VOL. 2, N 0. 4
Conceived by C.
Goethe and Daniel B.
for VISITORS to the EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
and everyone interested in natural south Florida.
Edited by JOSEPH C. MOORE, PH.D.
BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS
TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Botany Dept., Univ. Miami....... Native Plants
ROBERT P. ALLEN, National Audubon
m e . .. m e a
ROLAND T. BIRD, American Museum of Natural History (ret.)..
* 0 0
Fossil A animals
ARCHIE F. CARR, Ph.D., Biology Dept., Univ. Florida
e a a
Reptiles and Amphibians
H. ARLISS DENYES
, Ph.D., Physiology Dept., Florida State Univ.
DICKINSON, JR., Ph.D.,
Biology Dept., Univ. Florida . .
GINSBURG, Ph.D., Marine Lab., Univ. Miami
. Bird Names
... Rocks and Minerals
GGOGGIN, Ph.D., Dept. Sociol. & Anthr., Univ. Florida.
a 0* ae*g.
R. BRUCE LEDIN, Ph.D., Subtropical Experiment
Station . . .
McLANE, Florida Game & Freshwater Fish Comm.
..... Exotic Plants
E. MORTON MILLER, Ph.D., University of Miami
. m e...... O
HENRY M. STEVENSON, Ph.D., Zool. Dept., Florida State Univ..
. Bird Distribution
CHARLTON W. TEBEAU, Ph.D., History Dept., Univ. Miami
F. G. WOOD, JR., Marine Studios, Marineland ...........
0 S * 0 6 C &e a e
0 0S& am0m0ee
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY is published in March, June, September, and December of
each year by the Everglades Natural History Association, 205 North Krome Avenue (mail-
ing address P.O. Box 275), Homestead, Florida. Individual copies are 50c each post paid;
subscription is $2.00 a year. Entered as second class matter February 25, 1954, at the Post
Office at Homestead, Florida, under Act of March 3, 1897. CHECKS should be made out to
the Association and mailed to Executive Secretary Willard E. Dilley.
A non-profit society established under charter in 1951 to further interest in
I Is UAS'2 8 As a V Sa- am a C1
Cover photograph is by Ralph
27, 1954, of an alligator
by Anhinga Trail in the Everglades National Park.
Winter birding in the national park
Our three bears
My wife feeds birds
Birds of the night
Interesting birding records of '54
by Louis A.
by Willard E. Dilley
by Philip Wylie
by Taylor R. Alexander
by Richard H. Manville
by William G. Atwater
Natural History Notes
A common dolphin-uncommonly marked
Red maple added to park tree list
A large indigo snake
Junior Natural History Department
. by Frank
0 by Ralph
by Pearl Staples Finn
Calling all detectives
The web weavers
by Willard E. Dilley
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illustration by Walter B. Colebrook
THE WINTER months in the Everglades National Park offer to both the
serious bird student and the casually interested park visitor a great
variety of opportunities and experiences. It is easier to observe a much
greater number of species in one day in winter than in fall; although,
the number of species I have recorded over the years during
and February is much less than the number for the
fall months. My observations over the years of birding visits to the park
have produced only 139 in winter compared to 1
56 in fall.
in winter it is frequently possible to secure a day'
species without too much exertion, which is not the
list of 100 or more
in the fall. Eco-
such as dropping water levels, make for greater concentra-
tions of birds along the roadsides, at the Anhinga Trail, and at other places
along the road.
The observer who wishes to take a conducted tour will find several avail-
able during the winter months.
These will be only briefly mentioned here
since they are subject to change from year to year, or from month to
month. In December the National Audubon Society takes visitors, by res-
ervation, from Miami down through the agricultural lands and deep down
into the park in station wagons, and then by boat to Alligator Lake. After
the first of January the scene of the boat trip will be shifted to Flamingo.
Also in January and weeks following, a tour is offered into beautiful Florida
Bay to a roseate spoonbill rookery
In December a park concessioner,
Transway Service, offers cruise boat trips three times daily
"St nJcg CAW
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SNAKE BIGHT ROAC
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LONG PINE KEY ROAD
ab aa a a a-
L e aa e 00 a
am a a e i
ame a aw a ap a 00 a aa adoan
. a A.RKBOUOU._ NDARY. ...
0 a a a at mim a w a a a na a- ae aaI-aM a aa
NINE MILE BEND
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
trance. As the park is developed more fully,
cruises to other points of
interest will very probably be offered.
To the park visitor who wishes to go it alone and has but one day to
spend in the park,
the same trip discussed in Fall Birding in the previous
issue of this magazine will offer the most in bird observation. Mileages are
repeated here for those not having a copy of that issue. All mileage refer
to the park entrance
as zero, where one should write down the speedometer
reading, or set the trip mileage to zero.
The Ingraham Highway (Florida
Route 27) will be followed from the park entrance to Flamingo with side
trips as indicated. At mileage 3 a road turns to the right, going to Long
Pine Key. A short trip here to a point 0.65 miles from the Ingraham
Highway will bring one to a wide space suitable for parking, near which a
trail leads into the pine woods to the north (right)
A few moments on
and on the road to the west with a check of the open field and
tree line to the south will be productive in the early morning. (Any mileage
used on side trips should be added to those given for points further along
the highway.) At mileage 26 a road to Snake Bight turns off to the left
At mileage 30 the Ingraham Highway makes a sharp right-
angle turn to the left and the road straight ahead goes to Bear Lake.
Snake Bight and Bear Lake are a little less than two miles from the high-
Walking these roads in the early morning will give the best birding
results to persons having extra days to spend in the park.
If the Snake
Bight road is cleared, a drive down to the Bight in the afternoon of the one
day trip may add some species perhaps not seen elsewhere. Lunch may be
carried but is not necessary since the snack bar at Coot Bay operates
throughout the winter months.
Mosquitoes are not usually bothersome in
winter but repellant or aerosol bomb may be carried as a precaution. An
enthusiastic birder should carry a change of footwear, but a change of
clothes is usually not necessary in winter.
During the winter the sunrise and sunset bird show at the Anhinga Trail
LOUIS A. STIMSON
there in the peaceful early dawn to watch the awakening and departure of
large flocks of ibises, herons; and egrets can not but be soul-stirring to
anyone. Bird enthusiasts will rarely fail to be enthralled. During the past
winter a few glossy ibises were regularly seen among the other wading
birds at this night roost, and at times during the day were observed feeding
in the marsh to the west of the
They had been occasionally seen
here also in previous winters.
In addition to the birds roosting here, one
large flocks of white ibis flying in formation overhead
as they come up from a roosting place farther to the south. In February,
1954, a pair of water-turkeys (anhingas) built their nest in plain view of
anyone standing at the end of the boardwalk and proceeded to go about
their nesting duties as though no human being were within miles of the spot.
Birds commonly seen here, or in the adjacent marsh, include the pied-
billed grebe, water-turkey anhingaa)
American egret, snowy egret, Louis-
, green heron, black-crowned
night heron, American bittern,
white ibis, blue-winged teal,
black vulture, limpkin, sora, purple gallinule, Florida galli-
nule, American coot,
throat, red-winged blackbird, boat-tailed grackle, purple (Florida) grackle
with possibilities of double-crested cormorant (Florida sub-species)
white heron, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron, least bittern,
glossy ibis, king rail,
long-billed marsh wren, swamp sparrow, and perhaps
which will be listed under their more usual habitats.
It will be profitable to spend some time around the Royal Palm Ranger
along the road to Paradise Key (
and on the
trails leading away from the vicinity of the picnic tables here, with a short
trip to the edge of Long Pine Key (road going off to the right at 3 mi.).
Birds commonly listed are red-shouldered hawk, sparrow hawk, (yellow-
bellied sapsucker, crested flycatcher, phoebe, blue jay, crow, house wren,
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
orange-crowned warbler, parula warbler, black-throated blue warbler, yel-
painted bunting and common (American) goldfinch.
Along the Ingraham Highway some of the birds listed above will be
seen as well as Florida (mottled) duck, sharp-shinned hawk, marsh hawk,
Barred owls might be seen at the open
cypress stand (11 mi.) and a stop at the concrete bridge (151 mi.) may
add something to the list.
At West Lake Pond (
at the little pond (28.7 mi.) and at the
duck pond on the Cape Sable Prairie about two miles west of Flamingo,
the following ducks are common: common mallard, Florida
pintail, lesser scaup, green-winged teal,
blue-winged teal, shoveller, or possible: redhead, ring-necked, canvas-back,
At Flamingo (33 mi.) the old dock pilings will probably be crowded
with the usual numbers of cormorants, gulls and terns: perhaps a single
herring gull, a few ring-billed gulls, the laughing gull and royal tern, with
possibly a few Cabot's
numerous double-crested (Florida) cormorants. Brown pelicans will prob-
ably be in evidence and red-breasted mergansers might be seen. On a few
occasions common loons have appeared off-shore. The wading bird family
is always well represented. Along the shore here, at Snake Bight, or along
the sloughs west of here on the prairies, observations of many wintering
shorebirds are possible: semi-palmated (ringed) plover,
killdeer, black-bellied plover, ruddy tumstone, long-billed curlew
spotted sandpiper, willet, greater and lesser yellow-legs, (red) knot
(rare in winter)
least sandpiper, red-backed sandpiper, dowitcher, semi-
palmated sandpiper, western sandpiper,
marbled godwit, and (American)
From the grass near Flamingo one may often flush savannah sparrows
nInfl rnrrscinnvlluv arachnnner ntr5rnuic Mnnar tho rIinlrb nrreaiJ stA aa_ f a
LOUIS A. STIMSON
rare. It is now apparently useless to hunt for Cape Sable seaside sparrows
in this area. Though regularly sought, none has been found breeding on
Cape Sable Prairie since the terrible hurricane of 1935.
The bird does
occur in the salt marshes farther up the southwest coast of Florida, which
were not hard hit by that disastrous hurricane. For any real work on the
prairies or along the sloughs one needs either rubber boots or a change of
Conditions on the prairie vary from time to time, but it is an interesting
place for an ornithologist.
Roseate spoonbills frequently feed along the
sloughs or perch on the dead mangrove trees toward the bay shore. Bald
and pigeon hawk are often present, together with the more
common red-shouldered hawk
, marsh hawk and sparrow hawk. Florida
clapper rails inhabit the marsh and are frequently heard in February, if not
so frequently seen.
Wilson's snipes probe in marshy spots and large num-
bers of wading-birds and shore-birds feed in the sloughs. The barn owl is
resident, and the short-eared owl has been reported here.
Driving on the Cape Sable Prairie is always done at the risk of getting
one's car mired in the slippery Cape Sable marl, if the prairie is at all wet.
Advice of the park rangers should be sought
as to conditions. However, if
it is possible and permitted to drive westward to the ditches (Slagle
blocked with road fill, and Durdin's
one can never know just what
perience may be ahead. A red-letter day for my wife and me was the 22nd
of February, 1934. We had left our home in Miami at
west on the prairie, we drank in the beauty of an almost full moon going
as a flaming red bal
of red in a smoke haze from a grass fire.
Suddenly in my rear view mirror I noticed a brilliant white light,
first thinking that it was a single headlight of some car, wondered aloud
as to what other crazy person could be on that prairie at that time of the
morning. Soon, however, I realized that the bright light was the planet
Venus rising in the eastern sky.
We had our breakfast near the shore at
what u-sed to he Cane Town. finding a few cement cisterns that nave mute
egrets sighted us, we heard the explosive whirring of their wings as they
speeded their beat and climbed rapidly away from the imagined danger.
Later the large flocks in the sky far to the westward alternately appeared
and disappeared as the spiraling column of birds banked in the sunlight.
First there would be nothing in view and then suddenly there seemed to be
a fluttering mass of snow-flakes in the sky.
At an old shack (now long gone) near the grove of coconut trees where
the park authorities are now planning a picnic area, we found a Mr. E.
Komarek (now of Thomasville, Georgia) and some companions camped,
as they worked at collecting for the Chicago Academy of Sciences.
told us then of a possible new sub-species of the red-bellied woodpecker,
since described by Burleigh and Lowery
as the Florida red-bellied wood-
pecker (Centurus carolinus perplexus); and also of some white pelicans
along the shore.
We returned to a two-plank bridge across the Flamingo
Canal a half mile or so up from the mouth near where the present boat-
livery now stands,
drove across it and the adjacent prairie to near the
mangrove fringe. We then clambered over the arching red mangrove roots,
and were amazed to find many prickly pear cacti in what looked to be
anything but an arid situation. Finally coming out on the shore we found
ourselves facing the small bay between Joe Kemp Key and the shore to
the west of Christian Point, where we gazed upon a scene that would lift
the spirits of any ornithologist.
not far away,
A bald eagle stood in the shallow water
egrets and herons were fishing here and there, and among a
raft of ducks, like majestic ships, floated two gorgeous white pelicans, the
first we had ever seen. It is possible now to
in the sky over Bear Lake,
the Cape Sable area, or to si
see flocks of varying numbers
Alligator Lake, or in fact almost anywhere in
ee them standing in snow-white banks of several
hundred along the edges of the prairie sloughs or the pond at the head of
where they gather before the night.
If one has a shallow-draft boat, or a metal canoe, a trip up to the Dur-
* ,2.l t l--A (AL 11 i Ia I 0
LOUIS A. STIMSON 187
egret present. When it is possible to get across the canal, this pond may
be reached on foot, by circling well out into the open prairie and going
beyond the break in the mangroves which border the canal.
An early morning stroll down either, or both, the Snake Bight Road
or Bear Lake Road is recommended heartily for enthusiastic birders. It is
in these areas that many of the rarer wintering birds are sometimes found:
homed grebe, (American) brant, Bonaparte's gull, broad-winged hawk,
short-tailed hawk, duck hawk (peregrine falcon), (American) avocet,
tufted titmouse, many of the warblers already mentioned, together with
black-throated gray warbler, black-throated green warbler, northern and
Louisiana water-thrush, redstart, indigo bunting, slate-colored junco, chip-
ping sparrow and white-throated sparrow.
Conditions at Snake Bight are dependent on the direction of the wind,
as well as on fluctuations of the tide. A strong northerly wind tends to
empty this exceedingly shallow bay of water, and the shore line may be far
distant. At such time birds in the distance will be hard to identify or entirely
obliterated by heat waves. When the water is in close, however, as when
the wind is from the east or southeast, the sights are often sensational. One
unforgettable sight is imprinted on my memory. On February 8, 1942, I
led a party of the Society now called Dade Ornithologists down over the
badly rutted road. Some commercial fishermen had established a camp
at the end of the road, with the subsequent ruination of the road by the
heavy fish trucks. Their fishing operations depended on the use of air-boats,
(flat bottom barges pushed by airplane propellers), the lighter faster ones
of which, it has been said, need only a heavy dew on the grass for opera-
tion. One of the men kindly consented to make a couple of trips so that
members of our party might enjoy the novelty. Indeed it was a novelty to
go skimming over the seaweed at 35 miles per hour where in places I
knew that the water was only a few inches deep. Speech was impossible
above the motor's steady roar. Some of the party saw their first white peli-
S. she decided to turn around
last look at the rangers.
. . for one
photograph by author
EARS and national parks are words almost synonymous. A mention of
one is bound to bring to mind the other.
Wherever and whenever this
animal meets the park visitor, he leaves a lasting impression on
the visitor's mind.
It has long been the feeling of the Everglades National Park staff that
the visitor to the area would have a richer experience if he could occa-
see the shaggy, ambling hulk of a bear. It is true, that a mixture of
bears and people is a brew which spells trouble for the park rangers.
have the difficult task of trying to protect the public and the bears at the
same time. Nevertheless, the rangers, too, favor a restoration of the bear
to its former haunts in the park area. A cardinal principle of the National
Park Service is to present a park area in a condition
as nearly natural
possible. The bear, being a part of the native fauna, should take its rightful
place in the picture.
There is still another reason for wishing to bring the local bear popula-
tion back to normal. In the year 1858,
Gustavus Wurdemann collected a
bear on Biscayne Key. This specimen became the type specimen represent-
ing a new race, the Florida black bear, described by C. Hart Merriam in
This same race is believed to extend north into southern Georgia,
but west along the Gulf of Mexico it grades into the Louisiana race about
in Alabama. It is a large bear, occasionally weighing well over five hundred
pounds. A reasonable number receiving protection in the park will be good
assurance of the survival of the race.
It is quite possible that adequately protected, the bear could make a
comeback without the aid of man, but without help it would take a number
of years, if successful at all.
In the meantime, the stock elsewhere of this
type could become so rare as to be unobtainable. Assistant director 0.
Earle Frye of the Florida Fresh Water Fish and Game Commission con-
tacted the Everglades National Park with an offer to present the park with
some bears. He found superintendent Daniel B.
Beard very receptive to
The situation was somewhat as follows. A Mr. Davis,
who owns the
40,000-acre Doo Dot Ranch near Jacksonville, had his ranch stocked with
a sizeable number of turkeys and also some cattle. Mr. Davis did not
believe that the presence of bears on his ranch was in the best interest of
his domestic livestock,
so the State agreed to live trap the bears. In this
they were quite successful.
Late in June 1954, ranger William Gray was on his way to Doo Dot
Ranch in a pickup truck. Gray,
being reluctant to let a bear ride in the
cab with him, stopped at Vero Beach to pick up a state-owned cage which
had been stored at that place. Before reaching Jacksonville, the bottom of
the cage fell out. Ranger Gray was very glad this happened before the bear
was in the cage. After some repairs, the journey continued.
On June 26, ranger Gray arrived at the ranch. With the aid of wildlife
officer, Howard Strickland, the bear was transferred to the cage without
mishap. It was a male, weighing an estimated 180 pounds.
The trip back
to the park was uneventful.
When service station stops were made,
took the opportunity to give the bear a much appreciated drink from the
water hose normally found at such places. Arriving in Miami about seven
o'clock in the evening, the live cargo offered quite a surprise to many
people on busy Biscayne Boulevard. A few hours later Gray and his bear
were in the park.
The trip was not over. It was vital that the bear, an up-state individual,
WILLARD E. DILLEY
Cape Sable, would be the most suitable spot. In the vicinity there is usually
an abundance of fruit on a variety of trees and shrubs. There are cabbage
palms from which the bear can extract the bud with his strong teeth.
Fiddler crabs scamper everywhere in great numbers. During the warm
summer nights, giant sea turtles will deposit their eggs on the sandy beach,
these too, being delicacies acceptable to a bear. Besides, from here the
bear would have the longest walk to get outside the park boundaries and
get himself shot.
The location for release being well understood in advance, the trip pro-
ceeded toward the release point as planned. Still on the truck, the bear was
headed for Coot Bay. If bears can think, this one must have noted how
flat is the land and what unfamiliar vegetation. Probably his keen nose
told him more vividly, that he was in a strange land.
At Coot Bay, the bear was to receive a new experience, for here he was
and all, to the deck of a ranger patrol boat. Park rangers
Irwin Winte and Barnie Parker were the caretakers for this part of the
With the heavy load, progress was slow, but about four hours later
Barnie was backing the boat against a low mud bank at Northwest Cape.
In a matter of minutes the bear was leaving the boat and its ranger occu-
There were no words of thanks for the ride, and scarcely a back-
ward glance as the bear started out to explore his new surroundings.
Ranger Gray had barely time to get a good night of rest from his long
drive, when another call came through from the State Commission.
had done it again. Another male bear had been successfully trapped.
This bear was a little larger than the first one and much more belligerent.
He amply demonstrated the great strength of his jaws by the way in which
he could bend the quarter inch steel grill forming the sides of the cage. On
the trip down, he gave ranger Bill Gray some nervous moments by slam-
ming .his weight first to one side of the
and then to the other. His
momentum violently rocked the truck with each lunge. By the time the
It is quite obvious that the bear population of the park cannot be ap-
preciably built up by introducing only males. For this reason, we were all
very happy when a third call came through, announcing that a young
female bear had been trapped. Ranger Gray,
now being an old hand at
chauffeuring bears, was again dispatched to the Doo Dot Ranch.
On arriving, Gray found a small female, weighing probably not over a
hundred pounds. Compared to the males, she was a perfect example of
gentleness and refinement.
The trip back to the park was a paragon of
The writer personally accompanied this bear on its boat trip from Coot
Bay to the point of release.
I was so captivated with the friendliness of this
little lady, that before I realized what I was doing, I had fed her bit by bit
practically all of my lunch. Ranger Barnie Parker had brought along a
bag of chewy candy. Before long, ursine brown
had begged most of
candy. Assistant chief ranger Ralph Maxwell, who was also on
the trip, thought we were both a couple of softies.
Eventually we arrived at Northwest Cape and a suitable landing place.
I jumped ashore with a camera, intending to get several shots of the release.
I considered the possibility that once out of the cage the bear's tempera-
ment could change,
she might charge,
doing neither me nor
the camera equipment any good.
However, I had correctly placed my faith
in her amiable disposition and saw her turn away from both me and the
boat. In fact, I was very fortunate to get even one picture, and that only
because she decided to turn around and stand on her hind feet for a last
look at the rangers who had given her that delightful boat ride.
are all hoping that the three bears will thrive in their new home and
that they, with perhaps a few others which may have been able to survive,
will bring the bear population up to a point consistent with the carrying
capacity of the area. If this hope is realized, the future park visitor will
have the thrill of seeing bears in the Everglades and the Florida black bear
WILLARD E. DILLEY
Are you on the fence about what to give your friends? Maybe you should
try Everglades Natural History. They will receive this issue and a printed
notification that you are sending them a gift subscription-if you make
the arrangements now. Send us their name and address and your check
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My ife Feeds Birds
by PHILIP WYLIE
S EVEN years ago, Mrs. Wylie and I sold our home on Miami Beach and
began to look for a new building site in the "country." Like many fledg-
ling Floridians we had come to learn that our tropical passion had to do
with the whole outdoors and with all that grew there and lived there-not
just with beach and boats and fishing. Our sixty-foot lot on Biscayne Bay
had soon become too small for our horticultural ambitions, for example.
Its sandy soil was unsuitable for many of the things we yearned to grow;
the proximity of salt water was another handicap. There wasn't room
enough even for us, let alone for our envisaged garden.
We found two acres of live oak hammock and pine, also, and palmetto
in the county not far from Coral Gables and Coconut Grove, and when
the city began moving out to meet us, which was almost immediately, we
acquired two adjacent acres of palmetto and pine. We built of brick and
cypress one of those houses designed for outdoor living (for which we
have never had a moment of regret), and we went to work on "the place."
We are still working on it.
Our first program was merely to make our homesite habitable. The oaks
were tented with rosary pea vine. When we cleared that away, we found
the trees bore the signs of hurricanes; so we pruned and repaired them. We
planted a lawn of centipede grass, which-again-has caused no regret,
and soon, since the area had grown loud with bulldozers and carpenters'
hammers, we undertook to enclose the whole tract with a wall of trees
(mndAlauniisuA onA l firic o lnnr with hiunlrhdc onf feet nf hC rIawmhAl
view of our porch, proved satisfactory at first,
as a mockingbird-appar-
ently in situ before ourselves-undertook with great success to drive away
on sight every visiting jay, cardinal, red-bellied woodpecker or dove.
thought he would tire
but his aggression fed on itself and soon,
not to be
outwitted by a bird, I built a second feeder and a second scooped out stone
bath, at the side of the house.
The stratagem worked superbly.
in two places at once.
The mockingbird was unable to patrol
Presently there began to gather beneath our oaks
a growing assortment of the birds mentioned above,
thrashers, quail and others.
along with towhees,
The mockingbird gave up the struggle and
although he, or his heirs or assigns, still inhabit our premises, it is in a
state of meekness. For our four, tree-impounded acres, with scores of big
oaks (and a full two-thirds of the tract in untouched pine and palmetto)
have become the residence of literally hundreds of birds.
They feed there
and breed there and many of them apparently never go anywhere else.
One reason for the rapid build-up of our outdoor aviary became evident
to me some months after "our own" birds-cardinals and jays and quail
and such-became plentiful. Each afternoon, Mrs. Wylie had been making
the rounds of feeders and lawns, open spaces in the palmetto, and the
margin of a water lily pool I had by then constructed, carrying pails of
assorted provender. From time to time I'd replenished her stores,
were maintained in GI cans at the back door; sunflower seed, wild bird
, and the medium grade of chicken scratch.
Also, I'd fallen into the
habit of bringing home a loaf or two of bakery bread almost daily.
One morning, while paying thirty dollars for a hundred pounds of sun-
flower seed (which was high, that year),
I began idly to reckon the number
of times I'd filled the same order in the past few months, along with orders
for scratch, et cetera.
I was startled enough to get out receipts and do a
little figuring and soon found that Mrs.
Wylie's bird-feeding hobby was
setting Mr. Wylie back at the rate of about a dollar and sixtv cents a day.
variety of our birds.
guess, I woi
had as many
coveys of qu
later, these same birds, or their descendants, inh
, owing to our trees, vines and hedges and ott
Os owing to the author's books of social criticism
r to as, "1
AId say tha
as a hund
Dim View." On
it we "domicile"
Hired, and perhaps
an average day
and feed about
y, numbering tel
towhees and thrashers, certain Carolina wrens (a pair
lized my car porte
nest built in a hank
thousands of visitor
We have made ni
and at an offhand
fifty doves. We've
as many jays, two
i-several pairs of
of which immobi-
workshop last Spring by raising four little ones in a
: of rope just above the bench), perhaps twenty red-
;, sundry western palm warblers in the winter, and
o effort to "tame" these birds. Ricky has no taste for
and almost no interest in caged creatures. However,
no doubt that the majority of our birds know her. When she
each day with her feeding utensils, jays and cardinals light and
around her, the timidest towhees walk up to
last winter, took to tapping on her foot an
from her hand. These birds are somewhat mo
more so of strangers. However, after years of
friends, our dog and our routines,
ingly unconcerned about people.
and bathe in the lily pool within a
am convinced that cardinals, at
grandeur for they often assume
, all these sp
her, and a
,re leery of
'hey will continue to feea
dozen feet of lawn party
least, are conscious of
show-off postures on tre(
d on the grass
guests. And I
e limbs before
interested human spectators and go through such
to allow no other conclusion.
A student of animal sociology would, I thin
changed relationship of these birds with each othc
exhibitionistic antics as
,, be interested in the
,r. When we came, the
quietly feeding together. For awhile, the birds tried to establish a sort of
inter-species pecking order-and it appeared that the red-bellied wood-
peckers-or, possibly the mourning doves-would win the title. Nearly all
that hostility and mistrust has vanished, now. Moreover, the timid birds
as those naturally bold-and the jays are no
noisier than the cardinals, which is not noisy at all.
Perhaps the knowledge,
gained through long experience (for our maid
continues the regular feeding when Ricky and I are away)
that there is
always enough food, makes the difference. And perhaps the additional,
pragmatic experience of protection helps.
Wylie is a bird-protector without a peer, the kind of person
who will let dinner soil to make an attemnt to renrhitnte 2 uarhler that
set up a fearsome clamor, meaning "snake
I rushed forth with a hoe.
and Ricky or our daughter or
As a rule, we merely drove the snakes back
into the brush-they were harmless kinds, though often large; and Mrs.
Wylie likes most snakes.
Of course, such a concentrated bird population was an invitation to
another predator: the hawk. Over the years, owing to the meal-appeal of
our outdoor aviary, we've had a chance to observe most of the hawks that
appear in south Florida. The way we oftenest observe them is this:
There will be a faint "cheep" of horror, possibly accompanied by a muf-
fled thunder of heavy wings. Mrs. Wylie has an ear for that sad tocsin like
the ear of an anxious mother with a new baby.
cups are slammed in saucers
"Hawk!" she cries. Coffee
highballs are deserted, books dropped, type-
writers abandoned-and the Wylie family scatters to the yard.
, it may seem unbelievable, but it is perfectly true, that if you get
on the scene fast enough,
you can often be of use to a hawk-caught bird.
After his pounce, a hawk may need to spend some time getting a good hold
on his prey,
regaining his balance, making ready to fly away-or getting
set to eat. During this interval any hawk may be caused to abandon his
meal-which then usually flies away relatively or wholly unharmed (though
scared and sometimes indignant)-by the sudden outrush of a cloud of
roaring Wylies. Furthermore, this appalling spectacle of a family charge
has sometimes caused hawks actually carrying off their prey to drop it in
when at home alone, upon hearing the plaint, I rushed
into the yard and saw a duck hawk under my oaks with a blue jay in its
When I raced at the hawk, it merely straightened up and gazed at
me, holding onto the jay.
There is something ominous about a
In a moment, however; I determined to assert the
superiority of my species. I could, I thought, rush the bird and place-kick
it like a football. I got to within a yard-an anxious yard-before the hawk
to chase cats; he chases them with consummate fury-and takes great
pains never to catch up with the most docile tabby, having caught up with
a torn or two. As for the dog himself,
a cocker and presumably therefore
a "bird dog"
, our "Popcorn$
gave up bird molesting long, long ago.
are too many to chase. He found them impossible to catch.
He now ac-
as landscape, usually ignoring them, occasionally watching them
with patronizing amusement, never disturbing them.
The birds, on their
part, have grown utterly heedless of Popcorn; even quail will peck grain
within feet of him-and I would not be the least surprised to
nal or jay taking a ride on his back.
It is the visitors, however, as much
as the familiar, gaudy spectacle of
indigenous birds, which give our avian circus its greatest zest. I shall not
ever forget, for example, the day a pair of pileated woodpeckers examined
They took hours for the task, evidently beguiled (as many
other birds seem to be) by the tranquil presence of so many colleagues.
What they wanted, we did not doubt, was a tall, dead tree for nesting. They
didn't find one.
We'd had several dead pines,
owing to borers, but I'd cut
them all down and burned them for firewood, to protect the living trees.
(Now that we have private woodpeckers-the kind mentioned, along wit
hairys and downys and an occasional yellow-bellied sapsucker-we seem
to have no more pine borers, at all).
girdling one tall pine, far from the hot
But I have since seriously considered
ise, as pileated-woodpecker bait.
For the pair must have settled in the region. So there will be more pairs
house-hunting, in time. Indeed, on one day she will long recall, Ricky look-
ed out of the kitchen window and saw a mature pileated woodpecker dunk-
ing itself in our bird bath. It splashed out all of the water-a day's
for a hundred medium-sized birds! Hawks, too. often bathe in our pool or
our baths-which we allow them to do, unless they hang around over-long
And twice we've
had night herons in our pool;
rapidly consuming the
, swordtails, wagtails, guppies, et cetera. Rickv
to it that
ful to birds only as cover. They are decked with dozens of other trees and
shrubs of no further value to birds. But they also include slews of Surinam
cherry bushes, governor's plums, marlberries, antidesma, carissa plums,
durantas, sweet sops, sour sops, custard apples, guavas, and heaven knows
what not: I only prune and fertilize them. Hundreds of feet of massive
plants-twenty-feet thick in places, and here and there as gh--were se-
lected by Mrs. Wylie, after much reading and questioning, for the sake of
hungry birds. Needless to say, it works: there are times when the whole
reach of thicket is a-flutter and a-twitter all day long.
Our yard also supports a stand of bananas, a mango tree, a big Ceylon
gooseberry bush, a jambolan plum, and, of course, all the indigenous flora
of a pine-and-palmetto forest, regarded usually as "weeds" but productive
of many lovely flowers and much material for floral arrangement, at which
Ricky is unquestionably gifted. The average Florida amateur fruit-grower
will, of course, look askance at Ricky's bounty; and some-like a neighbor
we have-will illegally shoot any bird that so much as pecks a mango.
The fact is that our very bounty solves the depredation problem to an
astonishing degree. True, last year we got for ourselves only about half of
our guavas-a variety delicious to eat out of hand. But our Surinam cher-
nes vastly outproduced the bird-demand, and so do most other fruits, in-
cluding the antidesma drupes-as proved by Ricky the other day when she
showed me twenty-four jars of the incomparable antidesma jelly she'd just
made. Apparently we've never had a mango pecked by a bird, simply be-
cause so many other preferred victuals are ripe and/or spread forth at
ago a sma]
of our bird-attraction efforts have as yet succeeded. Two winters
i group of painted buntings reconnoitered our land, to the delight
of both of us. However, they were not satisfied and took up residence some-
where else. Ricky then found that bamboo is the stuff for buntings. Immed-
iately, we journeyed to a nursery and-with the help of trucks, derricks,
Aromintn ond ti rsIicnv nlqnt orp.nnhvquiqitqe--we weeded a few lant
Probably because it is part of an oak hammock, our
been a motel for migratory birds. The oaks are still there;
stop by-thousands upon thousands of them, especially
past five years, we have seen most of the kinds that fly thi
land has always
so the birds still
warblers. In the
s way-flocks of
arboreal jewels that tarry for a week or even a month (or more)
going on. They are tame enough to watch at a distance of a few feet
a redstart tried to light on Ricky's head and gave up only when the
e discouraged it. With the warblers c
es of other kinds. Ours is a rather g<
as a result. For the master bedroom is
times I've found Rickv-abed with
in which to
7 flu sitting
the pillows with notebook in hand, Peterson guidebook alongside
and binoculars glued to her eyes-"birding"-and piling up a big list, too!
Things happen that normally don't, or shouldn't at all. Last winter we
had a single resident robin-
We figure, perhaps mistake
down to the lone, permitted
season in our yard-thougi
years ago, while our private
hundred, it was joined by a
When the Audubon Society
less deputies visited ouw
to their totals. No doves
that night; and the rare
next day, they were all I
It goes without saying
-when other people were troubled by flocks.
nly, that our own birds kept the robin-invasion
sample. Last winter, a hermit thrush spent the
i he had no business there at all. A couple of
e flock of mourning doves numbered about a
white-winged dove, which we saw almost daily.
made its "Christmas count" of birds, two tire-
,mises at dawn and at dusk to add our doves
Lil came to feed in the morning; only six arrived
ite wing didn't show up at all. Of course, the
g that our premises afford an unusual and contin-
ual opportunity to observe the intimate habits of birds-the nesting and
courting, rearing young bird-fears and phobias, bird-obsessions, and the
like. Hardly a day passes but that Ricky sees and reports some gossipy item
of such lore, and I note my quota, too: the little blue jay, apparently or-
phaned, that took to following a couple of red-bellied woodpeckers (who
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EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
them underfoot-and even then, only the closest one takes wing.
The doves, furthermore, once very jittery birds, now seem to spend the
whole day, every day, in our pines and palmettos-not bothering
afield. This year, when I went down to fertilize my trees, instead
nervously to distant perches, they leaned down from overhead
and rebuked me, in a mild, cooing tone.
Some readers may feel that I am indulgent of my wife, or p
birds, in arranging our premises to suit both her and them. I have already
indicated, I think: that the premises have not suffered: our big yard is beau-
tiful and comes close to being what more formal gardeners would call a
jaw by argi
just as Father William added muscular strength to his
legal cases with his wife, so I, by building and main-
s miniature bird sanctuary, have kept in wonderful
It is not just lucky that we both like birds-and gar-
)ne more reason why we are Mr. and Mrs. Wylie.
The benefits don't end there.
from our pine
the bread in o01
I've mentioned the disappearance of borers
trees, owing to woodpeckers-birds which are attracted by
ir feeding stations. (They carry it in crumbs to trees, stuff
and then-it would seem-devour it as if it were an insect
,red there). When we came, our land was an insect-paradise
'ubt, because it had once been a grove and was dotted with
the most vermin-ridden
rough lemons an
But when our bird family grew larger, the bugs
debug a good ten times the amount of foliage d
a quarter of the insecticides I used to. One has
hundred birds eat a hundred insects a day, it
month-and birds do much better. Besides, at
birds about at once.
id grapefruit I've ever seen.
diminished. Nowadays, to
and flowers, I spray about
only to calculate that if a
accounts for millions in a
times we have a thousand
The machine I used to employ to fertilize our grass-there is an acre
of it, now-has rusted to desuetude. I have fertilized the grass just once
with her usual supply of feed, and the birds, on seeing her, set up their
then-customary clamor. (They are calm about it, now). As she started
toward the bird bath under the oaks, she realized, she says, that the clamor
was unduly vigorous. But she paid no attention to the noisy, flittering ado
until a cardinal dropped down to knee-level and fluttered, chirping wildly,
a scant foot in front of her. This behavior was inordinate enough to make
her look down and Ricky saw, where she would next put her foot and
directly beneath the cardinal-perfectly camouflaged in oak leaves and
stretched at full length-a big rattlesnake.
Her next step would have put her squarely on the rattler-with inevi-
consequences My brother,
, and I dispatched the snal
over and caterwaul at snal
not just Ricky. But since,
who was visiting us, came out at her call,
ce. Of course, it is the instinct of birds to
ces: the cardinal had been warning every-
to continue that warning, it had to hover
in easy range of the snake-which was there just to catch a bird-nothing
will persuade Ricky or me that the cardinal did not have her danger par-
ticularly in mind at that critical instant.
We are not inclined, either one, to attribute humanesque intelligence to
wild animals of any sort. On the other hand, we've seen so much of the
ways of wild things, birds especially, that we feel certain they are far more
aware and often far cleverer than most laboratory-pent biologists believe.
We found, after that dramatic event, that the rocks deposited on our land
birds." If she
husband to thc
by many rattlers, as
I the snakes departed.
I take a certain, sp
didn't, I might not I
jumbo rattler lying
well as other snakes. We had the rocks
, or were killed. For, after that day, we
ecial pride in saying, "My wife feeds
have a wife-or she might have lost a
unsuspected on a palmetto. It's quite a
big dividend-when you add it to what is already an asset to husbandry, a
fascinating hobby, and a backyard kaleidoscope that changes ceaselessly
U aCS 0'
illustration by author
N MOST of the protected shoreline of the tropics the traveler will
mangrove trees that seem to defy the accepted rules of tree growth
by flourishing in salt and brackish water.
The sheltered shorelines of sub-
tropical south Florida are no exception. Actually there are four species of
trees growing in abundance in areas of high salinity here,
that are fre-
quently called mangroves in a collective sense because of their close assoc-
nation in our saline swamps.
While the origin of the word
too difficult to trace here, it should be noted that the word is not to be
confused with "n
" the name of a tropical fruit tree. The four species
are in four genera and are distributed in three different
families. They are very different in many respects and a careful observer
can soon identify them on sight.
Botanically they are as follows: one, Rhizophora mangle, the red man-
grove of the mangrove family; tw
three, Laguncularia racemosa, wh
family; and four, Avicennia nitida,
o, Conocarpus erecta, buttonwood and
lite mangrove, both of the combretum
black mangrove of the black mangrove
family. Thus, by common names we have the red, white, and black man-
groves and the buttonwood.
Of the four, the red mangrove is the most spectacular and common.
is the tree that produces prominent aerial or prop roots that hang from the
limbs or spread out from the trunk like spider legs making an impenetrable
thicket between the trees. They line the shores of saltwater passages and
a a 04 a a a
208 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
level, and this, in turn, allows other plants to move seaward behind them.
Further adaptation of the red mangrove to a water habitat is seen in the
viviparous seed habit. The fruit hangs on the tree until the seed germinates
On falling into the water, the dagger-shaped and cork-like seedling may
float hundreds of miles before anchoring in a shallow spot and there de-
veloping into a tree. It is no wonder that they have managed to navigate
the tropics by riding the ocean currents, and stranding with the tides.
The black mangrove gets its name from its very dark bark. From its roots
rise thousands of closely spaced upright growths called pneumatophores
that look somewhat like asparagus tips or miniature cypress knees and
probably serve the function of aeration for the roots. It has leaves thai
are covered with fine whitish hair underneath. If one looks carefully, hc
may find large salt crystals on the upper surface of the leaves of this tree
and the lower surfaces of the leaves are always extremely salty to the tasu
owing to the excretion of salt. It has been said that early settlers in thi
region used the leaves to salt their cooking water by merely stirring th
water with large quantities of small leafy twigs. The leaves of the othei
mangroves do not excrete salt.
The white mangrove does not have the peculiar features mentioned fo]
the above species. However, occasional individuals do produce knobby
pneumatophores from the roots somewhat like those of the black mangrove
Generally it produces no prop roots, but under some circumstances whob
stands of white mangrove ten or twelve feet high may be found with pro;
roots perhaps as much as eighteen inches high. This plant sometimes cover
low spoils banks with a dense thicket.
Buttonwood is a rough-trunked tree. Not only is the dark gray bar
rough, but the trunk itself is strongly fluted or sinewy, making excellent
lodging for air pines and epiphytic orchids. Commonly the trees have greet
leaves, but there is an occasional buttonwood tree to be found on the key
ntA1in thib Pmp-rindoPc NTmtinnnl Psirlr with ciirlt hP Aur u xit u huaropnri
TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER 209
grove grows and then, on slightly higher levels, the buttonwood. The white
mangrove occurs mixed with the others. Ideally this pattern of occurrence
is clear cut, and three zones can often be observed as the shore is approach-
ed. In this order the mangroves are constantly filling in the shallows and
appearing in any new shallow area as soon as it is formed by wave and
wind action or any other means.
Since these mangroves are all tropical evergreen swamp trees, they can
be most easily distinguished by a simple examination of their leaves and
their arrangement on a branch. The following can be used as a guide.
Red mangrove-leaves occur two at a time, opposite one another on
the stem, large generally three to six inches long, smooth and thick, and
with numerous small black dots on the underside.
Black mangrove-leaves occur as above, are an inch and a half to three
inches long, and fine white hairs on the underside make the leaves nearly
White mangrove-leaves occur as above, are mostly three to four inches
long, characteristically round on both ends but often notched at tip, and
colored yellow-green above and below alike.
Buttonwood-leaves occur singly, mostly an inch and a half to four
inches long, yellow-green in color and usually with an orange midrib.
They are rather sharply pointed at both ends.
These trees are restricted to south Florida by frost and are seen in their
best development alone the Keys, in Florida Bay, in the Cape Sable region
and the Ten Thousand Islands, which last are, for the most part, red man-
grove islands. Red mangroves range at least to seventeen miles inland from
the mouths of some of the south Florida rivers. Excepting when set back
by fire, a killing low temperature, or hurricane damage, these islands and
fringes of trees continue to spread. Even in thirty to forty years a man can
see increases in land area at the expense of the sea. In some areas an accu-
mulation of mangrove peat over ten feet deep has been measured.
m mdw v
by RICHARD H. MANVILLE
T HE CRESCENT MOON had set over
ing the eastern heavens, the ran!
sailed our nostrils, borne on the gentle
sawgrass. From a distant hammock x
whoo-ah of a barred owl. Across the !
quawk of a bird in route to its feedin
heron, our guide informed us. Night h
stood on the grassy bank of the pond
illustrated by Walter B. Colebrook
the horizon, Cassiopeia was climb-
:, organic odor of glades water as-
.e breeze that soughed through the
'e heard the sonorous whoo-whoo-
swamplands came the loud, hoarse
ig grounds- a black-crowned night
ad descended upon the 'glades. We
by Royal Palm Ranger Station to
hear the introductory remarks by the park naturalist before he conducted
us on a nature excursion.
Among our twenty-eight national parks, the
v where one may participate in a nocturnal, i
i this walk, perhaps along the Gumbo Limbo
d willow-lined slough near Paradise Key, eve
Everglades is one of the
naturalist-guided field trip.
Trail and into the sawgrass
,n in the middle of winter
one may hear the croaking of frogs, the stridulations of insects,
them the melancholy, piercing wah-ree-ow of the limpkin. We
customer to thinking of birds-the owls excepted-as active by
yet here in the Everglades the black-crowned and yellow
herons, the chuck-wills-widow and in winter the whip-poor
hawk, and several species of owls are almost entirely noctt
limpkin, black-billed cuckoo, mockingbird, and others ma:
Isa 'M Is aa a 1 -Is-1 1 .12 p 6 11- VWW Al
are not ac-
, the night-
irnal; while the
y frequently be
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
to Lew Sarett's lovely tribute to "The Loon," poets have commemorated
these birds of the night. Deep in the Venezuelan jungles, with W. H. Hud-
son, we may hear "the plaintive three-syllable call of an evening bird
a nightjar common in these woods." On the rocky headlands of the Maine
coast we discover, with Mary Ellen Chase, "the plovers which sometimes
cried at night in thin, whimpering cries." Or with Captain Bligh, along the
Great Barrier Reef of Australia, we hear "all through the night the cries
of innumerable sea fowl," and daylight discloses that "one of the cays was
a place of resort for birds of the noddy kind."
It has been said that nearly all kinds of birds may occasionally sing or
call at night. Two orders of birds include forms which are regularly or al-
most entirely active by night. In the Strigiformes we find
(screech, great homed, burrowing, barred, long-eared,
owls in the Everglades
occur here also. Althoi
with their weird cries a
by day. The burrowing
quite diurnal in habits.
ers, frogmouths, potoos
group. American repres
the typical owls
region) as well as the aberrant barn owls which
ugh not true singers, the owls do typify the night
nd silent flight; some of them may even call rarely
,and short-eared owls are truly exceptional, being
The order Caprimulgiformes includes the goatsuck-
;, oilbirds, and nightjars-a predominantly tropical
;entatives are the western whip-poor-will, the south-
the eastern whip-poor-will, the pauraque, and night-
hawks. These are all normally nocturnal or at least crep
activities. Some are highly vocal, while the nighthawks are
the booming made by air passing through the primaries
uscular in their
best known for
at the end of a
they also utter a nasal peent in flight, and are sometimes active
the height of the breeding season almost any bird may be heard
ng into song during the night, as though from sheer exuberance. The
mockingbird is said to sing
pean nightingale in its vocal
its loveliest by
RICHARD H. MANVILLE
by starlight, as that of the black-billed cuckoo in the deeper woods. The
tropical wl-parrot is nocturnal in habits. Among horebirds, the snipe,
limpkin. kilkleer, and stone curew are often heard after sumoL The back
skimmer and Leach's petrel, among oceanic br, are nocturnal in habits,
and the red-ooted booby is regarded as the mea nearly s of anl sea bid
Who has no thriled to the mad, eerie cry of a loon weremad throughout
the night, or caihg an alarm before n orm?
Many other birds are known to sing by night, though only occasionally,
and more oden than not their performaae occurs aar mh~ibL Hen-
rsow's, NuttalWs whie-crowned. and the chipping and eld sparrows have
been so recorded. The twinering of a flock of chimney swift may cominue
wel into the night The flight song of he ovmbid h been -noed at 2:00
a.m,. and winner wreas are iv en to nht4e concerts. During migratory
light most birds cal, probably to help matatain the nok as a unit In
New England the calls of migrating sparrows. warble and thruhes may
often be ditingubhed in the obscurity of an autumn night Hearing a di-
tast wedge of gese, honking deeply as they n the face of a full moon,
is an experience that ow wil not soon forget.
What are the advantages of a crepacular or nocturnal life for those
few birds that have habitually adopted it? Many of the specliatlualon of
birds, especially the power of flight itself, are mnst efficient by daylight.
This efficiency must be sacrificed, to a certain extent, at night. The appar-
ent benefits achieved lie in the greater safety from enemies and in the less-
ened competition for food. But even these arreelative, for many predators
arc abroad at night, and darkness greatly restrict the amount of available
food. No tiny food, such as seed, center the diet of these bird Insect-
eaters, for example the nighthawk, capture their stood n the wing by trawl-
ing" It in numbers, aided by their enormous mouths bent with bristles at
the bao. Thes ae r even rpot of the ach k-wiUs-widow punming and
wallowing birds as lap as warhlr and sparrm The as oe other than
viwm. particularly the of hearing and sanett become acnntuaed in thea
bird. Th is is larply approp ria, sncw mda and dooe are carried
beer by the sight air a are d.i pelNd mor slowy, due o ate hea
t r ai r cmrreai.
Bt l at the cgrFeRt .-c'--_ ae to be gamd ,ha bt cs. Ntt
bWi bham a spea need r hap ye ad r thee ar dleped prini-
pally by enlarging the anterior chamber. Although only the small cornea
shows at the surface, the eyeball of an owl may be larger than that of a
This is a tight fit for the bony orbit, and the eye muscles are reduced
To compensate for the resulting lower mobility of the eyes,
the entire head is turned on the neck; some owls may thus rotate the head
through an arc of 270 or more. The question was once asked me,
true that you cannot
see an owl in the daytime?" My interrogator was con-
fused in his folklore, but the answer to his intended question is an emphat-
ic "No." They can
see more acutely by day than by night, provided only
they are not asleep. A horned owl, which was once tethered in a field by
readily detected an approaching hawk still too high to be perceived
Few structures are more complicated than the eye in higher animals,
and yet, despite its many qualifications, the basic pattern is essentially the
same in all vertebrates as it is in man.
The actual visual receptors in the
retina are of two types. The cones are relatively insensitive; they are adapt-
ed for vision in bright light (photopic) and can distinguish both white and
colored lights. Their function is to produce sharp, detailed images of forms
and to perceive colc
The rods, regarded
There may be 6,500,000 of them in a human eye.
as the newer type of receptor, are highly sensitive but
have a low resolving power; they cannot detect colors, but are adapted for
use in dim light (scotopic)
Their function is to produce colorless, hazy,
RICHARD H. MANVILLE 215
unsharp images of things observed under poor light conditions. The human
eye may contain 115,000,000 of them. Strictly nocturnal forms, birds as
well as others, tend to possess thinner retinas which have a preponderance
of rods. Cones may even be completely absent, as is true of the rods in a
few strictly diurnal species.
See how the eyes of yonder alligator reflect your flashlights so brilliantly?
Eyeshine is a feature commonly associated with nocturnal animals. It is
caused by the reflection of light from a mirror-like surface of the choroid
layer immediately behind the retina, not present in all forms. Apparently
its function is to augment the light in the eye, but it is not strictly limited to
animals of the night. Eyeshine is common in many fishes, in toads, croco-
diles, snakes, and most mammals. It is vivid in the nighthawk and the whip-
poor-will; some other nocturnal birds exhibit eyeshine, as does the diurnal
ostrich, oddly enough.
Another feature often associated with nocturnal forms is the slit pupil
of the eye, but actually it dilates to an almost perfect circle in dim light.
The slit pupil is, rather, an aid to better vision by day, especially where
rods predominate in the retina, as is typical of nocturnal animals. Slit pupils
are found in some fishes and terrestrial amphibians, in many nocturnal liz-
ards and snakes, and in a few mammals. The only bird known to possess
this feature, however, is the nocturnal black skimmer.
Our excursion was now ready to begin. The remarks of our guide have
opened our eyes to new vistas in the knowledge of birds and the remark-
able adaptations for their particular modes of life. How like human beings
they seem in their daily activities. Like most of us, they pursue their business
chiefly by day, retiring to shelter at night except for an occasional dissipa-
tion. But there are those-like the policeman on his beat, the interne at the
emergency ward, or the operator at the telephone exchange-whose normal
activities begin with the setting of the sun. We may seldom see them, but
their voices add a pleasant and romantic touch for those of us who may
ko okioA kanaumn nAic 2l nd dalwn- Across the western sky a shooting star
4 .. 4 a.
Se., I.., 9
B irdn g
Records Of '54
by WILLIAM G.
illustration by Walter B. Colebrook
ANY are the rewards which one may obtain from a day spent in the
field in a wilderness area.
In the Everglades National Park we
have a certain special attraction in the fact that much valuable and inter-
esting information about what takes place in its mysterious interior still
remains which exploration and investigation have not yet revealed. For
the amateur naturalist, however, the greatest enjoyment will be attained
by traveling afoot as much as possible and by permitting himself to be-
come attuned to the subtropical environment.
Then all the little personal
observations and discoveries make up a composite picture of a satisfying
day. And of these memories, perhaps one incident will retain a stronger
hold than all the others. It may be the first discovery of the Jamaica dog-
wood in bloom
a bobcat casually pacing the trail ahead; or a new bird
for the record. In the case of bird observation, it is the unpredictable
which so delights the amateur.
And, of course, it is largely accidental
that one happens to be in the right spot at just the proper moment to
catch a brief view of a migrant stranger or unusual visitor.
is the lure and the challenge. So I submit the following records from my
Everglades National Park
the winter and spring of 1954. Each one of these provided a bright mo-
ment in my year and a lasting pleasure in the recollection and retelling.
A winter avocef.
The little prairie slough pond on Cape Sable Prairie
two miles west of Flamingo has been a boon to bird watchers for the
was unmistakable; the buffy-pink on the head and neck was lacking, an
indication of winter plumage.
When approached too closely,
flew to an adjacent cove and resumed its activities.
During another visit to
this area with professor
January 28th, I found that what appeared to be quite the same
was still present.
We were able to watch it from a distance of something
like 30 feet.
This apparently was a single
Everglades National Park.
wintering individual in
This bird is considered a
very rare one in
Florida and previously has not been alleged to winter here.
A white-winged dove.
While driving back along the Snake Bight road
in the early afternoon of March 28th, I noticed a dove on the ground
ahead of the car. The larger size and lack of pointed tail suggested some-
thing different from either the ground dove or mourning dove.
the car promptly and got out, trying to avoid the wall of armed vege-
tation which crowds in from either side. The bird flew to a branch over
the road where it was possible for me to obtain a good view of it with
Then after several minutes it took off again and disappeared
in the shrubbery some distance down the road.
and rounded tail identified it
The white in the wings
as a white-winged dove.
The white-winged dove does not appear at all in Park Naturalist Wil-
lard E. Dilley's
1951 mimeographed checklist of the birds of the park,
and this observation of the bird in Florida is apparently one of the few
to appear in print.
A northern phalarope. On April 29th during a round to what I have
found to be strategic locations in the park, in search of spring migrants.
I naturally paid another visit to Snake Bight. The hush and warmth of
noontime contributed to the pleasing sense of solitude.
were well covered with the incoming tide.
The marl flats
The low bar east of the spoil
bank had its normal quota of black skimmers and Caspian terns.
white pelicans had taken possession of a large share of this popular nar-
trmn t cAlfn A frn?7 m ,%rhAlaA ,- ver%*li.ii.M-, ,tM. ,l 4 a_ a mA .. A1 TT ....- -_bf1 a-ifb.
WILLIAM G. ATWATER 219
species which might be readily overlooked among the others. And that's
the way it was. With field glasses I scanned a group of forty or more
"peeps" feeding about thirty yards out from the mangrove fringe. Sud-
denly I froze at attention. One of these birds had a rufous-red collar.
Above this the throat was white; the top of the head a grayish black;
the wings a mottled pinkish brown. It was noticeable that the bird was
larger than the "peeps" and stood in deeper water, at times up to the belly.
It fed by dabbling its bill beneath the surface of the water. An attempt on
my part to emerge from the wall of mangroves apparently gave the sig-
nal for alarm. At that instant the entire flock was off to another feeding
area-and only the vivid memory remained.
I am not aware of any other record of this species for south Florida.
To be privileged to observe its occurrence here in the park was as much
a surprise to me as the fact that in this particular species the female wears
the brighter color pattern ordinarily to be expected in the males of bird
species. Such finds as this provide pleasant musing for the long trip home.
Glossy ibis. It was the 6th of May. Recent showers had fallen on the
Cape Sable Prairie, and once more I found myself back at the little slough
pond mentioned above. When the season's lingering remnants of ducks
had been observed and noted down for the record, it read as follows:
16 Florida ducks, 19 blue-winged teal, and 5 shovellers. In addition there
were several coots and a dozen black-necked stilts. One pair of stilts ap-
peared greatly annoyed by my invasion and were joined in raucous cen-
suring by a small colony of boat-tailed grackles. In the midst of this
disturbance there was a sudden muffled beating of wings as eight glossy
ibis circled down to alight on a grassy edge about two hundred feet in front
of me. The slanting rays of the afternoon sun brought forth the chestnut
colored neck and bronzy wings. For several minutes they provided excel-
lent observation before moving away to another part of the slough.
Glossy ibis. as well-established by an article in the March 1953 issue of
RED MAPLE ADDED TO THE PARK LIST
park ranger Irwin C. Winte was on patrol by airboat in the area due south
of the Tamiami Ranger Station at 40-Mile Bend.
Because of exceptionally
Winte was able to reach hammocks which he had not visited
for a long time. As he cruised along a stretch three to five miles below the
Winte noticed the telltale red color, advertising the presence of
red maple, Acer rubrum. At a later date, he returned to the site and col-
elected a branch.
The clean, glabrous underside of the leaves indicated to
me that the variety was rubrum.
On other occasions,
we have made at-
tempts to find the red maple in this section of the park,
but this was the
first search to succeed.
At the most northerly point, a number of maples grew incongruously
scattered among tropical trees. At the five-mile point a lone tree was found.
Here the species is apparently struggling along in a marginal area, ill-suited
to development of the stately specimens we know in the north.
trunk is usually gnarled and twisted and less than a foot in diameter. There
is a noticeable lack of brilliant color one associated with the autumn leaves
of the red maple.
Northwest of the park, the red maple is quite common, often growing
in very wet places among cypress trees. According to information in Sar-
gent's "Manual of the Trees of North America.
" this species ranges north
into Canada as far
as latitude 49
a north-south distribution wider than
any other North American tree. As would be expected, its range in altitude
is also great,
being found from practically
sea level to 4,500 feet in the
mountains of North Carolina.
WILLARD E. DILLEY, Park Naturalist, Everglades National Park.
NATURAL HISTORY NOTE
from dark grey to light grey and white, intersected on both flanks by broad
When a pair of these animals was captured early in March of this year,
about ten miles off St. Augustine,
and placed on exhibit at Marine Studios,
, Florida, the male member drew immediate attention by the
presence of a number of unusual pinkish-white spots, irregular in shape,
distributed over different parts of its body. During two months of captivity
none of the spots underwent change of form or color, and a close exami-
nation indicated that these markings were not mere abrasions, but were
apparently caused by a lack of pigment in the affected areas.
222 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
markings were displayed prominently at the tip of both jaws, on the dorsal
fin, and at the tip of the flukes. Other, minor spots were present on the
eyelids, and an elongated spot was conspicuous posterior to the blowhole.
It is the first such phenomenon ever observed in either this or any other
species of dolphin by the personnel of Marine Studios. Even though these
markings did not improve this animal's appearance in any respect, they cer-
tainly set him apart as a unique specimen, worth reporting.
FRANK S. ESSAPIAN, Marine Studios, Marineland, Florida
A LARGE INDIGO SNAKE. The afternoon of December 28, 1953,
Dr. Joseph C. Moore and I were exploring in the northern part of Ever-
glades National Park, along the road to Seven-Mile Fire Tower. We stop-
ped at one spot to photograph the small hammocks and wide stretches of
shallow water with emergent vegetation. We spotted a dark object, with
much of itself exposed above the water, swimming at about the speed of
ordinary adult human walking gait. For a brief instant we thought it was
an alligator; it was, however, a handsome large indigo snake (Drymarchon
corais couperi). I waded beyond it and headed it back toward the road,
where it sought concealment among rocks at the edge of the roadbed.
The snake was completely docile when Dr. Moore picked it up; I pho-
tographed snake and captor on the spot '(upper left photo on facing page).
The snake-obviously a large one-was of a shiny blue-black color with
orange-brown patch on throat. It offered no resistance on being worked
into a small knapsack which, when closed, would barely hold the contents.
In this fashion the snake rode with us for the rest of the afternoon, making
no effort to get out of its tight quarters.
At Homestead that evening Dr. Moore's three small daughters took turns
holding the snake and examining it. This non-poisonofus snake is not a
constrictor, although it would coil part of its body around an object or the
person holding it. We stretched the snake out-as best we could-on the
." .. ~ ^: ." :' ... ..^
I B "*I* .l
(lower photo) at a place where it was released well within Everglades Na-
In the 1936 revised edition of Ditmars' Reptiles of the World, it is stated
) that this, the largest serpent of the eastern United States, grows
to a length of 9 feet. Curran and Kauffeld, 1937,
Snakes and Their Ways,
state (p. 106) that it attains a length of 8 feet or, in Central or South
America, even 10 feet. Schmidt and Davis, 1941,
referring to the United States portion of this snake's
Field Book of Snakes,
range, state that adults
5 feet; to Ditmars they credit the statement that the longest
recorded specimen measured
feet 9 inches-the same length as ours.
, "A Contribution to the Herpetology of Florida"
(Univ. Florida Publ.,
Biol. Sci. Ser., Vol. 3
, No. 1) stated (p. 83): "It
attains tremendous size in the hammocks between Cape Sable and Paradise
I saw a skin eleven feet in length.
The Indigo Snake occurs throughout Florida, inhabiting dry and damp
Where gopher tortoises occur, it commonly occupies their holes,
hence the name "gopher snake.
Carr states that a large specimen from
Citrus County disgorged a five-foot coach-whip snake.
The fact therefore
seems established that the indigo snake includes other snakes in its diet.
Being non-poisonous, not a constrictor, very docile, and of a large
is in demand
as a pet and for exhibition. Such is the demand for specimens
that this handsome reptile has been hunted to the point of near-extinction
in some localities in the United States portion of its range.
PALMER, New York State Museum, Albany, N. Y
Books recently donated to the Everglades Natural History Association's
library at Everglades National Park Headquarters:
"The bobwhite quail"
signed by the author. Gifl
by Herbert L. Stoddard, a limited edition copy
t of J. Floyd Monk of Miami.
illustrations by Everent Gum
CALLING ALL DETECTIVES. Are you a good detective, a Nature
detective, that is? Here is a chance to prove your skill.
When you have decided the answers to the riddles below, mail them not
later than January 1,
Pearl Staples Finn, Editor, Junior Natural
History Department, Everglades Natural History, 1
1 SW 74 Ave. Miami
44, Fla. Be sure to give your name, address and school grade. The names
of twenty of those sending the correct answers to the riddles will be pub-
lished in the Junior Department in the next issue of Everglades Natural
History, together with the correct answers.
I am a common bird in south Florida.
I am gray above, white under-
neath, with white patches on my wings and tail. I stay all year around. My
song habits give me my name. I am the state bird of Florida.
What is my
I am a plant sometimes found growing wild in the hammocks of
south Florida. I grow straight and tall,
sometimes a hundred feet tall
all my leaves at the top. My trunk is light gray, and many people who do
not know about me think my trunk is not alive, but made of something
so beautiful, many people plant me in
rows along streets and roads. I may grow in your yard.
lw es i 0 IsI4-0
What is my name?
1. m-ak -- aS fl N a a m q- FEWas L 4ae a a aaa nf l r %+ rm n -- lnne IS -m __a --
often used in buildings. Since I am
Papa cardinal sat in the top of the hedge, his red
feathers shining against the green leaves. But where were his babies whose
food calls I had heard? I watched, and in a moment, a fluttering red acaly-
pha leaf was no longer a leaf, but a young cardinal.
He was the baby of
the brood, for with fluttering wings, he stood on the ground calling loudly
for papa to bring him something to eat. The other two birds appeared, dig-
unified "teen-agers" hopping about quietly,
pecking at likely looking food
they saw in the grass. Papa swooped into the grapefruit tree, then dropped
to the ground with a huge green leaf hopper in his bill.
With a quick twist
he broke off the hopper's
head. Paying no attention to baby's
tossed the head to one teen-ager and the body to the other. Then with short
chips, he called the disappointed baby into the hedge.
There baby must
have been fed, for he was soon silent.
The two young cardinals were busy on the ground, trying to break their
food into pieces small enough to swallow.
They tossed the pieces about,
pecking and pulling with their bills and twisting their heads
as they worked. When ten minutes had passed, the hopper head was eaten,
and one young cardinal disappeared into the hedge.
But the other was
still struggling to break up the big hopper's
which was longer than
head. He retreated
as he dropped and picked up his food, and
was soon on the brown dirt under the acalypha bush.
There he stayed for
all thirty-five minutes he needed to finish his task. He seemed to know he
was safer there than on the green grass. His rusty,
blended well with the soil and the red leaves.
But papa cardinal had not left his teen-agers all alone. He flew into the
big tree and watched
then to the wires in the back yard where he sang a
bit; soon he was in the lime tree at the other side of the yard.
Then he dis-
appeared, perhaps to feed baby; but before long he was back on the wire
swinging and carrying on encouraging conversation with the young fellow
still tugging at the big hopper.
NATURAL HISTORY NOTE
The cardinal's song is a loud, cheerful whistle, something like "what
cheer, cheer, cheer"
Mama cardinal sings the
same song her mate does, something not generally true among song birds.
By practicing you can whistle the cardinal song and answer a cardinal you
hear. After you have whistled, wait and let him sing; when he stops, whistle
again. Many times cardinals will come much closer after you begin to
whistle. Perhaps he is curious to
see what sort of creature is imitating him.
Papa cardinal is a model husband and father. In spring, he flies and sings
over a certain area, and so shows his "ownership.
Here he will get his
food, and he will drive away any other male cardinal who dares trespass.
That is why we sometimes hear of a male cardinal who fights his reflection
in a window. Even if driven away, he will return to fight the intruder; and
some have killed themselves fighting the bird in the glass to protect their
While mama sits on the eggs, he stays near by, singing to her and some-
times bringing her food. When the eggs have hatched, he works very hard
to help feed the nestlings. Professor Arthur A. Allen says that after the
young have left the nest, mama cardinal lays another batch of eggs and
rloo K' vey
Aw e, sdllr .,a
papa takes full charge of the first brood. When the second family has hatch-
ed, the first young birds are able to care for themselves, and papa again
goes back to the nest to help mama.
Cardinals eat seeds, but the young are fed with insects until they are old
enough to learn to shell the seeds with their strong, heavy bills.
Cardinals do not migrate, so they will enjoy the sunflower seeds and
water you provide all year long. There are always cardinals to be seen at
Paradise Key in the Everglades National Park.
THE WEB WEAVERS. Most everyone knows that there is a spider that
gets her living by catching insects in a web. But have you ever watched one
make the web and catch the insects?
When you go outside after dark and bump your face into a sticky web
across the doorway,
I am sure the spider is no happier about it than you
are, for she must make another web.
The spider is equipped with some
glands to make silk, and other glands to make glue,
deep inside her body. Then there are organs, called spinnerets, which spin
the silk; each spider has hundreds of them.
There are other groups of spiders besides the web-weavers; the wolf spi-
ders, the jumping spiders,
crab spiders and trap-door spiders.
carefully, you will
see some of these spiders.
If you will turn on the porch light after dark, or take your flashlight with
you into the yard, you are sure to find a spider working on her big web.
Some spiders make webs in the daytime.
One evening I watched a web-weaver at work. When
web, it was already fastened to the bushes in four places
in and she was making her working platform.
I discovered her
; the spokes were
This was a wide spaced spiral
starting a few inches from the center and making three circles.
really went to work. Standing on one line of her platform, she began spin-
ning. Guiding the silk with one foot, she walked along the platform to the
When she reached the spoke,
she pressed the line onto it
^----- .- a
When she had made several rounds, I caught a little insect and dropped
it into the web.
She ran to the insect, bit it, and left it stuck in the web,
returning to her spinning. Soon I found a small moth which I tossed into
the web. But I threw the moth too hard and it tore a hole in the web
it fell to safety. Mrs. Spider took a look at the
ing. I dropped other small insects into the web
hole and went on work-
: each time she bit them
and left them for a later lunch.
In about an hour she had finished her web and spun herself a telephone
This led from the center of the web, which by now was about twelve
- F ,
Lip 'k. "
caught. She walked carefully around the beetle, and looked at it from all
Then she raised her body, aimed her spinnerets and covered the
beetle with a wide thick band of silk. Moving slightly, she sent wave after
wave of silk over the victim. But the beetle still struggled and its legs broke
through the silk almost as fast
as the spider spun it. Finally the spider
grabbed the pillow of silk and began turning it rapidly round and round,
winding the band of silk about the beetle. After completely covering her
victim, Mrs. Spider retired to her hiding place.
I returned later in the evening, to find two large holes in the web,
the smaller insects gone. Apparently the spider had made a meal from
their blood. Spider stomachs seem to have no limit to the amount they can
hold. A dinner from a large insect may swell the body of a spider to twice
And a spider may live for a long time without eating. It
is believed that the young spiders who ride on their mothers'
backs for six
months, do not eat during that time.
Knowing that spiders make new webs about every 24 hours, I went out
the next morning
see how the web had fared during the night.
was little left,
the long, two-foot guy lines between the bushes.
had been an early morning shower.
Spider silk is very strong,
as you know if you have broken a strand.
There are several kinds of silk, made by the spider according to use:
elastic silk, cocoon silk, bandage silk,
to name a few. Not all
spiders can make all kinds, but every spider can make several kinds.
Not all web-weavers make the same kind of web.
Some make a blob of
silk, some tangle criss-cross threads, while others make webs in the form
of a hammock. Some web-weavers live outdoors, but others prefer shelter.
Many people are afraid of spiders, thinking their bite is very poisonous.
There are billions of spiders,
but very rarely does one hear of someone
being bitten by a spider. Spiders are afraid of people and will hide from
CRUICKSHANK'S POCKET GUIDE TO THE BIRDS by Allan D. Cruickshank.
216 pp., 72 natural color photographs, 78 line drawings. Dodd, Mead &
Co., New York City. 1953. $2.95.
Any evaluation of this book should
be undertaken in the light of the
author's assertion that it "is intended
primarily for beginners." Therefore it
should not be compared with such
field guides as those of Peterson and
Pough, which are probably more help-
ful to advanced students of birds. In
this capacity of introducing the student
to the science of bird identification
Cruickshank's book fills a need which
has long existed.
To further this end, the major con-
tribution of this guide is the idea of
learning to recognize bird groups
(families, subfamilies, etc.). That is,
the beginner is first taught to dis-
tinguish a crane from a heron, a vireo
from a warbler, a swift from a swal-
low. This is accomplished not only by
reference to the structural differences
(at least those which can be observed
in the field), but also by the use of
copious illustrations and a discussion
of whatever habits may characterize
Once the group is identified, the
reader may find it subdivided into
smaller groups; for example, the vireos
are separated into those species which
have wing bars and those which do
not. In the former group the yellow-
throated vireo is singled out by in-
dicating in bold-faced type that it is
the "only vireo with bright-yellow
length of a museum skin.
Preceding the discussion of the
groups or families, and the species
under them, are a number of intro-
ductory sections. Perhaps the most
helpful of these are the "Visual Key"
and the discussion of "Identification."
Types pictured in the Visual Key are
grouped according to their habitat
preference or feeding habits, thus on
facing pages are "hawks and owls"
and "birds frequently seen feeding on
the wing" (depicting a goatsucker,
swift, swallow, gnatcatcher, waxwing,
warbler, flycatcher, and humming-
bird). A beginner who does not notice
the fine print at the bottom of these
pages establishing size relationships
might experience momentary difficulty
when confronted by a hummingbird
apparently larger than a screech owl.
The section on Identification com-
mendably points out that many factors
enter into this process, such as size,
color, shape, actions, flight, season of
occurrence, habitat preference, and
voice. However, the idea of "pattern
or field marks" as a factor separate
from "color" is a trifle difficult to
grasp. Identification by shape is brok-
en down into the components of build,
posture, legs, tail, bill, and head, any
one of which may sometimes be useful
in identification. In the Identification
section the author has indeed pinpoint-
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
times place species of similar color
pattern in juxtaposition (evening gros-
beak and goldfinch). With very few
exceptions, such as that of the ruby-
throated hummingbird, these are ex-
cellent examples of nature photo-
graphy. The line drawings of Don
Eckelberry's are among the finest to
be seen anywhere, despite a few cases
in which an unfortunate corduroy-like
pattern is effected (through enlarge-
ment of the originals?) on such species
as the blue-gray gnatcatcher, blue-
winged warbler, and Baltimore oriole.
On the whole, there seems no reason
to suppose that this book will not
prove tremendously useful to begin-
ners in field ornithology. The occasion-
al errors in spelling and punctuation
will in no wise impair its helpfulness.
Some may tend to criticise the de-
parture from the beaten path in the
use of certain common names, but this
reviewer takes the position that there
no longer is a beaten path. All things
considered, Florida may well take
pride in this accomplishment by two
of its newest citizens.-HENRY M.
STEVENSON, Department of Zool-
ogy, Florida State University.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAMMALS by Francois Bourliere. 363 pp.,
well illustrated with excellently chosen photographs and many charming
drawings by Paul Barruel. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 1954. $5.00.
This is a different book, a new
thing in books of natural history. Most
authors in this field have usually pre-
sented their information to the reader
in narrative form. Instead, this brilliant
young French author compares the
habits of different kinds of mammals.
In charming, simple language he de-
scribes how pacing differs from trot-
ting and explains that the brown bear,
the camel, and the giraffe normally
pace instead of trotting as most other
mammals do. Barruel's series of line
drawings illustrating these gaits, the
caterpillar-like crawl of the earless
seal, etc., add greatly to the reader's
enjoyment of acquiring this lore. In
his chapter comparing the greatly dif-
Lb U if
kinds of homes that mammals
efl z nvA& C n.4 n ait b a. e tc% n 4 is et4
items as that while a number of hip-
popotami may have their "homes"
close together in the open water of a
bend in the river, they also have in-
dividual foraging areas fanning out
from there onto the land, which each
defends against his fellow hippos and
furrows with a network of trails.
It is not the sort of book that one
reads through at a single sitting. There
is too much lore, too varied a kaleido-
scope of interests. But it is a splendid
bedside companion to have at hand to
browse. And far more than a narrative
style natural history, it is a book that
one likes to pick up and re-read in
parts, for it is packed with the world's
authentic lore about the ways of mam-
mals. Teachers who like to be able to
^ .- _-_, U _..I '_4_ -"& &,i ..-.A 1r. P,+ M lI*nn
THE SUN, THE SEA AND TOMORROW by F. G. Walton Smith and Henry
Chapin, 210 pp., Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1954. $3.50.
The great oceans, man's last major
frontier on the surface of the earth,
have received a critical analysis as a
source of food, industrial raw mater-
ials, and energy in this new book by
the authors of The Ocean River. What
the sea might be expected to contribute
to future generations of mankind is
presented in a conservative but thor-
ough manner. Charles F. Kettering
contributed a foreword.
Marine biologists have estimated
that as much as 90% of all the photo-
synthesis that occurs on the earth takes
place in the sea. This vital process that
catches and stores the sun's energy is
the sole source of coal, oil, plant
growth, and food upon which man de-
pends. When we realize that man ob-
tains over 99% of his food and vir-
tually 100% of his power from the
land, where perhaps only 10% of the
basic food and energy storing process
takes place, then we begin to compre-
hend what a vast storehouse of these
essentials is latent in the 71% of the
earth's surface covered by the sea.
But how can we get at this food
and power? What are the potentalities
of the sea? These are the questions
with which authors Smith and Chapin
are primarily concerned in their sec-
The great resurgence of the rate of
population increase since World War
II, especially in the Western Hemis-
phere, brings the spectre of starvation
ever closer to the Western World. and
out, the sea can only delay the time
of want; the ultimate solution resides
within the realm of sociology, politics,
and even theology. Effective universal
birth control may be the ultimate and
At the same time, it must be recog-
nized that the world's food problems
at the present time are not simply a
matter of production. "In the end it
often boils down to economics," the
authors point out, somewhat in con-
trast to a previous statement that ".
one of our greatest difficulties . is
to make more protein available to
man." In general, the world's fisher-
men catch as many fish as they can
sell and still make a living wage. If
there were a market for 22% more
fish, (the extent of increase said to
be possible at a recent United Nations
World Conference) or for twice as
many fish, which the authors have
good reason to believe possible, then
the fishermen would catch them.
One of the bases
opinion that the fish
could be dot
for the authors'
production of the
ibled is the fact
all the fish are
areas are about
about 7 times as much
very small proportion
e caught. The authors
the seas produce an-
about 30 times as much fish
caught. a figure that may be
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
tier." It is hardly
will ever be able
sea the nutrient
rapidly as they
sea from the lane
salts in any
In discussing food-chains they as-
sume that 10 pounds of food produces
about one pound of animal. While this
holds for our domesticated animals,
food conversion in marine invertebrate
or cold-blooded animals might be
much more efficient since they do not
use part of their food energy to main-
tain a constant body temperature, nor
do they have to use part of it to sup-
port their body weight in air on land.
Conversion of food to body weight in
the sea may be nearer to 20%.
If it is true that the sea fisheries will
stand no more increase than doubling,
then we must find a better source of
food from the sea or admit that it is of
no real importance as a source of food.
The sea fisheries now supply less than
one percent; if doubled they would
still supply less than two percent, an
amount so small ir
it would hardly bN
to cease. In terms 4
world protein, the
a somewhat better
missed if it
Cf percentage o
sea fisheries i
goal of using them directly. The prob-
lems and difficulties of this situation
are well presented.
In their discussion
of sea plants, it is
authors have failed
cent literature. Agar
of the utilization
evident that the
to review the re-
is no longer pro-
the United States because of
competition. Irish moss, on
the other hand, is utilized to the great-
est extent it ever has been notwith-
standing the implication of the state-
ment, . carrageenin used to be
made in some quantity in Massachu-
setts but production dropped from
750,000 pounds in 1898 to 116,000
pounds in 1924." Actually, nearly
three million pounds of dry Irish moss
were imported from Canada by Am-
erican manufacturers in 1946, and
about one million pounds were har-
vested in Maine that year. They also
seem to be unaware of the develop-
ment and important progress of Brit-
ain's Institute of Seaweed Research
(founded, 1944) and the fact that
algin and alginate production from the
brown seaweeds now totals about 4000
tons a year. The authors state, "In
Scotland during World War I the gov-
ernment established a Seaweed Re-
In discussing the photosynthetic ac-
tivity of the plants of the sea, the
authors point out that the plants we
refer to as "seaweeds," and the only
sea plants man has learned to use, do
not make significant contribution to
the overall productivity of the sea.
They occupy such a narrow band
along the shore that in terms of pho-
tosynthesis they are unimportant.
search Association ...
little ground at the mo
pecting much expansion
try in peacetime." It h9
1945 that the industry re<
but there is
ment for ex-
of the indus-
is been since
The Sun, the Sea and Tomnorrow,
despite its shortcomings, is a book that
should be read by everyone who has
any interest in the sea. Authors Smith
and Chanin havm made a significant
AN ALBUM OF SOUTHERN BIRDS. Photographs by Samuel A. Grimes.
xt by Alexander Sprunt, Jr. 108 pp. 101 plates. University of Texas
The photography of Samuel A.
Grimes ranks with the best of all time.
His ability to locate his subjects, his
patience and willingness to undergo
personal hardship and his obvious de-
votion to his studies are all intimately
revealed in this fine collection.
The University of Texas Press is to
be congratulated on a beautiful book.
Mr. Grimes' talents as a professional
engraver, coupled with the fact that
his own company prepared the mono-
chrome plates, have produced a vol-
ume of superior quality. The photo-
graphs are uniformly excellent.
The volume has a distinctly South-
ern slant which is emphasized by the
backgrounds. I continue to be im-
pressed with what is a general failing
in many recent volumes of this general
type. The reader would be greatly
benefitted if notes were included about
the vegetation appearing in the por-
traits. On many occasions the render-
ing of foliage is excellent much
superior to any available in botanical
All in all, I am convinced that Mr.
Grimes has made a valuable contribu-
tion with this work, and I am happy
to recommend it as a fine addition to
any bird-lover's bookshelf. J. C.
DICKINSON, JR., The Florida State
PUFFINS by R. M. Lockley. 186 pp., well illustrated with a lovely col-
ored frontispiece, many helpful photographs, and numerous, small, almost
cartoon-like drawings by Nancy Catford. The Devin-Adair Company, New
York, 1953. $4.00.
book about a subarctic bird for sub-
tropical readers, Nancy Catford's en-
gaging little illustrations snared me
into reading it to see if it might be
good enough natural history for read-
ers anywhere. We took it along on our
vacation. My wife read
to me while I drove, and
was time, I read some of
campground tables while
Mr. Lockley lets this
ahnbout nuffins. not about
;h of it
c her at
before the audience than "Frater" and
"Cula." What strange and interesting
little birds these puffins are, and how
like us in some of their social be-
havior. Mr. Lockly delights the reader
with his restrained but whimsical spec-
ulations about male-female social re-
lationships in and out of wedlock.
The mystery of the ability of the
puffin to bring back, dangling in a
neat row from its beak, ten
little fish, intrigues one. This
oarticularlv aDoreciates auth<
El LOUIS A. STIMSON continues his discussion of I
glades National Park during the different seasons of
birding having been described in the previous issue, wl
deals with birding in December, January and February
)irding in the Ever-
the year, the Fall
tile this present one
. Mr. Stimson came
to Miami in 1925 and he made his first trip to Flamingo in 1932. He has
spent 22 years studying the birds of south Florida and has kept careful
complete records of all his birding experiences. He has enjoyed many days
of birding and exploring in the area that is now the Everglades National
Park on boat, by foot, and by automobile. He has written many articles
and notes on south Florida bird life, published in Florida Naturalist and
other magazines, and has contributed many unpublished notes to other
ing with E
in the E
1931 to 1
- ark 0 I
\RD E. DILLEY, whose article "Our Three Bears" begins on
has contributed several articles and notes to this magazine deal-
iuch subjects as bird visitors, red-shoulder hawks, photography
verglades, swallow-tailed kite, lark sparrow, cormorant, green
ligo snake, and the hawk moth larvae. In this present article he
t transporting three black bears from near Jacksonville to the
s National Park.
Dilley was born in 1904 in Darlington, Pennsylvania. From
936 he worked for the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and
an engineer. Here he spent considerable time in the Pymatuning
i northwestern Pennsylvania studying the birds and wild life.
NOTBS ON AUTHORS
4[ PHILP WYLIE, In his article "My Wife Feeds Bird," vividly portays
tbe aestetim deldght and practical beneaf of b rd-conservadon = ar's
own hdro -an d the deeper human reward aJre at here and there
thrrgh Hht N ocbhe of the Wyli pcn. Th methds aunp-Y b- .i--
attive ad roduc ahrubs and rees for h r and ed le frui, main
uib varimu ftedig stat iom and keeping tk we aocced, and lkavir
a poro of bhe coppie in fin natural s=b te-e o easily preed
that th r der years o go hone and do kcwi~ c.
Mr. Wye was bon in Bewmy. M mh i et in 1902 l H father
rws a CongrcgaionaL then Presbytcrian mimissr and his munrhr a poei
owvelis and eril wier for kfiing saimta At an eary age, s
Philip evidced an incr not oy i ar p eni a id cabiitibg tomb
in fower shorn in C nnectiu, bt also in natrml history. As a Boy
Scout, e atnded camps and was iar ciedn bI6n ad mamml ife,
plants aquatic life, etc., of d e Adiond in New York State nd od be
woods and stramn of New Jersey. In 1920 he made a vfive-m th trip
trough Quebec, exploring and muppi the uknorwn wilderns and ank-
ing animal studies for the Smithsonian Institution This trip was led by
Frederick K, Vxeeland famed outdoormnn. Philip Wylie was educated at
public schools in Ohio and New Jersey and attended Princeon University.
The honorary degree of Doctor of Lettr wa conferred on him by the
University of Miami in 1952.
Philip Wylie became interested in marine biology through deep-sea
fishing, and he is on the Board of Governors of the Intrnational Gam and
Fish Aociation, and a member of the Advisory Committee of the Lemer
Marine Laborary in Bimini. He Is also ast-president of the Dude
County Cocervation Council. He has written many aays on the outdoor,
nature, natural history and ciee, published in "Natural History" and
other Ladlng perksdica He ha written see 100 rho rt ries abot te
a and aihing and he FMori da Keys, most of them published i the
Sat.day Even"i PosL as "Crunch and Des" fidn stories.
He mol his A rt ewritig (vmer) at lte a a 12 amd bhs been authr-
inL evr sce Hke saft ta e had a .clmu e rather thn a fiteray
dincan is a ndu *n physics an d pychlogy ad be allows che
Car G. Jag t ory of behavior. He bet kaowun for his amseru1
(abom 40) ansL. l 6+ knm ays on cakb ad behavior. Many of
is books bve woa fame a cd K Gea=mno $ Vipmdmr ,Nigh if mp
BVIBOLADBa NATURAL aItSlTOMY
N1I (ta aditm of wte am pos b Mi~ *Xri a la MicW),
Opir 21. WhIe Waes Caf md md Timawrm. Tha he r i bb um
M booat d dak wth dS p b dof c dm. a byp o ll JL
r I bay TAYLyn S i a A mXAm t -.t i
Ars eao m S hfruadud h pe 20 -1e (o ar k -
eomfot di mee0 aG S I SMe qo 9 1so p* a nt. At de W
e h i a bot o SBe hym a CAoes pm apthl irity
b( hl aecare to e j 14 th had i of soe B- o -
Sep~tmei d o ymvwIYSmy of Sumk Hf ow dne& oPf, eb Ul
e m a a e as IV a s
p t me Ss ha wf E d h 9-otw P Itdo atN dB a- Bra -
o tSb bbbint an wC" deabS e by TAYLt I ALEXANDER M S
arciC "rsm H.pa SW on p 20& the g, II spl~ ed
o 19amm.es whih 1 rc aprl tiely nexSM, and k ag ite wi
lamb. 11 giancr to na dl madly. Taylor AkuErT was boIn
In AkmanM mnd educed m Onmchi CoDUep ad ai Uawivty of
Chkngl HC aam Fae b tk 19Ind New Yodl stof t 1910 ifM BMl
Dpuartmt of the Url tesiut kLy MIa e is Wow charama of thi d-
pamt. N d his foe itf aSM ti o m chd ren, Bot~ and BaMiW
ELe. iv uar South Miami.
SRICHARD H. MANVILLE, whosm ardcle Btir o e Ni ght" b.SiaS
- pap 210, vided th Bvmgld. NadonS Prk d*vlq OdaPnns week&
1 953. He w19 a 3mpiud wt hb experlaa that w t w his Mst
Rkhard MaS was bmins a ThnIasi New Ykt ha 191t onahr
his wd ame, be atms mT1M eu.-fm. whos M a dWr
dy, may bu e" tyas m raps M fsnt 35 mes of3 mis-
a aSn, seun Wdh pted want cPus uMa Mar -d t..
nrashmbs my be tomd is it I f-rimeadSaabmd Wke a wim em *B,
ah aya. alamed e rgg o wofo aood ad Am. i UA
goo ofl, Sr, hs m bao.. t men" a.y da h .y
ab. rd ...am nspa qss um eafy ,ea fl
bamn h.. .ways -'. wik nup by qmb ad
NOTES ON AUTHORS
sanding pta, p t He obtained his A-B. in 1932 from Durtmooth. MA.
in 1935 frm the University of California and Ph. D. n 1947 from the
University of Mchigan. He is at pCresn teaching olohgy at Mi higan Stane
Co ye. He ha bs employed as a field btokgi at the Tribhide Mweum
at mBe Momo** In the HudEod Valey, ervd as a manmmn collector
is a brief exp.ditik to New Mexico, and has spent dhre yer on a wild-
lif survey on the shores of Lake Superior in northern Mbichip He has
spet several sumnm with National Pars at Arcada, Ghaier, hnan-
doeh, and Yoscmite. He is married to Mary Laouie Reti u of Boson and
they have two children, Abrt, 8 and Doris, 4.
S"oterestin biding records of '547 by WILLLAM G. ATWATER
beginning on page 216, coantai valuable notes oa rae bir in the Ever-
slades Natioknal Park. Mr. Atwater was born at Bayome, New Jerey in
1903. He attended public school and entered Columbia University, majr-
ing in languages, with most emphasis on Latin. He received his Masaefs
degree in 1926 and began to teach classics in public schools, From 1930
to 1942 he was a member of the staff of the Adirondack-Flrida school
for boys which held classes in the Adirondack Mountains in New York
and moved to Coconut Grove for three months during the winter term.
"As a result of this migratory movement we were privileged to have for
our back yard two extremes of environment: the borca forest wilderness,
and the semi-tropical Everglades. Under these forces a latent but strong
interest in outdoor values promptly emerged which has affected my
thoughts and activities ever since. In school I became the interpreter of the
natural surroundings-and the need was great. for most of our younger
students did not know the trailing arbutus from a sunflower. In the north
it was my pleasure to organize the trips on mountain and forest trails; and
in the south, to the glades. Those were the years when the Glades burned
freely, and the biUowing smoke rolled densely across the road, obscurig
the vision ahead, but not veiling from sight the countls brown marsh
rabbit which escaped from fire fl behind them to the comparative safety
of the od, only to be kied by paing car."
in 1942, Mr. Atwater married Vingin W. Day of Binhmtoo, N. Y.,
who was the head hoo nurse- During the war year the Atwaers were
employed in a war plant and aftr de war he maumed his thing with
the Adi dackfFla school wlkh asorty became ti Ran m School
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
with a permanent location in Cocoaut Grove. He served the school uil
June of 1953.
In commenting on south Florida, Mr. Atwater stas: "Many changes
have taken pla sin=c I lint came to Florwid One of the saddetl to obr
is that so much of our ladsmape has beeo buldzed out of existence On
the briht ide o the picture. however. we now hae the Natianma Park
which will preserve some of the original chum and teay. Became this
park is so different, it ha to be interpmed to be appreciated It bh to be
caperenced to be ked- And +machig afoot n thbe mot dirct mean d
securing lasting enjoyment"
41 Mrs. PEARL STAPLES FINN continue her Junior Natural iaNanry
Department (ee pae 225) which she began in the previ issue. Thi
time he writes about cardinals and spiders and initiate the "Qaizz." Mrs
Fim now live in Miami, but she previously lived in Evrglades City for
4 years when her husband, Rev. Finn served the church there. They came
here in 1947 and participated in the founding of the Everglades National
Park, and she has had an active interest in it ever since. She has taught in
public and private schools and is active in civic affairs and local church
C WALTER B. COLEBROOK illustrates the articles by Louis Stimson,
Richard Manville. William Atwater, and Philip Wylie. For the last article,
Walter Colcbrook spent an afternoon at the Wylie home near South Miami
drawing the birds at the various feeding stations. He was bor n Clveland.
Ohio. in 1911 but when he was seven years old his family moved to West
Palm Beach to take up permanent residence. He is a graduate of Norton
School of Art in West Palm Beach and the O'Hara Watcrcolor School.
He studied in England under Paul Eare and has taught at the O'Hara
Watercolor School in Miami, Coral Gables, and FL Lauderdal. Froa
1947 to 1953 he was an instructor at the Norton School of Art H has
conducted schools of his own during summer at Blowing Rock, Noth
Carolina. ad for the past three ye has taught a clans in art hm H=-
tead. At the present time Mr. Colebrook s teaching a cm in MaLmi
Everglades Natural History Association
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, California
FRANK E. MASLAND, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Washington, D. C.
RICHARD ARCHBOLD, Lake Placid, Florida
THOMAS C. DESMOND, Newburg, New York
THOMAS S. HODSON, Homestead, Florida
WILLIAM H. LANE, Luneburg, Massachusetts
MRS. DOROTHY B. PALMER, Fort Pierce, Florida
MARSHALL S. P. POLLARD, Coconut Grove, Florida
MRS. R. L. STEARNS, JR., Stearns, Kentucky
GEORGE N. AVERY, Marathon, Florida
MRS. ROBERT HARGIS ANDERSON, Miami, Florida
MRS. AUGUST BURGHARD, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
GEORGE A. COFFIN, Miami, Florida
FRANK C. CRAIGHEAD, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
RICHARD F. DECKERT, North Miami, Florida
MR. and MRS. HOWARD I. DOHRMAN, Coconut Grove
DR. CHARLES B. FAGER, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
MORRILL GODDARD, JR., Miami, Florida
H. JAMES GUT, Sanford, Florida
MRS. BRUCE M. HOGG, Coconut Grove, Florida
JACK and JEANNE HOLMES, Coral Gables, Florida
DR. RALPH W. JACK, Miami, Florida
MARIE CHRISTINE NORBERG, St. Petersburg, Florida
FREDERICK LAW OLMSTEAD, Palo Alto, California
BAYARD W. READ, Rye, New York
!! flflfl" C"lE fll C'C'IT t'T Ci'm.... ...._
^ IT~~m% VDpr p 0%r nWoifTtTc am.- %- i L, -a%,-'_