HIST OR Y
Conceived by C.
Goethe and Daniel B.
for VISITORS to the EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
and everyone interested in natural south Florida.
Edited by JOSEPH C. MOORE,
BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS
TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Botany Dept., Univ. Miami
ROBERT P. ALLEN, National Audubon Society, Tavermier
0 0s00 0 a*
ROLAND T. BIRD, American Museum of Natural History (ret.).
* *6 *
ARCHIE F. CARR, Ph.D., Biology Dept., Univ. Florida
* S O
Reptiles and Amphibians
H. ARLISS DENYES, Ph.D.,
Physiology Dept., Florida
... Life Processes
Ph.D., Biology Dept., Univ. Florida
0 a C g i 660
Marine Lab., Univ. Miami
... Rocks and Minerals
JOHN M. GOGGIN, Ph.D.,
& Anthr., Univ. Florida.
0 a 0 *60
R. BRUCE LEDIN, Ph.D., Subtropical Experiment
Station . ..
MCLANE, Florida Game & Freshwater Fish Comm.
E. MORTON MILLER, Ph.D., University of Miami
* 0 0060 *
e 0 g...0 0
* 0 0 5
U *U S S
* a *
HENRY M. STEVENSON, Ph.D
., Zool. Dept., Florida State Univ..
. Bird Distribution
CHARLTON W. TEBEAU, Ph.D., History Dept., Univ. Miami
* a a
0 60 a 00 a a
F. G. WOOD, JR., Marine Studios, Marineland ......
& a e m *
a 0 S 9 ac0e0
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY is published in March, June, September, and December of
each year by the Everglades Natural History Association, 205 North Krome Avenue_(m
ing address P.O. Box 275), Homestead, Florida. Individual copies are 50c each post paid
subscription is $2.00 a year. Entered as second class matter February 25, 1954, at the Post
Office at Homestead, Florida, under Act of March 3, 1897. CHECKS should be made out t
the Association and mailed to Executive Secretary Willard E. Dilley.
E verg lades
A non-profit society established ,nisr e-mnra. : mc1
I 4n utr+hflr;nteea I
SEnfPEMnrt. 1954 VoL. 2. No. 3
Cover phowraph aI hy Ralph 5. Palmer. anFPwr o, sqinrre, Deremberf
28. 1954. reaitdlfes. Flbwida.
Statui of the flmingo in Flkda
Fall hirding in ihc Natial Park
The pindands of Ihe Rim of the Everglade
The mystery whaie of V ihano Beach
The ttI thai walks on stilts
A word from the wife of a iree snailcr
Fox squirrel receptionists .
Junior Deparment .. .
Jewel% with wing . . .
Rascals in hlue
Visits from bird travelers .
Natural Himtory Notes
Color variation of a young green hern
Aep'i fable reenaced -
King Solomon's ringm ,
Land birds of Ameca -
The maffi s l guide. . -
Track of ma ,. . .
rackground Note on Auth
k RA dwr P. Alien
by Lm A- Sfimon
S, Frank N. Young
,by F. G. W'od. JI., etc-
by Floyd Monk
,rrxe) by Alfrrd L. Ridgard
by Francw. Norman Young
hv Jvoeph Curtis Moore
Sby P.Ort Srtplrx Finn
by Willard E. Pilley
y NorWlo .M. Bnn
S. y RoberV P. Ailen
by J. C. Dirin-won
by the editor
S. by tr edi~w
Sb R. rte Ledin
~ $a~ a
Comments on the Status of the
Flamingo in Florida
b y ROBERT P. A L L E N illustration by H'ater B. C4broL
T HE sTA~U s of the West Indian flamingo (Plufrniuptenrus rubber) in
Florida continues to be of interest to visitors, especially within the
area of Everglade National Park. The picture is fairly clear prior to 1931.
Shen the first Hialcah birds were introduced from Cuba. but mrnwhat
confused since that year. Today, in addition to the strong po;sibility that
individuals of this species observed in Florida Bay or elsewhere are escapes
from the growing flock at Hialeah, the recent increase in rosc;le spoon-
bills (Ajaia ajajal along the Upper Keys has been responsihle for many
erroneous reports of "flamingos" in that vicinity.
There is no positive evidence that the flamingo, in a wild statc. ever
nested in Florida or elsewhere in the continental United States, although
As regular occurrence in some numbers previous to 90)3 is well established.
i Having studied in considerable detail most known ncsling sites of this
Sspecis in the Bahamas, Cuba, Yucatan and Netherlands Antilles during
the ast three years. the writer has been impressed with the fact that none
of the suspected Florida habitats meet the usual requitemcnisl of a typical
Inamingo breeding sitc. None of the early trave.lrs and naturalists reported
a Floda colon and moet of them do not mention the flamingo at all.
U it occurred mainly "about the point of Floida. rarely as far norh as
St Augusinc." as reported b% William Bartram after his 1774 visit.
Audubon's account, published in 1839. is the first early report with any
a bto it, but it can be said at once that Audubon w1a obviously disap-
1I Md at the unexpected scarcity of flaminos in Florida. He reached the
Ci in May I832 wilh high hopes, *... for my voyagC to the Florda
'l underlakcn in a great measure for the purpose of sTudying these Ively
116 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
birds in their own beautiful islands." However, he saw only one flock
evidently not a large one, near Indian Key on May 7th, and as they woe
both shy and alert he was unable to obtain one of them as a specimen hem
which to paint At Key West he had expected to find them nuneros but
again he was disappointed. for none were in evidence, although Dr. Ben-
jamin Strobel reported that he had killed a good many, some of them a
salt pans within the Key West environs
Five years later Audubon was in London working on the final pai.nJ
for his Birds of America. Certain of his letters of that period reveal that
he had not been able to lay his hands on so much as a dried skin of
flamingo. Nor an egg, On October 4, 1837. he wrote to an unnamed hiid
(probably the Rev. John Bachman). expressing delight that an egg hd
been obtained for him. "'But." writes the already disappointed Audubol.
"when shail I see it is another affair!" He also says, "I wrote a few dys
ago to our friend Doer. Wilson 1 Not: Dr. Samuel WiLson a friend o
Bachman1. to do all in his power to forward me in Rum one or mt
Flamingoes as soon as possible ."
Later that same month Audubon wrote from London again, on October
31, 1837, not only showing his growing impatience at not receiving the
promised flamingo skins or eggs, hut giving us an interesting clue to the
value of the Dollar in those days, and disclosing how near he was to goinS
to Cuba, a visit that would have had historic results ornithologically. ". *
As to flamingoes & their eggs I fear this is up for me; and this proves tn
me now that I was a great fool not to have gone to Cuba, or sent a pertf
there expressly. It would have cost perhaps one hundred and fifty DoUlm
but what is such a sum to the assurance of the Truth being had, respectiq
this remarkable species; unfortunately rare on our coast" Then folkt
under date of December 20, 1837. a third letter on the subject,
adred to Bachman, in reply to that gentleman's answer, in which le
assured AuduEbo that be and Dr. Witson had 'comuna d with a cuert
se faring Captain, who prmi ed to exert himself in the procuring
Flmin ore in the lesh for me!" Audubom ent careful instructions
be shipping of titee specinem "by the first packet ship bound Io Land
.or it wil prove too late_-
Anoter aMn, daed December 28th says simply, ". When te
Ot)BERT P. ALL.EN
Finally, nothing having happened, Audubon wrote in utter disgust,
though not without good humor, as follows: 'London, April 14th, 1838,
My dear Bachman: Flamingoes are now very far below par indeed
it will prove a curiosity to the World of Science, when that world will
know that John Bachmna. D-D. himself, aisted by Samuel Wibso M.D.
and about one half of a hundred persons, besides have not been able to
send me even a stuffed specimen in time for my publication.-So it is
however and 1 drop the subject."
Atdubon's plate of the flamingo, which appeared along with his other
remarkabic paintings the following year, was of an aduh male sent to him,
presumably at the last minute, by Jean Chartrand, Esq., "together with
Wveral dried skins.' They had obn obtained in Cuba, probably from "keys
Io windward of Mantanzas." where the species was reported as nesting in
1837. Audubon's final statement as to the lamingo'l range was, "Rather
rare, and only during summer in the Florida Keys, and the western coast of
Florid Accidental as far as South Caroia. Constantly retidnt in Cuba."
With regard to the Florda occurrence of the flamingo, the following
points are also of interest. Gustavus Wurdemann recorded how natives of
the Upper Keys captured and killed the birds near Indian Key in August.
I857, when they were flightless as a result of molting their primaries.
There wa no further report on large numbers front that region. According
to W_ E. D. Scott, a flock of .1, or more arrived m the vicinity of
Barnes Sound in July and moved to the region of Garfield Bight in Jan-
uary. He assumed that they were post-breeding season birds from the
Bnhamas, to which they presumably returned each spring. This was in
1890, the same year that John Northrop visited a sizeable nesting site on
'he wst side of Andros iWand. not much over 100 miks to the east of
Key Largpo Northrop said that the Andros natives wee desuoymg a Iarp
number of the young lamingos each year. Successful nesting on the west
side of Andros was rare or unknown after 1890. and the last report of
large flicks in Florida Bay was that of Howe and King who saw abnlu
1.000 birds east of Cape Sable in March. 1902. Andrms may well have
be1l the so urCc of the Florida Bay flocks.
Between 1902 and 1930. that is. before the Hilcah introductions were
"ade, there are some 14 items in the ilterare concerning lamingon i
Florida Several of these report no thirds na all. while the largest number
reported, with one exception, was nine seen at the entrance to Tampa Bay
between 1911 and 1916. The exception is the 60 presumed to have been
seen in January 1910 at Cotton Key by "a native hunter." Since the number
is unusual for that date and the location is a known resort of roseate spoon-
bills, the writer suspects that these birds were not even flamingos.
There are these points with regard to the Hialeah flock that would seem
to be significant. The first group introduced in early 1931 was a shipment
of 30. All flew off the next day! Following their apparently unadvertised
escape, there was a veritable rash of flamingo reports all over south Florida,
as you would expect. A second introduction was made at Hialeah and the
birds were pinioned. The first egg hatched there July 6, 1937. Since that
date an average of 65 young birds have been reared and pinioned each
season, and the flock now numbers in excess of 735 individuals. However
--and here is the telling point-Mr. Morrow, who has been in charge of
the flock from the first, has told me that each year a number of the smaller
young are not pinioned. Each year several of these disappear. In 195a,
through an error, 50 young birds remained unpinioned. The great wonder
is that we do not see more flamingos in Florida Bay than we do! The
chances are that all, or certainly most, of those seen since 1931 are ia-
leah stock. The Andros colonies are now extinct and the Abaco colony
contained less than half the number to be seen at Hialeah, when I checked
both areas in 1952. It's too bad that Audubon couldn't have seen tlt
S. 0. S. The editor ordered only a thousand copies of "The Fire Issue
when it went to press last February Our cu.hcrihor H t was only abo.
PHE FALL MONTHS offer the ornithologist, bird student, and
scious park visitor much of interest and variety in the birds
the Everglades National Park. Over the years, during Septembe]
and November the writer has listed 156 species in the park, and
records of others. Without too much exertion a typical day's bi
produce a list of around sixty species during the fall months,
worker may add many more. If one is to spend the day in the
an interested birder will do so. one should carry lunch, water th
- - - - 7 ,
I there are
but a real
mosquito repellent, an aerosol boi
change of clothes. The tourist may
real enthusiast will surely get his
change of footwear for the return t
mb for in the car, and perhaps
stay near his car and see much,
feet wet or muddy, and should
From the park entrance on Florida Route 27 (nine miles from the turn
off U. S. Route 1 at Florida City) the old Ingraham Highway goes into
the park to Flamingo, and has a good gravel surface all the way. During
an excessively rainy season at this time of year water may be standing on
or running across the road in places from the End 0' Glades (181/ mi.)
to near West Lake Pond (25 mi.). All mileages within the park are given
from the park entrance. At the western edge of Paradise Key (3 mi.) a
road turns off to the right, going to Long Pine Key. At mileage 2 a
road turns off to the left, going to Florida Bay at Snake Bight, a little less
than two miles. At mileage 301 where the Ingraham Highway makes a
There is not space to go into descriptions of species, or field identifica-
tion marks. It is assumed that the individual either will have a working
knowledge of such matters, or will provide himself with one of the current
bird guides or other aid to the identification of birds.
The object of this
article is simply to suggest most likely places where certain species may be
found. The author assumes that the reader will be interested in birds enough
to be on the constant lookout for them. Bird names used are those approved
by the American Ornithologists'
, followed in parentheses by other
names used for the same birds in the Christmas counts, and elsewhere.
For the person who can spend only one day in the park the following
plan is suggested. Start at the Park entrance at sunrise, or as soon after as
Write down the speedometer reading, or set the trip mileage at
A few species may be noted in the first mile or two.
The marsh on
both sides of the Anhinga Trail (
Smi.) should give a view of many of
/ MI.) should give a view of many of
the wading birds. A great white heron is sometimes present. Great blue
heron, American egret, snowy egret, Louisiana
blue heron, green heron, both night herons, and both bitterns have been
recorded by the writer from this area in the fall months. Pied-billed grebes
occur rarely in September but are present in October and November.
Double-crested (Florida) cormorants are occasional. The water-turkey (an-
hinga) is usually seen at the Trail named for it.
White ibises occur in all
three months, and the wood ibis in the last two. Limpkins are often present.
The first of September brings in the blue-winged teal and flocks may some-
timunes be seen flying over the glades towards the south. Black vultures may
be present in large numbers, and turkey vultures will be in evidence all day
The Anhinga Trail bird show reaches its climax
as an attraction after the
great night roosts build up later in the winter. The purple gallinule is resi-
dent all year. The present convenience of the fine board walk leading out
IV 0 0
into the slough is a vast improvement over conditions in the late thirties
wrnKh, T 1^I AJ _A _-A Aa .,
decreasing as the fall wears on. Common yellow-throats reside in the bushes
along the Trail. Bobolinks may be passing overhead, or will be found along
Florida Bay shores at Flamingo in the first two months, as they prepare
for the long water hop ahead.
purple (Florida) grackles are usually seen in this area as well
Swamp sparrows appear in October and may be seen along the canal banks.
Other species might be seen. It was from the Anhinga
my first, and so far only,
Trail that I saw
magnolia warbler in southern Florida.
Having used up the first hour of daylight, we may well make the next
stop at the Royal Palm Ranger Station (
the lawns, pond and tree edges for any species that may be present. A
sharp lookout should be kept for the short-tailed hawk, realizing that it is
with a quick check of
rare, but sometimes seen here.
The red-shouldered hawk will make its
, and in early fall it most likely will be the insular race of
the species. Swallow-tailed kites may possibly be seen during the day in the
first part of September, my own latest date being the seventh. A barred
owl may be heard in the early hours (I have heard them call even at noon.),
or perhaps may be seen in the denser part of the hammock. Mockingbirds
and brown thrashers are resident, and soon after the first of October will be
joined by the catbird.
Eastern kingbirds migrate in large numbers in Sep-
tember, and may be quite common all along the road.
The gray kingbird
occasionally strays away from its salt-water shore and might be seen here,
and the Arkansas (western) kingbird may be seen after the first of Octo-
ber. Crested flycatchers are resident. The phoebe will come along in October
to spend the winter.
The blue-gray gnatcatcher is present and will give its
call frequently as it flits among the tree branches.
cardinal is resident.
It is always well to stop near the picnic tables at Paradise Key (
and carefully check all trees along the road and the large oaks on the north
side around the open space where formerly stood the old lodge. Short
redstart. At times in September and October the thickets may be alve
with oven-birds and both water-thrushes may be found. Other warblers are
more rare, but prothonotary, worm-eating, and black-throated green might
be seen. Carolina wren (sub-species Florida) is resident, and in October
the house wren joins it for the winter,
as may also the long-billed marsh
wren in the tall marsh grasses or cat-tails. Red-bellied woodpeckers are
common. Occasionally the large pileated woodpecker is heard or seen,
perhaps in the dead trees to the east of the road trail leading off to the
south from the picnic table area. Chuck-will's-widows might be flushed in
the dense hammock
during September and
whip-poor-will comes in to replace its cousin for the winter. Nighthawks
are moving south in September and probably will be seen coursing along
the road in the morning or late in the afternoon.
The ruby-throated hum-
mingbird is not partial to the park area, but has been recorded.
Leaving Paradise Key, it is sometimes worth while to take a few minutes
and drive to the edge of Long Pine Key.
edge of the hammock
Take the right hand road at the
going northwest a short distance, then
north, and at the next sharp left turn, where the road heads directly west,
stop in the wide space on the right where there is room to drive off the
road and park. A trail of sorts leads to the right into the pine woods. Pine
warblers are often present here, and other warblers may be. The yellow-
throated seems partial to pines. Bob-white, yellow-shafted flicker, a hair
or downy woodpecker, blue jay,
billed cuckoo, and other species already mentioned may be found in tb's
area. It is usually well to walk a short distance along the road to the Wst
and look along the edges of the open field to the south. A
excessive logging of the pine forest just prior to the establishment of the
park the red-cockaded woodpecker has disappeared from the pine woods,
but, as the trees again reach maturity, it may come back.
common years ago I have seen none for several years.
Although it wos
. IL- .16
Key, one might be seen perched on a tree limb overhanging the far side of
the canal. At mileage 11
there is an open cypress head where a pair of
barred owls may frequently be observed perched on a limb, perhaps close
to the trunk, of some tree. Crows will be in evidence along the road. Marsh
hawks may be winnowing over the prairie or marsh, and sparrow hawks
become increasingly more common after the last of September. I frequently
stop at the concrete bridge (151/ mi.) for a quick check of birds present.
Sandhill (Florida) crane have been observed between the next curves and
the mangrove-Paurotis palm area, but infrequently.
A stop at West Lake Pond (25 mi.) is increasingly interesting as the
counters) is resident and may be seen here, if not already seen in the canal
along the way. Blue-winged teal are present after the first of September.
With favorable water and food conditions a good show of ducks will be
on hand in November:
pintail, green-winged teal,
widgeon), ring-necked, lesser scaup, and possibly a redhead, canvas-back
or ruddy. Ospreys and bald eagles often appear here, or along the coastline
on Florida Bay. Rafts of American coots often blacken the water surface.
Mangrove cuckoos live in the mangroves, but rarely come out to be seen.
The yellow-billed may be much more in evidence. Surprisingly enough,
pileated woodpeckers frequently may be seen or heard from here on down.
With lunch in mind you hurry along. A Baltimore oriole or a painted
bunting might flash their brilliant colors in a quick foray across, or along,
the road. Some warblers might be seen, particularly the water-thrushes,
whose sharp call notes might cause you to stop and hunt them out. At
mileage 28.7 there is another pond which at times offers a good list of
ducks and wading birds.
Everyone stops at Coot Bay (29 mi.). The ranger, if not out on patrol,
will be glad to give information as to conditions on the Flamingo prairies,
and other places. Cold drinks can be secured at the gas station. The snack
hnr 00 -.& - A*.% #
host of cormorant, laughing gull and royal tern. In September the least
tern may be present, and the black tern should be looked for. Forster's
terns are usually present on the lower crosspieces. After the middle of
October an occasional herring gull, more ring-billed gulls and perhaps a
few Cabot's (sandwich) and Caspian terns may be found. Brown pelican
should be present and from October on white pelicans might be seen. Man-
o'war birds (magnificent frigate-bird) may be looked for sailing majestically
overhead. Red-breasted mergansers may occur off-shore,
but are more
often seen at Snake Bight. Along the shore the spotted sandpiper is a sure
bet, and you may note that some in the fall have yellowish legs, a feature
which is rarely mentioned in any guide or bird book I have seen. Other
shore birds may be seen: semi-palmated (ringed) plover,
and black-bellied plover, ruddy tumstone, and later the killdeer. Large
flocks of willet may fly past, or some may be seen feeding along the shore
with other sandpipers,-both species of yellow-legs, least and red-backed
sandpipers (the latter from October)
dowitcher, semi-palmated and west-
ern sandpipers. During September and the first week of October black-
necked stilts might have been seen along the way. Over the prairie, if not
along the road on the way down, many of the hawk tribe might be seen,
particularly after the first of October,-sharp-shinned, red-tailed, broad-
winged, pigeon, and others previously mentioned. At this time of year
mourning doves are numerous here, and ground doves may be seen along
the road, or along the Snake Bight or Bear Lake roads. After the first of
October the already present barn swallow might be joined by the bank,
rough-winged or (very rarely) cliff swallows. Purple martin may be seta
taking off over the water for the south.
Tree swallows appear about tbe
last week in October and at times tremendous flocks are seen circling i"
the air over the roadside open marsh. Savannah sparrows arrive in Septe
ber, swamp sparrows in October, and grasshopper sparrows in November
and may be flushed almost anywhere from the prairie grasses.
Going back note the mileage at the Cape Sable Ranger Station at Coot
Bay. Two miles northeast of there the Snake Bight road goes off to the
right. Snake Bight is one of the choice birding spots in the fall, but unless
the road has been cleared no one will care to chance getting scratches on
a good car. In October and November roseate spoonbills often feed there.
Large flocks of black skimmers, numbering well up into the thousands, stand
on the mud bars or fly in great ribbons overhead. On October 20, 1940 with
two boys I found two (American) avocets there, my first; and on the 23rd
I returned with a doubting wife (sure they would not stay for her to see)
and took moving pictures of eight. Having used up my film we went out
across the Flamingo prairie to Durdin's
Ditch, near which I
found two long-billed curlew, my first, and the first seen in Florida for
several years. In the fall tremendous flocks of shorebirds sometimes blacken
the sky. Large numbers of marbled godwits are sometimes present. Red-
dish egrets frequently are seen here. It seems to be a favorite place for
resting Caspian terns.
This will about complete a one day trip, although something new for
the day might be seen on the way back to the park entrance.
In early fall mosquitoes often deter one from doing much walking. How-
ever, if they are not too bad and one has a few more days to spend, an
early morning walk down either the Snake Bight Road, or the Bear Lake
Road, might be quite productive.
Another morning could be spent on Long Pine Key. Some of the rarer
birds of the park might be found. Empidonax flycatcher (probably Aca-
dian), loggerhead shrike, summer tanager, pine-woods sparrow, lark spar-
row, bluebird, brown-headed nuthatch, and other species are among the
Possibilities. At the fire tower three miles west of the Ingraham Highway a
quarry road to the north gives access to the pine woods. 1.3 miles west
of the fire tower near an old saw mill site a road trail leads off to the north-
west into the pine woods. If the trtil is left one should be constantly aware
atC aaa A
ff .-..i::.^ '..
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iff 1 2
illustrations by Walter B. Colebrook
I N THE LATTER PART of the 19th Century, the c
tiny settlement huddled at the edge of the Mi
it crept outward until today the metropolitan a
square miles of the Rim of the Everglades to the i
the original starting point. It has pushed eastwar
man-made islands, has overflowed the sandy Miam
Atlantic side, and on the west has spilled out into
the path of the growing city, providing the only
build upon, lie the subtropical pinelands of the Rir
:ity of Miami began as a
iami River. Amoeba-like
trea sprawls over mi
lorth, south, and wesi
bd into Biscayne Bay
.i Beach peninsula on
the Everglades itself.
ground high enough
or, as it is
lumber of the most
fungi. The homes of
and many more of tl
ish pine, Pin us
led with pride,
the original set
lem would still
the sinews of the growing community.
elliotii densa (formerly P. caribaea),
"Dade County pine", makes excellent
proof against termites and tropical
tiers were made largely of this wood,
be standing if they had not been re-
placed by more modern structures. The roots of the coontie, Zamia integri-
folia, so abundant in the pinelands, furnished a starch of high quality, and
starch factories producing "Florida Arrowroot" survived around Miami un-
til at least 1920. Game and fish were abundant, if not on the ridge itself, in
adjoining Everglades, and tropical fruits could be grown in abundance.
But the coming of the Florida East Coast Railway introduced a new ele-
ment intn R -.ll. n:i-. .-n .bs.%.. n n mu &rq nnac wt r nllt in inereasnfinP
Judging from old photographs, these subtropical pinelands were out-
standing. One cannot help regret the almost complete destruction of every
mature stand. Certainly they did not compare with the ponderosa pine
forests of the west, and perhaps not even with the yellow pine forests of
southern Georgia, but they were unique in the United States. Considering
their scintillating replacement, it seems rather un-American to worry about
the loss of a few pines. Centuries ago, the poet Wang Tao-hsing (c. 1550)
lamented the death of the forests in central China in timeless words:
"They chop down the trees
Cheng, Cheng (go the axes)
Sun shadows are sparse
The gibbon cries
The tiger screams near the monk's dwelling."
Let them suffice.
As you may have guessed by now, I am somewhat more than scientifi-
cally interested in these pinelands of the ridge. Occasional,
it is that the northern landscape moves me so little. The (
is transcendently beautiful with the blaze of autumn colors
y, I wonder why
: the blacks and
whites of the winter, the riots of spring blossoms, or the sultry, blue-green-
ness of summer. But then I know that I never saw all this through five
year-old eyes that never missed a beetle nor a pale green spire of palmetto
rising phoenix-like from the ashes of a pineland fire. I can still almost smell
the tantalizing odor of the fruit of the coontie as they lie split open on the
pineland floor, like bright orange-red crystals against the blackened earth.
It is hot in the pinelands, so the logical part of my brain tells me. Mites
dig into one's ankles.
The palmetto cuts and burns.
my spirit liftr
when I finally come down off the peninsula onto the Rim, and see the rem-
nants of the pinelands stretching away before me. The French say it better
than we,"C'est mon pays"- the little country of my youth.
Tur Vr,nir A TTrKTr
they extended from around Fort Lauderdale to Long Pine Key, broken only
by the transverse 'glades and occasional hammocks, travel must have been
most difficult. In the early days, the mail for Miami was carried on foot
down the beach from Fort Lauderdale or sometimes came in by boat. It
was some time before a road was opened to the north, and even Coconut
Grove was not connected with Miami by road until the early 1900's.
Today, long after the removal of most of the larger trees, the extent
second-growth pineland in some areas is still impressive.
The trees are
spread thinly over the sands or bare rocks, and the forest is open in com-
parison with the deciduous forests or even the stands of conifers of the
north. One can look oit through the pinelands for some distance in every
direction, and nowhere is the canopy so dense that it shuts out the sun. The
result is that on a hot day one can hardly find any shade, and probably
never could. Often the tree-tops are agitated by strong breezes while on the
floor of the forest scarcely any air stirs. This often gives one the impression
that he is in a sort of an oven, nicely scented, but very hot and dry.
The excessive evaporation and the rapidity with which water soaks into
the porous limerock surface, often produces conditions which approach
a semi-desert, even with a rainfall of over
inches a year! Nearly all the
plants of the pinelands are adapted to withstand periods of severe drought,
as well as periodic fires. Leaves are small, and often curl up like inverted
cups. Roots penetrate deeply into the soil, or burrow among the rocks.
Breathing pores are sunken into pits, guarded by special cells, or greatly
reduced in number to prevent excessive transpiration.
Thick cuticles with
glossy waxes are also common, and many of the broadleaved shrubs of the
pineland floor dazzle the eye with reflected light. (If you are interested in
taking photographs, use your light meter carefully. Usually the intense light
will require stopping down your camera even with color film.)
The eastern Rim of the Everglades is not, however, covered with one
uniform type of pineland. As one goes from around West Palm Beach down
tOf tha -. aT_ .t_ ..._ I d_ r .. .! -I---, -%-.1r. a PIctintrt AccnrA-
slash pine, Pinus elliotii,
probably largely replaces the south Florida slash
pine. These fragments of flatwoods are not typical, however, but differ in
many respects from these developed on the broad marine terraces of most
of peninsular Florida.
The high water table along the edges of the ridge
seems to function as does the hardpan of consolidated organic material and
iron oxides in other flatwoods areas. Since the water table fluctuates, these
marginal pinelands are alternately subjected to flooding and to drought.
The undergrowth of the flatwoods of the Rim is the principal difference
between them and the pinelands on better drained areas. Saw palmetto is
still the dominant low shrub,
heaths, and an abundance of wet-foot annuals and perennials often give a
quite different aspect to the large areas.
Where the palmettos are sparse,
flowers sometimes bloom in profusion. At other localities the heaths blos-
som over patches of the understory,
and in the fall the golden rods, wild
oats, wire-grasses, and broom-sedges produce a delightfully distinct vista.
If protected from fire the flatwoods grow up into dense wet-hammocks with
bays, cabbage palms, large tree-like saw palmettos, large wax myrtles, red
mulberries, marlberries, and other hardwoods.
Usually these hammocks
are along the margins of the ridge, and they contain many more trees of
northern affinity, such
as the red maple,
than do the hammocks farther
south on the ridge.
Running along the ridge from around West Palm Beach to the northern
part of Miami is a long strip of ancient dunes built up of the white St.
Lucie sand. On these sandy areas, which are broken into small sections
toward the south, the sand scrub has developed. Here the scrub pine,
Pinus clause, so similar to the jackpine of the north, predominates, and
with it a very characteristic group of other plants forms an understory.
The omnipresent saw palmetto is present, but rather rare, while the rose-
OUPrre, 1, m ni sa l-t-to i ra ra ;ntef
mary, Ceratiola ericoides; a heath
Xolisma ferruginea; the scrub oakS,
severe drought, and the scrub is really a sort of minor desert. The excessive
drainage through the porous sand, the high evaporation rate, and the high
daytime temperatures make it imperative for plants to have all possible
devices for conserving moisture.
The Miami River seems to be a sort of division between the two ends
of the ridge. For example, north of the river the understory of the pinelands
may include such characteristic shrubs as the runner oak, Quercus pumila;
the gopher apple; the dwarf myrtle, Cerothamnus pumila; the dwarf paw-
paws or dog apples, Pityothamnus spp.
and the huckleberry,
the tar-flower, Befaria recemosa;
Vaccinium myrsinites. South of the river Quercus
minima, which is possibly a fire-resistant form of the live oak, is commoner,
and many predominantly tropical shrubs appear or become very abundant,
such as the tetrazygia, T
bicolor; the velvet seeds, Guettarda scabra and
G. elliptica; the Christmas berry, Rhacoma ilicif/olia; and the silver palm,
To the casual visitor, however, the most conspicuous difference between
the pinelands at the north and south ends of the ridge will probably be the
difference in structure. That is, at the north end the forest is two-layered
with the lower level dominated by the saw palmetto and the
upper by the pines.
In the pinelands just east of the Everglades National
Park and on the Everglades Keys, however, the forest may be three-layered
with the lower level dominated by the saw palmettos and the upper by
pines, but with an intermediate level where the poison wood, Metopium
toxiferum; and the silver palm, Cocothrinax argentata, are prominent. Thus
the more southern pinelands reflect the more tropical nature of the region
closest to the Gulf Stream, and if it were not for the hurricanes and fires,
the region might develop in some places a high jungle with many stories
represented between the ground and the tallest tree tops.
Long ago, Dr. Henry Perrine, who was killed by the Seminoles in 1840,
remarked that in southern Florida the sterility of the soil was made up for
kI 1. L r Pem .. a M t .. .
the unfavorable seasons.
The whole association is conditioned by fire, a
heavy rainfall, high temperatures, and high evaporation rates.
If any of
these conditions should change, the vegetation would probably change too.
At present, however, the succession is definitely toward apartment houses,
hotels and snack bars.
No one has yet made a detailed study of the animals associated with
the different types of pinelands in southern Florida. Most naturalists are
more interested in prying into the affairs of the inhabitants of the hardwood
hammocks where so many tropical things occur. Nevertheless, the pin-
lands have their inhabitants, some of them as interesting as anything turned
up in other situations.
Like the plants of the pineland floor, most of the animals are in some
way adapted to drought conditions.
Many burrow deeply into the blanket
of sand where it is present, or in rocky areas into the sand-seeps which
form in solution cavities. In the northern part of the ridge, some beetles
burrow to depths of over six feet and apparently appear at the surface
only at night when the humidity is highest. The gopher tortoise, GopherUJ
polyphemus, is another famous burrower. I have dug them out at depths
of over seven feet in the Dade sands just north of Miami, and they go even
deeper where they can. In the rocky areas the tortoise burrows meander
among the rocks in such a manner that it would take dynamite to oust
their inhabitants. Along with the tortoises a whole community of other
animals go down into the burrows. Some of these have never been taken
at the surface, and the means by which they get from one burrow to another
are still unknown.
Many other animals survive by the simpler means of retreating uder
rocks or logs during dry periods, and coming out only at night or on n0)
damp days. Among these, the most remarkable to me are the winglesI
darklino bstt1p I^ *StWL -d o r .--i a4 :ALl Aavtuie
***~-,-c- C*~ 1 .~ %
.t.c, ~ C- Y4'' .fi. ~ : r j
. < '..
"Game and fish were abundant
their self-inflicted drying ovens.
. in the nearby Everglades."
If you want to see animals in the pinelands on a dry day,
over logs and rocks, prying off the bark of dead trees, or scraping away
the litter about the bases of the palmettos-a stick is suggested as a suit-
able instrument for the latter operation, not your hand. Nearly always one
can turn up a scorpion, for there are at least eight species in southern
Florida, and nearly all of them occur at times in the pinelands. Good-sized
and a few drops in the eye are not only painful, but may be dangerous. In
the scrub farther north in Florida, a form of this walking stick occurs which
has a beautiful white stripe down
are sometimes en-
countered by the thousands crossing the roads in the Ocala National Forest.
Land snails of various kinds also occur in the pinelands, mostly under
cover, of course, on dry days. Among them are operculate types, which
are rarely encountered elsewhere in the United States. Many zoo-geog-
raphers consider the presence of operculate land snails as evidence of the
great age of the area concerned, but those in south Florida probably arrived
rather late from the West Indies on drift wood or were blown across by a
In more favorable periods, such as immediately after the spring rams,
many aerial insects appear in the pinelands. Among them, the butterflies
are sometimes conspicuous.
The zebra swallowtail,
often occurs around the dwarf pawpaws on which its larvae feed-some-
times starting as little fellows by feeding on the lovely white petals and
only later proceeding to the tougher leaves. Several species of skippers are
also found along roadsides, and the attractive hairstreak, Strymon acis,
often occurs on the flowers or around the wild crotons, Croton spp. J.
Harold Matteson says that he has seen acis sip the sap of the crotons, where 1
the stems had been broken, until they were so drunk they could not fly.
Formerly Eumaeus atala florida,
the Florida blue,
was abundant and
characteristic of the pinelands. Today you are more apt to find the wooly
bear caterpillar of the moth Sierarctia echo feeding on the coontie. The
adults of this moth are white with brownish streaks along the veins of the
wings, and make a conspicuous sight when perched on the brown bark of
The larvae will eat almost anything when hungry,
found, their own brothers.
even, as I nav
habit of the wooley mar
caterpillars may have been a factor in the reduction or actual extinction
of the Florida blue on the ride.
20% in the Everglades; but, of course, animals do not stay put very well,
so such figures are rather meaningless.
Whether or not you consider them impoverished, however, the pinelands
are worth considering. The naturalist will find many things of interest, and
even in the vicinity of Miami there is usually no charge. If you want ex-
ercise, dig out one of the gopher tortoise burrows. If you are an admirer
of scenery, there are still many pleasant vistas along the roadways.
murmuring of the trade winds in the pines, the scintillation of sunlight, the
soft resinous odors, and brilliant colors combine for many into a nice
antithesis to crass commercialization.
. . the pinelands are worth considering.
4. .a small, unidentified whale had stranded
. 6 0
by F. G. WOOD, JR.,
and JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE
photographs by Frank Essapian
CURELY among the least known of all whales are those belonging to the
Sneaked whale family, the Zinhiidae. According to the records carefuY
F. G. WOOD, JR. and JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE 137
Beaked whales are all small whales. Adults of the several kinds range
in length from less than 15 feet to a maximum of about 30 feet. Although
it is at present rarely known among fishermen and others who live by the
sea, anyone may quite easily recognize a stranded whale of this family by
two strongly marked grooves in the surface of the throat which almost
meet at their forward ends and diverge posteriorly, and by the lack of a
distinct notch in the middle of the trailing edge of the tail. They are called
beaked whales because of their narrow, pointed snouts, but many other
small cetaceans have such snouts.
On July 7, 1953, word reached the Marineland Research Laboratory
that a small, unidentified whale had stranded two days previously at Vilano
Beach near St. Augustine, Florida. The senior author accompanied by
Frank Essapian and Malcom Johnson of the laboratory staff immediately
set forth to examine this animal. We found it to be a 14 foot, 9 inch
female with the two throat grooves and the notchless tail that identified it
as a member of the beaked whale family. This was exciting. We bent our
efforts toward recording information about her appearance which might
provide clues to her specific identity.
Since the little whale was a female of this family, it was quite proper
that she showed no teeth at all. We took photographs showing the profile,
blow hole, tail, and other interesting features of her external anatomy. In
color she was uniformly black on the back with light patches along the
sides and belly. A light streak extended from below the right eye to below
the dorsal fin along the lower right side. The left side of the animal was on
the sand. She had apparently been a target for .22 caliber bullets, though
whether before or after death, we could not say. Blood and oil were oozing
from a number of the holes as shown in our photographs.
As we examined the whale, some local citizens who seemed concerned
about the volume of unpleasant odor of which the decaying whale gave
promise, were shoveling out a pit beside her designed to inter the carcass
and Cfmt^_la :+, AM i qrb .AAM ^IM. ll iF, s Cnr mciirpmAnltC and decided to
Left with only our photographs and measurements as means of identify-
ing the whale to species, the authors quickly found that it was not easy.
The measurements of our mystery whale only deepened the mystery. Seek-
ing a sure and simple way to distinguish the goose-beaked whale from the
bottle-nosed whale, Hyperoodon, the British cetologist Sir Sidney Haner
proposed that the distance between the tip of the whale's snout and its
blow hole is only 10.4 to 12
.6 per cent of the animal's total length in the
goose-beaked whale, whereas in the bottle-nosed whale it is between 14.0
.0 per cent. This proposition was made upon only five specimens
of one whale and ten of the other, however, and has seldom been subjected
to further test. The measurements of the Vilano Beach whale came to 14.1
per cent, which would make it a bottle-nosed whale according to HarmdI
proposition. However, the
northern North Atlantic and is not known to descend to such warm lat-
tudes as these.
While it is fairly common on the European side of tli
Atlantic as far south as England, only two individuals have ever been
reported on the eastern coast of North America
and the southernmost d
and the notchless tail that identified it as a member of the
beaked whale family."
Sti a: N
di; WI,. ..
o~llr ". .A-P
"f . features of its external appearance in profile . .
(Small white clam shell placed on lelt eye. One throat groove faintly visible.)
these two occurrences was the shore near Tiverton, Rhode Island.
However, the Vilano Beach whale's striking similarity to photographs
of the young female of similar size from the California coast published by
Professor Carl Hubbs several years ago, and to the external appearance of a
stranded adult male of the same species previously examined by the junior
author, convince us that our Vilano Beach animal is a goose-beaked whale,
Ziphius cavirostris. These features of its external appearance in profile
agree also with what features can be distinguished in the hazy photographs
proportionally much longer beak than our similarly young female goose-
beaked whale of Vilano Beach.
Since the authors have been able to find published photographs in the
flesh, of only three individuals of goose-beaked whales, we prepared this
article to present the accompanying photographs which will enable any
of our fellow Floridians who might find a stranded whale of this species to
identify it as such. Secondarily this article will make the photographs avail-
able (at least by inter-library loan or microfilm service) to naturalists any-
where in the world that this whale may occur. It should be pointed out
that most illustrations of the goose-beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostfns, in
even the most authoritative handbooks are in error and mislead the reader
as to the actual profile appearance of the creature and the location of its
eye in relation to the corner of its mouth.
In 1915 a Mr. A. H. Bishop of the British Museum made a sketch of
an adult male goose-beaked whale stranded on the Wexford coast of Ire-
land and obtained the creature's skeleton. Sir Sidney Harmer was able to
identify the whale by its skull, of course, and when no opportunity had
provided an adequate photograph of the goose-beaked whale's appearance
in the flesh by 1927, Sir Sidney published Mr. Bishop's sketch. This sketch
then became the authoritative source as to the whale's external appearance
and for years has been copied in the best handbooks on mammals.
Our photographs as well as those published by Professor Hubbs in 1946
show that the profile of the goose-beaked whale is convex from the blow
hole almost to the tip of the beak, and that the small up-curved gape 01
the mouth does not reach even halfway from the tip of the snout to the
eye. Both of these conditions were observed by the junior author in his
examination of an adult male goose-beaked whale stranded on a reef atM
Conch Key, Florida, in 1950. The unusual distance of the eye from the'
corner of the mouth, shared by few other species of whales, is a prominent
field character which has not been previously pointed out for this spECIj
..ai I. t I a
WOOD, JR. and JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE
trailing edge of its tail, and also from the tip of its snout to everything else
it has. Either of the authors or the Director of the United States National
Museum at Washington would be very glad to try to identify your whale
for you from such measurements or photographs, or preferably both. If
you think that it might be a rare whale or an unusual record for your
section of the coast, saving the skull might be very important. From our
experience it may not be desirable to haul away the decaying head of a
five-day dead whale in the trunk of your boss's sedan, but some similarly
"People bury then without marking the place."
valiant effort should be made. Placed in some secluded swamp in shallow
water, it will lose the flesh and in a month or so, most of the odor that went
with it. The National Museum will pay express on skulls of rare whales if
you make arrangements in advance, and your whale's skull may be an
important contribution to science if sent there.
to this, though. If you have to go away from
come back for the skull some other time, take the
You can remove it with a large pocket knife, a
sure of having
nine out of ten
that a stranded
them out to se;
with an offshoi
something to s
i species of wi
whale may av
i. Sharks mutil
lg the place. TI
:e wind. Better
how. The lower jaw wil
iales. Both of us have I
ng high ti<
lower jaw with
id you will be
11 identify better than
found to our chagrin
he Coast Guard pulls
de. People bury them
and floats them away
jaw with you and be
Measurements of the Vilano Beach whale comp
fessor Hubbs' young female goose-beaked whale
F. W. True's male specimen from the New Jersey cc
himself, and the other male from Newport, Rhode
reported measurements by J. S. Scollick. True is,
one of these who measured in a straight line as we
Hubbs has applied corrections. The total length
other measurements are given in per cent of the at
Total length 177"
Tip of snout to blow hole
Tip of snout to eye
Tip of snout to origin of flipper
Tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin
Span of flukes
ared with those of Pro-
stranded in California,
Dast, which he measured
Island, for which True
unfortunately, the only
did, although Professor
is given in inches and
limal's total length.
N.J. Cal. R. I.
232" 171" 222"
The Tree That Walks On Stilts
by J. FLOYD MONK
XWHEN A VISITOR-especially one from the North-first reaches the
Everglades National Park, he is usually impressed by the vast flatness.
It is difficult to tell just what his reaction will be, but it is rarely a passive
one: either the wild freedom of the area is utterly enthralling, or it is a
complete bore. There seems to be no middle ground. In either case, the
far horizon, stretching away in unknown miles, is apt to distract the average
person from attention to details.
Only after the newness has worn off a little do the features of the land
become noticeable: the saw-grass prairies are recognized, the tropical
hammocks become familiar friends, cypress-heads and bay-heads are
acquaintances-all of them, together with the pines, palms and palmettos,
can be correlated with the visitor's past experience. He has seen prairies
before, and swamps and upland forests-of a far different kind, to be sure,
but still of a nature which permits identification with these new forms.
There is one bit of vegetation, however, which will be wholly alien-
something new under the sun to most people who hail from points north
of about the twenty-ninth parallel of latitude. This is the ever-present man-
grove, which girds the shorelines of Florida-wherever they are low and
swampy-with a tight barrier from Mosquito Inlet around to the Cedar
This is the tree which Columbus noted in his journals. He saw oysters
attached to its roots in some locations, between the tide lines, and con-
--1^~~~~~a n -k*tO ^A
These ancient fables have long since gone the way of the sea monster
and the mermaid, but the cold facts about this weird tree are strange
For example, consider those long seed-pod-like structures which may
be seen hanging like the "Indian cigars" of the Catalpa from the ends of
many of the branches. They are not seed-pods at all. Each is a waterproof
capsule which contains the long radicle of a germinated seed, ready for
further growth when proper conditions are met. Sometimes they extend
all the way to the mud,
detached from the tree; at other times they may plummet down from over-
hanging branches, dropping in proper growing position imbedded in the
soft bottom. I have seen many of these embryonic plants floating upright
in the shallows, apparently weighted precisely on their large ends so that
they do not submerge. Most authorities think that the capsules will float
until they "run aground" on the muddy bottom, when rootlets are quickly
put forth to hold them firmly in place. Then, if the soil is ri
tically any soil seems to be perfect if it is washed by the sea or by brackish
backwaters, a new tree will begin from each one, with tiny leaflets thrusting
themselves from the upper tips of the stranded plantlets.
Usually the mangrove remains as a scrubby, round-topped tree, not over
fifteen or twenty feet high, but its aerial prop roots interlace to form thickets
which are almost impassable. These arching roots, which spring outward
from the main trunk and often subsequently from each other, serve ap-
parently to anchor the trees firmly to withstand the force of the powerful
hurricanes which occasionally sweep up from the Caribbean and rip their
way through the area. The interlacing roots, together with the mangrove's
habit of growth in shallow water and on soft mud flats, make these native
jungles as nearly impenetrable as any natural growth known to man.
A by-product of this strange method of growth is somewhat unexpecteL
[lani Rflatk :, a-a, t.- -. u 4 1'i cant cvStCelS
J. FLOYD MONK 145
their own. As this detritus of centuries accumulates, along with dropped
mangrove leaves and wind-torn branches, the land surface slowly rises to
the level of the sea. Many of the "islands" which are visible in Florida Bay
and in the Keys may be of such origin, and are still submerged by some
high tides, almost their only vegetation being the hardy, salt-loving red
In this process of building new land the trees often commit suicide: to
live best their roots must apparently be washed regularly by the ebb and
flow of salt water, which is not possible when their detritus-collecting
activity raises the land above the reach even of spring tides.
In some locations, notably along the remote Shark River district of the
Park's western boundaries, this usually dwarfish tree reaches great heights.
One who ventures here may observe specimens up to eighty feet tall, while
whole forests of seventy-foot giants line the labyrinthine waterways. The
red mangrove's very habits of growth change in these forest stands: the
main stem grows tall and straight, with few branches for more than half of
its height. The arching roots may spring forth from the trunk as high as
fifteen feet or more above the ground, spreading like flying buttresses in
all directions. The crown of the tree is more "tree-like," becoming nar-
rowed instead of remaining as a domed bush.
Charles Torrey Simpson, the well-known Florida naturalist, reports
single trees of a hundred feet. Also, he writes of one particular specimen
which he saw near Shark River which grew horizontally! The growth ap-
peared to have begun at some distance from the water, and instead of
proceeding upward its top grew horizontally toward the water's edge, put-
ting down stilt-like supports as it advanced. The living portion of the tree,
when Mr. Simpson saw it, still "walked" along parallel to the ground, but
the rear end of it had been progressively dying, for a long trail of dead and
dying wood was left deserted behind it! Hence in its lifetime this tree had
walked on its roots for a considerable distance.
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
fo centuries as a source of material used in the tanning of hides, epcilly
in the production of heavy leather such as tha used for shoe solts. Whit
their isa a lmost unlimited supply of thi tannic acid available. it ha
nver be produced in commercial quantity in this country due to te
idficultieks extractkt a
Few people ever consider the mangrove a one oour flowering tree b
it doIc bear bkams during most of the year- Their pae-. grcisb-yct
petals, pered on shot branched seems a the axils of the young tam ,
go virtuay unmIatkd in the lush overall effect of the lustrous. dark gp
kfo6a They are appreciated only by the bears. which work over the i-
dusiO ly during (he koocynak-ming caon.
Fruit s also pwrducd by dth versatile tree-fruit which is odlc bat
cmronoty said It be edibtt. I do not recommend it as an addt~ a to Wm-
body's diet: whu the rugh brown skin is peeled away. the rminialg
portion is not an unpleasnt, but it is certainly rnt appeting T1e
frai am small and hard, only about an inch long, and shaped almost fe
an egg A related specie Rizophor mucrronw. of the old world IropC k
sometimOe used in the production of a light wine. The more nOtiok
"beans" which have already been mentioned are not really fruits at al, but
arc actually ew plants the result of germination white the fruit is sill
attached to the tree.
The wood which is tdugh and strong, has often been used for fuel, ad b
especially good for wharf pilings, as it is resistant to teredos and other ma-
ine worms and borers. It is an excellent cabinet wood, with an intuCtl
streaked grain pattern, capable of attaining a high polish. Although l1
toughness makes it difficult to work, it is sometimes used in the COf5**t
of boas, because its durability offsets the problem of handling.
This brief port it of e of the many factors which comtribuW m 4o
IOape whr the freshwater Erglads meet the saline inuC d
rthe s could be coninad at grater length with other peculiar and irO
ing details aung with dicsumio of similar forms aso round in *is pt
of the word There ar two other kinds of "mangroves in the Pui.
tar is apparanm but Iut even belhaig to the same family; and the M
mWd b tMnood are eily confused with Rhizophr mangk by dthe
itid B it is not the purpoW of this article to present cxhausdi Idal
cal hact IK d k is wriuc with the hope of calling attention to a
J. FLOYD MONK
wrsching member of the native S rs which oIftem p agflcted bec
of it very profsion.
I bas beae proved tdht popl arc not ioharwsd he ft a they
hoiw. uI beans obvious, tibeort, da the but way t stqukoe a atinh
pnrmo haem ha tde sm-r-t hiatoryq the BwEg is a o =Me to mowr
am sk about ut, by petmal bm m of i sa ad by i
So ar a whabwe k A abom e Eea NlmaSl Pat is oa-
Oh Bid of fet South, your sag b my sprhg
And your m==mr noe a jo in my a,
But now your aiky mate enok, for the wis
Of Tine ha brought dhe trai of anin he.
ALnta L. RUAoA
C AREFULLY scrutinizing the first few issues of Everglades Natural His-
tory, I note with surprise (and no little gratification) that there have
been only two articles about tree snails. After my years of acquaintance
with snail collectors-the mildly afflicted, the confirmed, and the really
unreconstructable snail hogs-I think it only fair to warn unsuspecting
readers that this cannot last much longer. Before the deluge of Liguus
articles arrives, let me give you a typical case history of one individual
stricken by the Liguus dementia,
so that perhaps you will be better able
to view with proper skepticism and understanding certain deceptions to
which they are prone.
When my husband and I were married, I
thought that I knew him
exceptionally well. He had dated me for several years, and in all that time
he had worked relentlessly on insects, mostly water beetles.
little dark things about a quarter of an inch long or smaller which he
fished up with a soup strainer out of roadside ditches or stagnant ponds-
not at all the sort of things to be regarded as competition. I had seen him
sit for hours crouched over his microscope identifying these little beetles,
and had even spent a considerable amount of time myself writing out ref-
erences for him when he was writing his dissertation. From this back-
ground, I think I was justified in considering him primarily an entomolol
_ _ __
than a year before we finally got a leave from the army to come home to
Miami. Our first few days were passed in sensible activities such as movies,
etc., but I noticed that he became increasingly restless. Finally, one after-
noon he said, "Let's take the bus and go down to Brickell Hammock." In
my innocence I agreed, and when I had dressed myself suitably, as I
thought, in a neat dress and my second best nylons, we set off. We rode on
busses for a strangely long time, and finally ended up by walking out far
beyond the busline. It slowly became clear to me that the visit to Brickell
Hammock had somehow got transformed into an expedition to some more
distant hammock south of Coconut Grove. This I learned later is a dis-
tinction between snail hunters and ordinary collectors. The collectors go
back again and again to the same place to get bigger and better snails, but
the hunters always want newer and different places.
So we came to the end of the sidewalk. Frank said, rather callously I
thought since I still considered myself something of a bride, "Maybe you'd
better wait here. I'll be back in a little while." Then without further ado,
he departed off across the pineland toward a green clump just barely visible
in the distance. All I could do was stand and wait. The "little while"
stretched into a full hour, while I wondered if he had fallen into a hole,
been eaten hv a nanthe.r nr annae hnmet hv another route to save time. When
he returned, he seemed honestly astonished at my pent up wrath.
This was only introduction. A few nights later he asked if I wou
to go with him to call on an old friend. The friend, it developed,
snail collector. He had a collection which seemed to me to be the
in the world. It was housed in several great mahogany cabinets whict
tically filled the living room. Somehow his wife liked snails too. Thi
my husband, accompanied by his friend, departed without even leavi
room. They opened a drawer of the cabinet, and after a few well m
"ohs" and "ahs" I was prepared to sit down and discuss other thinj
not those two. They stood for hours going over each shell in the mi
AA% *1 Cla c- a a V tlal l w1 W 0 A&0 fl nn
FRIEND: I'll bet you don't know i
HUSBAND: Let's see now. You goi
patch of hammock just south
FRIEND: (Triumphantly) Wrong!
here I found that one!
t that in Brickell Hammock in that little
of the Rickenbacker Causeway east of
It was just north of the Rickenbacker
HUSBAND: (Beaming) No! You know, I never
That same evening I somehow got roped ii
collecting expedition. By this time I had wised i
nylons and wear trousers, but not much more ti
Tamiami Trail to Pinecrest about 45 miles west c
burrowed into the wilderness of the Everglades.
:r thought of that place!
ito going on a tree sn
up enough to leave off 1
an that. We went out the
! Miami, and then literally
It seems we were headed
across a slough which was only waist deep. After getting nearly completely
wet, I decided that I might as well enjoy myself. The trail looked rugged,
but we didn't see a single snake, and my main difficulty was losing my shoes
which kept sucking off my feet in the mud.
I began to move off cautiously after my spouse, who was already plow-
ing away. Suddenly on a limb in front of my eyes appeared a tree snail-
a gaudy black thing with white blotches around the whorls. "Oh," I
screamed, "I've found one!" Frank came back, gave one look, and said,
in a tone he now uses in speaking to our five year-old, "Yes, dear, I saw
that one, but it's too small. Let's just take the big ones and leave
fellows to grow." On and on and on we went from one lysilom
the next. I stuck sticks in my eyes, my feet hurt, my back and ne(
from looking up, but we finally got back to the car. All of this mi
been very minor, but I turned out to be ultra-susceptible to E\
poison ivy and spent the next week in bed scratching. That did it!
I soon found that my husband was all right if kept a suitable
away from south Florida-.preferably about three thousand miles.
ville was not quite far enough. Once while we were there, he ma
wangle a monntpr mahnrat,, _'-^ -_- 1 -_ L....a.A tnnes
FRANCES NORMAN YOUNG 151
husband never knew why I was so enthusiastic about the offer of a job in
Indiana. I must have seemed callously indifferent to leaving friends, family,
and life-long environment. I would have done ANYTHING to get away
from Mr. Baker's shell cabinet.
When we are far away from the Everglades, even my husband can see
the idiosyncrasies of tree snail collectors himself. After a long stay away,
he once came to view the mania so objectively that he gave a paper at the
Florida Academy of Sciences on "Bulimuliditis-The Tree Snail Itch," in
which he excoriated the "snail hogs." Since he never published this it gives
me an opportunity to quote my favorite writer on the subject:
"Bulimuliditis is a peculiar disease, endemic in Southern Florida around
Miami. Technically, it can be described as an overpowering urge or desire,
loosely the itch, to obtain, possess, and secrete the beautiful tropical tree
snails of the genera Liguus and Orthalicus. Occasionally, the disease
reaches epidemic proportions among both natives and visitors, which
makes it most fortunate that the prognosis is usually favorable although
the symptoms may persist throughout the life of the individual. So far no
cure has been discovered, nor have any palliative measures been suggested.
The disease may run its course in a few weeks, or as in the case of some
such as Miami's beloved naturalist, the late Charles Torrey Simpson, may
persist well into old age.
"If one avoids psycho-analysis of the victims, it is hard to present a
logical explanation of why mere shells should have such a profound effect.
Ignoring the persistent thought that it may all be due to frustration of one
sort or another, it is true that tree snail hunting combines all the pleasures
of an Easter Egg hunt with the dangers and thills of exploration in tropical
jungles. Once started the collector is spurred on by a sense of rivalry and
possessiveness until sometimes there is no stopping. He is no longer satisfied
with a scientifically adequate sample, but must amass great series of each
form, more and bigger, more and bigger beyond all reason."
U.- 1,te% .- a-. ...-, ., .,.* - ---. _.1 A 4., ,4 L r .,T, ,I.Pmi f c J
*'! T .*-- :'*;
'I &~ISi ?.
L l^ 4
~; ..~ .C
L: .~ ?i
t r i:,
ci 3 I\:r gi.: ''
LI~ ~ ~iL~ P L
photographs by Ralph S.
HIRTY-SIX years ago while a famous naturalist was visiting the little
village of Everglades, he learned that a small, secretive fox squirrel
lived in the damp forests of black and red mangrove about the town.
sought this squirrel assiduously for many hours, anxiously hoping to collect
specimens of it to determine if it were possibly a subspecies which he could
distinguish from the kind found on the remainder of the Florida peninsula.
The squirrels eluded Arthur H.
Howell, but a Seminole boy finally located
and shot one specimen for him. It was a handsome buffy male.
had occasion to examine the stuffed skin of this colorful specimen in the
National Museum thirty years later, I found it easy to imagine how the
great naturalist must have thrilled over this beautiful animal which the
Seminole boy brought him.
sented a distinct form, but
He became convinced that this squirrel repre-
other obligations required that he leave Ever-
glades before he could contrive to obtain further specimens from there.
Nevertheless, after some study he wrote a scientific description of the one
specimen from Everglades as a representative of a distinct geographic race
of fox squirrel,
grove tree. But
Sciurus niger, named S. n.
that is about
avicennia for the black man-
as far as published knowledge of the man-
grove fox squirrel has been extended to this day.
The fire of my own personal interest in the natural history of a rather
the southeastern fox squirrel,
was set one early spring
n t L .. SC- - A- - -Tvaa i S
later when the war was over, I returned to the university reservation to
devote many months to field investigations
habits of these fox
Subsequently coming to the Everglades National Park I soon learned
that fox squirrels were even scarcer in the south end of the Florida penin-
sula than in the north of it. Some of the fragments of information that I
have collected and pieced together about the mangrove fox squirrel are
especially interesting. It gives me particular pleasure to be able to report
that there is at least one place where the mangrove fox squirrel needs not
to be considered rare. Curiously enough this is the very locality which
Arthur H. Howell visited thirty-six years ago. It thrives in the residential
area of Everglades, having become a park or city squirrel, begging peanuts
to eat and to bury as do the gray squirrels of northern cities.
This is a
unique and curious situation, and one of which the people of Everglades
have every right to be proud. Many people can tell you that the form of
fox squirrel living in the upper Mississippi Valley has thrived upon the
changes brought by man, extending its range since man's arrival, and even
commonly becoming a park squirrel in midwestern towns. This is not true
of the forms of fox squirrels which are native to the Atlantic seaboard.
Over much of their vast range from Connecticut to the southern tip of
Florida the population of fox squirrels have gradually vanished before the
rifle and axe of the white man. To my knowledge the waning races which
still inhabit parts of the Atlantic seaboard, have never adapted themselves
to the life of a town squirrel except in this unique instance in the city of
Dr. Ralph S. Palmer and the writer visited Everglades last December
28th and January 1st to observe the mangrove fox squirrels and to obtain
photographs of them. On the first occasion we had only an hour to spend
and saw only two individuals about the house of a gentle woman to whose
screen door they had learned to come to solicit peanuts. Someone had
broken ooen a frephlv falln ,te,,-.at.,, ,,t -^- .t1..n-,, ,a thp cnire ICI
JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE 155
clothesline post, a coconut palm trunk, or on the lawn.
On the next visit to Everglades we encountered five or six across the
street from the first house where a neighbor also feeds the squirrels peanuts.
During our visit the squirrels were almost continuously active. While they
did take peanuts from our hands, it appeared that they preferred to pursue
another individual who already had one. They demonstrated that their
instinct to bury excess food items in the ground was strong, and their
manner of burying the peanuts differed in no important way from that of
gray squirrels of northern city parks. Particularly amusing to a bystander
was one frequently enacted bit of behavior. Quite often just as Dr. Palmer
managed to get his camera set up and focused on a fox squirrel, the ani-
mal's curiosity seemed to become aroused, and it approached the camera
and photographer to inspect them closely, moving about too close and too
constantly for good photography. Dr. Palmer seemed too much flattered
and amused by this display of interest and confidence to lose patience with
so rare an animal.
The occurrence of a fully black phase seems especially frequent in the
"It frequently stopped to pose momentarily . on the lawn."
mangrove fox squirrel, and among the six or seven individuals that we saw,
two or three were entirely black excepting for the characteristic white of
the ear tips and muzzle, and sometimes white on the feet or toes. Other
individuals had varying amounts of black pelage.
The black cap on the
head is as regular on the mangrove fox squirrel as on other fox squirrels
of the southeastern coastal plain. Excepting for the black phase individuals
nearly all have some infusion of soft buffy or reddish orange color, usually
most noticeable on the belly. One individual was much more intensely
reddish orange on the belly than the others and was a handsome fellow
Now that the quiet little city of Everglades is to become the western
water gateway to the Everglades National Park, it seem
that visitors to the park may be greeted there in the town itself by this
handsome example of the unique south Florida wildlife that the national
park was established to preserve.
It may be important to note that the
recent inclusion of lands into the park from the Loop Road of the Tamiami
Trail to the coast and westward to the
Turner Riveu will for the first time
"The occurrence of the black phase seems especially frequent
* 0 0
sanctuary adequate to make the survival of the mangrove fox
sure. Until that land was included, no considerable portion of the
s inhabited by the mangrove fox squirrel. It was only occasionally
ng the north bank of the Lostmans River very close to what was
then the northwestern boundary of the park.
This is a curious thing. When Arthur H. Howell described this as a
squirrel new to science in 1919; he believed that it inhabited ". . the
mangrove forests of the southwest coast of Florida ... which extend prac-
tically without a break from Marco Pass to Cape Sable and around the
southern end of the peninsula to the shores of Biscayne Bay on the east
coast." Maybe it did inhabit all of this area. The naturalist Bayard Christy
reported seeing it in the mangrove forest near Cape Sable in 1928. About
the same time the former Miami naturalist Harold H. Bailey wrote that it
occurred both east and west of Paradise Key. This latter instance would
have been in the pinelands of the Rim of the Everglades, however.
The fact that in three years of fairly constant field work in the park, I
personally never saw a fox squirrel south of the Lostmans River is not
especially surprising, for usually a noisy outboard motor was pushing me
somewhere. But if they do survive in that area, it seems very strange that
almost no one else has seen them there either. I have obtained only three
specific reports of them. James Earl Moore of Miami told me of seeing two
black fox squirrels in the red mangrove near his camp on Cuthbert Lake
when he was an Aidinhnn Sncietv warden there back in 1936 or 1937.
H. H. Taylor of Home
the south side of Joe I
end in February of I
me that in his years '
birdlife as a National
squirrels south of Los
Madeira Hammock oi
l w l 4eAr V 4 FwAw % f d m V A W 'V V O M -,M , r -- ..- . . ..-W
.stead told me of seeing four or five fox squirrels on
River when he was camped there near its southeast
941. And park ranger M. Barnie Parker has told
of experience in the mangrove area protecting the
Audubon Society warden, he had only seen fox
tmans River once. This was two black ones in the
n Little Madeira Bay. These are the only definite
dra a Rt I& Wm 1w.0 .....T 4tnna uwworT rVtf
with its forward spiraling right flank. One of the most violent hurricanes of
record, it destroyed square mile upon square mile of mature mangrove
forest in the Cape Sable area, leaving nothing of any stature south of the
Little Shark River. Not only was the destruction of forest virtually absolute,
but any real recovery has been exceedingly
where many acres of the naked snags of former tree trunks have stood
desolate for nineteen years without a sign of new young trees to replace
them. However interesting these areas may be to park visitors as naturally
preserved evidence of the violence of a severe hurricane, they must look
most uninviting to a fox squirrel. Because any fox squirrels in the area at
the time of this storm may have taken refuge in cavities of tree trunks,
which in some cases survived at least as snags, it is conceivable that some
squirrels were left alive when the hurricane had passed. Even if such a
remnant survived, and some of them found enough shelter to remain in
those places where trees made a comeback, the safe and easily traveled
area of vast inter-connected mature mangrove forest was gone.
Whatever their history in the Cape Sable area, I do not believe that the
mangrove fox squirrel lives entirely in pure mangrove forest.
There is so
little variety of potential food plants in a mature mangrove forest that I
feel confident that these squirrels must inhabit such a forest only in the
vicinity of hammock vegetation, and must visit the hammocks for their
much greater variety of fruits, seeds, and buds. Since there are no Indian
mounds or beach dunes to provide the elevation necessary for hammock
growth in the great Shark River mangrove forest, I suspect that this ex-
plains the somewhat startling absence of the mangrove fox squirrel from
that outstanding example of mangrove forest growth.
From the Lostmans River area, as I have hinted above, there are a few
reports of these squirrels. James Earl Moore saw a black fox squirrel on
Onion Key in the headwaters of Lostmans River in 1939. While stationed
at the Patrol Station at the mouth of Lostmans River for the last three or
. instinct to bury excess food in the ground was strong
0 & a
bank of the river about 31/2 miles up from the mouth. He mentioned that
he had glimpsed these squirrels twice before but had not been sure enough
about what they were to report it. Three days later he recorded seeing two
an indigo snake which lay upon the
trees. He said that the squirrels wo
barking and running up and down t
took park naturalist Willard E. Dilley
on the Loop Road nine miles west of
squirrel nests. It was the last day ol
finding young, we climbed to four of tt
at heights varying from twenty to for
large clusters of bromeliads. Some Spa
d in an open
e trunks. Ra:
he writer into
place under the
into a frenzy,
er Winte once
ie Big Cypress
40-Mile Bend to show us some fox
f March in 1949, and in hopes of
ie nests. They were built in cypresses
ty feet, two of them on the tops of
nish moss and considerable shredded
cypress bark provided lining in each of them. But there were no young,
and in fact none of the nests appeared to have been used very recently.
In the Big Cypress small patches of sunny pineland are interspersed
among the numerous scattered cypress ponds and domes and the occa-
sional large cypress strands. Two staple foods of the fox squirrel abound
here in season, the seeds from the pine cones and cypress balls. Many
other fruits, seeds and buds are available to fox squirrels from the great
variety of plants growing in the pinelands, swamps, and hammocks. For-
merly the great, old cypresses with their elevated hanging gardens of
Spanish moss and other air plants provided fox squirrels ample refuge from
hunters to sustain their numbers quite well. Now the last of the large
cypresses dwindle before persistent loggers, and one wonders whether
hunters equipped with swamp buggies may not multiply faster than the
squirrels themselves. Were it not for the recent inclusion of a little of the
Big Cypress area in the Everglades National Park, the outlook for the
mangrove fox squirrel may have been rather dark.
A r O
When you are searching
for a Christmas gift for that discriminating
jw9m 46 wwm wj6 wl
EWELS WITH WINGS.
The ruby-throated hummingbird sat on the
J wire outside the window and scratched his ear with one foot. I looked
again. This was the first time I had ever seen a hummingbird scratch his
ear, and I hurried for my field glasses. He carefully preened his feathers;
then being hungry,
dropped down to the red flowers in the turk's cap hibis-
cus hedge. He flew from blossom to blossom,
trying to get the nectar from
the tightly closed flowers. He seemed very puzzled and flew back to the
wire, combing his feathers as he waited for the flowers to open. In about
ten minutes he tried again. Still not open, so he went back to the wire and
waited. After a while, he hopefully tried a third time, before he gave up
and flew off to find a flower cafeteria that was open for breakfast.
Next morning, there was the hummingbird around the turk's caps again.
After hunting vainly for opened flowers, he stuck his long bill through the
tightly rolled petals at the base of the flower and found some nectar. He
got his breakfast from several flowers, then sat on the wire and again
scratched his ear.
On the following morning, two friends had joined him at the turk's caps
This was the beginning of a fine friendship, for the three
spent the winter in our yard. In return for food from my red hibiscus,
_ ___ _
Then down came the other female and sat between them. As soon as all
three were sitting on the wire, one, not always the male, flew to another
perch on the wire, and the others followed
They would do this
three or four times, and then fly away
as if they were tired of their game.
Hummingbirds will not stop at the feeder you have for other birds. They
sip the bit of sweetened water at the bottom of the flowers with their long
tube like tongues which they can thrust out beyond the end of their bills.
They also like to eat small insects.
If you would have hummingbirds in your yard, plant the red flowers
which they like. If you do not wish to wait for the red flowers to bloom,
make feeders by painting the outside of tiny bottles red. Fill them with thin
sugar water and hang them where both you and the hummingbirds can
them. If there are any near by, they will soon visit your feeders. Of course
the bees and the ants will find the bottles too
, and you will need to fill
them every day, using a medicine dropper or a larger bottle.
If you listen very carefully,
you may hear the humming bird make a
shrill, high sound, different from the humming it makes with its wings.
Many people believe that hummingbirds have a song which is too high for
human ears to hear.
Some people have believed that hummingbirds only look as if they fly
backwards away from a flower, but if you will look in the book,
Birds With A Color Camera" by Arthur A. Allen (National Geographic
Society) you will find a picture taken by "strobe"
hummer flies backwards.
light showing how a
There are many other pictures, some in color,
of hummingbirds in this book
as interesting stories about them.
I am sure you will not stop looking at the book when you have finished
the hummingbird pictures
for it is filled with pictures and stories, of every
sort of bird found in the United States.
I I/fl NE
U/ Aft '. -. --- 1 -1 1 --b 0-
RASCALS IN BLUE.
If you would like to learn to know a bird with
many interesting ways, watch the jay.
The blue jay likes the places where people live and often nests near our
Being a large bird with showy blue in his feathers and a crest on
his head, he is not hard to name.
His calls are usually rather harsh, but he
has a pretty song which you may hear early in the spring. By listening
carefully you may hear some familiar jay-like notes in the song, and know
a blue jay is singing.
The surest way to know his song is to watch him
Five blue jays came into our yard last summer, when the three young
birds were not yet able to care for themselves.
summer. One day I heard a queer noise, son
The young ones stayed all
iething which began like a
whisper and ended in a squeak. I finally saw a young blue jay sitting in the
bottom of the hedge. First a whisper came from his open bill; then pushing
his whole body forward, he succeeded in making a squeak. He tried again
and again, until he made a squeaky whole jay call.
This pleased him so
much that he flew to the top of the hedge and called and called, showing
the world that here was a real, grown-up blue jay.
Boys are not the only
creatures that are troubled with changing voices as they grow up.
One of these young jays had its own special bathing habits. Perhaps I
should say "she" for this bird was very fussy about its bath. First it flew
down to the bird bath, and walked all around it looking into the water.
Then it stepped into the water, dipped only its head several times and flew
into a nearby tree, combing its head carefully. In a few minutes it came
a walked all arnulnd the hath anoain_ steoned in and splashed water
164 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
Should you live in one of the sand hill sections of Florida, which are
called "scrub" because of the small scrub oak and scrub pine trees which
grow there, you will know two kinds of jays, the blue jay and the Florida
jay. The Florida jay has no crest and its wings and tail are solid blue. It
is easily tamed and will learn to take food from your hand, will light on
your head and shoulders, and be a most enjoyable friend.
Last spring, a friend was showing us the grounds of his place at Lake
Placid, when he held up his hand and a Florida jay lighted upon it. When
he began searching his pockets for food, the jay fluttered about him as if
it wanted to help search. In less time than it takes to tell it, another jay
came from nowhere, and lighted on my friend's shoulder. This jay peered
down and followed the motions of the searching hands with its head. When
no food came from the pockets the first jay flew to the man's head where
it sat, waiting for the tid bit it knew would come.
The gentleman finally picked a kumquat, cut it in two pieces which he
held out in his hand saying, "They won't like this." They didn't like it. One
carried a piece to the corner of a slat house nearby, and holding it down
with one foot, tried to tear it with his bill. He was not very successful and
soon gave up. I picked up the piece, broke it up and held the bits out in
my hand. Instantly, both birds snatched a piece but soon dropped them.
They followed us for several minutes, darting about us and scolding US
soundly in jay language for not feeding them.
Birds need cover or shelter as well as food and water. A variety of hedges
or thick shrubs give the birds the shelter they need.
Until you get a real bird bath you might use a pan filled with water and
set it up off the ground. Put the bath out in the open where you can see it
without disturbing the birds; and far enough from shrubs so no cat cal
bother them while they are bathing. It may take several days for the birds
to get used to the bath, but when they do you will enjoy watching them.
VISITS FROM BIRD TRAVELERS. Do you know someone who goes
north for the summer? Or perhaps you go to the mountains with your
parents each year.
Wild ducks go north for the summer and come back for the winter
every year. This is called migration. There are regular routes or flyways
which birds follow. Here in South Florida we are fortunate in being on one
of these great bird highways, and one can see many kinds of migrating
birds on their travels north or south. People in some parts of the United
States are not so fortunate as to live on a bird flyway.
Why wild ducks and many other birds migrate is a question which has
never been completely answered. Some people have thought it was be-
cause of food, some because of the change of temperatures and others
because of the length of days. We do know that it is an instinct of the birds.
Swallows and many other birds from the northern and eastern parts of
our country pass through south Florida on their way to the West Indies,
Mexico, Central and South America, in September, October and November.
You may have awakened some bright fall morning to find a flock of lovely
redstarts in your yard. They are there because many migrating birds fly at
night and rest and feed in the daytime. If food and water are easily found,
with trees and shrubs near by, the flock may rest several days or a week in
Many migratory birds often rested in the trees and shrubs in our roomy
yard at Everglades City. The American redstarts would awaken me early
in the mornin with their conversation, as the flock settled in the hedge
outside the bedroom window. They often flitted about the yard like orange
166 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
for the unbelievably gay red, green and blue of the painted buntings to
appear on the bougainvillea bushes beneath the dining room window. The
buntings seldom stayed more than two days, but those were happy days for
Migrating birds need a place to drink and bathe as much as they need
food. The songbirds will enjoy your feeding station more if you provide
water for them. One time when a large flock of robins stopped in our yard,
I turned on the lawn sprinkler. A dozen birds at a time drank and bathed
under the spray; and when the water had made a little pool near by, all
the robins played from pool to hose and back again.
You might like to start a bird diary. A small notebook or composition
book will do. First write the date, then the name of the bird, and then
where you saw it. If you do not know the name of the bird, or cannot look
it up at the moment; write down enough description so you can find its
name later and write that in your diary. If migrating orioles are visiting
your yard note down how long they stayed, how large the flock seemed to
be, and any special or interesting things they do. When they stop again,
you can tell if they are earlier or later than the year before.
Many kinds of birds usually migrate in flocks, a whole group of one
kind starting out together and stopping together. You may see a migrating
flock from the north of the same kind of birds as live here all the year.
This is often true of red-winged black birds for instance. It sometimes
happens that one kind of bird spends the summers here and migrates
farther south for the winter. By watching carefully, you may be able to
tell if this happens in your neighborhood.
In the summer in the Everglades National Park you can see the white
crowned pigeons and swallow-tailed kites which come up from the tropics
to nest here; and in the winter you can see the wood ibis which come here
from the north to nest. There are many strange and interesting things
Natural History Notes
COLOR VARIATION IN A BROOD OF YOUNG GREEN HERONS.
On May 27, 1954, I was in the vicinity of Seven-mile tower looking for
various photographic subjects, especially nesting birds. Near the end of a
short airboat run seasonal ranger Fred Devenport and I observed two
green heron nests where the airboat trail breaks through the willows into
the open tower moat.
Both nests were on the lower branches of the willows, no more than
two feet above the water surface. Each nest contained young, about half
grown. Fred cut off the engine while I maneuvered the bow in close to
a nest for a picture. This nest contained four young, well covered with
natal down. Three of the birds were of normal color, being dark grey
with dark bills. The fourth was a much lighter grey with a light yellow bill.
The color transparency secured, very nicely shows the color differences.
I had not previously noticed any such color variation in the young of
the green heron. Nevertheless, it may not be a rare occurrence. It is of
interest, however, in that the bird concerned is a member of the heron
family which in many species exhibits dichromatism in the adult.
WILLARD E. DILLEY, Park Naturalist, Everglades National Park
AESOP'S FABLE REENACTED. On May 12, 1953, over Little Black-
water Sound I casually observed two man-o'-war birds soaring and one
diving at the other at about fifty feet above the water. Closer observation
revealed that one of them was carrying a freshly caught fish in his talons,
which was apparently the cause of their antics. This diving and swooping
continued for several minutes with the birds coming closer and closer to
the surface of the water. At last, apparently tiring of the battle, the man-
o'-war bird in possession of the fish droooed his prey. This, however, was
KING SOLOMON'S RING by Konrad Z. Lorenz, 202 pp., many marginal
drawings by the author. Foreword by Julian Huxley. Thomas Y. Crowell,
New York, 1952.
Back in those innocent pre-World
War II, pre-Atomic Age, pre-a-lot-of-
other-things days, when all we had to
worry about was a Depression, there
was a remarkable burst of interest
tributional notes of
now had something
their teeth into. BL
or another, the drafi
worthwhile to put
it for one reason
t and the war that
in part, interest
among U. S. ornithologists
tific studies of bird behavior.
portant reason for this was
by the author of the prese
setting forth his so-called
doctrine" regarding devices
production of stimuli. The
title, Der Kumpan in der Umwelt des
Vogels (1935), was translated as The
Companion in the Bird's World and,
through the discernment and energy of
the late Francis H. Herrick, appeared
in abbreviated form in The Auk for
July, 1937. This was the same year
that saw the publication of Margaret
Nice's song sparrow study, and during
the two or three years that followed,
Fraser Darling published his notable
paper on bird flocks, G. K. Noble and
his associates their experimental work
with night herons and Niko Tinbergen,
* -o ee -I % M
In Holland, his
study of the sn
with Lorenz in
visited this coun
sional alike, fou
talking um;th ,kk
ow bunting. In 1938,
try and I suppose that
mildly interested in
amateur and profes-
nd an opportunity for
d to wane. One difficulty
been the old complaint o
ur that the tools of the 1
speak, in this case the i
I words and phraseology,
an ever changing and
baffling labyrinth thro
which no non-pro, who
watching for fun, would
ramble. Meanwhile, bird
dies have tU
irived in Europe, especially
and Holland, but remain
the intellectual storms here
If one of the tools we need is a
primer, then in large measure, here
it is in this popular volume by the
author of Der Kumpan. Actually,
however, this is nothing so bald or
factual as a primer in the usual sense.
It is instead an inspiring and vivid in-
troduction to the basic principles of
the study of animals on their own
terms and within the limits of their
own specific worlds. It is readable,
highly amusing, even uproafous at
times, yet its scientific equilibrium is
never in question. The day that Dr.
Lorenz decided to write this book
_ __ _
interfering with his photography of a
similar flock of greylag geese. He
heard his assistant say, in an irritated
tone, "Rangangangang, rangangang-
ang oh, sorry, I mean quahg,
gegegegegege, quahg, gegegegege!"
Lorenz roused himself, laughing. For
Seitz, who had wanted to call the mal-
lards, had addressed them, by mistake,
in greylag language! Here was the idea
for King Solomon's Ring. The title,
by the way, refers to Rudyard Kip-
There was never a king like
Not since the world began
Yet Solomon talked to a butterfly
As a man would talk to a man.
Lorenz, who terms this legend "very
probably the oldest record of a bio-
logical lecture," says that he is quite
ready to believe that King Solomon
could talk the language of animals,
even without the help of the magic
ring that is a part of the yarn, for
Lorenz has learned the secret him-
This is a fascinating book and you
will probably read it at one sitting and
wish there were more. And, inciden-
tally, you may find yourself calling
for the author's scientific papers next.
Who knows? ROBERT P. ALLEN,
National Audubon Society, Tavernier.
LAND BIRDS OF AMERICA by R. C. Murphy and Dean Amadon, 240 pp.,
221 plates, McGraw-Hill, New York. $12.50.
This is an elaborately put-together
volume. It is one of pleasing format,
excellent typography, and no doubt
superior engraving and printing. I am
sure that it will be welcomed as an
addition to any bird-lover's bookshelf.
The authors intimate that these
efforts of the best bird photographers
of today shame the works of modern-
(lay bird painters. Their further refer-
ence to the portraits of Fuertes, Peter-
son, Sutton and others as "imitation
Audubons" seems unwarranted.
It appears that the photographs in
this work are to be viewed as a new
approach. In at least one respect they
are. Audubon and other bird painters
had at least one good attribute in
common--they threw away their mis-
takes. To state, as the authors do. that
ning in their clarity and beauty-the
prairie falcon, yellow-billed cuckoo,
Florida jay, prothonotary warbler and
the spotted towhee strike me as good
examples of fine bird portraiture. The
white-crowned sparrow in flight, Fig.
212, is glorious as a pastel study of
flight. Others, however, would be
better kept in the photographer's files
as examples of mistakes. Our impres-
sions of color are sometimes elusive.
We are inclined to translate a black
bird as being black, regardless of fil-
tered or reflected lights. This is no ex-
cuse for reproduction, without ex-
planation, of a red-eyed towhee with
a blue back, particularly when the
facing plate presents a spotted tow-
hee in good color. Other examples of
this are found in the bluish-black bald
ling, the bluebird and the California
thrasher. The volume would have lost
nothing of its appeal had these been
The text material is informative and
interesting. Sections of the book deal
with: Paintings of Birds, Color Photo-
graphy, Birds and Man, Bird Names,
the Fate of American Birds, the In-
troduction of Foreign Birds, and the
Observation and Study of Birds.
It is always easy to make helpful
suggestions after a book appears. How-
ever, the authors could well have
taken a hint from Audubon in one
respect. In many cases, foliage plays
an important part in the portraits. This
book would increase in value tremen-
dously if plant identities were indi-
cated in an appendix.
This handsome volume, while fall-
ing short of its objective in some re
aspects, is, on the whole, a beautiful
addition to the record of American
ornithology. J. C. DICKINSON,
JR., Florida State Museum, Gaines-
THE MAMMAL GUIDE by Ralph S. Palmer. 384 pp., 37 line drawings,
145 maps, and full color paintings of 182 species by the author. Double-
day and Co., Inc., Garden City, N. Y. August, 1954. $4.95.
Readers of this issue of Everglades
Natural History have in their hands
examples of the fastidious perfection-
ism and charm that Dr. Ralph S.
Palmer incorporates into his work, for
Dr. Palmer did our cover photograph
and also the photographs with the fox
squirrel article in this issue.
Not since 1928 has an author put
in the hands of the amateur naturalist
such a volume as this to help him to
know the mammals of our continent.
Indefatigably this author has sifted the
great store of diffused knowledge that
North American mammalogists have
published since that time, and faith-
fully he has assembled the important
and intriguing items into an orderly
store of easily understood lore. If your
neighbor claims to have caught a fly-
ing squirrel, you can glance at the
spread. Back in the written account a
word description supports the illustra-
tion and just about anything you can
ask about the known natural history of
the little creature is packed into the
two pages of simply stated lore.
Each kind of mammal is dealt with
in this fashion: our opossum, raccoon,
manatee, otter, fox, deer, rabbits, and
the many kinds of rats, mice, moles,
shrews, etc. It will be a particular de-
light to have this guide on a summer
vacation tour of the western national
parks where with it one can not oly
identify the big game but know t
types of places in which they will
occur. What pleasure in rambling the
west to be able to learn the marmOts,
pikas, prairie dogs, jack rabbits, groomd
squirrels, tree squirrels, and chi
munks. and from the same guide boO
work that will t
for many years.
zoologist for the
and one of his cu
ing as editor in
ume work on Nc
'The mammal g
the same care t.
Palmer's more .
a scholarly piece of
)e unsurpassed there
He is now the state
State of New York,
rrent projects is serv-
preparing a five-vol-
)rth American birds.
;uide" benefits from
iat characterizes Dr.
scholarly work, but
benefits also from the traits which en-
able the author when among friends
to have always on hand a store of
good jokes and an inexhaustible supply
of humorous verse.
If you can afford to own any book
on our North American mammals, and
want the most for your money, "The
nlammal guide" should be your first
THE TRACK OF MAN by Henry Field, 448 pp., 28 photos, map. Double-
day & Co., Garden City, New York, 1953. $6.50.
This is the stimulating biography of
an American who after devoting the
vigorous years of his life to investi-
gations in the dangerous deserts of the
Middle East, has come now to live
among us here in south Florida. Born
into a wealthy influential Chicago
family, and growing up as the stepson
of a fine English gentleman of Leices-
tershire who sent him to school at
Eton and Oxford, the a
tessional life as an anthropolo-
th influential and wealthy
in both Europe and America.
is something rather delightful
reviewer about a man of such
talents, and connections de-
his life t
o this usually discour-
perilous search in the
'r clues to the knowl-
edge of ancient man. While some may
wonder if this presentation could not
have been made more modest in some
details, the scope and pace of the
author's toils, discoveries and accom-
plishments lead one inexorably through
his absorbing tale of life. One finishes
manuscript was cut to one-quarter of
its original length to make this book.
Occasionally the reader is conscious
when he me
no doubt from this severe
to this, also, one may
ibute an example or two
suspense. For example,
early confides that the
, very feminine" Miss
11 who influenced him so
t her in Baghdad on his
expedition, was to die only two
; later. Through the next 150
s the reader may be panting to
Bell, but he
solution to find out
author collect, becor
to the charming
never finds out.
his vengeful re-
by phoning the
nes lost through
his absorption in the story of the
author's seven-year task for the Chi-
cago Museum of Natural History, and
his exciting wartime interlude as an
advisor to President Roosevelt.
Readers may appreciate knowing
that the Julie to whom the book is
([ ROBERT PORTER ALLEN,
who is this magazine's consulting editor
on bird behavior, has begun to attain international stature as a bird man.
He has published monographic studies on the roseate spoonbill and the
whooping crane and is now completing a similar study of the flamingo.
He is author, also, of a popular book entitled "Flame birds" which re-
counts his south Florida adventures on the trail of the roseate spoonbill.
A small by-product of his current studies of the flamingo is the interesting
article on the history of the flamingo in Florida,
which is the lead-off
article of this issue.
Mr. Alien was born in South Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in 1905 in
what he describes
"deer and bear hunting country." His interest in birds
was aroused when he was taken at age ten on a wild turkey and ruffed
grouse hunt. In high school he was influenced by an outdoor type of
biology teacher and helped form a Junior Audubon Club, which, he states,
was a great success and had more than 100 members.
activities were a turning point in Mr. Allen's life. Thr
This club and its
:ugh it he met the
famous bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes, ornithology professor Arthur
A. Allen (no kin), and others whose acquaintance gave direction to his
career. He attended Lafayette College for
years and then entered Cornel
University, but his father's death put an end to his college career. After
various other jobs he took one on a tramp steamer and went around fte
world. This appealed to him so much he went around a second time and
obtained his third mate's license. In 1930 he met Dr.
Tr. Gilbert Pearso%
came to Taverier to live. In 1933 he married Evelyn Sedgwick of Iowa;
they have a son, Robert, who is a student at the University of Florida, and
a daughter, Alice, who will attend that university next year.
His enthusiasm for the Park is well expressed in his statement,
heaven is somewhere out around the middle of Florida Bay,
the boundaries of Everglades National Park.
[ LOUIS A.
STIMSON (page 119) was introduced, if he needed an in-
production, to our readers in
"A memorable trip to Cape Sable,
" an article
which appeared in the June, 1953,
issue. He has also published a number
of natural history notes on various birds in other issues.
The journey to
Cape Sable was only one of many (he says 128) which he has made to
the Cape Sable region.
On all trips he has kept a careful record of birds
observed, usually the primary purpose of the trip. At the request of our
editor, he has drawn from these records materials for a series of three
articles on birding in the park at different seasons of the year. He asked
me to express here his indebtedness for the use of Willard E. Dilley's
mimeographed "Preliminary check list of the birds of Everglades National
Park." In the three articles of this series Mr. Stimson mentions some 207
species, one hybrid, and a few subspecies.
Many of these have been found
to be quite rare but have been observed in the areas under discussion.
Mr. Stimson notes that other species (35 or more)
have been observed
in the park, but has thought best to omit mention of them since they are
either exceedingly rare or have been reported from areas in the park not
discussed in these articles. Anyone interested in them is referred to park
naturalist Dilley's 1951 check list.
Mr. Stimson's present article "Fall birding in the National Park" (page
119) is an outstanding contribution to more enlightened and more interest-
ing visitor use of the Everglades National Park.
CI To one who enjoys the natural wonders of south Florida and yet by
necessity must live in another state
the longing for our area can best be
1 a -
using the new name for our south Florida slash pine, Pinus elliotti variety
densa, which until about a year and a half ago was considered to be the
Caribbean pine, Pinue caribaea. Botanists of Florida are not totally con-
vinced, however, that this taxonomic status is the final word and some of
us, I am afraid, will continue to use the older name Pinus caribaea until
thoroughly convinced that our pine is distinct from the pine of the West
Indies and only a variety of the Florida slash pine.
As related previously in this column, Dr.
Young spent a good portion
of his life in Florida and is now at Indiana University in the faculty of the
(I Through some chance the editor must have neglected to ask curator
F. G. WOOD, JR., of Marine Studios for biographical data for this depart-
ment. Perhaps Mr. Wood will write another article for Everglades Natural
History, and it will then be possible to discharge this department's
tion to readers of Everglades Natural History about this author. He shares
the authorship of his article,
"The mystery whale of Vilano Beach,
136) with the editor who has taken a great interest for several years in
identifying whales that strand on Florida shores.
FLOYD MONK points out in his interesting article "The tree
that walks on stilts,
beginning on page 143,
the red mangrove is one of
nature's odditities and a plant that is totally new to the northern visitor.
Along with the species of native orchids and the cypress, probably no
other plant has had so much attention and has had
it in technical and popular journals.
so much written about
Over a dozen articles have been
published since 1877 on various aspects of this tree, such as the work of
building land and forming islands, and the method of seed dis
the new plantlets only "plunk" straight down from the parent plant into
the mud, or do they float away horizontally in the water to become stranded
on a mud bank for successful growth? Its
uses in other countries are
lumber, dyeing, tanning, and an infusion of the bark is used for
Author Monk has always been fascinated by this mangrove since the
first time he saw it when he came to Miami to live in 1937
He was born
in Moultrie, Georgia, in 1914. He married Mildred Harris from his home
state, and they had their first child, a daughter whom they named Jamie,
August 10th of this year. Mr. Monk is employed as one of the officials of
the Florida National Bank in Miami but, as he states, he is a
Whenever he can get away, he and his wife set off for a week-
end to observe and to study south Florida's
mals, snails, and especially water birds are their main interests.
summer on a trip to Cape Sable they flushed three bobcats and one panther
on the road to Alligator Creek, an adventure that he
he will never
(I ALFRED L. RIDGARD's poem
second poem that he has published in this magazine. The first was "Gull"
and appeared in the June, 19
vania in 1907.
54, issue. Alfred Ridgard was born in Pennsyl-
He lived in New York and Connecticut until 1943 when
he came to Florida to recover from an attack of rheumatic fever. Originally
he studied painting which served
as his hobby,
but during his long illness
he took up writing, and after "studying versification with Mrs. J.
Staats of Coral Gables, I found I enjoyed expressing myself in verse even
better than painting.
He makes his living as a life insurance agent in
, but he states that if he ever finds enough leisure time, he would
like to write and paint; in fact, he would like to illustrate a book of his
own verse. Since his first trip to Florida in 1938,
he has been fascinated
by the tropical flora and the wild life and has enjoyed building an ample
and varied treasure of friendships in south Florida.
I[ FRANCES NORMAN YOUNG
, as you
reading her amusing and highly entertaining article,
wife of a tree snail hunter,
beginning on page 148, is the wife of Frank
N. Young who has also authored an article for this issue. Mrs.
flowers, will understand and sympathize with Mrs.
of adjustment to what, at the time,
Young in her period
she considered her husband's idio-
syncrasies. There are many of these "golf widows"
who, like Mrs. Young,
eventually come to share their husbands' interests. After all, ladies, why
(I JOSEPH C. MOORE's
article on the fox squirrel, beginning on page
, has shown again his wide range of interest in the natural history of
the Everglades. He has previously written for this magazine on the glossy
ibis, the raccoon, alligators, box turtle,
crocodiles, the Cuthbert rookery,
swallow-tail kite, and in the Fire Issue he related his experiences in fir
fighting and the story of his crash in the Everglades. In this present article
he tells us about the rare mangrove fox squirrel of south Florida. Anyone
who has had the opportunity to observe this squirrel, especially in its
black phase, will not soon forget this animal.
I[ Readers of Everglades Natural History may recall
issue the Junior Natural History
that in an early
department made its appearance and
contained two articles, one on birds and one on alligators.
ment was looked upon with high regard, but it was not until the present
issue that we found someone interested enough in writing things for it.
We are proud to
see it revived (page 161).
This time it is devoted ex-
clusively to bird life, relating experiences and interesting facts for child
STAPLES FINN is the author of these articles.
Mrs. Finn was born in
Wisconsin and became interested at an early
age in birds. Her mother offered her one dollar award if she could find a
humming-bird's nest and this, she states, stimulated her interest, and tis
bird has always remained her favorite. Mrs. Finn has taught in both public
and private schools, directed recreational work in children's homes, and
did personnel work at Stephens College.
graduated from Central
Wisconsin State College in 1930. In 1947 she married Rev. E. A. Flu
EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
pts articles and
notes prepared as described below on south Florida natural
These are published if the editor, or a consulting
editor, recognizes them as authentic and of a nature which
will be interesting and informative to the lay public of south
Florida and to visitors to
Manuscripts of feature articles should range between
and 2400 words, and those for the Notes section should range
original experience or observation by the author are pre-
ferred. While care will be given to handling manuscripts and
illustrations, neither the editor nor the Association can
cept responsibility for their safety.
SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPT. Articles and notes submitted
for publication should be typewritten, preferably on standard
size and weight typing paper. All written material should be
typed double spaced. Photographs for illustration should be
glossy prints of good contrast, and with no markings on the
back. Drawings should be in India ink on sheets of
paper separate from the manuscript. Photographs and draw-
ings submitted as full page illustrations should preferably be
about eight by twelve inches. Galley proof will be submitted if
requested, and authors must arrange in advance if reprints
are to be made. Articles or notes to be submitted for publica-
fsArm at. U 2 a 4
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, California
FRANK E. MASLAND, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Washington, D. C.
RICHARD ARCHBOLD, Lake Placid, Florida
THOMAS C. DESMOND, Newburg, New York
THOMAS S. HODSON, Homestead, Florida
WILLIAM H. LANE, Luneburg, Massachusetts
MRS. DOROTHY B. PALMER, Fort Pierce, Florida
MARSHALL S. P. POLLARD, Coconut Grove, Florida
MRS. R. L. STEARNS, JR., Stearns, Kentucky
GEORGE N. AVERY, Marathon, Florida
MRS. ROBERT HARGIS ANDERSON, Miami, Florida
MRS. AUGUST BURGHARD, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
GEORGE A. COFFIN, Miami, Florida
FRANK C. CRAIGHEAD, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
RICHARD F. DECKERT, North Miami, Florida
MR. and MRS. HOWARD I. DOHRMAN, Coconut Grove
DR. CHARLES B. FAGER, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
MRS. BRUCE M. HOGG, Coconut Grove, Florida
JACK and JEANNE HOLMES, Coral Gables, Florida
% lT% V '&alw % a, e a et a*.I a.. ...--....-