east (right) onto an access road,
which parallels US 441/41 and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to a dirt road on the east (right) side
of the road, just past the O'Leno State Park entrance. Turn east (right) onto the dirt road
and travel approximately 3.3 miles (5.3 km) to a boat landing just upstream from the 1-75
bridge. The road makes a series of 90 degree turns to the north and east before finally bear-
ing southeast to the Santa Fe River. The spring is 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream from the 1-75
bridge over the river. At this point, a narrow spring run comes in from the north. The
spring is approximately 90 ft (27.4 m) up the spring run at the head.

Description-This spring, formerly named COL61981 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998), is a
large circular depression with steep sides. Spring pool diameter measures 192 ft (58.5 m)
north to south and 215 ft (65.5 m) northeast to southwest. Spring depth is 83 ft (25.3 m).
The water color is typically clear and tinged greenish blue though it was tannic in October
2001. No boil was observed during the October 2001 visit. The spring run is approximate-
ly 90 ft (27.4 m) long and flows southeasterly into the Santa Fe River. Some algae are pres-
ent on limestone substrate in the spring run. No other aquatic vegetation could be seen
through the dark water. Very little emergent vegetation is present. Cypress trees are com-
mon along the water line. The spring pool is surrounded by 15-20 ft (4.6- 6.1 m) high steep,






BULLETIN NO. 66


sandy banks. The uplands around the pool are generally forested with live oaks and pines.

Utilization-The uplands around this spring are privately owned. At least five cabins are
evenly distributed around the pool on the high banks.

Discharge-All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
June 1, 1998 149.99(4)
November 1, 2001 47.9(4)

Table 28. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis.


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= Exceeded holding time limit


Table 29. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis.


2001
Analytes i 2 Fi
LinfilI. Filler
Field Measures
Temperature 22.69
DO 0.78
pH 7.40
Sp. Cond. 271
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U
Turbidity 0.8
Color 120
Alkalinity 107 107
Sp. Cond. 270
TDS 193
TSS 4 U -
Cl 10 9.9
SO4 18 18
F 0.2 0.17
Nutrients
TOC 22
NO3 +NO2 0.023 0.018 J
NH3 +NH4 0.057 0.051
TKN 0.76 0.62
P 0.2 0.19
PO4 0.19 -


2001
Analytes 2001
L infill. Filler
Metals
Ca 39.3 38.2
K 1.3 1.3
Na 5.5 5.57 A
Mg 7.9 7.8
B 25U
Al 2001
As 3 U 3U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 250 210
Mn 41 39.8
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 276
Zn 5 U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1KQ
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 2Q
Total Coliform 10Q







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DIXIE COUNTY


STEINHATCHEE RIVER

- STEINHATCHEE RIVER


Steinhatchee
River


C
C


POT HOLE SPRING

GUARANTO SPRING .
RISE




DIX9597
MCCRABB SPRING-
UNAMED SPRING
ross
ity

COPPER SPRI LITTLE COPPER SPRING


Suwannee
River







N



o 2.5 5 Miles


O 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
j 1 1st Magnitude Spring

" 2 2nd Magnitude Springs


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring

0 4 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 40 Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County.