• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Salutation
 Our cover illustration
 The largest mahogany tree
 The mystery voice of Taylor...
 Composite plants in the Everglades...
 Bird visitors and northeast...
 Surface rock in the lower...
 Glossy ibises in the Everglades...
 Natural history notes
 Book reviews
 Background notes on authors
 Back Cover






Title: Everglades Natural History Journal
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093950/00001
 Material Information
Title: Everglades Natural History Journal
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Everglades Natural History Journal
Publisher: Florida International University
Place of Publication: Miami, FL
Publication Date: 1953
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00093950
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02251366

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Salutation
        Page 4
    Our cover illustration
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The largest mahogany tree
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The mystery voice of Taylor Slough
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Composite plants in the Everglades National Park
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Bird visitors and northeast winds
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Surface rock in the lower Everglades
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Glossy ibises in the Everglades National Park
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Natural history notes
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Book reviews
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Background notes on authors
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text
K -


at4 loS.bF4I.9


Everglades


Natural


ARCH.


History


1953


VOL. 1. No. I


.: i


~L .


L II


4e






Everglades Natural History

A MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH FLORIDA
Editae by JoSur C MOOuE, PH.D.


BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS
TATm Ri ALt eNi), Ph.D, Bro Dept, Urv. ,mli a... / Nm~a PiUS
Roaemr P. ALLE. pNat~i'K d AIUb= Soiety. Tmwiri .. A Rd BM"afr
ROLAND T. BDL. Aarina M nMMe of Ntiied Hioay (aL) ... .." Foa! Ai n/ir
ACom F. CAn Ph.D. Bulo Dqt.j, h.1. FImouI . Reptls and Asp$Ma
H. Amus Durans, PbhD,, ptbysiwr DCept Floruit Sufe Univ,. ... Ufe Pocesse
J. C. DiCKIno Il, D PS.D.. Buitg Dcpt. Unit. Flora ....... BidNWams
ROUBET N. Oiswuic, Marie Laumara, Liy. Uriv. M ... FRocAk ndi MfwaMfrs
JOIC M. GOwGIN, MP.D., CDep Soial. & Antr. Udie. Plorid .. .... .. dim fl f
R. 83uca LwnE, Ph.D., Suberopial Experen Suanai ........ ... Exdc Pitaw
WM. M. NcLw Florid Gamne Fmrm ea r FPk Comm..... .... Frshwater Fish
E. MoarTN MI U-., Pb.D,. Univaniy of Mll .. ..., ....... Socia lanSctr
F G. Wooo JLn Marine SudiE, Marialand ......,......,, Marnh Fish

EvaynatLe o NatrtA Hmroabr i publhed four gli a yMr Iy mb Evwmlad Na ial
i4tryM Asscndii a Bum 23S. HomIi PFlorlda. Subbrtpdo i SG0 a iyer.


The Everglades Natural History Asociation
A nea-profil society esbished der charter in 1951 to further interest in
and umdetadig of the natural ad hisric and acte& valu of the
Everglades National Pak.


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
IralAl E. Dify, Park Niiual . .. Se
iepha C. Moom, Park Bioogist .......... .. ........ ..a C n
C C. Von Pairohm Ciptai U.SC. (re) .............. Trewuer
DaPe B. Bead, Park aSp---in --e
Chars M. Baokofie Natio Aadbeo. Society









EVERGLADES


NA TURAL


H-ISTORY


A MAGAZINE OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF
SOUTH FLORIDA


Published quarterly by the

EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY
ASSOCIATION



. To fu rather interest in and understanding of the natural and
historic and scientific values of the Everglades National Park,



Edited by the
PARK BIOLOGIST








Printed hry
PARKER ART PRINTING ASSOCIATION
Coral Gabies, Florida


























THE- EvrI oLAf s NAnrxis. Hisrow ASSOCIATION acknowledges gratefully the
cncouragpment and help of Mr. C. M. Goethc of Sacramento in launching this
magazine We recognize Mr. Goethe, also, for the many years of active interest
which he and Mrs. Goethe have taken as private ciiS Zns to abet the objectives
and elfTcciveness of naturalist programs in the National Park Sysiem.








Contents


MAJCH. 1953 VOLUME I. No. I


PAGE
Salutation. by Clnrad L. .Wir ... ....... ... ........ ....... 2

Our coVer ilhusration ..... .. .. .. .. . - -- -- -- 5

The re mahoany itee by Tartor R. AIexander .................. 7

The mystery voicc of Taylor Slugh, by David 0. Karrakir ....... ..,. 1

Conpoite plant in the Everglades National Park. by R. Bruce LFein .... 14

Bird vitol an md northeast winds, .by Willard E. Dilr ...... ....... 19

Surface rock in the lower Everglades, by R. N. Ginsburc .............. 21

Glossy ibises in the Everglades National Park, by Joseph C. Moore .. .. 25

Natural History Notes ................. ..... ................... 29

Great homed owl bathing and drinking, by Daniel 8. Beard .......... 29

Late spring observation of western kingbird, by Louis A. Stimson ... .29

Firsa band account of a panther, by Deanr M. ShUls ..... ........ 30

Dancing crancs, by Daniel B. Beard .......... ...... ... ... ......-. 30

Two story a t, by Erwin C. Winte ............. ...... -......... 31

Book Reiewi ............................. .... ... .... 32

Flowering iree of the Caribbean j.. . ..w. -. - ..... . 32

FlamineD buntl ..... -... -.--. ........... .... -- .. .- 33

Tle on e rier ............ .......... ...-.... ..... ..... 33

Water wa mi ........ .................. -.....-.......- 4

Backgroind Notes on Authors .- .. . . - . .-. ... --- 35









T is with real pleasure that I salute the Everglades Natural
History Association and take the opportunity to say a few
words in this, the first issue of a new magazine. Everglades
Natural History. produced by a new natural history associa-
tion in our youngest national park.
We of the National Park Service take just pride in the ac-
complishments of the natural history associations connected
with the national parks and monuments. Over the years they
have contributed immensely to the effectiveness of the Service's
interpretive activities and have made possible projects that
could not have been undertaken with Federal funds. We hold
high hopes for the success of this new association, which is
initiating its program with real vision.
Among the national parks the Everglades is outstanding
in the spectacular abundance of its water birds and other wild
things. This magazine, dealing largely as it will with Ever-
glades wildlife. has a story to tell that is different from that of
other parks. and that is very appealing to the public. I believe
that it will hold real interest for both South Floridians and
the many visitors to the park.
As a long-time advocate of national park magazines. I
congraiulateethe Everglades Natural History Association on
its decision to issue a natural history magazine, and I wish it
the best of luck. May the magazine live long and successfully
fill a real need.
CON:R 0 L. WiRt, Director
NATIONAL PARK SFRVICE








S-
-Our Cover Illustration


'ONE OF THE MMORE FASCENATIING PARTS of the vast wilder-
ness area of south Florida lies at the transition area where
the long reaches of freshwater marsh of the Everglades meet
and mingle with the extensive, scarcely penetrable, saltwater
mangrove swamp. Here late each spnng remains the last
dwindling sheet of fresh water after the Everglades have been
drying up all winter. This constitutes one of the very in-
portant places, therefore, where the fresh water fish from
enormous areas of the Everglades are forced to concentrate.
Ibises and egrets in spectacular snowy flocks assemble at this
place to feed upon the fish. Numbers of the roseate spoon-
bills cornm from having just completed their rookery season
in Florida Bay, and flocks of majestic white pelicans feed
here before starting their long migratory flight back to the
west. Visitors to the Everglades National Park can some-
times see these wondrous springtime flocks of water birds
from the ingraham Highway where it crosses this transition
zone a mile or two north of Nine Mile Bend.
The particular part of the glades-mangrove transition
which the ingraham Highway passes through, merits special
attention from the visitor and south Floridian at any time of
year. Here an unusual beauty pervades the landscape and
rewards the receptive eye. We south Floridians who fre-
quently have occasion to be returning from the Shark River
or Cape Sable areas when the sun is low, know a recurring
delight in emerging from the mangrove forest into this exten-
sive open area, a simple marsh of warm brown secdes from
which tree islands stand up like ships at sea. Above these
discrete, thicket clumps of cocoplum, buttonwood, and bay,
heads of the rare' Panrotis palm vacillate on delicately slender
trunks,
Only at this very place can the motorist see from his car
this rare palm in its native habitat in the United States. Yet
in this spot. an area measuring about six by twelve nmies, it
does abound. Here and there it forms a photogenic cluster all
akone. More often its clusters give an architectural stature to
a tree island by being seen outlined against its nearer side.
Dispersed upon the scanty spike rush marsh, stunted bushes
of red mangrove stand upon their much-branched, arching
stilts.
The cover illustration for Everglades Natural History por-
trays this interesting uncommon place. it depicts two wood
ibis flying up by a tree islamj from which ernerc the delicate
Paurtis palms. On a red manerove bush two American c.rets
sit. and the spike rush and sawgrass marsh stretches away to
distant tree islands and the sky.








EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


dl


Fi'trir /, C(iUiejfp o if lrgerJs rmaho.gany. ~ frei 6 inches irrcumference. Hadf
nft p.r~,ri~cu frm mosquitos. A Notri hih mnorf d developed by roo
ii itiPFri.


EL
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The Largest Mahogany Tree


by TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER


REAL FURNITURE MAHOGANY grows in the Everglades National Park as
a native tree of the United States. Actually there are three mahoganies
of commercial importance: West Indian (Swietenia mawhogii) that grows
in southern Florida and in the Caribbean area; tropical American (Swie-
tenia macrophylla) that grows in Central and South America: and the
African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) from the West African coast. South
Florida no longer has commercial quantities of the West Indian mahogany,
although there are many trees still growing on the Florida KeyS and the
southern tip of the peninsula. Even as late as 1940 the writer has seen
large mahogany logs being taken from the Keys and the Cape Sable area.
Furthermore, the tree is extensively planted: in southern Florida as a park-
way and landscape tree and in some areas has seeded into adjacent pine
woods.
To sec the largest mahogany tree of the Park, one has to be prepared for
a hard two and a half mile hike to the west through sawgrass. after leaving
a point on the road to Cape Sable about fil h~n mile south of the first
ranger station. At this point the road turns due south from a west and
southwesterly course. Mahogany trees are associated with jungle territory
and the big trees of the Park are located, in "hanrmicks" that are the
nearest approach to jungle growth to be round on the U S. mainland. These
hammocks tend to be circular in shape and the largest in this area is about
one-quarter of a mile in diameter. Looking west from the road the ham-
mocks appear as dark, rounded mounds of trees low on the horizon and,
as one walks, individual hammocks gradually take on form until a dark
wall appears to spring abruptly from the sawgrass prairie. In this area one
usually sees an eagle high overhead. In season hawks riase from their nests
to scream their warning and fresh deer tracks tell the intruder that he has
disturbed the peacefulness of the expansive area.






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


e


Fiure 2. Ctan0Lb of e airge imaihgh-any.. Trunk over 10 feet circumferewnce and
IX fiet to fi.rt limb. Limbs are over 22 inches in diameter,


,l.I d


,1
L\':
J
l.u






TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER


As one enters the hammock by following a deer path through the dense,
tangled growth so characteristic of the margn of south Florida hammocks.
pctac and stillness return. The jungle opens and overhead i the canopy of
tall trcs; tropical mahopgny and ernpmratc xzo Virginia oak. Smaller
Itres and shrubs arc mostly of tropical source. L arge vines gro! w CCvy-
where and royal palms. cabbage palms, fluratis palms. and aPw palmetto
add to the ntrpical appearance. Air plarns--bbomnliads, orchids, and ferns
-grow in profusion on living limbs and falkn Irce trunLs. Stranger figs
are cvckrywhcrc. UiScrrcaah,. the accumulation of kea lititr and Ieaf mold
is deep and the impression is that here nature has been at work unhindered
for years. Here tihe tropical plants meet their temperate neighbor. Hcre
the sally marsh plant of nearby Florida Bay meet the fresh water plants of
the Everglades, It is a transition zone and it is unique.
The large trees show hurricane damage often repeated and frequently a
windfall is found. Root systems so exposed show that the hammock is, in
a sense, floatingi" on the marl prairie and actually the roots do not pene-
irate the underlying marl. The elevation is so near sea kvel ihat the water
labl e high all the year and thus prevets deep rwooing. The Irees actually
create their own growing medium as their hitcr accumulates. On the margin


Figure J. Photro akerr our ide of mahonUiyn hammqw., Aftho-Mn-Wcu imn Iac-
ground with hammcn martin and MaC ja gadc in me ,r'round.,






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


of the hammock there is evidence that the jungle is invading the sawgrass
prairie and year by year is slowly growing larger. Small and young trees
occupy the margin. Inside near the center are the big parent trees.
There are large oaks and larger mahoganies. The largest mahogany
found to date has been reported by the writer to the American Forestry
Association as the largest-of its kind in the United States and it has been
so listed in their Big Three Project. Botany classes of the University of
Miami have photographed, measured and studied these trees for several
years. The largest has a circumference of twelve feet six. inches, four and
one-half feet above the ground, a crown spread of seventy-five feet and an
estimated height of seventy feet. It is well preserved and has a clear butt
log of twenty feet. This tree compares favorably with the commercial ma-
hogany logs that average from nine to eighteen feet in circumference. How-
ever, in the true tropics they occasionally grow to thirty-seven feet in
circu mference.
Here in south Florida, even as in the tropics to the south, mahogany is
"King -of the Forest." Now that these trees are protected in this area they
should become even more spectacular in centuries to come.























The Mystery Voice of Taylor Slough


by DAVID 0. KARRAKER

SL'RROULD YOURSELF with a tangle of coastal plain willow, scattered
patches of arrowhead, lizard's tail, blue-flowerrd pckerel weed, water
pennywort, areas of spatterdock and occasional accumulations of open
water. Add to this a subtropical spring and a collection of wild voices of
largely unseen origin, and you hold a moment's impression of Taylor
Slough, Everglades National Park.
During the winter of 1952-53 before spring came t Taylor Slough, I
was able to recognize the authors of many of the strange sounds. Some,
such as the konk-a-reee of tIhe red-winged blackbird and the pumpings of
the American bittern, seemed always to have been familiar. Gradually,
above the general clamor, other voices :made themselves known. The
swamp sparrow's hard cheenk and the ship of the yellow-throat were brief
but exact expressions of these small birds. Othcr-wise, general confusion
persisted. However, when the clateritg of the coots and gal:inules was
lumped and sifted from the otber myriad voices, a strange new stillness
happened. It was the same effect which may be experienced upon looking
into a microscope with two open eyes, but seeing with only one. A geeat






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


majority of the many kinds of sounds proved traceable to these "marsh
hens.'"
With this clarification attained, I found other voices quickly jump for-
ward for identification. Above the slurps and pops of the bream and the
splashes of the garfish and bass, a great blue heron occasionally emits a
dominating roar. The wobbly, steel spring goiinnngg of an anhinga and the
white ibis' nasal Fyaaaah are joined by the stuttered laughter of the pied-
billed grebe and assorted growls of egrets and little blue herons to become
distinct new sounds.
The angry crash of an alligator's closing jaws awakens the voices of the
slough to a more frenzied language. The herons' gallinules' and coots'
questioning cries join the excited calls of the.-small song birds. After the
din subsides, a red-shouldered hawk launches himself from the top of a
distant palm tree, glides swiftly to the slough, and seizes a killdeer, whose
one brief scream is the only indication of his recognition of danger.
For months one call eluded identification, It appeared as a loud, sharp
eeep, repeated regularly every few minutes, suddenly ceasing not to be
heard again for several days. Then at another place and time it would recur
with the same bird-like quality-spontaneously, as if it came from a child's
toy. As I became more familiar with the sounds of the slough, the eeep
voice became still more of a mystery.
Winter faded into spring and other creatures pushed forward, demand-
ing attention. The eeep voice was shoved aside, catalogued as something to
be investigated later. Little blue herons, which had fished and frogged in
the slough during the winter, now also strike and catch the golden-winged,
hovering dragonflies. The bull alligator begins his mating roars and jealous
chases. I saw a sora rail and a soft-shelled turtle silently struggle over the
long-dead body of a bream. The dik dik, dik dik's of cricket frogs and the
faint jingled chorus of a pigmy swamp cricket frogs provide a static back-
ground for the southern bullfrog's sober notes.
But the eeep was not to be ignored. It returned with new energy and
reverberated among the broad-leaved plants, only to become lost again in
its own echoes. Once I felt I was scarcely a yard distant but still could not
discover the origin of the cry. My first clue as to the owner of the voice
came with the appearance of a purple gallinule, which ran across the
spatterdock leaves carrying a small, struggling leopard frog suspended






DAVII D 0, KARRAKE R 13

from his bill. The galinule disappeared in the vegetation with his captive,
and soon after an efep was heard.
The following day in another place the voice was heard again clear and
insistent. Upon paring a cluster of willows and peering inio the gloom
bnncath, I coulW at first distinguisb only a quivering patch of while. Grad-
ually, I could see it was he belly of a lopard frog, twitching as if from
a power not its own. Soon I discovered the other force in the form of a
asmll prar snake. The snake had almns entirely swallowed the hind leg
of the fro. and spasaodicalty the leopard frog unered his forlorn rep.
The power of Oi mystery voice was finally fcnrd.











Composite Plants in the

Everglades National Park


by R, BRUCE LEDIN

T 11:i COMPOSITE FAMILY is one of the largest families of flowering plants.
It also represents the highest attainment of the evolulionrary tree of the
plant kingdom. Species or this family can be found growing in almost every
conceivable habitat throughout the world. Furthcrmnire, they are almost
always the most numerous both in number of species and in number of
individual plants in any one particular area- At the southern end of the
Florida peninsula 126 species of composites. representing 63 genera, have
been thus far collected and idenii.ied. The great majority of these species
can be found in the Everglades National Park.
Ten of the 16 species are naricv only ;o the southern lip of Florida and
arc not found anywhere else in rhe world- As might be expected, nearly
one half of the 126 species can alb be found in the Wrc Indies and other
tropical areas. Yet only 21 spc cic' can be consil red asj truly tropical-
for these are the on-es of lhe West Indies ihal. in thie United States, are
lound only in sluth Florida.
It is not difficult to identify a remember of his fanmily. Everyone is familiar
with the suntlower or aster plant. If the "lthwerL of a member of this
ifmilv is examined closely, one will lind thact the "pelals" are actually
individual strap-shaped "ray" flowers arranged in a;, outer circle, while the
center is made up of small tubuair "disk" flowers, lFoth types of flowers
make up the flower cluster which we call a "head." The outside of the head
is encircled by small green parts often overlapping !ike shingles. In some
comimposiics the scrap-sha;ped ray flowers are missing or absent and only
the disk ofloAer.e art present, as in the blazing star and thistyes. In the
fRower heads of the composites most fami.ar to us, ray flowers and disk
flowers are bth present. as in the sunflower. daisies, and asters. There is a






RI. BRUCE LEDIN


third type of head in which the disk flowers are absent and ihe ray flowers
are the only ones present; this type of head is characteristic of the chicory
and wild lettuce. Composite plants with only ray flowers in the flower head
also have milky juice.
In so brief an article as this it is best o discuss only some of the more
common or interesting compolsiKs that can be found in the Everglades
National Park. some of the notable ones which are shrubs. others which
are vines, species occurring in the sawgrass glades, the pineland species,
and the common weeds.

SHRUBS. The SEA Ox.E rE-DAISY (Borrichia Iruiescens) is a low
growing shrub with apple-green or silvery-green leaves and large yellow
radiate heads which are prickly to the touch. It is characteristic of salt
nmrshes and edges of mangrove swamps. The SIaRLuHiv TtlOouC;HIwoRi
(Eupatoritum villost.rm) is a shrub in which the leaves, when crushed have
a mint-like odor: the disk flowers are white or pinkish. It is an unus.:ai
Tropical species found growing only in or around hanimocks. Another
SHIRmfaY TiOROI:njiwoR( I' ti atwiriiumn serowinmtnm is one of the most
common plants in the Evergladcs and is quite conspicuous in late summer
and fall with its kong ttwody sems, long coarsely toothed leaves. and num-
erous small heads of white flowers. The GROLNDSE L Bt:sH. SILVER BIt :H.
SALT B.Sii, SEA MYRTLE, and FALSE MYRTLF, are nain is gi1C'rn to three
similar species of Baocharis (B. a.ingrsri.4oia. hialimirntlia. and B. gihn-
erui-fifra ). They are shrubs characteristc of salt marnhes: edges of man-
grove swamps, the Everglades, and sometimes pinclands. The planLs are
very show-y in the fall months when the fem:alc floe r are nature and
cover the entire plant with a silvery color bcforc the sceds airc blown away.

VINES.-One of the most conspicuous nemcr r this family is a
CLIMBING ASTER (Aster caroliniairus), a woody vine with large pale-
pink or lavender radiact heads. It is found at edges of low hammrcks,
along canals, and in cypress swamps. The HEMP P Vimai (Mikanw badai-
folia) is rather common in low pinelands, wet prairies, along canal banks
and in the Eve rglades; it is herbaceous and climbs over the Ilow vegetation;
the heads are in small clusters and are white or pink in color. The BTTERa
Busu (Osnmia odorata) is a tropical vine with small clusters of white or






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


pinkish heads; the leaves emit a characteristic odor when crushed-. It is
rather common in the hammocks of the Cape Sabk region.

GLADES.-Most of the composites are low growing, herbaceous plants.
Some of the more common ones which can be found in the low places in
the Park-the low pinclands, the glades, and the everglades-are the fol-
lowing: ASTEr. Three species of aster (A. Bracei. A. dumosus, and A.
exilis) are characteristic of low, open places. They can be easily identified
by their typical "aster" like heads of pale blue to white in color. THISTLE
(Cirsium horridulum var. ELiiorii) grows in pinlands as well as in the
low areas and is quite conspicuous in the winter and spring months with
its large rosette of prickly leaves and large heads of purple, deep-rose, t
pale-yellow or cream-colored flowers. MIST FLOWsI. (Conocinum coel-
eshtnum) is one of the most attractive and common plants of the Ever-
glades-the bright blue or purplc-blue discoid heads and dark-green
leaves often tinged with reddishpurple, make it very outstanding. The
THOROUGHWART known as Eupaworium miknioides is, often found in
large stands and is easily identified by its thick, heart-shaped leaves which
stand at right angles to the stem; the flowers are white in color. YELLOW-
ToP (Flaeria linearis) is very conspicnous almost the year around, form-
ing large masses in which the yellow heads almost make the ground a
solid color of yellow. The heads are unusual in that they are mainly dis-
coid but occasionally one single ray fower will be produced. The MARs
S.EEZE WEED (Herenrum vernar) is one of the most attractive of our
wild flowers, the leaves are basal, forming a rosee and the large yellow
head is produced at the top of a single stem. The INDIAN PLANTAIN
(Mfsadenia lanceolate) often grows in large colonies, the long light-green
leaves and white heads projecting above the surrounding plants. The
MARSh FLEABA.NE (Plurhea foetidfa) is perhaps, next to Faveria, the
most common composite in the Everglades.; the leaves are sessile and clasp
the stecn and have a camphor-like odor when crushed; the heads are small
and reddish-purple in color. SPI'LANTHES (Spilanihes repens) is a chr-
acteristic plant of the Everglades and cypress, swamps, forming mats; the
small cone-shaped heads are bright yellow or orange in color.

PINELANDS.-About 40 species of composites can be found grow-
ing in the pinelands of South Florida. Some of the more commM on es are






R. BRUCE LEDIN


the following: ASTERS (Aster adhalus, A. simmondsi, and A. simulatus)
often are quite showy during the fall months. The GOLDEN ASTER
(Chrysopsis grmminifolia) is a low growing plant with long, narrow silvery-
hairy leaves and large yellow heads, being very conspicuous when in
flower. TICKSEED (Coreopsis leavewmorthii) is a stender-stem plant with
bright yellow rays and dark brown disk flowers. The Seminole Indians
used this plant for treatment of heat prostration. BLAZING STARS (Li-
arri spp.)-no sight is more beautiful than a pineland in which hundreds
of these plants are in flower-the tall wand-like stems with elongated
spikes of numerous closely set rose-purple heads, make these species very
showy. MELANTH:ERAS (Melanthera spp.) the name means "black
anther" and, indeed, these species are easily recognized by the small, yet
conspicuous white heads speckled with black inside; the heads are pro-
duced on the ends of long stalks, and the leaves are coarse and rough to
the touch. RABBIT TOBAccO or BLACK RooT (Pterocaulon iudulaitm)
- the roots of this plant are quite thick and black in color; the stem
is conspicuously winged by the decurrent leaves, the latter are dark green
above and white woolly beneath; the heads are in dense cone-like clusters
and are greenish-white in color. GOLDENRODs (Solidago spp.)-no less
than seven species are native to southern Florida, the common species of
the pinelands are S. feavenwortnii, S. chapmanii, and S. stiicta. The small,
bright yellow heads are produced at ends of long, wand-like stems which
may or may not be branched. Contrary to popular belief, goldenrods do
not cause hayfever. IRON WEED (Vermonia Blodgeli) is a very attrac-
tive low growing herb with small, narrow leaves and discoid heads of deep
red or purple color. This species was named for Doctor John Loomis
Blodgctt, a druggust and physician who lived in Key West from 1838 to
1853, and was the first man to collect plants in southern Florida.

WEEDS.-Another large group of composites included many of our
common weeds, for this family has a number of world travelers that are
able to grow successfully almost anywhere. Perhaps one fourth of the
South Florida composites can be classed as weeds. The most common plant
in our area is the S HEPHRDS NEEDLE (Bidens leucaniha); it has com-
pound leaves of three to seven divisions and heads of white ray flowers
and yellow disk flowers; the two-barbed seeds stick abundantly to, one's






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


clothing. The RAG WEED (Ambrosia elatow) is another common weed
found along roadsides and in waste places; it is this plant that in temperate
climates is responsible for late summer hay fever, but for some unaccount-
able reason the rag weed as it exists in South Florida seems to produce
Lilte air borne pollen. The DOG FENNELS (Eupaiorium deprophylum
and E. capillilaunm. with almost hair-like, aromatic leaves, ar also com-
mon weeds, mostly of low places. The SOUTHEitN FLEABANE (rig-
eaon quercilioiuss) has small, basl leaves that look like the coFmon oak-
eaf. PECTIr (Peris Iepocephala) is a prostrate plant growing fat on the
ground and has small heads of yellow flowers; the eaves emit a delightful
refreshing lemon-like odor when walked on. The FifR WEED (Ererhitces
hieraceijoia), Cuo WEED (Gnaphaluk sparhularum)., WL.D LET-UCE
(Laclura intyblaca), HORSEWE ED (Lepriton ranadense). Sow THmSTLT
(Sonchis asper and S. oleraceus, and TRIoax (Tridax procumbens), arc
other examples of common weeds found throughout Souih Florida.











Bird Visitors and Northeast Winds


by WILLARD E. DILLEY

VERY SATISFYING FEATURE of bird-watchng is the ever present posi-
A. ability of the unusual or unexpected. This is especially true in souht
Florida. Here, for reasons unexplaind, the composition of bird popula-
tions varies greatly from one winter to the net. Normally the myrtle
warbler is an uncommon winter visitor. Nevertheless, during the winter
of 1950-51 the myrtle warblers were almost as numerous as the always
abundant western palm warblers. At times the red-breasted mergansers
may bc the most abundant duck in parts of the park and another wear may
be almost entirely absent.
Rare stragglers may appear at any time of the year. However, the early
part of the winter of 1952-53 was notable for a considerable number of
accidental. It is worthy of comment that this period coincides with an
influx along the Florida east coast of the dovekie, a small member of the
aulk family. The dovekie normally winters well off shore from Cape Hat-
teras north.
The first of the interesting parade appeared at the Tami ami Ranger
Station on October 30, 1952, when ranger Erwin Winte picked up a
weakened starling. lt was placed in a box and died before the next morn-
ing. Its skin is now in the Everglades National Park collection. The Tami-
ami District is far from the normal range of the starling, and it should
not be assumed that the bird is now established in this locality Early in
the thirties the starling was observed in the vicinities of Sanford. Palatka.
and Sarasota. but it seems to be reluctant to extend its nesting range
farther south.
Early in November a number of sparrows unusual to our area appeared
on the lawn about Royal Palm Ranger Station. Even by careful study with
binoculars it could not be determined whether the birds were immature
chipping sparrows or immature claycolored sparrows On November 18






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


one was collected and the matter settled in favor of the chipping sparrow.
This species is a common winier visitor in north Florida but decidedly
unusual in this area.
Waterfowl were next to provide surprise visits. On December 8, ranger
C. Tyler Hotchkiss and ranger naturalist David 0. Karraker observed
a brant at Snake Bight. As late as January 3, what appeared to be the
same goose remained in the area. This pecien lacked white neck
mark and may be presumed to be an immature. Again brant were seen,
January 16. by ranger David E. Bogart who reported two on Floida Bay.
The brant is decidedly rare in south Florida. Arthur Howell, in his "~Floid
Bird Life' records brant being killed ear Eerglades in 1900 and again
in 1917. Normally this species winters far north of this latitude.
An old squaw at Bear Lake provided the next rare occurrence. On
December 27 the writer conducted a group of visitors on a nature walk
down Bear Lake Road. Upon breaking out of the cover of trees, the
entire group had the pleasure of seeing the old squaw. It was not entirely
a surprise to the Park Naturalist as he had been informed that for about
a week the National Audubon Society conducted groups had seen the old
squaw in the same position. Florida records for this duck are few and
chiefly from the northern part of the state. Arthur H. Howell records
a specimen taken at Tampa in 1879. No prior park record is available.
There may be many reasons for unusual movements of birds. Locally
the abundance or scarcity of food may be an important factor. Suitable
food was probably the attraction for a number of glossy ibis which fed in
Taylor Slough during the winter of 1952-53.
Weather conditions can afftec birds over a much more extensive area
A took at the weather summaries for the months of October, November,
and December of 1952 indicates precipitation and temperature to be su:i-
ciently near to normal as to be of little significance. iis recorded, however,
that for the period of October 20 to 22, strong northeast winds blew with
veocities up to 50 and 60 mides per hour. All of the birds mentioned above
ar species which normally winter to the north of this area. This is per
haps the condition which brought so many rare birds inio south Forida.
Once reaching a certain loality, they may remain here for many weeks,
as illustrated by tbe brant t Saak Bight.


20











Surface Rock in the Lower Everglades


by ROBERT N. GINSBURG


SOME THImA~ to ifty thousand years ago South Florida was a shallow
submarine bank. The sediments deposited in that sea have become
the limestones which underlie th peat soil of much of the EveJrgades, and
which act as natural dams to maintain the water level inland.
Much of Everglades Nationa Park is floored by this most recent lime-
stone which geologists cal the Miami Oolite. The term /rfe from the
Greek word for egg oos, refers tohe minute egg-shaped particles which
form this entire layer of rock as shown in Fig. I. When sliced very thin, a
section of these particles examined under the microscope shows that each
individual egg consists of a series of concentric shells, like the layers of an
onion, formed around a central sand grain or shell fragment as shown in
Fig. 2. Each layer was laid down by precipitation of calcium carbonate
from seawater in the same fashion as well water in limestone country
forms the limy scale in tea kettles or waler pipes. These tiny particles are
not now being formed in Florida, but present day examples of this process
occur on the Bahama Banks and in the Gulf of Suez. The hot, shallow, and
unusually sally seawater in both of these localities is necessary for pr-
cipitation.
The minute individual egg-haped parties, called ooliits, are similar
in si and shape to sand gains, and can be moved about by water cur-
renut. In th e cas of te Miami Olite pa~h icles were formed wes and
norhwest of the Florida Keys. Wind, waves, and currents piled tem up to
form a ridge extendig from Fort Lauderdale to Coot Bay. In the Park
his ridge is represented by the Everglades Keys which stand slightly above
the suM diig seasonally wet sawgrass prairies, and c these are located
pineland ard some of the oldest south Florida hammocks.
Important changes in sea level have occurred sin cte e deposition of the






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


Figure I. Miahi Oolire showing tre indiv'rFidual egg-shaped oolidts. fiour itmes
natural size.


oolitic sediments- As the glaciers thickened and advanced southward from
Canada, the large amount of water lock-up in glacial ice caused the level
of the oceans to drop. During the warm periods between he several ad-
vances of the glaciers when temperatures were similar to those of the
present day. sea-evel rose from the water added o tthe oceans by the melt-
ing of glacial ice. Our tiny ooliths were formed in a hot, shallow sea
during the last warm or inter-glacial period During the period of glacial
advance which followed, sea-level stood at least Iwenty-feel below its
present position and the processes which convert loose sediment to rock
began to adl on the Miami Oolite. Rainwater falling on the surface first
dissolved the limestone particles and then as it percolated down through
the rock the same calcium carbonate was precipitated between the grains
to form a coherent rock. This sort of precipitation is similar to some
crystal formations in limestone caves. The continued solution of limestone
near the surface by rain water and soil acids has produced the pinnacled,
honeycombed rock which may be seen today on the Everglades Keys.
Perhaps at the same tim that this sand-ike oolitic sediment was being
solidified, some of the drainage from the Everglades cut through the low
ridge as it flowed seaward- These channels or spillways broke the more or


22






ROBERT N. GONS BURG


-T~



Figure 2'. Thin serfion of ite Miami Oolirte ,si;nI.'g fyie rconreniric structure
o/ the o withs, 100 dines natural size.
less continuous ridge into segments which in the Park form the Ever-
glades Keys.
Limestones similar to the Miami Oolite are very common in the geologic
past. They can be found among the oldest edimentary rocks known, the
Pre-Cambrian of Michigan and Montana, some 1500 to 2000 million
years old, and in every succeeding period of the earth"s history. In the
general character of the individual oolitihs their accumulations, and their
chemical compositions these ancient limestone are fossil equivalents of
the Miami Oolite. Such similarity calls aitention to the continuity of
prPorsses from the earliest recorded history of the earth to the prernt day.
a princip which is the basis for ihc science of geology.
The presence of the Miami 0o[ie under a large portion. of the park
has a significant effect on the natural history. The high porosity of the
oolitic rock provides underground storage of water for plant and animal
needs during fhe dry season, and eih chemical composition and texture


23






24 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY

of the rock exercise some control over the type of vegetation. But it is the
damming action of the ooite ridge which is most important to the Park.
Were it not for the arc-shaped oolitic ridge between Ft Lauderdale and
Coot Bay water levels in. the southern Everg~ des might be considerably
lower and the major drainage pattern of the Pak very differently arranged.











Glossy Ibises in the Everglades Park


by JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE


SOMEONE SEES a few glossy ibi,. Pklediis falridnlas, almost every year
in the Everglades National Park at one place or another, usually in fight,
but we have come to regard the species as a rare or casual visitor. Back
in the summer of 1945, when M. Bamie Parker was patrolling as an Audu-
bon Society warden off what was then the commercial fishing village of
Flamingo. he recorded in his log of August 10th that be had counted 38
glossy ibis going to roost on Catfish Key. When I was reading the bor-
rowed log several years later, finding this exceptional record aroused my
keen interest in the matter. As opportunity permitted in 1949 and 1951 1
made several evening visits to Catfish Key. There the spectacle of scores
of snowy and American egrets trooping in amid strings of hundreds of
white ibis streaming in to roost, quite enchanted me and made the effort
well worth the while, but there were no glossy ibis. Tentatively I laid
Barnic's old record aside as probably an unusual occurrence, and grad-
ually I gavc up hope of seeing glossy ibis at Catfish Key myself.
It is far more than a myth that the rare glossy ibis is sometimes seen
about the Anhinga Trail at Taylor Slough. Ranger-naturalist David Kar-
raker recorded it there five times during the winter of 1952-53. One of
these records is of two individuals which astonishingly enough, fed in the
wet glades and edges of the ponds there every day from February I th
through the 21st. Other written records of observations, one each by W. E.
Dilley. Al Milonte. D. B_ Beard, and the writer extend the range of time
of occurrenc of this bird here from late November to June first. This
coincides very nicely with the usual extent of the annual dry season. As the
dry season progresses the glades water levels are dropping and leaving
vast areas dry, and food animals arc presumed to be concentrating in deep
s.oughs and ponds, such as Taylor Slough. Other water birds of many
kinds congregate here then, apparently to feed upon the crodced fish.






EVERGLADLES NATURAL HISTORY


Nevertheless, over the years the glossy ibis has been rarely seen at this
place. Arthur H. H1owell had no report of it in his study of the birds of
Paradise Key and surroundings in 1917. '18 and '19. We have seen it
usually only as an individual in a ock of du aul nd immature white ibis
coming in to roost in the sough at sunsel-
Down farther into the park where the Ingraham Highway passes through
the attractive Pfarofis palm area, Louis A. Sliimso r cordcd seeing glossy
ibises on bird observation trips in 1939, 1940. and 1945. and I saw a
flock of 13 or 14 overhead near there in 1950. These arc one Janary.
two April. and one May sightings, and the fact that these observations
appear to e seasonal may be related tothe xcclence of the Pauroris
palm ara, also, as a feeding area for wading birds during the seasonal
drying up -of the Everglades.
Far out in the wilderness maze of the mangrove coast in 1951. park,
ranger M. Bamic Parker logged observations of single flocks of this ibis
in fligh over the Broad River Banks on January 25th and over the head
of :Rogers Crek on February 13th,
There is one other place in the park where this unusual wader has
ocx:isi onIaly appeared. Seven miles south of the Tamiaimi Trail by a rough
little administrative ro;d is the Seven Mile Fire Tower where park ranger
E. C. Winter and fire control aid J. T. Cooper have logged their observa-
tions of single glossy ibises twice in February of 1952 and their observa-
tions of pt;irN twice in February of 1953. Cooper logged a l lone glassy ibis
flying past the fire tower on March 12. 1952, and Wince recorded a single
one Il ing over the park area April 28. 1950, seen from the Tarniami
Trail. 11 I is rcin ,ing lhat all of these aKbow recorded glossy ibis observa-
tions, for Taylor Slough, the Partroris palm area. the mangrove labyrinth
of watcrwavs, and the Seven Mile Tower and Tamiami Trail area were
made betr en November and June.. Twice as many of these were made
in Fbfuar as. ainy other month.
It iE probably wcll-known to south Florida naturalists that small nurn-
hcbr ,of gk ss ibiscs roost on midsummer nights in the Ten T hosand Is-
lands among the ma'n thousands of white ibises and hroans on Duck
Ro-ck. W. E DilCcy recorded seeing 0 leave that famous roost at dawn
on a trip up there August 6, 1 948. and I saw five come in at sundown there
on July 20. 194,9


26






JOSEPH CURTIS MOORE


After having accepted scarcity of gZossy ibises as one of the charac-
teristics of the park, to me the discovery deep down in the park of what may
prove io be a sie to which numbers of this bird come regularly at a given
season, is a most delightful find. Few people realize how much misery
still enshrouds the habits even of large conspicuous birds in the vat wil-
derness of the park. The rarely visited place to which I found glossy ibises
flocking was Catfish Key. exactly where Barnie Parker had seen and re-
corded them seven years before. My earlier evening visits to this key had
been at the wrong time of year to see glossy ibises come in to ruost.
This oblkg islet, called Catfish Key. is only about 200 yards wide by
275. yards long, and lies 2 miles south of Flarmineo in Florida Bay.
About it on three sides extends a wide, shallow hank which prevents direct
approach by boat from the mainland any clofcr than a mile, excepting upon
the height of the tide. As a part of a general survey of water bird roosts
and rookeries in the park, I planned a series of evening visits to Catfish
Key in t he summer of 1952. The recent gravelling of the ingraham High-
way from Snake Bight Road to Coot Bay was an immeasurable help to
summer access to this place. An airb al made approach to the key an
easy matur, and 1 selected nights when the moon approached full to light
my return. On May 9th I began, always with Issistancc, to make evening
counts, approximately monthly, of the water birds coming in to roost at
Catfish Key. It was not until the count of July Isi, when accompanied by
park n.aliralist W. E. Dilley and R~we'l Bushnell of DeLand, that I saw
any glossy ibises come in to roost. We counted 201 of these rare creatures.
More than this may have come in. for we stopped our count when it be-
came too dark to be sure of distinguishing the several kinds of birds. Some
glossies were mixed in with flocks of ;adult and immature white ibiss.
others flew in similar formations which contained glossy ibises only. At
least one of the fkcks purely of glossis numbered as high as thirm.-five
birds. They came from the mainland, and our records show that they
began coming in at the start of the last hour during which there was light
enough to count.
On August 8th Louis A. and Dorothy Slimson assisted me to make the
evening count at Catfish Key. To our astonishment and delight glossy
ibises continued to arrive until we ran Vp a count of 51 8. At least one flock
which contained only glossies numbered [00 birds. This time, also. thcv






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


started coming in at the beginning of the last hour of light enough to count
Ibises did continue to come in after it was too dark to distinguish the two
kinds, but at a very reduced rate and perhaps numbering several hundred
at the most.
On the nights of Sepember 2nd and 3rd when I visited Catfish Key,
there were no glossy ibis seen to come n io the key. On the count of Sep-
tember 30th, by which time general water bird use of this summer roost
was geatly reduced, the Stimsons and I again found no glossy ibis. So,
it now appears that numbers of glossy ibis may come regularly in mid-
summer to feed somewhere on the CapeSable area and to roost at night
with many other wading birds on Catfish Key. This may reveal roughly
the extent of glossy ibis use of summer roos in the Park, or like Banic
Paer's record of seven years ago, it may indicate the proper way to
discover more.


28







Natural History Notes

GLRYT HOItNE OW1L .ATEIENS ANX mINKIR NS Several visiting
ornithologist including Dr. Arthur A. Allen of Cornell University have
been surprised to see a great horned ow! conspicuously perched :i a south
Florida slash pine about one hundred feet from my house at Pine Island.
Invariably, these surprised visitors have gone a litick too close, and the
owl has mmwn off through the pines to a new perch. This flight is inter-
csting because the big bird is a good flier and able to maneuver through
the pines with grace and skill. Rodents had been bothersome around the
bird feeding station in the yard, but they seem to have disappeared si.nc
the arrival of the great horned owl.
When rains have occurred at night, large puddles formed in depressions
in the driveway. Twice, we have seen the owl standing about four inches
deep in these puddles early in the morning. The big bird was a startling
sight on such occasions because it stood out so plainly in the bare sur-
roundings giving a disproportionate idea of its size. We have watched it
dunking and apparently attempting to bathe. This latter behavior is diffi-
cult to describe. It consists of a fluffing of feathers, squatting down, and a
series of motions with head, tail and wings in a ludicrous attempt to
splash water over itself. The bath was not observed to be a success, but
once I saw the bird after it was well dampened down.
DANIEL B. BEARD, Superintendent. Eterglades National Park,

LATE :l4PIN OBjSERVATION OF WETIKRN SKINSH iR i
On April 5, 1953 in the Everglades National Park. William G. Atwater
and I made what is probably the latest spring observation of a Western
Kingbird of record for southern Florida. At first glance I thought I had
found our first Gray Kingbird, Tyrrannus dominifensis, for the season,
but a second look with 7x35 binocular showed the bird to be a Western
Kingbird, Tyrannis rerticatis. The bird was in a small tree on the eastern
bank of the Flamingo canal at the point where the road leaves the canal
below Capt. Brown's fishing camp. Two Eastern Kingbirds. Tyrannus
.eyannus, were near us on the west bank of the canal'. Soon the birds all
reversed their positions and placed themselves in a geographical relation-
ship more consistent with their names. An hou r r so later. on our return,
from the prairies, the western bird was still in the same locality. and on






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


both occasiomnr we were able to study it under favorable light conditions
and check all identifiving field marks. Late in the day near the ranger
station at Paradise Key we did find the Gray Kingbird. This is the first
time in over twenty years of bird observations in southern Florida that I
hav seen all hree Kingbirds on the samn day.
Louis A., Sir.tsoN, Miami

FlUx%-M.~ A.Q'eUN' r e A PA.rlEl e I left Coot Bay in Lhe
Everglades National Park to take Fred Ellingtontoo West Lake Pond about
6: 10 P.M.. April 14, 1 953 When we were about 1 miles north of Coat
Bay on the Ingraham Highway, a ven, large cat come onto the road about
100 feet in front of the car. My first look when it was sideways to me,
showed the long tail clearly. The cat turned and ran about thirty (fet up
the road before going back off to the canal side. From the view of it
that I got during this interval I would say it stood about three fet high.
Its body was very thin. I stopped, Ihe car at the point where the big cat
left the road d jumped out. It was a plmce where the mangroves are
not as thick as along most of this section. As a mountain lion of the west
would have done under these circumstances, this cat had treed. It was
lying on a large mangrove limb. Ii lay in ihai position facing me for an
interval of from 1 V1 to two minutes. The distance from where I stood
to the cat was about 35 feet, and it was in a spot of sunlight Its long
tail was switching in a sideways motion. The cat's tail was two-thirds as
long as its hbdy, and its body, not counting the tail, would measure six
feet. The points I rmereber clearly arc the very long legs and tail. The
leg seemed longer than those of the cougar I have hunted and killed in
Idaho. The animal's coat color was a dark mottled gray or lead color.
After watching me for a whilc the cat turned, jumped the canal, and
disappeared into the mangroves on the far side. I looked for tracks but
could not rind any in the limestone rock on the road bed.
DEANE M. SHILTS. Seawardi Ranrer, El'ergadWes National Park,

PAcS'Et:.s Al.agn A pair of sandhill cranes wene observed in he
spike rush glades beside the Ingraham Highway (in the Everglades Na-
tional Park) at the Paurotis palm area by a party of four of us. They wer
facing each other and leaping up and down in their weird dance. We






NATURAL HISTORY NOTES


stopped our car and watched as the dance continued for perhaps sixty sec-
onds more. This was about 12:1.5 noon on November 28, 1952, and trhe
place is where cranes are most often seen; in the park.
DANIEL B., BEAD. SiperinFrndenl. EvergIlae Nartional Park.


TW.aTOKi Ns eT aA bulldozer exposed an ;alligaior nest on the land
of Kcrneth Wood on MosquiLo Creek near where the creek enters Taylor
River, Okccchobce County. I examined ihe nest and removed fifteen good
eg.g from. the many others deistroed. A dozen of these weighed 975 grams
and one of them contained an embryo about a half inch long from crown
to rurnp. The curious Lhing about this alligator ncst, though. is that upon
dining down into the nest deeper than where this clutch of eggs was laid.
I came upon another clutch of alligator eggs. There were about tiwenty-five
in the lower clutch,, and they were rotten, although not vcry badly so. The
nest mitcrial was ihe usual leaf mold, twigs, and ruling wood. It certainly
Iooked as though the alligator sensed that her first cluich of eggs were dead
and then built the nest up high ver over then and laid a new clutch. This nest
was cxanmincd May 29, 1952.


ERWIN C.. WrN-rE, Ranger, Everglciaes N.tional Park.







Reviews


FLoWERiANG TREES OF THL CAnRiBBFA.. 30 painting by !Bernard and
Harriet Pernchick Introduction by William C. White. Rinehart & Co. 1951.
$10.00.


Mot ncrtthern visilos to the West
Indies are impreed by he spectacular
dnplay of flowering tropical tree. And
so al0o was William C. Whit in 1 94
during hRi war-lime air trarveL in the
West Indies. On hi rtun to i the
Stai.3 he searched for information on
ihew tropical fn-oering irees. But he
could find litlic of a popular nature
in the libranes. and he found thai bth
bookstores were in need for such .
irainiment on th~sn subject.
So with the aid of two artiss, Br-
nard and Harriet Pertchick, the finan-
cial backing of the Alcoa Steamship
Company, the help of the staff of the.
New York Botanical Garden. as wel
asf nuilernoui botanists and horticultur-
isIs of the Wcei Indies., Central and
South America. Mr, White has been
abe to put out this handsome book
on "tre.i which are sufficiently com-
mi nt as o hb seen by the visiting
Iouris,, or trees which are spectacular
when in boom ... ."
Thec work includes a glossary., 139
reerences Io other works from which
much of Ihe information was obtained.
and 30 full page watcr color plates
thal air beautifully done. presenting
clejr ihfe-tikc eTlo'cups of the fo'wers_
The color reproduction is remarkably
Irue to nature. except in the cases of
the China;brry and Potato tree blooms
which uiourd have been better shosin
in ihBei characrlritic blunesns. Each
p-icv.e has d o o. three pagi~ of ven
inicrerniln information iit-hre it i
nai"e, Mwhert ii pr.o, in the We t In-
dn-' hnton P of it_ dicvery, who
named it. what the name rmans. uvas..
local narme, in d f'rTnt countries, and
complete bul popular descrinions of
the lcave., f&mwert Iruits. ic. A'I of
which mrnakes faiscnating reading


Though the price is more than that of
the average book, it is not exceive
for one of such fine quality which will
bring enstdas pleasure to se plant
lover. I1 is a book that weU merits a
place in the library of every botanms.
horticu'tunt., prdener. plan lover
and visitor. for use as a reference
work or lo browa through at Ieisurf.
t is of special intercm to residents
and visitors of South Florida. for al.
most all oi the 30 plants described are
grown here in the i them part of the
state. Some, like the Franppanis.
Tulip Trees. Golden Shower. Trumpet
Trees. Corl Trees. Orchid Tree,
Chinaberry. and Royal Poinciana. are
frequently seen in South Florida;
others, like Ihe Queen's Crape MyrlCe
Wild Cotton Tree, Shaving Brush,
Saman or Rain Tree. Piik Shower,
and West Indian Liunum Vitae, are
only occasionally seen; a few others
are, found only in Botanical Gardens,
One of Ihe species. Cordia srbhesena.
Ihe Geiger Tree. ii native I:o the Flor-
ida Keys, although in this book it is
statcd to be naturalizcd- Perhaps only
aixout 4 or 5 species are not seen in
Florida gardens. One of these is Am.
herlFil. no'bis. which, although it has
heen tried many times, has failed t;o
%urive i n FR'orida,
The eye of the trained botanist will
find certain deviations from facl. One
of which is unfortunate and is is a
wonder that oCme one of all the people
who arc pvrnf credit for cta3ninitg
the manuscript did not catch it. The
BRuhinia c.dcrihed on page 92-94 i
Bauhinia IvanrXnfa. the wi% Cr-b'oomrn
ing orchid tree This is correct: but
the plate on page 91. which is labeled
ariUinia 'raFirfatS. pictures Bcauhimua
purpurpea. he falf-hloomning orchid






REVIEWS


tree. The Bfowers in thins plate show
three stamens and reLativdy narrow
peals-thi s s not Baukinia variegara,
for the Latter has five .tamCea and
broad petals. This mistake i identi-
fcation i aot too surprising. however,
for these two species of BOuhkina have
been confused many times before,
even by some hotarusts.
The excellent plates and Ithe in-

FLAMINGO HUNT by Paul A. ZahL
$3.50.
In this book the reader goes easily
along with the biologist author on
three rather informal, enthusiastic ad-
ventures in the Bahamas in 1946, 147,
and '49, searching for the great nesta
ing colonies of flamingos which had
been reported many years before. En-
tertained and almost unwittingly in-
formed, the reader shares the sights
and cvcnas which pklas, surprise,
amuse. and intrigue the author, and
moves along in the narrative with him.
rawly Lsing view of the Bahamia.n
sent for a moment. And when the
ping ets touLih the reader hears up
wetl with author ZahL under the var-
ious hardships with a sense of self-
satisfaction. It is in all an enjoyable
experience. One returns from it un-
scathed and with a feeling that he has
acquired a reliable gnasp of Ihe grim
problem of human survival in the
Bahamas and the relationship of ihirt
to the survival of the vanishing fla-
mingo rookeries.
Occasionally the author garbles ex-
plunations of the tropical natural his-
tory with which he met. In one in-
stance (pp. 77, 78) he ellss how "hihe"


secesting information in the text make
this a valuable book and one which
will always be in demand. Mr. White,
the artists. and all the oters who con-
tributr d to this work, should be com.-
pLimcenlrd: they deserve the highest
praise- It is hoped that it will inspire
others for there is room for Rme tof
this type of presentation of the var-
ious facets of our rich flora.
L. BRUCE LElDIN
2'0 pp.. illus.. Bobbs-Merrill. N. Y-.


mangrove grows. He describes the
down-arched airial roots and the "vi-
viparous" dart-like fruit which are
characteristic of the red mangrove
( Rhizophora niingleri aA apparently on
the same plants with the asparagu,-
like pneumatophores which distinguish
the black mangrove IAv icnania ni-
rida). Again ipp. '161. 163) he iden-
tifies a saltwater plant gwing in Ibed
in shallows as "'eelgrns Zosera?).
His un'eciered Bahamian guide called
the plant "turile gra%" which is much
more likely to be correct Thalassan
tesrudinum). In his desrption of
Bird Cay, he describes the sooty terns
as silting upon *'scvorl" eggs (p. 188).
This species -ordinarily lays only one
egg and just occasionally two. These
minor fumblingp of facl appear to hb
few. but they may cauus one to won-
der if the more important implications
of this book were approached as
lightly. Such discrep;ncis should not
prevent one from enjoying this stimu-
lating and cntlerlining narrative of
ventures into Bahamian wildernesses
in search of the elusive and vanishing
flamingo. EirTOR.


THE OCEAN RIVER by Henry Chapin and F. GC Walton Smith. Charges
Scriber and Sons. 1952, 325 pages illustrated. S3.50.


This is an easily ad book covering
a dd far broader than its lile sug-
gesits 1i encompasses such diverw sub-


jctas t he evolution of life, a review
of the legnd of Atlantis, the nature
of the Gulf Sitram and the colonira-






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


ion of America, An iatempt is made
to interreate the varied subjects by
indiCating their dependence cm the
mighty sysem of Atlantic oceanic cir-
culatinn=-Th Ocean River. This at-
lempt ii Ero ablys sucensicful and the
Continuity at timia is weak from chap-
ief t1o chap r., 3t would bave been an
improvement to onmi su ch digreisaos
as t'he chapter on cvolu.ion and the
Alantiii, icpd and to have placed



WaTE:a WAc A; by Rube Allyn. 242
New York. $3.50.
I read this book undcr the impr es-
.don ihat inrce it included an account
of a boat trip through the Everglades
National Park and down ihe lForida
Ke-. i mighl ell contain interesting
remarks of objecl- cof natural history
ohw 'rvd. In this hook. however, the
author appearG to regard the wilder-
nc-s only an ;a challenge to his viri'iiy.
resiurcefuilnrSs, and luck, a sort of
dJcpcerz;c p tnilel Io be run so that
one can sav he Cdid. Description and
diagram of ihr "wwier wagon" in


more emphasis on the current systems
and allied: phenomena.
Written obviously for the layman it
presents in cear and interesting fash-
iok a review of many subt rts relaing
to tih ocean. .et gFreaest va lue may
be to bring the non-speciaiJst up to
date on certain phami of ocean since
and r-frerh his memory uith a brief
account of the dc vclopimet o sea
routes and American coonization. -
I. iLOWIE II E.(..


pp., illus. Farrar Saratss anid Young

which the author made his trips how-
ever. imUprTm this reviewer as a re-
volutionary design for an inexpensive.
practical ves el which is sucprbly
adapted for ue in the shallow rivers
and kay) of the mangrove coast. Flor-
ida Bay, and among the lorida, Ke)ys.
A man who %ants to acquaint his
family wiih thc wonders of natural
history in these shallow water areas
might do no bellcr tharn to investigate
this hoal.-E rro-n.







Background Notes on Authors


( Thai the Big Mahogany Hamrmocks in the Everglades National Park
should have remain undiscovered and unspoild so latw as the spring of
1948 is one of the o:st remarkable facts in the botanical history of south
Florida. Author Taylor R_ Alexander and his colleague Roy O, Woodbury
were the first botanists and perhaps the first while men to enter these
remr:o and venerable cathedrals of plant life, and author Alexander has
visited them more than any other man. His article on THE LARGEST
MAHOGANY TREE tells of the magnificent mahoganies there and the lush
vegetation which decorates their great limbs and ensconces them in
royal state.
Born in Arkansas. author Alexander was educated at Ouachita College
and the University of Chicago, and came to south Florida in 1940.
Teaching botany at the University of Miami, this author rose through the
ranks in sev-n years to full professor and chairman of the Department of
Botany. Each year now he takes qualified students with him on a held
expedition to the Big Mahogany Hammocks to view and study this
crescendo of south Florida plant life. These expeditions go equipped
with snakeitee kits, mosquito dope, food, and a rubber boat for crossin
an impeding waterway.
With his wife Edith ard daughters Beth and Barbara Eve, author Alex-
ander resides in South Miami. His nin-year-old daughter Beth has de-
clared her independence in early selection of a career. She confidently
asserts that she is going to be an ornithologist.

C One of the people whom most visitors to Everglades National Park
this past winter have seen iand talked to, was ranger-naturalist David Kar-
raker, because of his assignment to Paradise Key and Taylor Slough. Park
vLsitors kept him busy answering questions, but in between he kept sharp
watch on the birds and reptiles about. As a result he occasionally wit-
acsed fascinating events in their ceaseess struggle for existence. THE
MYSTERY VOICE OF TAYLOR SLOUGH relates some of his impressions and
observations of the many busy animals hun ing and being hnted in an
undisturbed state of nature there.
Author Karraker was born n New York City in 1928 and educated






EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY


at Bucknell University and the University of Florida. At the latter insti-
tution he did a piece of field research on a small area enclosing a large
water bird rookery, Coming to the park directly from there, he was very
much in his element interpreting nature to park visitors at Taylor Slough.
Late this spring when his seasonal duty terminated here, author Karraker
obtained a seasonal summer position at Glacier National Park. There is
a good possibility that late fail may bring him back on the return migration
to further duty here and more reporting in Everglades Natural History.
The illustration for The mystery voice of Taylor Slough is a sketch
which Robert W. Topp made of the slough from Anhinga Trail. Artist
Topp first came to the Everglades National Park as a seasonal employee
this past winter. He was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and worked with a field
party of the United States Geological Survey before coming to the park.
When this energetic young man adds university training to his keen inter-
est in natural history and his talent for art, he will go a long way.

C As one might suspect from the intimate knowledge of the native com-
posite flowers shown in COMPOSITE PLANTS IN THE EVERGLADES NATIONAL
PARK, author R. Bruce Ledin has done earlier special work on this family
of plants. Just two years ago he published "Compositae of south Florida."
This publication provides drawings and simple keys which enable inter-
ested amateurs to identify with confidence the wild composites of south
Florida, and it won the prize as the most valuable scientific contribution
published by the Florida Academy of Sciences for 1951,
Educated at the University of Minnesota and the University of Indiana,
author Ledin (pronounced Leh-dccen) came to south Florida in 194.6 as
instructor in botany at the University of Miami. He left that university in
1951 to take his present position on the staff of the Subtropical Experi-
mental Station at Homestead. Here he conducts studied, on tropical fruits,
ornamental plants, and plant introductions from other lands.
From author Ledin we also have in this issue a thoughtful and stim-
ulating review of the book "Flowering trees of the Caribbean." His own
recent work on tropical flowering trees in south Florida as co-author of
the new book "400 plants of south Florida" and his own experiences
studying plants in the West Indies, have signally qualified him to pass
this appraisal on to the rest of us.






NOTES ON AUTHORS


I Early experiences birding in the wilderness area of Pymatuning Swamp
in northeastern Pennsylvania may in some occult way have led author
Willard E. Dilley to a later acquaintance with birds of the Everglades which
now provides us with his BIRD VISITORS AND NORTHEAST WINDS. In
between Pymatuning and the Everglades National Park author Dilley has,
among other things, held several positions in the U. S. Sugar Corporation
at Clewiston, Florida, and served as a Lt. Commander in the air arm of
the U. S. Naval Reserve ,during the war.
Coming to the Everglades National Park in late 1947, author Dilley
first served as a park ranger. Perhaps his most telling experience in that
line was on the lonely strand of the remote sand beach at Cape Sable when
an intoxicated commercial fisherman came ashore to insist with the muzzle
of his rifle on the "rights" to kill sea turtles on the beach. Author Dilley
stood his ground. The bully talked himself out and departed. The martyrs'
headstones on lonely Cape Sable beach remained at one.
A life-long hobby of studying native bird-life became professional when
author Dilley switched positions in 1948 to Park Naturalist. His work with
the Everglades National Park is taking groups of people on conducted
walks, showing the Park film to interested organizations, and otherwise
helping people to understand what the Park is about.

C Getting down to the rock bottom of the Everglades with author Robert
N. Ginsburg in his article SURFACE ROCK IN THE LOWER EVERGLADES is
really something new. We south Floridians have over the years been ex-
posed to some information about the rock on which we stand, by Charles
Torrey Simpson, by Marjorie Stoneman Douglas, and by others. Author
Ginsburg, however, brings to this subject the very special authority of one
who has lately been engaged in scientific studies of that on which he writes.
We think it is to author Ginsburg's everlasting credit that we knew him
for three years before we found out he is by birth, a Texan. He acquired
his education at the University of Illinois and the University of Chicago,
and has been a research assistant since 1950 at the Marine Laboratory of
the University of Miami. This author engages in revolutionary sorts of
investigations which have the most remarkable imaginative appeal. Cur-
rently he is for one thing scrutinizing the private lives of humble algae
plants which form mats on the surface of the sawgrass Everglades, to dis-






38 EVERGLADES NATURAL HISTORY

cover whether they are very slowly and innocently depositing new layers
of limestone rock.

C A number of people in south Flonda can answer more questions about
birds than can park biologist Joseph C. Moore. His graduate tain-
ing and research experience before coming to Everglades National Park
had nothing to do with birds. Birdlife being a focal point of interst in
the park. however, he soon found himself investigating birds more than
anything else. After three years of field investigations, mosrdy directed at
wading birds, apparently he has begun to find out thing about some of
the birds. GLossY II.SEs IN THE EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK iS an
account of what he has learned about one of the rarer of these.
Born (1914) and reared in the nation's capital, author Moore "grew
up in the zoological park," enjoyed many visits to the natural history
exhibi t of the Smitlsonian Institution, and lived out his early adolescence
in the city libraries. At the age of nine he received from his discerning
mother. a set ,of six volumes of Ernest Tho mpson Setons natural history
books for boys. That, apparenicy. did it
Educated at the University of Kentucky and University of Florida.
author Moore served during the war as a naval offlcer in the Amphibious
Force in Europe. His Iraining is in mammalogy, and he has published
research done in Florida on the short-Wailed shrew. the long-tailed wasd.,
and the (flat-tailed?) manate.e In 1940 he married a cd., Evelyn Lan-
nrte, whom he had met in a botany class, and they now have three daugh-
ters. Rosalind. Diana and Melliny, ages nine, seven, and siA








Infomwati for Authors


nini m KATUEAi ummy I T ccpts articles ad
ol p~rpaedr as desabed below on somh F 0ai~ maime
hiM~ y. bThee p ed-er, or 8 A n=tig
Oeri., ocog plCs &i= aw .ms and .t a musme Wit
wffl be ifHiarting anid sinformtivEw tO the lay pubie 'ao louthb
Flaila and I visor to the Hw du N~lima Pit.
lsma, i of i&sfere u ti mCl~ should :m f beta ee tln d
12r wand, and tos for So 1e aNow a.sogu woM
beti tn ta bot50 amO d 200 wEtd, MSoneiptt viclh iSndndr
morig expr~rise or ow berMvtio by be aibr re pre-
arexs Whilee Cae wiM be giv o hu landlng aunsipis and
imsr-minmj neCCer Wi ti=m frt. e flnanettuu ciA ac-
ept irponibiMtyfo fr their safety

sm1. m awI M mi W&r urr. Articles and notes anbmited
for piblcation shook be typewritten, preferably on standard
sie and we i s typing paper. Al written materal should be
typed double spaced. Photographs for lustratkin shoul be
g y prit of good contrat, and wMth no arl a t he
back Drawi tp should be i India Ik wo sheet of pod
paper Aepbaer fro m te nmuript Phstgrphst and dftaw-
Insp Wniffflt as fiM pap ilostrwaks abooid preferably be
Wabot eih by aBn bid Gatly -poo will be wtannemd it
seqned, and mrtcs mst = aranpe i advaec it sprIts
an- lo be mb.L Aiddai or saile to es A ii'Maii fj pnediu -
dimr be idndresmd a 1 Ear, Efr&s Nearl
Blury, EmC 275, wntar, FkWAL.






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