Title: History of Science Society newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093941/00036
 Material Information
Title: History of Science Society newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: History of Science Society
Publisher: History of Science Society
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: October 2010
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00093941
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

Zhu Kezhen and His Contributions

to the History of Science in China

by Liu Dun, Institute for the History of .\Land~l Science
Chinese Academy ofSciences, Beifing

Zhu Kezhen (E [%rff); also Chn Co-Ching and [Wade Giles] Chn
K'o-chen, (1890-1974) was from Shangyu in Zhejiang Province. In
1910 he went to the United States to study agronomy and meteorology
at the College of Agriculture of the University of Illinois. After
completing his studies there in 1913, he went to Harvard University
where, five years later, he received his PhD in meteorology. On his
return to China he began teaching and editing at Wuhan, Nanjing,
Shanghai and Tianjin, and, beginning in 1920, he served as chair of
the Department of Mleteorology at Nanjing University. In 1928 he
joined the Academia Sinica, and founded China's first Institute of
Meteorology (in Nanjing). In 1936 he became President of Zhejiang
University, and, after the founding of the People's Republic of China
in 1949, Zhn became Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of
Sciences (CAS). As early as the 1920s he had taken an interest in the
history of the science, and he wrote more than thirty papers on the
history of astronomy, climatology, geography, and on historiographical
issues on the history of science in ancient China. He paid special
attention to collating and analyzing China's ancient scientific legacy.
His masterpiece, "A Preliminary Study on the Climatic Changes in the
Past 5000 Years in China," is an extraordinary example of "using the
past to serve the present." Partly due to this paper, Zhn is considered a
pioneer of the long-term study of phenology.
Zhn was a crucial figure in the planning and organization of the
history of science in the People's Republic of China. His article, "Why
Study the History of China's Ancient Science," published in the
People's Daily on August 27, 1954, was a sign that the history of science
in China was entering a new phase of systematic organization. In
Continued on Pae 2

Table of Con tents
Notes from the Inside 3
News and Inquiries 5
Member News 12
Cold WJar Transformed science:
A Report on the Francis Bacon
Conference at Cal Tech 14
Conversing in a Cyberspace
Community: Ihe Growth of
HPS Blogging 16
Multiple WJays to Salvation:
Tenure and Teaching-Intensive
Appointments 20

L~ C

--i~ ------- ~

A page of references f om the dra~ft
ofZhu* Kezhen's Climatic Changes

NEWoSleet ter~


February of 1956 Zhn chaired a consultative meeting U1 c
of experts that discussed the formulation of a plan
for developing the history of science as a discipline.
In September of that year he led a delegation to the
VIIIth International Congress for the History of
Science in Florence and Milan, Italy, where New
China was accepted as a member of the International
Union of the History of Science (now the Division
of the History of Science and Technology of the
International Union of the History and Philosophy
of Science) during the Congress.

As a result of this acceptance, on 3 September
1956 a Chinese delegation participated for the first Fig. 2
time in an international meeting on the history of ZuKze drsigoeigcrmn tteVI
sciece.Figre shws Zu Kzhe adresingInternational Congress for the History of Science in

the opening ceremony. Seated at the platform and lrn dlil, ty n 36
recognizable in the picture are, according to Zhu's
handwritten notes, from left to right: Raymond
Klibansky (Canada), William-Henri Schopfer (President), Roberto Almagill (Italy), and Fritz Bodenheimer
(Israel). In fact, Schopfer's nationality was Swiss, and he served two consecutive terms as second vice-president of
the International Union of the History of Science. The other figures in the photograph remain to be identified.

Continued on Pae 21

History of Science Society
440 Geddes Hall
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556
Phone: 574-631-1194; Fax: 574-631-1533
E-mail: Infoehssonline.org
Web site: http://www.hssonline.org/
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E-mail: subscriptionsepress.uchicago.edu
Or write: University of Chicago Press,
Subscription Fulfillment Manager, PO Box 37005,
Chicago, IL 60637-7363
Please notify both the HSS Executive Office and
the University of Chicago Press.

The History of Science Society Newsletter Is published In January, April,
July, and October, and sent to all Individual members of the Society.
The N~ews/etter Is edited and published In the Executive Office. The
format and editorial pollcles are determined by the Executive Director
In consultation with the Committee on Publications and the Society
Editor. AII advertising copy must be submitted In electronic form.
Advertisements are accepted on a space-available basis only, and
the Society reserves the right not to print a submission. The rates
are as follows: Full page (7 x 9.25"), $625; Horizontal or Vertical Half
page (7 x 4.6"), $375; Quarter page (3.5 x 4.6"), $225. The deadline
for Insertion orders Is six weeks prior to the month of publication
and should be sent to the attention of the HSS Executive Office. The
deadline for news, announcements, and job/fellowship/ prize Ilstings Is
firm: Six weeks prior to the month of publication. Long Items (feature
stories) should be submitted eight weeks prior to the month of
publication. Please send all material to the attention of the executive
office: Infoehsson~lne.org.
@ 2010 by the History of Science Society

History of Science Society Newsletter

Notes from the Inside

Greetings from Notre Dame!
We have landed at the University of Notre Dame du Lac...for the most part. The Executive Office currently
occupies a temporary space in the Hesburgh Library, in room 1201, until our rooms in Geddes Hall become
available later this year. For those wishing to contact us, the address at Geddes Hall (on our website and in the
Newsletter), as well as our phone number, will work for our current location. We plan to move into our new
space on 6 December and will then transfer the remaining files from Florida to Notre Dame. The transition has
been smoothed considerably by the helpful people at Notre Dame, so much so that when my son and I boarded
the elevator in the library recently and bumped into Father Hesburgh (the legendary president emeritus of Notre
Dame), who still maintains an office on the floor above us, we were able to answer his question of"How are we
treating you?" with "Quite well."

Because the annual meeting is nigh, we have tried to move quickly in setting up the office. I have hired a
new Society Coordinator, Greg Macklem (see the Newsletter announcement about Greg) to succeed Virginia
Hessels as the "person who wears all the hats." Virginia was kind enough to spend a weekend here in South
Bend recently and to show Greg the many details of the job. Two graduate students have also joined us:
John Cirilli (history of science) and Manuela Fermindez Pinto (philosophy of science). Manuela has been
coordinating the travel grants and volunteers for the conference, and John has already mastered web postings
and is helping to proofread the Newsletter, the conference program and other publications. We are lucky to be
able to draw on the talents of Greg, Manuela, and John, a happy byproduct of the flourishing HPS program
here at Notre Dame. I experienced this vibrancy when I attended the first colloquium of the semester
(the students had chosen to focus on Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development ofa Scientific Fact) and was
surrounded by 30 faculty, students, and friends of the discipline, still another sign of the deep interest here in
the history and philosophy of science.

We are adjusting to our move from Florida to the Upper Midwest. Even though Autumn has not yet arrived
as I write this, the trees are beginning to show color and, for the first time in their lives, I sent my children to
school in September wearing jackets, a harbinger of the winter to come. I am eager to begin this new chapter in
HSS's future.
Thank you for your membership in the HSS.
fay Malone
HSS Executive Director

History of Science Society Newsletter


palgrave Distributor of Berg Publishers, I.B.Tauris, Manchester University Press, Pluto Press and Zed Books
macmllan(888) 330-8477 Fax: (800) 672-2054 www.paigrave.com

Reconsidering the International Polar and Geophysical Years
Edited by Roger D. Launius, James Rodger FLeming, and David H. DeVorkin

The International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year represented a remarkable interna-
tional collaborative scientific effort that was focused on, but not Limited to, understanding the Earth's
poles. This groundbreaking collection redresses the surprising failure of historians to explore beyond even
a cursory manner the richness of the IPYs and IGY as sites of historical and scientific study. In doing so, it
illuminates critical aspects of the Last 150 years of international scientific endeavor.
December 2010 / 400 pp. I Includes: 40 pgs figs
ISBN: 978-0-230-10533-1 / $30.00 pb. (C$34.50)

John M. Logsdon
While there are many biographies of John F. Kennedy and numerous
accounts of the early years of US space efforts, there has to date been no
comprehensive account of how the actions taken by JFK's administration
shaped the course of the US space program over the last 45 years. This
book, based on primary source material and interviews with key participants,
tells the story of how JFK, only four months in office, decided that the US
national interest required the country to enter and win the space race by
reaching the moon "before this decade is out." It traces the evolution of his
thinking and policy up until his assassination.
January 2011 / 320 pp.
ISBN: 978-0-230-11010-6/$235.00 hc.(C$42.00)

john Tyndall and the Role of the Scientist in Victorian Culture
Ursula DeYoung
Ursula DeYoung examines a pivotal moment in the history of science
through the career and cultural impact of the Victorian physicist John
Tyndall, one of the leading figures of his time and a participant in many
highly publicized debates that extended well beyond the purely scientific
realm. This book argues that as a researcher, public lecturer, and scientific
popularizer, Tyndall had a sizable impact on the establishment of the scien-
tist as an authoritative figure in British culture.
March 2011 / 272 pp.
ISBN: 978-0-230-11053-3 I $80.00 bc. (C$97.oo)

Crackpots, Eggheads, and Cryptozoology
Brian Regal
This fresh and entertaining look at the search for Sasquatch concerns more
than just the startling and controversial nature of monsters and monster
hunting in the late 20th century, but the more important relationshiP
between the professional scientists and amateur naturalists who hunt
them--and their place in the history of science. Drawing on new, original
manuscript sources, Brian Regal shows this model to be inaccurate: many
professional scientists eagerly sought anomalous primates, examining their
traces and working out theoretical paradigms to explain them.
April 2011 / 256 pp.
ISBN: 978-0-230-11147-9 I $75.00 bc. (C$91.00)

Aaron Gillette
"Gillette covers a development in intellectual history that, I believe, was for-
mative in generating today's conventional wisdom about human nature, yet
has scarcely been treated by historians of science. The book is well written
and researched, and brings interesting new facts to light."--Steven Pinker,
Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology, Harvard, and author of The Stuffof
January 2011 / 256 pp.
IsBN: 978-o-230-10845-51 $27.00 pb. (C$31.00)

British Airs and the Making of Environmental Medicine
VLadimir Jankovic
This book explores the social origins of the Western preoccupation with
health and environmental hazards. It looks at the rise of the dichotomy
between the vulnerable "in" and the threatening "out" by examining the
pathologies associated with weather, domestic space, ventilation, clothing,
and travel in Britain at the turn of the 19th century.
october 2010 / 256 pp. 1 10 pg. figs.
IsBN: 978-o-230-10475-41 $80.00 bc. (C$92.00)

NuclearAntiaircraftArms and the Cold War
Christopher J. Bright
By recounting official actions, doctrinal decisions, and public policies, this
book traces this armament from conception through deployment. It also
discusses the widespread acceptance of these weapons by the American
public, a result, in part, of being touted in news releases, and featured in
films and television episodes at the time.
2010 / 288 pp. I 7 pp. figs.
IsBN: 978-o-230-62340-8/ I 80.00 bc. (C$92.00)

AlsoForthcomingin 2077
John Henry
Medicine, Health andSocietysince 1500

History of Science Society Newsletter


HSS Early Renewal Discount

The University of Chicago Press has announced
a promotion whereby you can renew your HSS
membership with a 15% discount. This offer is
valid until 31 October 2010, and will be honored
whether you renew online, by e-mail, or by
phone (Go to JournalPUBS/WebForm2 .aspx~webpub =isis>
and enter promotion HSS11 (email:
subscriptionsepress.uchicago.edu) or order by
phone Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5 pm
Central Time by calling (773) 753-3347 or toll-free
in U.S. and Canada (877) 705-1878--mention the
promotion when you phone). If you have already
renewed your membership just prior to this offer,
you will be receiving a refund equal to 15% of your
subscription. Thank you for your support of the
History of Science Society.

Greg Macklem: HSS's New Society

In conjunction with the move =
to Notre Dame, the HSS now
has a new coordinator, who
succeeds Ms. Virginia Hessels.
He is Gregory Macklem, an
alumnus of the University of
Michigan. Greg, as he likes to
be called, earned his bachelor
of science in mathematics
and biology (a double major)
in 1993, followed by his teacher certification a year
later, also at Michigan. From 1994 to 2002 he
taught mathematics and biology to secondary school
students, while also serving as a coach, both for the
Academic Decathlon team and for the volleyball team
(the type of coaching for which one must master
the art of back-and-forth-excellent preparation for
the Executive Office). He won numerous awards as

a teacher, including the Milken National Educator
Award in 2001. He entered the graduate program
in the history and philosophy of science at Notre
Dame in 2002 and from 2006 to 2010, he served
as the acting director of the undergraduate program
in Science, Technology and Values at Notre Dame,
performing those duties, as one faculty member
described it, in "simply spectacular" fashion. Greg
not only brings to his work a keen interest in the
profession, he also possesses the tools to help the
office run efficiently. And because he remains
passionate about education, Greg will help us to reach
out to the wider community, and I plan to involve
him in our Committee on Education. You will see
Greg at the annual meeting--please pause and offer
him a hearty welcome to the Executive Office (and
then inform him that we are out of coffee).

Newton's Principia First Edition
(1687) Census

A new census of extant copies of the first edition
of Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Princeiai
Madthematica (1687) is being prepared. This census
is seeking any information on copies that are/
were either owned by private collectors or located
in obscure places (e.g. little known libraries not
integrated into Worldcat, ESTC, KVK, etc).
Contacts: Mordechai Feingold (California Institute
of Technology) feingoldehss.caltech.edu and
Andrej Svorencik (University of Amsterdam)

Joel Hewett Appointment

Joel Hewett, the Kranzberg Graduate Fellow in
the School of History, Technology and Society at
Georgia Tech, has been appointed to work as a
researcher in the division of Policy and Research for
President Obama's National Commission on the BP
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling.

History of Science Society Newsletter

editor), starting January 2011. The new book reviews
editor will succeed Anna Crozier, who is relocating to
China. Social History ofl~edicine has a lively review
section with about 90 reviews per year. Standard
reviews run at about 700 words, focus reviews and
reviews of edited collections at about 1000. We
are looking for an experienced, efficient and well-
established medical historian who can work as part
of a team and who will ensure editorial cohesion.
Experts in all areas of history of medicine and/
or time-periods will be considered. Applicants are
asked to send a C.V. and a statement of interest
to the Chair of the Society, Dr. Lutz Sauerteig,
Centre for the History of Mledicine and Disease,
Wolfson Research Institute, Durham University,
Queen's Campus, Stockton-on-Tees TS17 6BH, UK
(email: 1.d.sauerteigedurham.ac.uk) .

Deutsches Museum in Munich:
Schola r-i n- Resi dence Progra m

The Deutsches Museum in Munich solicits
applications to its Scholar-in-Residence program, for
periods of either 6 or 12 months, with an application
deadline of 17 October 2010. This program is
international and interdisciplinary, and welcomes
applications from scholars at all stages of their careers,
from pre-doctoral to senior scholars. The Deutsches
Museum is one of the world's premier museums of
science and technology and has extensive library,
archives, and collections resources. It operates its
own Research Institute and has close ties to the
history of science and technology programs in the
three universities in Munich (Munich Center for the
History of Science and Technology).

F further info rm atio n: www. dentsches-mus eum.del
en/res earch/scholar-in-residencel

PACHS Fellowships

The Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science
offers Dissertation Research Fellowships (one month,
with a $2,000 stipend) and Dissertation Writing
Fellowships (nine months, with a $23,000 stipend)
for doctoral candidates whose projects are concerned
with the history of science, technology or medicine.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Lijing Jiang awarded FHSAsia
Travel Prize

Congratulations to Lijing Jiang of Arizona State
University, who has received a Travel Prize from the
Forum for the History of Science in Asia (FHSAsia)
-a newly forming interest group in the HSS. Well

Further Information: www.history.ubc.calfhsal


The Forum for the History of Science in Asia
(FHSAsia) will hold its inaugural brownbag meeting
at HSS Montrial. Everyone interested in the history
of science in Asia, broadly construed, is invited to
join us on Friday, November 5, 2010, 12:00 to 1:15
in the 11d des Indiens Room.

As a newly formed interest group within HSS,
FHSAsia aims to connect scholars of Asia and to
highlight relevant papers and events at annual
meetings. In the near future we hope to sponsor
sessions, to host distinguished lectures, to organize
roundtables on issues of professional development,
and to recognize publicly the exciting new work
our members are producing. We encourage broad
participation and extend a special invitation to
international presenters, junior scholars, and
historians who want to "think with" science in Asia
but have not yet ventured into the field.

Come meet like-minded scholars, exchange ideas
and resources, and help us plan future activities,
We will be explaining new features of our website,
introducing our officers, and establishing our agenda
for the coming year. In the meantime, please register
at http://www.history.ubc.calfhsal for the latest
FHSAsia updates, announcements, and discussions.
See you in Montrial!

Social History of Medicine Seeks
New Book Reviews Editor

Social History ofl~edicine seeks a new book
reviews editor to join Graham Mooney and Pratik
Chakrabarti (co-editors) and Ruth Biddiss (assistant

The one-month fellowships are intended for students
wishing to use the collections of two or more of
the Center's member institutions, which include
some of the premier repositories of primary source
materials in the United States, and the nine-month
fellowships for students wishing to participate in
our interdisciplinary community of scholars while
completing research and writing their dissentations.
Applications must be submitted online by 10
January 2011. For more information on the Center's
fellowships, resources for research, events and
activities, see www.pachs.net.

National Library of Medicine An-
nounces "History of Medicine
Finding Aids Consortium",

The History of Mledicine Division of the National
Library of Mledicine (NLM) is pleased to announce
the release of its prototype History of Medicine
Finding Aids Consontium (www.nim.nih.gov/hmd/
consortiumlindex.html) a search-and-discovery
tool for archival resources in the health sciences
that are described by finding aids and held by
various institutions throughout the United States. A
finding aid is a tool created by archivists to provide
contextual information about collections, oftentimes
with detailed inventories to help researchers locate
relevant materials.

NLM is the world's largest medical library and a
component of the National Institutes of Health.
The resource crawls existing v web content mana red
by several partner institutions, provides keyword
search functionality, and provides results organized
by holding institution. Links point to the holding
institution's websites. Formats indexed consist of
HTML, PDF, and Encoded Archival Description
XML. The project does not include content held
in bibliographic utilities or other database-type
information. Crawls are conducted monthly to
ensure that the information is current and to capture
new content as it is released.

NLM's History of Mledicine Division invites libraries,
archives and museums possessing archival materials
related to the history of medicine and health sciences

in their collections to join this consortium. For
more information about the project or requests to
join the Consontium, please contact John P. Rees,
Archivist and Digital Resources Manager, NLM, at

Call for Papers: The Journal of
Microbiology and Antimicrobials

JMA will cover all areas of gene expression and
regulation, signaling and communication, stress
responses, secretion, differentiation and development,
cell cycles, ultrastructure microbial ecology, non-
pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, population
genetics, community structures and interactions,
biodegradation and bioremediation, biodiversity
and evolution (systems biology, genomics and
proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics,
synthetic microbiology, bioinformatics, gene
transfer, chromosomes and extrachromosomal
DNA), mechanisms of human, animal and plant
pathogenesis, virulence and virulence factors, cellular
microbiology, infections and immunity, antibiotic-
resistance mechanisms, metabolic pathways and their
regulation, bioenergetics and transport, synthesis of
macromolecules, microbiology and antimicrobials.
The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts
that meet the general criteria of significance and
scientific excellence in this subject area, and will
Original articles in basic and applied research
Case studies
Critical reviews, surveys, opinions,
commentaries and essays

We invite you to submit your manuscript(s) to
papers.jmaegmail.com for publication. Our
objective is to inform authors of the decision
regarding their manuscript(s) within four weeks
of submission. Following acceptance, a paper will
normally be published in the next issue. Instruction
for authors and other details are available on our
web site: www. academic ournals.org/JMAl
Instruction.htm. JMA is an Open Access Journal.
One key request of researchers across the world is
unrestricted access to research publications.

History of Science Society Newsletter

which the human genome project, stem cell research,
and new reproductive technologies have proven so
controversial, the history of eugenics has much to
teach us about the relationships among scientific
research, technology, and human ethical decision-

About the Author(s): Alison Bashford is Professor
of Modern History at the University of Sydney.
She has published widely on the modern history of
science and medicine, including Purity and Pllution
and Imperial Hygiene, and has co-edited Contagion,
Isolation, and Medicine at the Border. Philippa Levine
is the Mary Helen Thompson Centennial Professor in
the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.
Her books include Prostitution, Race and Plitics:
Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire, and
7he British Empire, Sunrise to Sunset.

The Metropolitan New York
Section Lectures for 2010-2011
The Metropolitan Section Lectures for 2010-2011
will be:
* Oct 27, 2010: Ruth Schwantz Cowan, "Climbing
Up the Slippery Slope: Mandated Genetic
Screening on the Island of Cyprus"
* Dec 1, 2010: Peder Anker, "History of Spaceship
Earth Science"

* Jan 26, 2011: Marwa Elshakry, "Golden Ages
in the History of Science: Arabic Sciences in
* Feb 23, 2011: Spencer Weart, "The Evolution of
Nuclear Fear, 1900-2010"
* Mar 30, 2011: Gideon Manning, "Descantes the
Medical Philosopher"
* Apr 27, 2011: Giora Hon, "The history of the
concept of symmetry: A case of evolution or

* May 19, 2011: Will Andrewes, "MAKING
TIME: Astronomy, cartography, and the art and
science of finding time"

Locations are TBA. Updates will be posted on
http ://nychistoryo science. org/

Call for Papers: The Journal of
Medical Genetics and Genomics
(J MG G)

JMGG will cover all areas of genetics and genomics.
The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts
that meet the general criteria of significance and
scientific excellence in this subject area, and will
Original articles in basic and applied research
Case studies
Critical reviews, surveys, opinions,
commentaries and essays

We invite you to submit your manuscript(s) to
jmgg.manuscriptsegmail.com for publication.
Our objective is to inform authors of the decision
on their manuscript(s) within four weeks of
submission. Following acceptance, a paper will
normally be published in the next issue. Instruction
for authors and other details are available on our
website: www.academicjournals.org/JMGGI
Instruction.htm. JMGG is an Open Access

New Publication: The Oxford Hand-
book of the History of Eugenics

Eugenic thought and practice swept the world from
the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century in
a remarkable transnational phenomenon. Eugenics
informed social and scientific policy across the
political spectrum, from liberal welfare measures
in emerging social-democratic states to feminist
ambitions for birth control, from public health
campaigns to totalitarian dreams of the "perfectibility
of man." This book dispels for uninitiated readers
the automatic and apparently exclusive link between
eugenics and the Holocaust. It is the first world
history of eugenics and an indispensable core text for
both teaching and research. Eugenics accumulated
generations of interest as experts attempted to
connect biology, human capacity, and policy.
Eugenics has addressed and continues to address
questions of race, class, gender and sex, evolution,
governance, nationalism, disability, and the social
implications of science. In the current climate, in

History of Science Society Newsletter

History of Science Society Newsletter

Prizes will be in the following fields: Ancient
History (The Graeco-Roman World), Enlightenment
studies, Theoretical Biology and Bioinformatics,
and The Early Universe (from Planck-time to the
first galaxies). The amount of each of the four 201 1
Balzan Prizes will be 750.000 Swiss Francs (approx.
6577,000, $740,000, 470,000). The award fields
vary each year and can relate to either a specific or
an interdisciplinary field, and look to go beyond the
traditional subjects both in the humanities (literature,
the moral sciences and the arts) and in the sciences
(medicine and the physical, mathematical and natural
sciences), so as to give priority to innovative research.
Half of the amount received by the winner of each of
the four prizes must be destined for research work,
preferably involving young scholars and researchers.

The public announcement, under the auspices of the
City of Mlilan, was followed by a lecture by Paolo
Rossi Monti, 2009 Balzan Prize for the History
of Science, entitled "La scienza e la sua storia"
(science and its history). The International Balzan
Foundation, founded in 1957, operates through
two different institutions. The International Balzan
Foundation (chaired in Milan by Ambassador Bruno
Bottai) selects the subjects to be awarded and the
candidates through its General Prize Committee.
The Balzan Foundation "Fund" (chaired in Zurich
by Achille Casanova) administers the estate left by
Eugenio Balzan. Funther information and pictures of
the Prizewinners are available on www.balzan.org.

One Woman's Labor: Judith
Leavitt's Academic Contributions
and Influence on the Profession--A
Conference Celebrating Her Life
and Le gacy
A conference in honor of Judy Leavitt was held at the
University of Wisconsin, Madison, on 1-2 October
2010. The following description touches on her
contributions to the history of science and medicine.

In the last three decades, Professor Judy Leavitt has
pursued an ambitions and far-reaching research
program on the social history of childbinth,
fatherhood, and Typhoid Mary. Her book, Brought

Latest Batch of Recent Doctoral
Dissertations from Dissertation
The latest batches of recent worldwide doctoral
dissertations pentaining to the broad scope of the
history of science and the medical humanities are
available at: www.hsis.pitt. edulguides/histmed/
researchresources/dissertations/index html.

Announcing The Bubble Chamber:
Where History and Philosophy of
Science Meets Society and Public
"The Bubble Chamber," is a new blog where
historians and philosophers of science will discuss
contemporary issues of science and society through
the lenses of historical context and critical analysis.
Founded by the University of Toronto's Science
Policy Working Group, "The Bubble Chamber" is
for those interested in a critical assessment of science
in society and its development, regulation, and
traj ecto ry: www.theb ubblechamb er.org.

The 2010 Balzan Prizewinners
At the Corriere della Sera Foundation in Milan, Dr.
Salvatore Veca, Chairman of the Balzan General
Prize Committee, together with the President of
the Balzan "Prize" Foundation, Ambassador Bruno
Bottai, announced the names of the 2010 Balzan
Prizewinners: Carlo Ginzburg (Italy), Scuola Normale
Superiore di Pisa, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, for
European History, 1400-1700 (including the British
Isles), Manfred Brauneck (Germany), University
ofHamburg, for the History of~heatre in All Its
Aspects, Shinya Yamanaka (Japan/USA), Institute for
Integrated Cell-Material Sciences at Kyoto University,
for Stem Cells: Biology and Potential Applications,
and Jacob Palis (Brazil), Instituto de Matemitica Pura
e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro for Mathematics
(Pure or Applied). This year's prize was one million
Swiss Francs (approx. 6760,000, $980,000, 638,000)
for each of the four subjects.

Professor Veca, who is also President of the General
Prize Committee, announced that the 2011 Balzan

History of Science Society Newsletter
to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950,
transformed the history of childbirth. Hailed as "the
most authoritative medical historical text on the
subject in America" and as "a book for men as well
as women," this volume sensitively and elegantly
explores the trade-offs and decisions that informed
the movement of birth from the home to the
hospital. Her next book, Typhoid Madry: Captive to -
the Public's Health, received similar accolades, as has
her most recent monograph, Madke Room for Daddy:
the journey Fom the Waiting Room to the Birthing ,ui-
Room. Using father-s' fir-st-hand accounts fr-om letter-s,
journals, and personal interviews, Judy charts the
changing experiences and expectations of expectant
fathers from the 1940s to the 1980s. Sensitive to
both power and privilege, she explores the mecreasing
involvement of fathers as well as the medical ;:
inequalities and the impacts) of race and class. Even
the reviewer for the Wall Streer journal (no friend to
the women and gender studies movement) praised o u Mnva 4 N em v
the book as "illuminating, engaging, and fascinating."
Above all, Dr. Leavitt has inspired generations of fOr the 2010 annual conference.
undergraduate, graduate, and medical students as We will be meeting with our
a teacher, as a mentor, and as a role model. Her
commitment to evidence, her investment in clarity of colleagues in the Philosophy of
expression and argument and her sense of the human Science Association.
dimensions of historical events and actors have all
influenced her students and colleagues.



@Baylor_ Press

Niow Available

An odyssey through the
history of the philosophy
of science with a compelling
human-centered vision.
"Tauber's argument relocates modern science
inside a trad itio n of pu blic d iscou rse a nd hum an
values. One of the most perceptive contributions
to this debate in recent years."
- Janet Browne, Aramont Professor of the
History of Science, Harvard University

"An original, comprehensible, and plausible
intellectual framework to rejuvenate the dialogue
between science and the humanities."
- Gilberto Corbellini, Professor of Bioethics and
History of Mlledicine, Sapienza-University of Rome

"Liberating. Who would have expected a book that
begins with positivism and (1uine to end with
-Alasdair Mllacintyre, Research Professor,
University of Notre Dame

Story of Matl

The Intrinsic Nature
of Things
The Life and Science of
Cornelius Lanczos
Barbara Gellai, Hungarian
Academy of Scienzces, Burdapest,
This rich account of the life and
accomplishments of mathematician j
441l~ and physicist Cornelius Lanczos
illustrates his deep awareness of the
I`.. ilut. 11 c.ns... m.i his notion of "science as a kind of art."
I IT.. I - ...mu- I ... atributions that include an exact solu-
r!. !? I T !?. soc !!? r.!!!. id equations for gravity and a rediscov-
.s . . hu !i ? !.!? Lawn as the singular value decomposi-
r! ! I IT.. I- . r! u...- life journey that reflects the social
uyhParole of his time

Papers on Topology
Anotlysrs Srtuls and Its
Five Supplements

Itin IIE**ll. 1 1*.[2\ il I

*( TI?? \t!!ll ..! [1 El ?i indu ..o !ell .,.

i!o [!h. I. ! l u s..o i[! ! h. [ I'. .ans. i ..

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I I ,, 1 I a I n 1 i I I. n 11. is!.I .1 I ?
.a.I n , ,,, i! I !. I I !, I r .I !? 1 .l r I.' 1 ... i .!li .. .

History of Mathemlatics .:Iur..e 3; 21:1:1 224 ,- ji: 5:<::. e. 15eN~ i;
il-92I9-523-1- L.: 11.1515" MS re..-c..t..-: I~151-1 211 *Cs. .-, ::1.- HI--MTH I--

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For many nlore publications of Interesc.
visit the AMS Boolkscore


History of Science Society Newsletter

7ematics ITrites

-=--- Pioneering Women in
99lrao American Mathematics
01000~P The Pre-1940 PhD's
e.n..Fu Judy Green, Marymyount Unzivevrsity,
Arlin~tonz, VA, and Jeanne LaDuke,
DePaul Unzivevrsity, Ch~icago, IL

Wh~at a service Judy Greene and
Jeanne LaDuke have done th~e yneth3-
Senzatics covnvmunitv! ApproxiyntPre~
th~irtyyears of research have pr..l ~.
a detailed picture ofgraduate . .;
evnatics for women in th~e United States before 1940. ... L1 ~
gy ,, _ng,,, ,f ag ,, _.--, and Iryecovnenend it t,:,l;.
to all. -A WM Newsletter

...th~ere is beauty in thisj boo-s structural simplicity. Th~ere is no doubt

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!? ti i!?...i l)!i l in? resl [?.!l Hi[ I` .s. I . i'- l 111.. Inc.!

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a r n on

Judy Leavitt was honored at a conference this
1-2 October 2010. Titled "One Woman's Labor:
Judith Leavitt's Academic Contributions and Influ-
ence on the Profession," the conference was held at
the Pyle Center, University of Wisconsin Madison
(see an overview under News and Reviews).

Greg Macklem has been appointed as the new
Coordinator of the History of Science Society. A
member of the HSS since 2002, Greg brings many
talents, as well as a passion for teaching, to the Execu_
tive Office (see more under News and Reviews).

In M emorla m

Margaret J. Osler (1942-2010)
Margaret J. Osler passed away on 15 Sept
2010, shortly after being diagnosed with pancreatic
cancer. Maggie-as she was called by everyone but her
mother-served as the HSS Secretary from 2001 until
her death. She was a devoted officer and member
throughout her many years of service, filling stints
on the HSS Council, as well as on numerous com
mittees, giving literally thousands of hours of service
to the HSS. She brought both irreverence and high
academic standards to officers' meetings, insisting on
close textual readings and encouraging everyone to
sing old labor songs (a byproduct, she would tell us,
of being raised by lefty, intellectual parents who were
so enamored with socialism that their only daughter's
middle name, Jo, was a tribute to Joseph Stalin).
Born in New York in 1942, Maggie's birth saw
many complications and she almost lost her mother.
Maggie's story about this episode, of how her father-

some would say miraculously-was able to save her
mother, is a vivid depiction of the tension between
faith and reason. Her family moved to Baltimore
while she was still a child, and it was in Baltimore
that, as a young student, she exhibited her highly-
developed sense of right and wrong, even picketing
businesses that refused to serve African-Americans-a
risky proposition for a young woman during the civil
rights era in Baltimore. She excelled as a student and
attended Swarthmore College, a place that she loved.
After graduating in 1963, she entered graduate school
at Indiana University, in Bloomington, Indiana,
where she worked with Sam Westfall. After graduat-
ing in 1968 with her PhD in the history and philoso-
phy of science, she struggled to find her place, but
after brief stints at Wake Forest University, Harvey
Mudd College, Oregon State University and driving
a cab, she settled happily at the University of Calgary
in 1975, in Alberta, Canada, where she worked until
her death. During her scholarly career, she became
one of the world's experts on the work of Pierre Gas-
sendi and on the early modern period. Her latest
book, ReconJiguring the World: Nature, God, and
Hurnan Understanding frorn the M~iddle Ages to Early
Modern Europe was just published by Johns Hopkins
University Press.
Maggie loved life, finding humor (and anti-Se-
mitic plots) in almost every imaginable circumstance
(as well as many that defied imagination). Her irre-
pressible sense of humor, her forthright nature, and
her acute understanding of humanity allowed her to
form friendships with a stunningly broad range of
individuals, bringing together the most unlikely of
suspects. She was a fierce defender of those whom she
liked and these friends have suffered an irreparable
An overview of her life and work can be found at
arts, ucalgary.calnews/dr-margaret-osler-fondly
remembered. A memorial service has been planned
for 20 November 2010, in Calgary.

History of Science Society Newsletter

History of Science Society Newsletter
Maggie had no immediate family members. Her For more information:
cousin, Joan Crespi, will be receiving condolence www.northwestern.edulnewscenter/stories/2010/081
cards on behalf of the Osler family. Her address is: david-hull-philosophy- obituary.html
424 Westend Avenue Apt. 9F, New York NY 10024
US. A scholarship fund in Maggie's name is being set ------
up at the University of Calgary.

John E. Murdoch (1927-2010)
John Murdoch passed away on 16 September at the
age of 83. An expert in ancient Greek and medieval
Latin science and philosophy, he received his PhD
in Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin in
1957, with a minor field in the History of Science.
Following teaching stints at both Harvard and
Princeton Universities, he joined Harvard's History of
Science department in 1963, which he served twice as
department chair (1966-1971, 1974-5). He won the
History of Science Society's George Sarton medal in
2009 in honor of his long and distinguished career.
He is survived by his wife Monika Asztalos, who will
be glad to receive letters at:
Dabelnsgatan 63, 113
52 Stockholm, Sweden

For more information:
www.thecrimson.comlarticle/20 10/9/20/

Lawrence Badash (1934-2010)
Lawrence (Larry) Badash passed away on 23 August
2010 following a diagnosis of late stage pancreatic
cancer. He received his BS in physics at Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute in 1956 and completed his PhD
in History of Science at Yale in 1964. In 1966, he
began his career at UCSB, where his work focused on
the history of physics and specifically that of nuclear
physics and weaponry. He retired in 2002 after 36
years of service. In addition to serving on several HSS
committees, he was an enthusiastic mountaineer and
a member of the Sierra Club. His daughter, Lisa Dale
Jones, his son, Bruce Badash, and Nancy Hofbaner,
his companion and soul-mate, survive him. A
celebration of Larry's life was scheduled to be held on
October 3 at 1 pm (or 1300 hours, as he would say) at
the UCSB Faculty Club.

For more information: www.history.ucsb.edulnews/
news.php~news_id= 113

Please send notices of members who have passed
away to infomanagerehssonline.org.

David L. Hull (1935-2010)
David Hull, an influential philosopher of science,
died on 11 August 2010. He was 75. Dr. Hull spent
his career understanding how science, especially
biology, works. Born in Burnside, Ill., the son of a
John Deere tractor salesman, Hull graduated from
Illinois Wesleyan University in 1960 and earned his
PhD at Indiana University in 1964, where he learned
to look at scientific questions from both philosophical
and historical perspectives. "David was not just
interested in the philosophy side but in the whole
history and development of science," said Michael
Ruse, of Florida State University. A memorial service
is being planned for October.

For any time period, characterizing the effects of
political or social context on the knowledge produced
is neither a straightforward nor an uncontentions
affair. This problem is particularly messy for the second
half of the 20th century, the full legacy of which
remains unsettled. Nonetheless, this was the task given
to the thirteen participants of this spring's Francis
Bacon Conference: How the Cold War Transformed
Science. The University of California, San Diego's
Naomi Oreskes organized the conference, which was
sponsored by the California Institute of Technology,
where Oreskes is in residence as the recipient of the
Institute's 2008 Francis Bacon Prize. Oreskes and John
Krige (Georgia Institute of Technology) framed the
proceedings of the conference.

In her opening remarks, Oreskes encouraged
the group not to shy away from making strong
claims relatin the context of Cold War science to
its content. Such hesitancy has caused what Oreskes
termed "the miasma problem": although we readily
describe the context within which mid- to late-20th
century science was practiced, we stop short of
drawing any causal lines. This seems ironic inasmuch
as we work with the historical presumption that the
demands, desires, and expectations of patrons and
of society at large must have impacts on science.
"(Such impacts are to be expected," said Oreskes,
"and it is the historian's job to determine what they
are and how they came to be." Oreskes went on to
suggest that the group could address the question
of the Cold War's impacts by examining changes in
the structures) of science and in the foci of research
agendas-including the question of who was setting
these agendas, as well as how and why-paying
primary attention to the content of scientific research
activity. She also suggested that we should inform
our discussions of the choices made by scientists
during the Cold War with a consideration of what
constraints might have been placed upon the available

Krige asked the participants to think about science
and technology in a global framework, by de-centering
the nation state, dissolving boundaries, and treating
those lines that we do draw upon the Cold War world
map as "porous membranes permitting a two-way flow
of the stuff of knowledge." Because national actors
are embedded in networks of relationships that are
not confined to individual nations, we cannot ignore
the continuous movements of people and knowledge
across national boundaries. In order to study these
movements during the Cold War, Krige encouraged
the group to consider the American and Soviet
competition for leadership in science and technology.
While competing with one another over leadership,
both the United States and the Soviet Union had to
remain involved in international dialogue. Even the
highly secure National Labs, established by the US
Atomic Energy Commission, could not have remained
relevant had they not maintained their connection to
a global network of visitors and collaborators; their
story demonstrates the inseparability of knowledge
production and circulation in ways that defy the
traditional center-periphery model.

For the group as a whole, Krige advocated not
just producing a collection or collage of histories of
Cold War science and technology in particular labs
or nations, but highlighting wherever possible the
interconnectedness of those histories. About half of
the remaining papers did go beyond American borders
to explore the effects of the Cold War on science and
technology in the Soviet Union and China. Sonja
Schmid, Asif Siddiqi, and Elena Aronova respectively
took on Soviet nuclear science and reactor engineering,
Soviet lunar rocket development, and the emergence
of a distinctly Soviet brand of science studies. Taken
together, these papers demonstrated deficiencies in
existing distinctions between science and technology,
characterizations of the differences between East
and West, as well as images of the oppressed Soviet
scientist, engineer, or philosopher. Pushing this

History of Science Society Newsletter
How the Cold War Transformed Science
Francis Bacon Conference: California
Institute of Technology, 7-9 May 2010

Madtthew Shindell, University of Calfornia, San Diego

exploration beyond the two Cold War "Superpowers,"
Zuoyue Wang and Sigrid Schmalzer explored how
the Cold War context allowed simultaneously the
flowering of self-reliant science in China and the
strengthening of transnationalism in Chinese science.

Regarding causal agency, eight major themes
emerged from the two-day discussion. First among
these was the issue of funding. Although it is obvious
that funding plays an important role in the directions
that research takes (and doesn't take), the group agreed
that this was a non-trivial issue that still needs more
emphasis in the historiography of Cold War science.
Opportunities (and opportunism), by no means
unrelated to funding but not necessarily dependent
upon it, also topped the list. Several of the papers
presented at the conference discussed episodes in which
scientists or engineers seemed to take advantage of the
Cold War context in order to undertake projects that
might not otherwise have been possible. Rhese ranged
from the development of large-scale radar equipment,
as described in the paper by David Kaiser and
Benjamin Wilson, to the use of isotopic tracers in the
biological sciences and their stable isotope counterparts
in the geological sciences, as described in separate
contributions by Angela Creager and myself.

7he third theme, which also overlapped with
the first two (in a way perhaps indicating that we
are dealing with a causal "web" rather than a set
of discreet causes), was materiel. Isotopes and the
equipment used to study them became available as
a result of the Cold War pressure to find peaceful
applications for nuclear research, were promoted by
scientists who jumped at the opportunity to nudge
scientific practice in particular directions, and in
addition became affordable to universities via Cold
War research contracts. Erik Conway's discussion of
NASA's development of space-based earth science
research platforms also demonstrated the interplay
among these three causal factors.

On a less tangible level, the group also indicated
that work on Cold War science should look more
seriously at the metaphors employed in discussing
science and technology in the Cold War. Rhese
metaphors may have structured the ways in which

actors thought about what they were doing. George
Reisch's paper, for example, demonstrated how
the metaphors and tactics devised in McCarthyist
attacks on Communism remain at work in today's
anti-evolution campaigns. Metaphors also led to
a discussion of the different ways of thinking that
proliferated during the Cold War-one prevalent
example being systems theory. Beyond metaphors
and ways of thinking, the group also pointed to the
metaphor makers themselves-those who occupied
the mediating roles of managers during the Cold
War. Rhese managers often belonged to two or more
camps-be they scientific, political, or otherwise-
and often moved, at least in their own view,
unproblematically between arenas that our analyses
have tended to treat as distinct.

7he final theme, intensification, was one of the
most common themes in all of the papers presented
in Pasadena. In every case, historians found pre-Cold
War antecedents to the scientific and technological
developments they described. But they also saw the
Cold War as an accelerating force that selectively
stimulated some existing trends, often at the
expense of others. Exactly how and why some trends
accelerated while others withered on the vine will be
a question for each participant to endeavor to answer
as the conference's task carries over into the edited
volume to be published in the near future.

Matthew Shindell is a PhD Candidate at the UCSD
Department of History and Science Studies Program.
He can be contacted at mshindeleucsd.edu. He
was also a participant in the conference.

History of Science Society Newsletter

In the October 2008 issue of the HSS Newsletter, Ben
Cohen, lecturer at University of Virginia and blogger
laureate at The World's Fair, remarked that historians
who blog invariably find themselves somewhere along
the Ayers-Onuf spectrum: they become either idealists
contributing to and influencing public conversation or
realists providing novel contributions to the history of
science. We should consider all blogs and all blogging,
Cohen declared, within the extremes of this spectrum.
He argued, moreover, that blogging not only can serve
pedagogical ends by supplementing teaching and
research on history of science topics, but that it can
also provide a forum for lively conversation outside of
the "insiders' box" of journals and conferences.
Following the publication of Cohen's article,
established history and philosophy of science (HPS)
bloggers carried on the conversation, discussing
how blogs can be part of a broader dialogue and
interchange on the role of history of science in
society. Will Thomas described his blog, Etherwave
Propaganda, as a "laboratory of scholarship, an
experiment to create a sustainable alternative
scholarly culture to the one with which we are
familiar." Blogs, Thomas argued, can co-exist with
mainstream culture while remaining faithful to
their academic roots, providing an outreach to the
public by extending scholarship's useful functions:
articulation, speculation, recovery, and criticism.
Historian of science Michael Robinson discussed the
personal dimensions of blogging and how the looser
conventions of blog writing have contributed to,
and perhaps strengthened, his skills as a writer. John
Lynch questioned whether there was a readership for
HPS blogs and other online writings by historians
of sciences. Bora Zivkovic, the blog Chance and
Necessity, John Wilkins and Brian Switek, along
with other Sciblings (bloggers on the scienceblogs
community), conversed on the value of history of
science for the public.

Clearly, there's been an ongoing conversation
on the blogosphere since Cohen's article. Several
academics have jumped on the blogging bandwagon
for an opportunity to participate in, or at least to
examine, non-traditional aspects of scholarship, some
providing in-depth critical analyses on HPS issues and
scholarship, others discussing the perils of graduate
school and teaching, and still others focusing on
technical subjects specific to particular scientific fields.
The growth of HPS blogs led Michael D. Barton from
The Dispersal of Darwin to discuss his experience as
a blogger at the HSS Annual Meeting in Phoenix last
November and to compile "The BIG List of History of
Science Blogs and Twitter," with over 100 listings, and
more added weekly. Most HPS bloggers post regularly
or semi-regularly and many are featured on The
Giant's Shoulders, a monthly blog carnival for science
and history of science posts. The recent addition of the
"Toronto Biog Collective" and the immediate success
of two new collaborative blogs, Whewell's Ghost
and The Bubble Chamber are further indications of
the pedagogical aspects of HPS blogging. Does the
growth of HPS blogs, however, necessarily translate
into a viable online community or necessarily
provide sufficient evidence of readership and public
engagement with HPS scholarship? Is there a blogging
community for history of science? Furthermore, how
often do readers participate in these conversations?
I pondered these questions briefly on my blog,
From the Hands of Quacks, as I compiled a list
of history of medicine blogs to share with others.
While it was evident there was an increase in HPS
blogs and in the quality and content of posts, there
was no clear indication whether historians were
actually reading these sites or whether scientists were
blogging on history of science more or less often than
historians. Shortly thereafter, I launched an informal
survey on Blogs, Blogging and Readership in order to
determine whether being a blogger was a prerequisite

History of Science Society Newsletter
Conversing in a Cyberspace Community:
The Growth of HPS Blogging

By fazpreet Virdi, University of Toronto

for inclusion in the HPS cyberspace community and
to uncover some details on readership. The survey
had two parts, Part A for bloggers and Part B for
readers of blogs, and the URL spread through the
H-net listery, Twitter, blogs and word of mouth. In
two weeks, 70 individuals responded to Part A, 36 to
Part B.
For Part A, out of 70 respondents, 44 considered
themselves members of a community, either internally
within their departments or institutions and/
or within the wider blogging community. Several
respondents remarked that they had "regular"
readers and that they had met one another away
from keyboard (e.g. at ScienceOnline conferences). A
few commented on an "illusion of scholarship," one
remarking that blogging "by no means necessarily
fosters a more constructive historiography,"
although the medium does possess some potential
to do precisely that, which may by itself promote a
community dynamic. Others were more skeptical
about the notion of "community," asking "what does
community"' mean? They suggested that people
overuse the word in order to create a vague sense
of"significance and coherence" and that the term
doesn't really apply to such a large and varied group
employing a wide range of technologies. Mutual
acknowledgement, outreach and discourse among
bloggers based on a shared conversation, however,
were sometimes enough to achieve recognition, or at
least a confirmed "status" within the blogosphere, as
was participation in dialogue. An overwhelming 70%
of bloggers surveyed claimed that they actively strove
to foster dialogue in their blogs by asking questions,
by encouraging comments, or by composing proactive
posts, as well as by utilizing social media networks
(e.g. Twitter, Facebook). Is it possible, one responder
queried, that HPS blogs have really "solidified a
community in...2010?"
Part B addressed whether blog readers were
engaging in the same conversation as bloggers.
Graduate students made up the largest group
(40%) of respondents, followed by non-academics
(28.6%) and assistant professors (11.4%/). Over
half participated in online dialogue with blogs by
commenting on posts, by mailing suggestions, or

by posting remarks on Twitter and/or Facebook.
I asked what sorts of posts readers were interested
in and the top four were: original articles (77.1%),
research progress updates (68.6%/), links to articles
(62.9%), and book reviews (51.4%). Is this any
different from the contents of an academic journal?
While respondents viewed blogs as an avenue for
"academics to engage actively with the general public"
by providing a bridge between public participation
and historical scholarship-ideally, even a forum for
discussing (recently) published journal articles and
literature--this feature was often missing in blogs
as bloggers sometimes posted content sans critical
analysis. Readers also called for more commentary on
contemporary issues of science, politics, and society.
The bottom line was that readers viewed HPS blogs
as a way to augment historical scholarship for general
public consumption.
It is evident there is a community of bloggers
and readers participating actively in engaging
histories of science. I doubt that blogs will supplant
traditional scholarship (e.g. peer-reviewed journals),
but as a blogger, I am open to their ability to
stimulate conversations not available in traditional
fora. Blogs create a new aspect of scholarly culture,
an amiable digital ivory tower spearheaded by the
open-access movement, a movement that presents
fresh opportunities to educate or to influence public
participation. Blogs are also paying the way for new
careers for HPS scholars (e.g. as "Content Curators"
who seek out and organize content specifically for
the Internet). If we take blogs seriously as intellectual
products, they can solidify many engaging aspects
of HPS narratives, enhancing--rather than
diminishing--the traditions and identities of history
of science for non-historians.

Jai blogs regularly on From the Hands of Quacks,
covering topics related to her dissertation on 19th
century aural surgery in London, relevant HPS issues,
the history of medicine, and grad school. She thanks
Michael Barton for his helpful suggestions and
her fellow bloggers and tweeps for many inspiring
conversations. Full results of the survey are available
on her blog.

History of Science Society Newsletter

D. Kim Foundation for the History of Science and Technology in East Asia

Back row from left to right: Stuart W. Leslie, Dong-Won Kim, Front row from left to
right: Shigehisa Kuriyama, Christopher Cullen, Takehiko Hashimoto

The D. Kim Foundation for the History of Science and Technology in East Asia is
pleased to announce several annual fellowship awards and grants for 2010-2011.
Established in 2008 the D. Kim Foundation is dedicated to furthering the study of the
history of science and technology in East Asia since the start of the 20" century.

The Foundation provides fellowships and grants to encourage and to support graduate
students and young scholars in the field. The Foundation also promotes the exchange and
contact of people between the East and West, between old and young, or from different

For more information, see www.dkimfoundation.org

History of Science Society Newsletter

American Philosophical Society Library


History of
Medicine ~ ~ Z
Technology ~\K\~~r~~~'--~~
The American I'
Philosophical Society
Library in Philadelphia
offers competitive
short-term fellowships a
supporting in-residence G
research in the Library
The Library's collections are especially notable for their depth and importance in
numerous and diverse fields, including the History of Science, Medicine &
Technology, and Intellectual History. Our holdings comprise exhaustive
resources supporting studies in the histories of Physiology, Biochemistry and
Biophysics Genetics and Eugenics Physics and Quantum Mechanics *
Astronomy Natural History in the 18th-19th Centuries Cultural Anthropology *
with special collections relating to Travel, Exploration and Expeditions. Access
our comprehensive guides at www.amphilIsoc.org/Iibraryl
We are a leading international center for historical research with more than 11
million manuscripts, 350,000 printed items, and thousands of maps and prints.
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History of Science Society Newsletter

Over the US's Labor Day weekend, the Ameri-
can Association of University Professors (AAUP)
released a new report on academic labor. "Tenure and
Teaching-Intensive Appointments" argues that insti-
tutions that employ teaching-intensive faculty should
hire them and evaluate their teaching through the
rigorous system of peer review known as the tenure
system. As the report notes, tenure was designed as
a "big tent" to unite faculty of diverse interests and
professional responsibilities. It was not designed as a
merit badge for research-intensive faculty or as a fence
to exclude those with teaching-intensive commit-
ments. As E. Gordon Gee, the highest-paid univer-
sity president in the United States, puts it, campus
employers must preserve "multiple ways to salvation"
within the tenure system--even at research-intensive

Before 1970, as today, most full-time faculty
appointments were teaching-intensive. Nearly all
full-time teaching-intensive positions were on the
tenure track. Most faculty who spent the bulk of their
time teaching were also campus and professional
citizens--with clear roles in shared governance and
access to support for research or professional activi-
ties. Today, campus employers have shunted the
majority of teaching-intensive positions outside of the
tenure system. This has in most cases entailed a dra-
matic shift from "teaching-intensive" appointments
to "teaching-only" appointments. As a result, many
faculty are now barred from participation in scholarly
and institutional governance activities, and have only
tenuous relationships to campus and disciplinary

The seismic shift from "teaching-intensive"
faculty within the big tent of tenure to "teaching-
only" faculty outside of it has a direct impact on
student retention and achievement, as a growing
body of evidence clearly demonstrates. "American
students deserve the same professionalism in their
classrooms that they expect from physicians and
police officers," says Marc Bousquet, co-chair of the
AAUP's Committee on Contingency and the Profes-

sion, which produced the new report. "In 1970, most
undergraduates took nearly all of their classes from
tenure-eligible faculty, most with terminal degrees in
their fields. This fall, however, at many institutions, a
first-year student is more likely to drop out than ever
to meet a tenure-track professor." The boom in non-
tenure-track-and often "part-time"--faculty jobs
puts faculty, like many other American workers, in an
increasingly insecure and precarious position. "The
public should be outraged by the deplorable working
conditions imposed on many college teachers," says
Mayra Besosa, co-chair of the AAUP committee.
"These working conditions are in violation of basic
human rights articulated by the Universal Declara-
tion of Human Rights--for example, the rights to
equal pay for equal work, to just and favorable condi-
tions of work, and to protection against unemploy-

The central question we have to face in connec-
tion with this historic change is clear: Should more
classroom teaching be done by faculty supported by
the rigorous peer scrutiny of the tenure system? Most
of the evidence says yes, and a host of diverse voices
agree. This view brings together students, faculty, and
legislators, the AAUP, and even many administrators.
Campuses across the country have taken bold steps to
stabilize the crumbling faculty infrastructure. Con-
cerned legislators and some academic administrators
have joined faculty associations in calling for dramat-
ic reductions in the reliance on contingent appoint-
ments, commonly urging a maximum of 25 percent.

Read the report, which was approved by the
Committee on Contingency and the Profession. Or
visit the AAUP website to learn more about its work
on contingent faculty appointments. The American
Association of University Professors is a nonprofit
charitable and educational organization that promotes
academic freedom by supporting tenure, academic
due process, shared governance and standards of
quality in higher education. The AAUP has over
48,000 members at colleges and universities through-
out the United States.

History of Science Society Newsletter

"Multiple Ways to Salvation": Tenure
and Teaching-Intensive Appointments

For the j'ull article, go to http://www.aaup. org/AAUP,/
newsroom/2010PRS/teachingintensive. htm


t~Q rl -x
I: ~*rr7(""" ~g re
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Fig. 3
Zhu Kezhenj didry entryforApril 14,

Fig. 4
Notated photograph ofZhu Kezhen
showing the electronic computer at the
Rome Institute of Computing Science.

Fig 5 r

Back side of photo in Figure 4.

At the VIIIth ICHS Zhu Kezhen presented a paper on "The
Origin of Twenty-Eight Mansions in Astronomy," which was a
favorite topic that he had pursued for the past twelve years. In his
diary for April 14, 1944, Zhn outlined the essential features of this
research (Figure 3).
Following the Congress, the Chinese delegation visited the
Institute of Computing Technology of the Italian Academy of
Sciences. At that time, the electronic computer was the latest in
scientific equipment. Zhn wrote at the top of the picture shown in
Figure 4: "The machine in use at the Rome Institute of Computing
Science is an electronic digital computer by the Ferranti Company
in the United States [Regarding this Zhn was incorrect; Ferranti was
a British firm. ed]. The director of the institute is Prof. Mauro
Picone and the engineer who guided us is named Vacca." At the
bottom of the picture those present are indicated by Zhn himself,
from left to right, as: Li Yan (member of the Chinese delegation,
historian of mathematics), Zhu Kezhen, Lin Xianzhou (member of
the Chinese delegation, mechanical expert), Mme Regard, Dr. Vacca.

On the back of the photograph (Fig. 5), Zhn wrote that the
picture was taken on September 17, 1956, and that Vacca's father
had been to China to study the history of science. In fact, Dr.
Vacca's father was Professor Giovanni Vacca (1872-1953), originally
a mathematician but also a scholar fascinated by the history of
mathematics and politics. In 1898 he started to study Chinese
culture and to learn the language. G. Vacca lived in Chengdu'
China, from 1907 to 1908. In 1910 he received his doctorate in
Chinese studies from the University of Florence, and the following
year he was offered a position teaching Chinese literature at the
University of Rome; in 1922 he returned to Florence where he
accepted the chair for History and Geography of East Asia at the

Thanks to Zhu Kezhen's planning and guidance, the Chinese
Academy of Sciences established the Research Office for the History
of Natural Science on January 1, 1957; in 1975 this became the
Institute for the History of Natural Science. Two and a half years
later, in 1959, Zhn led a Chinese delegation (Figure 6) to attend a

Continued on Pae 22

History of Science Society Newsletter


national conference relating to the history of science~l~~r
and technology in the Soviet Union. ; ;
One of the delegation's aims wuas to learn Iabut '
developing the history of science at the state level from .
their Russian comrade-colleagues. The Soviet Institute '~~~4r~ ~
was in a building of the Polytechnical Mulseum in the ;4 .
center of Moscow--HosacI unorqan 3 (which is still
the museum's address). The Chinese delegation came
to Moscow by invitation of the USSR Academy in
order to facilitate contacts in the history of science a ?
and technology between the two countries. The 1
Chinese delegation also participated in the Plenum of
the Soviet National Committee of the Historian and Fig. 6
At the font door to the building in M~oscow housing
Philosophers of Science and Technology (27 May to
the Institute for the History of Science and Technology
1 Jue 199).of the USSR Academy ofSciences, fune 4, 1959. From
To commemorate the life and achievements left to right: Li Yan (historian ofmathematics), Nikoli
of Professor Zhu Kezhen, the founder of modern Aleksandrovich Figurovskii (A historian of chemistry,
China's history of science endeavours, the Institute h d ttd ietedrco fteUS nttt)
Zhu Kezhen (Vce-President of the Chinese Academy of
for the History of Natural Science, CAS, has
Sciences, head of China's delegation), Xi Zezong (historian
established the Zhu Kezhen History of Science ofastronomy), andan unidentryied Russian colleague.
Visiting Professorship, as well as the Zhu Kezhen
Award for outstanding original scholarship in
the history of science, technology or medicine in
East Asia, awarded once every three years by the
International Society for the History of East Asian
Science, Technology, and Medicine (ISHEASTM).
We hope to see you
in Montrial for the
Allphotos reproduced in this essay arPe pblished here 2010 Conf erence,
courtesy ofl~rs. Zhu Song, Professor Zhu Kezhen'js
daughter. The author also appreciates Professors foseph 47No em er
Dauben and Serguei Demidov for their valuable
comments. Registration information is
available at hssonline.org.

History of Science Society Newsletter

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