Title: History of Science Society newsletter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093941/00034
 Material Information
Title: History of Science Society newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: History of Science Society
Publisher: History of Science Society
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: April 2010
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Bibliographic ID: UF00093941
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Vol 39 No 2 Apr 2010

o is Sci c Soci

Table of Contents


Member News

Disturbingly Historical:
Reinventing a Museum 10

Teaching Tricks 12

Program Profile: Georgia
Institute of Technology 20

Feeding a War: Q & A
with Daniel Ragussis 22

Honoring Scientists
with Stamps 24

Searching Smartly in the Hist-
SciTechMed Database 26

Notes from the Inside
I decided to attend graduate school in the history of science while
living in St. Croix, in the US Virgin Islands. My wife Becky and I were
caring for abused and abandoned children witnesses to the dark side of
paradise and I was also searching for a life's purpose. Although the job
was demanding, there was time for reading and the library in Frederik-
sted contained a surprising variety of books. One that I happened across,
still one of my favorites, was RF. Delderfield's To Serve Them AllMy
Days. It is the story of David Powlet-Jones, a British WWI veteran, who
becomes a history teacher and who devotes his life to his students and
his work. It is a touching tale made into a memorable series by Master-
piece Theater and it was Powlet-Jones' concern for his students and his
scholarship that helped convince me to pursue a Ph.D. in history. That
decision was cemented by my contact with Frederick Gregory at the Uni-
versity of Florida, someone whom I think of as an American equivalent
to Powlet-Jones. Fred guided me not only with complete devotion to the
history of science, but also gave me insights into the human condition,
helping me see what it meant to be a good person.
This past year, I had the privilege of sitting in on Fred's last class,
the end of 31 years at UF. As he called each student by name, I thought
about the thousands of individuals who have witnessed his passion for
the history of science, and it struck me that this was a time to be remem-
bered. So I took some pictures, passed a card for the students to sign, and
thought about all of the others in the HSS who have retired or who are
about to retire and it prompted my desire to recognize these passages.
And so I invite contributions to a new section in the Newsletter titled,
"To serve them..." It is intended as a remembrance to those individuals
in the history of science who have influenced you in the classroom and
beyond (many of our members are not teachers in the traditional sense).
A simple photo with a caption or a few words will do. Or you may elabo-
rate, provide a few sentences on the lessons you learned. Each life has
signal moments. In this way, others may see those moments.

Jay Malone, Executive Director

History of Science Society Newsletter


University of Chicago Press Joins
Current Scholarship Program
The University of Chicago Press and JSTOR an-
nounced that they will join forces in the Current
Scholarship Program. Scheduled to launch early
2011, the program will bring scholarly content from
leading not-for-profit publishers to a single integrated
platform, making its use more innovative, efficient,
and affordable for faculty, students, librarians and
The University of Chicago Press, one of the
world's oldest and largest university presses, brings
51 titles to the program, including many of the most
influential publications in the world. Both current
and back issues will be accessible on the platform.
There are now 11 publishers working together
as part of the program, and that number is rapidly
increasing. With the addition of Chicago, the current
issues for at least 150 journals will be available on
JSTOR by 2011. This content will be accessible along-
side the more than 1,100 journals with back issues
on JSTOR today as well as a growing set of primary
source materials from libraries and museums.

More than 6,000 JSTOR library participants world-
wide will be able to license the current journals,
either individually or as part of current issue collec-
tions, together with JSTOR back issue collections in
a single transaction. The journals will also continue
to be preserved in Portico, the digital preservation
service that, along with JSTOR, is part of the not-
for-profit ITHAKA. For more information about the
Current Scholarship Program, see

Marjorie Howard Futcher Digital
Photo Collection Launched
The Osler Library of the History of Medicine and
the McGill University Library are launching the
online Marjorie Howard Futcher Photo Collection at
http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/futcher. This is a series
of close to 1,000 images arranged in two albums dat-
ing from 1890 to 1910 by Marjorie Howard Futcher
(1882-1969), daughter of the former Dean of the
Faculty of Medicine and Osler's mentor R. Palmer
Howard. The site contains a number of photographs
of medical people, including Sir William Osler

Postal Address Physical Address
PO Box 117360 3310 Turlington Hall
University of Florida University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7360 Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 352-392-1677/Fax: 352-392-2795
E-mail: info@hssonline.org
Web site: http://www.hssonline.org/
University of Chicago Press
Phone: 877-705-1878; Fax 877-705-1879
E-mail: subscriptions@press.uchicago.edu
Or write University of Chicago Press, Subscription Fulfillment
Manager, PO Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637-7363
Please notify both the HSS Executive Office and the Univer-
sity of Chicago Press.

The History of Science Society Newsletter is published in January, April, July, and October,
and sent to all individual members of the Society.
The Newsletter is edited and published in the Executive Office. The format and edito-
rial policies are determined by the Executive Director in consultation with the Committee on
Publications and the Society Editor. All advertising copy must be submitted in electronic form.
Advertisements are accepted on a space-available basis only, and the Society reserves the
right not to print a submission. The rates are as follows: Full page (7 x 9.25"), $625; Horizontal
or Vertical Half page (7 x 4.6"), $375; Quarter page (3.5 x 4.6"), $225. The deadline for inser-
tion orders is six weeks prior to the month of publication and should be sent to the attention of
the HSS Executive Office. The deadline for news, announcements, and job/fellowship/ prize
listings is firm: Six weeks prior to the month of publication. Long items (feature stories) should
be submitted eight weeks prior to the month of publication. Please send all material to the
attention of the executive office: info@hssonline.org.
2010 by the History of Science Society

History of Science Society Newsletter

(1849-1919), Dean of McGill Medicine Francis
Shepherd (1851-1929), and even Dr. John McCrae
(1872-1918), later famous for his poem "In Flanders
Fields." It also illustrates the social life of a young,
well-connected Montreal woman during the period.
The site provides an insight into the intersection of
the worlds of elite medicine and wealth. Viewers can
virtually flip through the photo albums, replicating
the experience of examining the originals and also
seeing each picture in its larger context. For more in-
formation, please contact the Osler Library at osler.
library@mcgill.ca or 514-398-4475, ext 09873.

Announcing HOPOS: The Journal of
the International Society for the His-
tory of Philosophy of Science
At long last HOPOS has its own journal. Published
by the University of Chicago Press, the first issue is
scheduled to appear Spring 2011 in both print and
electronic formats. The editors invite submission of
article-length manuscripts to be published in HO-
POS: The Journal of the International Society for the
History of Philosophy of Science. We seek to publish
the highest-quality scholarship on the history of
philosophical discussions about science. The his-
tory of philosophy of science is broadly construed to
include topics in the history of related disciplines,
in all time periods and all geographical areas, using
diverse methodologies. The journal aims to provide
an outlet for interdisciplinary work, increase the
already unusually high level of participation of in-
ternational scholars in the history of the philosophy
of science, raise the level of work in the history of
philosophy of science by publishing scholarship that
helps to explain the links among philosophy, science,
and mathematics, along with the social, economic,
and political context, which is indispensable for a
genuine understanding of the history of philosophy.
HOPOS scholarship is firmly concerned with situat-
ing philosophical understandings of science within
the broader historical and philosophical settings in
which they were developed, and against the back-
drop of mainstream issues in philosophical thought,
covering epistemological, methodological, meta-

physical, and moral issues relevant to the growth of
our knowledge of the world and human nature. The
journal does not limit submissions to HOPOS mem-
bers. Scholars from all related disciplines are encour-
aged to submit to the journal. The length of articles
is flexible, and all articles published in HOPOS are
peer reviewed. Please see the HOPOS journal home
page at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/hopos/
for further information and for author instructions.

The Madame Heymann Optical Col-
lection rediscovered after 85 years
In the early 20th century Madame Alfred Heymann
assembled the world's greatest collection of eyeglasses
and eyeglass cases, which disappeared right after she
died in 1925. It has now been rediscovered and is
now available digitally at http://www.antiquespec-

Post-event report: International
Workshop on Lysenkoism
Portions of the International Workshop on Lysen-
koism, held 4-5 December 2009 at the CUNY
Graduate Center and Columbia University, were
recorded by CUNY TV and are available online. To
view, visit https://bcc-cuny.digication.com/www.
lysenkoworkshop.com/Welcome/published and click
on "Lysenko Workshop Live." For further informa-
tion on upcoming activities of the Working Group
on Lysenkoism contact William deJong-Lambert at
william.dejong-lambert@bcc.cuny.edu or WRL4@

New Masters Program in Science,
Technology and International Devel-
opment: University of Edinburgh
The Science, Technology and Innovation Stud-
ies subject group of the University of Edinburgh
announces a new Masters Programs in Science,
Technology and International Development. This
MSc program draws on the University of
Edinburgh's long-standing reputation for excel-
lence in medicine, science and engineering.

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History of Science Society Newsletter

Based in Edinburgh, Scotland's vibrant capital
and a UNESCO World Heritage city, the Univer-
sity is a home for science and technology studies,
innovation studies and is a global hub of expertise
in international development. As a student in our
program you will have the opportunity to draw
together options from one of the UK's largest
groupings of high quality social science, taking
advantage of all the resources one of the world's
top universities has to offer. Here you will be able
to build a degree that suits your regional, disci-
plinary and professional interests. This masters
program is open to students and professionals
looking to develop a deeper understanding of the
complex dynamics of international development
and how they play out in a global context. For
further information: http://www.sps.ed.ac.uk/

New contact information for Tech-
nology and Culture
Technology and Culture has moved to its new home
at the University of Oklahoma. Contact informa-
tion for all new business, including submissions and
correspondence is: techculture(ou.edu; Ph: 1-405-
325-2311. Address: Suzanne Moon, incoming Edi-
tor-in-Chief, The Technology and Culture Editorial
Offices, University of Oklahoma, Cate Center 4, 332
Cate Center Dr., Room 484, Norman, OK 73019,

Johannes Kepler Working Group
This new C41/ICHA Working Group was created in
October 2009 and will exist during the current tri-
ennium only. The Group was created because Kepler
studies have reached a critical point with the demise
in 2008 of the Kepler Kommission, which oversaw
the publication of Kepler's Collected Works (Gesam-
melte Werke). There are serious issues that threaten
the long-term availability of that fundamental work;
for example, several of the 21 volumes (including
nearly all the vitally important correspondence) are
now out of print, and even more seriously the

corpus of primary and secondary material that for-
merly comprised the Kommission needs to be given
a permanent home that will ensure that this price-
less documentation and library will continue to be
made easily available to Kepler scholars in both their
original format and electronically (the photostated
manuscripts and library are currently housed in the
Bavarian Academy of Sciences). These issues need
to be tackled on a high-visibility platform, and this
WG, first proposed during Special Session 9 (Mark-
ing the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia
nova) of the XXVII IAU GA in Rio de Janeiro, has
been set up as the platform for such activities. The
members of the Johannes Kepler Working Group
are: T. J. Mahoney (Spain) [Chair]; A. E. L. Da-
vis (UK); S. Duprd (Belgium); J. V. Field (U.K.);
E. Hoeg (Denmark,); G. Hon (Israel); A. Mosley
(U.K.); J. M. Pasachoff (U.S); J.-C. Pecker (France);
S. J. Rabin (U.S); B. Stephenson (U.S); J. Wlodarc-
zyk (Poland); and G. Wolfschmidt (Germany). For
further information: http://www.le.ac.uk/has/ichal

Bakken Museum Honored with
Leading Edge Award From Associa-
tion of Science-Technology Centers
The Association of Science-Technology Centers
(ASTC) awarded The Bakken the 2009 Roy L. Sha-
fer Leading Edge Award for Visitor Experience for its
Science Assets-based School Partnership program on
31 October 2009 in Fort Worth, Texas. The 'Edgie'
recognizes extraordinary accomplishments that not
only enhance the performance of the institution,
but also significantly advance the mission of sci-
ence-technology centers and museums. The Bakken's
Museum's mission is to inspire a passion for science.
Because science and technology are rapidly chang-
ing the world in which today's students live and
work, The Bakken developed the groundbreaking
Science Assets-based School Partnership program in
collaboration with the Minneapolis Public Schools
to change how students think about and approach
science. The program successfully builds upon
children's creativity to help them develop confidence,

History of Science Society Newsletter

receive support and understand that science is a
meaningful part of their daily life. A team of Bak-
ken educators visits the classroom, actively involving
students in creative thinking and problem solving.
As part of the program, children are introduced to
'People of Science' who help bring science to life in
the classroom such as a food scientist from Gen-
eral Mills whose job includes tasting cookies, and
an engineer from Medtronic who uses Silly Putty
to demonstrate his work with polymers. The School
Partnership program also includes a professional
development component. Participating teachers
report increased confidence in teaching science. Posi-
tive outcomes have led to expansion of the program
which will serve 2,700 district fourth graders and
their teachers through 2011.

Ph.D. Dissertations in the History of
The most recent list of dissertations pertaining to the
history of science can be viewed at: http://www.hsls.
tions/index html.

Complete Set of the Journal of the
History of Biology Wanted
Donald J. McGraw is seeking a complete (or nearly
complete) set of the Journal of the History of Biology.
Please contact him through his business website at:

Samir Okasha Wins Lakatos Award
The London School of Economics and Political
Science announces that this year's Lakatos Award,
of 10,000 for an outstanding contribution to the
philosophy of science, goes to: Samir Okasha (Bristol
University), for his book Evolution and the Levels of
Selection (Oxford University Press, 2006). He will
visit LSE to receive the Award and give the Award
Public Lecture during summer term, 2010.

2010 SAHMS Meeting
The 12th annual meeting of the Southern Asso-
ciation for the History of Medicine and Science

was held in Louisville, KY 5-6 March 2010 in the
Conference Center of Jewish Hospital. SAHMS
hosted over 70 lectures during this two day celebra-
tion of the history of medicine and science. The final
program and registration materials can be viewed at:

InterUnion Commission of Astrono-
my Newsletter
The Inter-Union Commission for the History of As-
tronomy (DHST together with IUA) has re-launched
its newsletter. You can find it at http://www.le.ac.
uk/has/icha/documents/icha_news_09.pdf, and via

IHPST Newsletter
The latest newsletter of the IHPST group is now
available on the Web at: http://www.ihpst.org/news-

Opportunities for Scholars: Institute
for Advanced Study, School of His-
torical Studies
The Institute is an independent private institution
founded in 1930 to create a community of scholars
focused on intellectual inquiry, free from teach-
ing and other university obligations. Scholars from
around the world come to the Institute to pursue
their own research. Candidates of any nationality
may apply for a single term or a full academic year.
Scholars may apply for a stipend, but those with
sabbatical funding, other grants, retirement funding
or other means are also invited to apply for a non-
stipendiary membership. Some short-term visitor-
ships (for less than a full term, and without stipend)
are also available on an ad-hoc basis. Open to all
fields of historical research, the School of Historical
Studies' principal interests are the history of western,
near eastern and Asian civilizations, with particu-
lar emphasis upon Greek and Roman civilization,
the history of Europe (medieval, early modern, and
modern), the Islamic world, East Asian studies, the
history of art, the history of science, philosophy,
modern international relations, and music studies.

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History of Science Society Newsletter

Residence in Princeton during term time is required.
The only other obligation of Members is to pursue
their own research. The Ph.D. (or equivalent) and
substantial publications are required. Information
and application forms may be found on the School's
Web site, www.hs.ias.edu or contact the School of
Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study,
Einstein Dr., Princeton, N.J. 08540 or at mzelazny@
ias.edu. Deadline: 1 November 2010.

Cuban Society for the History of Sci-
ence and Technology Boletin
Boletin No. 31 of the Cuban Society for the History
of Science and Technology is now available as a pdf.
Contact Jose Altshuler at jea@infomed.sld.cu for
more information.

CFP: The Brock Review, "Animals in
Human Societies"
The Brock Review is seeking scholarly essays and
creative pieces for an upcoming issue on the theme
of "Animals in Human Societies." This issue will
focus on changing ideas about the use and treatment
of animals in contemporary societies and the ethical,
economic and political significance of animal rights.
This issue will be co-edited by Dr. John Sorenson
(Department of Sociology, Brock University). Pos-
sible topics might include: Animal/human bonds
and mutual aid; Representations of animals; Ani-
mal rights and social justice; Veganism, abolition-
ism and the rise of "happy meat"; Normalization of
speciesism; Animal rights and anarchism. The Brock
Review is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal
published by the Humanities Research Institute at
Brock University. Scholarly essays submitted to The
Brock Review should not exceed 25 double-spaced
pages in length. Essays should adhere to the latest
edition of the Chicago Manual of Style and include
endnotes (where necessary) and a bibliography. Man-
uscripts should be original works and should not be
published (or under consideration for publication) in
another format. Manuscripts should be submitted via
the journal Web site: http://www.brocku.ca/brockre-
view) by 16 July 2010.

SciSIP Program Proposals, NSF
Proposals for NSF's Program on the Science of Sci-
ence and Innovation Policy are due 9 September
2010. For more information please visit: http://www.
If you have any questions, please contact the SciSIP
Program Manager, Julia Lane at jlane@nsf.gov.

Summer 2011 Call for Volunteers
The Center for the History of Physics at the Ameri-
can Institute of Physics is working on organizing a
multi-day conference for graduate students and early
career scholars interested in the history of the physi-
cal sciences to be held in Summer 2011 in Wash-
ington DC. If you are interested in volunteering or
learning more, please contact Amy Fisher at fisher@

In Memoriam: Stephen Toulmin
Stephen Toulmin, an influential philosopher who
conducted wide-ranging inquiries into ethics, science
and moral reasoning and developed a new approach
to analyzing arguments known as the Toulmin
model of argumentation, died on 4 December 2009
in Los Angeles. He was 87. The full New York Times
obituary is at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/11/
education/1 Itoulmin.html.

Join us in downtown
Montreal for the
2010 Annual Meeting
4-6 November


History of Science Society Newsletter

Peder Anker recently published From Bauhaus to
Ecohouse: A History of Ecological Design (LSU
Press). Anker explores key moments of inspiration
between designers and ecologists from the Bauhaus
projects of the interwar period to the eco-arks of
the 1980s, thus illuminating connections between
humans and the built environment.

Bert Hansen, Baruch College of CUNY, was hon-
ored with the 2010 Ray and Pat Browne Award of the
Popular Culture/American Culture Association "for
the best single-authored work published in 2009" at
its annual meeting in St. Louis for his book, Pictur-
ing Medical Progress from Pasteur to Polio: A His-
tory ofMass Media Images and Popular Attitudes in
America (Rutgers University Press).

Angelina Long has passed her comprehensive exams
with John Krige, Douglas Flamming and Steven
Usselman. Her status in the School of History, Tech-
nology and Society at Georgia Institute of Technol-
ogy is ABD.

Alain Touwaide, Historian of Sciences at the Smith-
sonian Institution and Scientific Director of the
Institute for the Preservation of Medical Traditions,
delivered a public lecture entitled "Why Does the
Medicine of the Past Matter? Ancient Remedies for
the 21st Century," at the Virginia Commonwealth
University, Richmond, VA, on Tuesday, 9 March
2010. More information visit: http://medicaltraditions.

John Harley Warner has been named recipient of
the 2010 Graduate Mentor Award in the Humanities
by the Yale University Graduate School of Arts and
Sciences. The award is the University's top honor for
teaching, advising, and mentoring.

On 20 February, at the 2010 AAAS an-
nual meeting in San Diego, the George Sarton
Memorial Lecture was presented by Jed Z.
Buchwald, the Doris and Henry Dreyfuss
Professor of History at California Institute of
Technology. The title of Professor Buchwald's
talk, given to an audience of around 140, was
"Knowledge in the Early Modern Era: The
Origins of Experimental Error." Buchwald
began by relating the origin of his interest in
this topic to a book project currently under way
in collaboration with his colleague Mordechai
Feingold, on Isaac Newton's last major published
work, an attempt to redate the past using astro-
nomical evidence. Their analysis of the details
of that evidence has led to a new understanding
of how data was treated before the develop-
ment of modern statistical methods. Buchwald
described examples of early modern methods for
handling experimental error from published and
unpublished work of not just Newton, but also
of such varied figures as Descartes, Hevelius,
Flamsteed, and Halley. He argued that instead
of striving for averages, medians, or means as
the closest approach to truth, the typical early
modern natural philosopher tended to take a
more artisanal approach, selecting for publication
a single measurement that represented what he
regarded as the one best performance of the act
of measuring. The lecture succeeded in engaging
both scientists and historians, and was greeted by
warm approval of the audience.

April 2010 7

History of Science Society Newsletter

First Person

Disturbingly Historical: Reinventing a

Poised between downtown Philadelphia with its
Liberty Bell and Independence Hall and the University
of Pennsylvania and Drexel University, a century-old
Beaux Arts building houses The College of Physi-
cians of Philadelphia. Flanking the entrance is a large
banner advertising the Mitter Museum, a museum of
medical history, as a "disturbingly informative" place.
That a prestigious historical building now a national
landmark as "the Birthplace of American Medicine"
carries this edgy advertisement attests to an institu-
tional reinvention of self. It also attests to the legacy of
the late Gretchen Worden. During Worden's tenure
as museum curator and director, visitation increased
from a few hundred to more than 50,000 annually.
The Mitter Museum has become a cultural landmark
for an audience that extends well beyond the medical
The oldest professional society in the United States
(founded in 1787), the College has aimed to improve
the practice of medicine through a fraternity of elected
Fellows, physicians distinguished in their work. The
College remains a fellowship-based organization today
but is creating new constituencies. In addition to the
museum, the College maintains a Historical Medical
Library of 325,000 volumes, and was once the pre-emi-
nent medical research library in the country. Unlike the
museum with its ebullient daily buzz, the library reading
room is a quiet place, minimally staffed, seven floors
of stacks hidden from view. The Mutter Museum may
wish to inform disturbingly while the College builds
a reputation as a cultural organization, but the library
poses more of a puzzle in finding its 21st century place.
The history of science lurks within the collections and
informs the dialogue of institutional strategic planning.
Last year, the museum hosted a record 105,000
people, an increase of nine percent over the previous
year. Despite this number, the College faced closure in
2005 for financial reasons. Since 2006, however, under
the leadership of a new director and CEO, George

8 History of Science Society Newsletter Aprl 2010

Robert D. Hicks

M. Wohlreich, MD, the College has been building its
financial capital, obtaining grants, and announcing its
presence in new domains. The College created Philly-
HealthInfo, a Web-based outreach project to provide
reliable health care information to the region. Dr.
Wohlreich's decision to recognize library and museum
collections as mutually-reinforcing cultural resources
led to my appointment in 2008 as both museum and
library director. This decision was grounded in hard
economic realities as the College trustees, before Dr.
Wohlreich was appointed, reduced both museum and
library staff.
The College is a heady environment with a full
docket of programs and events, many sponsored by
fellow-based special interest sections (on the arts and
history, for example). The popularity of the museum
daily brings requests to use the collections (25,000
objects) for art projects or use the College building
as a venue for a conference or meeting. To the extent
possible, I am trying to conflate practices regarding
the library and museum collections, create exhibits
involving both, and promote events that introduce the
College to new audiences. On any given day, I must be
prepared to engage with visiting scholars, host a tour
for a medical association, deal with a leaky roof over
the book stacks, speak to high schoolers about Civil
War medicine, or negotiate with a funding organiza-
tion. All business is conducted on the premise that the
College and its collections command prestige owing to
historical pedigree and historical scientific authority.

History of Science Society Newsletter

"Historical scientific authority" deserves an
explanation. The Mitter's presentation of medical
history benefits from and is a prisoner of its 19th
century appearance. The 19th-century cases and a
Victorianesque organization of specimens resonate
with a young public that relish the atmosphere. This
mode of presentation, however, does not permit
fabricated displays, interactive devices, or the special
effects associated with science centers, and it does
not facilitate displays of current medical technology.
Yet the specimens and instruments of earlier eras,
though evocative of extinct
medical ideologies, still carry
authority. In the 18th century
bloodletting was a sanctioned
therapy and in the early 19th
antisepsis was not practiced,
as reflected in wood-handled
instruments. Audiences read-
ily suspend scientific belief in
acknowledging early medical
practices as distinct from those
of today, while at the same
time reacting emotionally to
what they see. Early obstetrical
forceps provoke gasps; a mou-
lage of a smallpoxed arm evokes
a shudder; a two-headed fetus
preserved in a jar elicits disturb-
ing thoughts. These responses,
however, make it easy to en- M matter Museum dis
century appearance
gage visiting audiences with a
modicum of science history, an
opportunity to communicate obsolete medical phi-
losophies with an implicit comparison with modern
practices. For more sophisticated audiences, includ-
ing classes of university students or informal sessions
with visiting groups of librarians, historians, or others
with special interests, the need for comparisons with
modern medicine recede and artifacts and specimens
are discussed within anthropological and sociological
contexts. Recently, for Elderhostel programs, visitors
were taught artifact curatorship as a form of mate-
rial culture study. This approach emulates the object


study approach described by David Pantalony (http://
Opening in 1863, the museum began life as an
endowed teaching collection for pathological anatomy
by a local physician, Thomas Dent Mutter. Lately, the
museum has moved vigorously to renovate its more
superannuated displays and create a new Web presence
to exercise science history. With major funding from
external sources, the College is creating an on-line His-
tory of Vaccines, under construction on the Web with a
multi-tiered, interactive timeline
that examines the history of vac-
cines, with smallpox, diphtheria,
and yellow fever as the diseases
initially presented. The Web
site represents the current best
conflation oflibrary and museum
resources to tell a public health
story, embedded within a his-
tory of vaccines. In response to a
(funded) request from the City of
Philadelphia to furnish a histori-
cal perspective on lead poisoning
in Philadelphia, the museum
created The Devouring Element:
Lead's Impact on Health, which
featured library and museum
collections to explore our love-
hate relationship with lead since
lays retain a 19th- antiquity. If outstanding fund-
ing proposals are successful,
the central museum ambition
is to create a permanent gallery on medicine during
the Civil War, the sesquicentennial of which begins in
2011. "With Tenacity for Their Lives": The College of
Physicians of Philadelphia and the Civil War, an exhibit
resembling the look of the Army Medical Museum in
1865, will examine health, wounds, and disease through
the experience of specific Fellows of the College during
the war who distinguished themselves in war work. The
museum's central contribution to science history will
be its dialogue with the public through exhibits and
complementary Web materials.

* ApN 2M 0 1

History of Science Society Newsletter

While the museum annually earns almost $1 mil-
lion in admissions income from people who want to
see skeletons, medical models, viscera, and instruments
within the atmosphere of a 19th-century medical cabi-
net, the library receives about 30 visitors monthly, with
up to 3,000 accessing the collections electronically.
During much of the 20th century, the library served
as the Regional Medical Library, Mid-Atlantic Region.
It was designated a historical library in 1996 formal-
izing its specialized function as a repository for the
history of medicine. The change in status and fortunes
of the library are reflected in journal subscriptions: the
library subscribed to ap-
proximately 3,500 serials at
its peak decades ago, mostly
of a technical medical or
scientific character, and
now maintains about 20,
exclusively in the history of
medicine or science. Al-
though the museum ceased
accessioning medical works
from 1990 on (except for -- -- -
historical scholarship), the -I
change of status forced
on the library by circum- Exterior view of the Col
stances meant a reduction Philadelphia prior to 19:
of staff in recent years,
although the library has remained open and available.
Since 2009, the library has been subject to strategic
planning which will define its core collection, deacces-
sion materials not relevant to the core historical assets,
and create, through a major institutional partnership
with leading libraries containing medical historical
collections, an electronic portal to selectively digitized
materials. The dialogue is in progress to define the al-
gorithm or search protocol that will lead researchers to
digitized archives, generally on the topic of infection,
that reside within partnering institutions.
The library's moniker, Historical Medical Li-
brary, reflects how the College wants to position
the collection within academic librarianship. The
core collection will undoubtedly speak to Philadel-
phia-area medical history. Planning, however, has


unsettled some Fellows and created anxiety among
some historians of medicine. They have not kept
current with the huge challenges faced by all special
collections libraries to retain "book collections" when
the pressure has mounted to digitize materials. I and
my colleagues have been criticized for referring to
books as artifacts and cultural resources. Libraries
are increasingly expensive; grants do not exist to save
libraries from their electronic future; endowments are
unlikely to support libraries according to a 1980 busi-
ness model. Referring to books as artifacts does not
diminish them but expands the discourse about their
... use. The College library
collection, when defined
through strategic planning
with attendant de-acces-
sioning of materials now
abundantly accessible
on-line, will be a different
place. The library con-
stituency, in fact, is already
changing. Self-identified
medical historians are rela-
tively few. We are hosting
an increasingly diverse
ge of Physicians of constituency including
teachers, artists, and even

high school students. The
vigorous use of social media to create new pathways
to the library collection also generates new interest
from unlikely constituents. The most urgent mes-
sage that older library patrons must understand is the
same understood by historians of science plying their
trade. That message is that the future of an historical
library collection is inseparable from its on-line pres-
ence and accessibility. Scholars interested in medical
history have many ways to learn about assets at the
College library. Many assets, without an electronic
presence (including finding aids), remain underused
or unknown.
Thomas Sbderqvist, who directs the University
of Copenhagen's Medical Museion, has outlined the
challenge to the future of medical history museums.
The older specimens and tools may have immediate

History of Science Society Newsletter

emotional resonance with audiences, but 21st-century
medical techniques and technology, hugely relevant
to people's lives, are very difficult to display. He asks
whether traditional museum displays will even be
possible when museums tell the story of biomedi-
cine.(2) He has also provoked a conversation on wider
participation in museum curatorship through a
distributive model which uses "crowdsourcing."(3)
That the College collections continue to promote a
19th-century ambiance suits one huge constituency
knocking at the door: the visual arts. In 2010, the
museum opened a guest-curated exhibit, Corpo-
real Manifestations, featuring newly-commissioned
ceramic figurative work which explores the psychol-
ogy of our biological existence. Further, a College
Fellow has promised recently to fund the renova-
tion of another large space adjacent the museum to
permit the installation of exhibits of photographs or
works on paper, thus creating an exhibition gallery.
Laura Lindgren, publisher of Blast Books, produced
two briskly-selling books about the museum and its
photographic collections, and the popular annual
calendars. Her work in courting major photographic
artists has given us international authority within
the visual arts (see: http://www.blastbooks.com/). At
this writing, with Ms. Lindgren's help, we are seeking
support to commission a film by the Quay Brothers,
an artists' meditation on our collections. We are also
participating in an exhibit, Anatomy/Academy, con-
ceived by the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
that will "focus on how Philadelphia's dynamic art
and science communities fostered knowledge of the
human body," to quote the prospectus. This engage-
ment with the arts permits an exploration of how the
histories of medicine and the visual arts intertwine
and allows the College to exhibit and interpret its
stunning collection of anatomical atlases.
Surrounding all of these projects are social media.
Happenings at the Mutter Museum are followed at
Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube. We have
enjoyed particular success with our YouTube pro-
gram, No Bones about It. This program, which I host,
includes interviews with authors, artists, and others
who give lectures or hold events at the College, and

has become a popular adjunct to museum programs.
A relatively low-cost way to promote the collections,
No Bones has already, in a half year, attracted more
viewers than any other comparable program run by
Philadelphia museums. The fact that our most popu-
lar episode has me feeding my pet medicinal leeches
on my blood may have something to do with it.
Increasingly, the College's presence via social media
will become more vigorous and extensive and will
connect substantially with the study of library and
museum collections.
The College's claim on the history of science is
multifaceted and evolving. This claim invites scholars
who wish to use library materials for traditional re-
search, but it also elicits interest in multidisciplinary
uses of all College collections for projects that may
challenge or provoke public perceptions of the human
body, disease, or mortality. The history of science can
be found in our photography collection, exhibits, or
Web material involving imagery of the body, medical
discourse, or the social history of disease. It can even
be disturbingly historical.

Robert D. Hicks is director of the Miitter Museum/His-
torical Medical Library and William Maul Measey Chair
for the History ofMedicine.
Contact him at: rhicks@collegeofphysicians.org

Web links
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia

Travel grants

1 "What is it? Twentieth-century Artifacts out of Context," Hi-
story of Science Society Newsletter 37.3 (July 2008).
2 Thomas S6derqvist, Adam Bencard and Camilla Mordhorst,
"Between Meaning Culture and Presence Effects: Contem-
porary Biomedical Objects as a Challenge to Museums," Stu-
dies in History and Philosophy of Scence 40 (2009): 431-38.
3 Thomas S6derqvist, "The Participatory Museum and Distribut-
ed Curatorial Expertise," Zeitschiftfiir Geschichte der Natunrssen-
schaften, Technik undMedizn (2010, forthcoming).

* ApN 2=1 11

History of Science Society Newsletter

Teaching Tricks

While much time and effort has been spent on curricula in the history of science, less effort has been de-
voted to how to draw students into the history of science and keep that fascination going after graduation.
Four teachers here describe their approaches to teaching history of science.

The history of science at the center
of education

Peter Pesic, St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico

At St. John's College, all students study the
history of science, which comprises almost half of
our all-required, four-year curriculum based on the
"great books." We look at nature, through observa-
tion, and at ways of looking at nature, through semi-
nal texts. Our students read the original writings of
Aristotle, Newton, Maxwell, and Einstein, with all
the difficulties, challenges, and rewards involved.
We work in tutorials in which about fifteen students,
guided by a faculty member, undertake the work
of presenting mathematical demonstrations at the
board, discussing the texts and their implications,
doing laboratory experiments, and engaging in field
work. All our faculty are involved in leading these
classes, regardless of our previous specialties; we con-
sider ourselves "tutors" -- experienced learners, not
experts or professors -- and often our most exciting
classes involve faculty who are learning the material
along with their students, creating an environment
in which teacher and pupil are freshly struck with
what is strange or deserving of question. Question-
ing is our primary activity, even more than assimi-
lating or articulating the arguments of our texts,
each of which may be an answer whose underlying
question needs to be sought and pondered.
We coordinate our work between parallel tu-
torials in laboratory and mathematics, which also
includes mathematical astronomy and physics.
We maintain a long-standing conviction that all
students can do math -- even those who had previ-
ously professed themselves averse or even unable -- if
approached in the way we do, as one of the primary
symbolic forms of human expression, rather than as

12 History of Science Society Newsletter Aprl 2010

a body of technicalities considered as beyond ques-
tion. Euclid's Elements provides the perfect starting
point for freshmen to learn as they demonstrate his
propositions at the board, which leads many who
thought they "hated math" to see its depth and
beauty. We continue with Ptolemy into sophomore
math; close study of the details of his theory helps
students read Copernicus and Kepler with real sur-
prise; this transition is a centerpiece of our consider-
ation of the subtle relation of "ancient" to "modern"
thought. Apollonius's Conic Sections returns the
students to geometry with ever-growing richness,
leading to the transition to algebraic mathematics
when we study Viete and Descartes. Junior Math-
ematics considers the development of the calculus
from Galileo to Leibniz and Newton (the math-
ematical lemmas and astronomical propositions from
Books I and III of the Principia), before reconsider-
ing the continuum via Euler and Dedekind. Senior
Mathematics centers on a close reading of Einstein's
1905 special relativity paper, followed by a return
to plane geometry via Lobachevsky, whose contrast
with Euclid is richly thought-provoking.
Our Laboratory tutorials study how modern
science came to be and whence comes its claims to
authority, especially in relation to the claims of an-
cient Greek science, which we take very seriously in
itself, rather than merely as a precursor or outmoded
rival. Freshman Laboratory begins with observa-
tional biology: students observe a square meter of
meadow as closely as possible; later they consider
how to classify the various species of conifers in our
mountains. Returning to the classroom, we read
Aristotle's delineation of what constitutes a species
and consider how he approaches the question we
had just confronted among the trees. We go on to
follow the development of observational biology, be-
ginning with chicken eggs and sea urchin embryos

History of Science Society Newsletter

and finishing by dissecting cats. The whole project
is crucial to understanding Aristotle's approach,
his careful, respectful contemplation of the natural
world, which we extend through reading related
works by Goethe, Thoreau, and Linnaeus.
Here and throughout, the Laboratory constantly
turns to bench work that requires hands-on experi-
ence. Archimedes' text comes to greater life when
we watch the crown immerse and feel for ourselves
what "Eureka!" may have meant. A series of chemi-
cal experiments and readings open up the question:
do atoms really exist? We suspend what we thought
we "knew" about atoms, in order to confront these
elemental questions without prejudice, rather than as
thefait accompli most textbooks present. Thus, we do
not study the "results" of science as much as partici-
pate in the process of scientific inquiry itself.
Junior Laboratory begins with mechanics follow-
ing Galileo's Two New Sciences, Huyghens, Leibniz,
and Newton's Principia (the Laws and mechanical
propositions in Book I), followed by optics (Fermat,
Leibniz, Newton), and electricity and magnetism.
There, Faraday is the ideal guide, accompanied
with many experiments, leading to the challenging
project of studying sections of Maxwell's Treatise
(with extensive notes), keeping in mind his claim
to set forth in mathematical notation the physical
insights of Faraday and leading to Maxwell's equa-
tions and electromagnetic waves. The first semester
of Senior Lab considers the development of atomic
and quantum theory through classic experiments
and readings from Faraday, Rutherford, Bohr,
Planck, Schrbdinger, and Heisenberg. In the second
semester, after close discussions of Darwin's Origin of
Species, we follow the development of genetics from
Mendel through Avery and the structure of DNA,
ending with Jacob and Monod on gene regulation.
These readings are accompanied by experiments in
pea and fruit fly genetics, along with a sequence of
classic bacterial experiments.
This historical approach via original texts helps
our students develop a deeper appreciation for
mathematics and science through discussing fun-
damental questions and experiments. In response,

our students' questions reach out in philosophical,
literary, and artistic directions: How can a single
vibrating string produce many overtones at once?
If all is relative, does the earth really go around the
sun, vice versa, both, neither? What does it mean to
understand nature via forces, fields, atoms, if those
entities defy visualization and hence comprehen-
sion? Can life be understood through the "lan-
guage" of the genetic code? What happens when
science renounces all vestiges of anthropomorphic
thinking? Once such deep questions are really
broached, they resonate in the mind, initiating a
life-long journey of reflection and dialogue.

Continued next page
e Society Newsletter April 2010 13

History of Science Society Newsletter

The history of science for science

Frederick Gregory
Professor Emeritus, University ofFlorida

The easiest students to attract to the history of
science for me have always been science students,
whether undergraduate or graduate. An unofficial
tabulation of where our majors in history of science
have come from would, I believe, show a healthy
number come from the sciences, often students who
have started out as a science major but then switched
to history of science. But even those science students
who remain in their majors present the instruc-
tor with a natural means by which to entice them
to cultivate an interest in our field their specific
discipline. The question becomes how to make use of
their already existing interest in science.
One way is to enlist the aid of science majors
in presenting material touching on their discipline
in the form of an individual lecture. Although the
student's presentation may be based on a longer writ-
ten assignment for the class, it is important that the
student's time before the class be special, not part of
a required series of presentations that all students in
the class must make. This means that you as profes-
sor have to inform yourself about the majors of the
students in the class and then seek out two or three
who are advanced and who are performing well. In
an individual meeting, explain why you are request-
ing that they take on the particular assignment. Of
course, you could also solicit from a student an alter-
native topic should the one you suggest not prove of
So far there has not been anything all that dif-
ferent from what many might already do. But an
additional step can make a big difference in bring-
ing attention to history of science. If the presenta-
tion is not to be too long, or if it could be given in a
shortened form, volunteer to contact a colleague who
is teaching a science class the student is currently
taking to see if the professor might also permit the
presentation be made in that class. In this way you

have not only cast the student in your class as an am-
bassador for history of science, but you also bring the
subject (and your course) to the attention of a whole
different group of science students.
The challenge of selecting appropriate topics
more or less solves itself for courses whose subject
matter is narrowly focused. A class on the history
of electricity, for example, presents physics students
with a host of possibilities to investigate. For courses
on the history of zoology, botany, geology, astron-
omy, or even more specialized scientific disciplines
there are also any number of standard topics one
would naturally cover that could be used to entice
students to become spokespersons for our field.
In the survey class the challenge becomes a bit
greater since there is less flexibility, but in general the
same approach can be used. The above tactic can,
of course, be adapted easily to majors in disciplines
from the humanities and social sciences as well.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Use things!

Joe Cain, Department of Science and Technology
Studies, University College London

Object biography is proving an effective technique
for developing history of science interests among nov-
ices at the undergraduate level.
The basic method is simple. Select an object. Pose a
theme, question, or point-of-view. Then, set students to
work investigating. As the tutor, my role is to keep sup-
plying fuel: directive questions, pointers to new sources,
contacts with expertise, and a sounding board for those
moving through the problem-solving process. Some-
times students stumble. That's when I step in to pick
them up. Sometimes, they digress into useless tangents.
That's when I impose some navigation.
As an example, this year I have students investi-
gating intellectual, material, and social/cultural as-
sociations links to natural history objects found in my
university's zoological museum. One student wanted
to find out more about some dodo bones on display;
another, a mid-19th-century embryological model
showing chick development. And so on. (I offer sugges-
tions, but ultimately, they choose.) For museum staff,
not much is known about many of the specific items
on display, though they usually have several threads at
the start. That the curators want to know more always
proves important. It means they make time in their
overloaded schedules to help, and it means their inter-
est in the work shines through to the students. This is
research with a real audience.
Research normally follows several lines of inquiry:
provenance and context of display What
precisely do we have? Where did it come from? How did
it come to be here? Describe its display both narrowly
(pose and interpretation) and broadly (what ideas are on
display here; has this display always been as it is now?).
Properly draw, describe, or photograph it. Retrieve/revise
existing catalogue information and accession records.
construction Follow translation from raw
original to curated object. What did preparation entail?
What did construction entail? What ideas are embedded
in the constructed display? Who undertook this work?

What relations exist between producer and consumer?
intellectual history Follow literary and il-
lustrative traces for these objects both in print and in
archives. How is it used? Identify differences in in-
terpretation. Follow knowledge webs both about the
object and about the interpretations built upon these
objects. Start with naming and classifying.
communal dimensions What can we learn
about the people producing and consuming the object?
Follow relevant social, political, gender threads in these
questions. Follow changing interests and fetishes.
cultural life Place the object in wider social/
cultural contexts, especially in use. Investigate changing
value, symbolism, and associations. Relate to parallel
themes in other subjects.
These projects work best on year-long, rather than
single term, scales simply because they exploit an
"investment paying dividends" model of work. Hard

April 2010 15

History of Science Society Newsletter

descriptive effort and sustained archival digging can be
done well in one term. But confidence building takes
time. So does reworking and digestion along multiple
tracks. If a term is all that's available, focus investigation
along a single track, such as demonstrating embedded
theory or following gender/class/rank dimensions con-
cerning who's doing the work.
Object biography is useful for some pedagogical
goals, but it's not an all-purpose tool. If the aim is to
develop comprehensive knowledge of a subject or to de-
velop critical skills in argument and reasoning, then ob-
ject biography will prove a poor tool. In contrast, it of-
fers an effective means for developing research skills and
integrative thinking. Handling objects and artefacts
(including archive materials) taps into memory and
cognitive pathways otherwise poorly served by typical
essay assignments asking for the compression of a few
academic papers. It doesn't seem to matter if students
are novices in history of science or have prior experience
in the subject. My own preference is not to cherry-pick
high achievers for this work. I find object biography
quite useful for skill development in otherwise average
performers. The common denominator seems to be an
appeal to students bored by (or not particularly good
at) memorizing and other low-level cognitive chores.
It also appeals to risk-takers and those eager to center
the content of their learning around their own sense of
relevance. Importantly, object biography concentrates
on skill deployment as much as skill development. For
those focused on portfolio and cv building, the cre-
ation of useful finished projects, showing them at their
independent best, can serve as a key endpoint justifying
their time and dedication.
The long term effect of object biography seems to
be instilling confidence in students' analytical capabili-
ties and their own critical interpretative voices. It helps
them understand at a deep level (and demonstrate) how
facts in the world around us come only through pro-
cesses of construction and intervention.
Object biography is not new. Alberti (2005, Isis
96-559-571) is the tip of the iceberg. It certainly offers
promise as one tool in our pedagogical arsenal. It's espe-
cially useful when the goal is integrative and penetrat-
ing thinking.

16 History of Science Society Newsletter Aprl 2010

Magic, Science, and Religion

MargaretJ. Osler, University of Calgary

When I first arrived in Calgary in 1975, two of
my colleagues were offering a one-term, second-year
course on Magic, Science, and Religion in Europe
developed in response to the popular culture and
widening scholarship of the late 1960s and early
1970s. Within a couple of years, one of these col-
leagues had moved on and his part of the course fell
to me. Eventually, I took over the entire course. As
I developed lectures, I felt overwhelmed with the
volume of relevant material, and in the early 1980s I
expanded the course to a two-term sequence. De-
mand grew, and I now cap enrolment at 125 students
per term.
The first term of the course covers the period
from Augustine to Galileo; the second from 1600
through 20th-century debates about scientific cre-
ationism. While it is no substitute for the history of
science survey, it is now the entry-level course in my
history of science sequence that includes the survey
and a variety of more specialized, seminar courses.
My version of this course focuses on the de-
velopment of ideas and intellectual issues. The
guiding principle is the notion of conceptual
frameworks. Rather than providing essentialist
and anachronistic definitions of- "magic," "sci-
ence," and "religion" I try to make the point that
different ways of understanding the world rest on
different assumptions about what kinds of entities
exist in the world, how these entities interact, and
how we can know about them. For each topic, I
analyze the assumptions underlying different views
of the world and the broader reasons why thinkers
have adopted one set of assumptions or another in
particular historical contexts. I also make the point
that the relationships among these conceptual
frameworks is far more complicated and diverse
than that of conflict, and that the history is not a
Manichean story of the light of reason triumphing
over the forces of darkness and superstition.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Instead, I focus on examples of interaction and
interpenetration, and I examine ostensible conflicts
carefully to see exactly what was at stake between
the conflicting parties.
As background to the first term, I spend two
weeks of lecture describing the major themes of the
Judaeo-Christian and Greek background to Western
intellectual history the basis for considering the
sometimes-uneasy marriage between Athens and
Jerusalem. Topics discussed, however briefly, include
various schools ofpre-Socratic philosophy, Plato, Ar-
istotle, Epicureanism, and Stoicism, as well as basic
ideas in Old and New Testament religion, including
the concepts of God, creation, providence, salvation,
and the Apocalypse. (Surprisingly for conservative
Albertans, many students have no notion either of
the main tenets of Christianity or of the Bible.)
The first substantive unit deals with the develop-
ment of the concept of witchcraft from Augustine's
opinion that witchcraft belief is illusory to the full
blown concept of witchcraft as a pact with the Devil
articulated in the Malleus Maleficarum in the late 15th
century. The thesis of this part of the course is that
witchcraft involves magical practices (or accusations of
such) but that witchcraft itself, in the medieval Chris-
tian context, is not magic but perverted religion.
The second term, running from 1600 through
the late 20th century, is organized around the
changing relationships between science and religion.
The 17th century is a time when theological con-
siderations play a major role in the choice of a new
philosophy of nature. During the 18th century, the
positions of reason and religion become reversed,
and reason emerges as the universal criterion. Dur-
ing the 19th and 20th centuries especially after
Darwin science displaces theology as the starting
point for discussions of human nature.
Because the course draws students from all over
the university, I cannot assume any relevant back-
ground or a willingness to read overly technical
material. Because class size is so large, I lecture. If
one could teach this course with smaller sections or
at a more advanced level, it would lend itself well to
a discussion format and the use of primary sources.

Many different kinds of students are attracted
to this course. Over the years I have encountered
covens of witches, practicing Hermeticists, New Age
feminists, positivist scientists, and fundamentalist
This is extracted from an article that first appeared
in the HSS Newsletter, April 2002. For the full article,
please go to http://ww.hssonline.org/publications/
pd pp. 4-5

Apr 2010 17

History of Science Society Newsletter

Teaching Disagreements in Science
and Math

Alberto A. Martinez
University of Texas at Austin

At the University of Texas at Austin, the
UTeach program trains students majoring in sci-
ence or mathematics to become teachers. It requires
one historical course titled: "Perspectives on Science
and Math." The version that I have taught to nine
groups over the past four years is now being repli-
cated in 13 other universities, with more underway;
and additional course materials are being prepared
by Abigail Lustig. The replication labors are di-
rected by the UTeach Institute, thanks greatly to
a grant of $125 million from The Exxon Mobile
Foundation, plus support from the National Math
and Science Initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation, the Michael & Susan Dell Founda-
tion, the Texas Instruments Foundation, and sev-
eral other state and national agencies.
The Perspectives course is one of nine courses in
this teaching certification program. Nearly none of
our students have taken other courses in the his-
tory of science. At first, many seniors resent having
to take yet another requirement and they doubt
that there is any real way in which history might
help their future work as teachers of science or
math. Moreover, many math students presuppose
no connection between their field and the sciences:
"Why should I have to study biology and physics?
I'm a math major." Nevertheless, my most success-
ful strategy to gain their interest has been to portray
the elements of science and math as interdependent
and unfinished, open to critical analysis, by tracing
historical episodes in which scientists have intensely
debated topics we now take for granted. The same
holds for mathematicians, as our incoming students
know no example of mathematicians ever disagree-
ing about anything.
Among the topics that trigger most debate and
discussion are the following: rules on negative num-
bers, division by zero, the Monty Hall game show

problem, definitions of species, eugenics and Bely-
aev's foxes, 1 = .999..., Platonism versus formalism,
the prisoner's dilemma, and myths about the Golden
Ratio. My main goal is to spark curiosity that will
lead students to pursue history on their own. To
trigger discussion I carry out preliminary surveys on
what students think, to later get them to argue their
perspectives, and to connect with viewpoints of past
scientists and mathematicians.
If not strictly required, many students will post-
pone reading until just before an exam. Therefore,
I give brief reading quizzes for every single reading.
But finding suitable readings has been a struggle.
Primary sources, such as by Galileo or Darwin, lack
appeal for these students. Solid historical works lack
the entertainment value of popular science books,
which lack reliability. I've increasingly assigned
excerpts of books, along with historically informed
yet popular essays, and I have written articles to
hand out. Rather than assign exhaustive works, I
find it better to assign lively readings and to expose
defects in class. By highlighting critical and progres-
sive dimensions, students enjoy the sense that his-
tory involves inquiry. Finding variations in historical
accounts, students become compelled to turn to
primary sources.
We also analyze schoolbooks on science and
math, looking for historical elements, to pinpoint
myths and shortcomings. As future teachers, stu-
dents appreciate the growing sense that they can be
"above the textbook" able to correct passages that
are wrong. These students lack interest in scientific
societies or institutions, but they enjoy stories about
interesting individuals: such as Pascal, Wegener, and
Galton. Thus, one way to capture students' attention
is to study aspects of popular books, even bestsellers,
and to seek in history factual elements that resonate
with the captivating forms of popular stories.
By the end of the course, students' views on his-
tory have improved greatly. They write: "I've never
taken a course like this before. I love that everything
that we've learned as the 'foundation' of math or
science in the past has a more interesting back story,"
and also, "This is by far my favorite class of college.

History of Science Society Newsletter

It was so interesting and taught in a completely dif-
ferent way than I've ever experienced. It changed the
way I view the impact of teaching."
In July 2009, President Obama praised the
UTeach program in a White House press release
on education, and now again, in January 2010 the
President commended its national expansion in his
"Educate to Innovate" Campaign. Six new UTeach
replication sites have now been announced, bring-
ing the total to nineteen: University of California
at Berkeley (Cal Teach), University of California at
Irvine (Cal Teach), University of Colorado at Boul-
der (CU Teach), University of Colorado at Colo-
rado Springs, University of Florida (FloridaTeach),
Florida State University (FSUTeach), University of
Houston (TeachHOUSTON), University of Kansas
(UKanTeach), Louisiana State University (Geaux
Teach), University of North Texas (TNT), Northern
Arizona University, (NAUTeach), Temple University
(TUteach), University of Texas at Dallas (UTeach
Dallas), University of Western Kentucky (SKyTeach),
University of Tennessee Knoxville (VolsTeach),
Middle Tennessee State University, University of
Texas at Arlington (UTeach Arlington), University
of Texas at Tyler, Cleveland State University. Each
of these universities needs (or already has appointed)
qualified instructors to teach the Perspectives on
Science and Math course. A problem, however, is
that some of the schools might hire instructors from
education, philosophy, or the sciences who lack the
specialized knowledge of our field. To that end, job
candidates should directly contact programs of inter-
est to inquire about possible opportunities, or, you
may write to info@UTeach-institute.org, addressing
your email to Kim Hughes, who will refer you to the
appropriate site coordinator.


In 2011, HSS will meet with
SHOT and 4S in Cleve-
land, Ohio, 3-6 November.
Please plan on joining us
for what promises to be a
spectacular meeting.

April 2010 19

History of Science Society Newsletter

Program Profile, Georgia Institute of

When was your program established and how has
it developed since its inception?
The graduate program in the School of History,
Technology and So-
ciety was established
around the time that
Mel Kranzberg retired
in the mid-1990s.
Kranzberg was a
founding father of the
Society for the His-
tory of Technology.
A named chair was
created in his honor
that was filled first
by Bruce Sinclair and
then by Phil Scran-
ton. John Krige was- -
recruited to fill the HTS's new home in the Old
position in 2000, and equipped with a graduate lo
is currently both the vidual workstations.
Kranzberg Profes-
sor and the Director of Graduate Studies. Since his
arrival the Chair has also benefitted from financial
support from the B. and B. Stern Foundation which
funds travel for the incumbent and a large variety of
graduate student activities, including a Kranzberg
Graduate Fellow.
The program in 2000 included historians of
technology Michael Allen, Gus Giebelhaus, and
Steve Usselman and historians of science and tech-
nology Ken Knoespel and John Krige. Our senior
historian of medicine was Andrea Tone while Mary
Frank Fox and Sue Rosser worked in the domain
of women, science and technology. Willie Pear-
son joined the program in 2003 and brought his
expertise and national reputation on questions of
race, science and technology. Additional sociology
strength was provided by Maren Klawiter (sociology
of medicine), Amanda Damarin, who works on the
social implications of the Internet, and Bill Winders


(agricultural policy). Two years ago it was decided to
make the graduate program the signature program of
the School, and to strengthen the sociology com-
ponent. In response we recruited three new faculty
members: Wenda Bauchspies (science, technology
and development), Kristie Macrakis (history of sci-
ence, German history),
and Jenny Smith (en-
vironmental history,
Russian history).
Currently the core
teaching staff on the

Smith, Usselman and

What are the comprehensive exam fields?
The program now has separate tracks in history
and in sociology of science and technology. It prides
itself on being interdisciplinary indeed most of the
faculty in the School are historians. For graduates in
the history track a field in the history of science and/
or technology is obligatory. So too is a field in one of
American, Asian, or European (including Russian)
history. Students are free to choose their third field
in HTS in line with their dissertation topics. Alter-
natively they can choose a field offered elsewhere in
the Ivan Alien Liberal Arts College typically in
International Affairs or Public Policy.

What are the faculty, program, and resource
This is, first and foremost, an interdisciplinary
program. While our core mission is to train com-
petitive graduates in the history (and sociology) of
petitive graduates in the history (and sociology) of

History of Science Society Newsletter

science and technology, we are emphatic that they
be able to contextualize their research in dialogue
with other fields in history. We also remain sensi-
tive to the vagaries of the job market. For example,
students entering the history track next year will do
a mandatory course in Global History. We now have
a graduate course in Museum Studies. We encourage
students in the masters program to obtain a Cer-
tificate in Public Policy (12 credit hours). We have
also just joined the ST Global Consortium that will
provide opportunities for graduate students to link
with their cohort in other schools in the U.S. and
abroad, as well as with the AAAS and the National
We currently have 10 full time and about the
same number of part-time students enrolled in the
program. Our support for full-time students covers
four years. A number of measures have been taken to
help them to be competitive for external support at
all stages of their academic career. Progress through
the program requires meeting milestones intended to
ensure that students remain focused on their aca-
demic goals. They are encouraged to get involved in
research as soon as possible, to give papers at confer-
ences of their professional societies early on, and to
apply for external support whenever it is available.
Many MS and ABD students also teach as adjuncts
either in the Atlanta area or in one of Georgia Tech's
many study abroad programs in the summer.
To date our Ph.D. students have found jobs that
fitted their interests and exploited their graduate edu-
cation. Three of them filled postdoc positions, both
in the U.S. (at MIT and Yale) and abroad (at Impe-
rial College, London). One of them won the 2008
Patel award for the best Ph.D. on modern India in
any U.S. university. Prakash Kumar is an Assistant
Professor at Colorado State University while Tim
Stoneman is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Clem-
son University. Yu Tao is an Assistant Professor at
Stevens Institute of Technology, and Patrick Zan-
der teaches at Reinhardt College in Atlanta. Other
graduates have found employment in academic ad-
ministration, in museums, and in state, federal and
national bodies.

What are some recent dissertations that have
been produced by graduate students?
Prakash Kumar, Facing Competition: The History of
Indigo Experiences in Colonial India, 1897-1920

Chris McGahey, Harnessing Nature's Timekeeper:
A History of the Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Tech-
nological Community (1880-1950)

Jahnavi Phalkey, Big Science, State Formation and
Development: The Organisation of Nuclear Research
in India, 1938-1959

Olivia Scriven, The Politics of Particularism: HB-
CUs, Spelman College, and the Struggle to Educate
African Americans in Science, 1950-1997

Tim Stoneman, Capturing Believers: International
Radio, Religion, and Reception, 1931-1970

Yu Tao, The Earnings of Asian Computer Scientists
and Engineers in the U.S.

Patrick Zander, Right Modern: Technology, Empire,
and Britain's Extreme Right Wing in the Fascist Era

More information on the faculty in the School can be
found at www.hts.gatech.edu/faculty/ News on the
program and from graduate alumni is available at
www.hts.gatech.edu/documents/newsletter 09.pdf The
graduate program is described in more detail at www.
hts.gatech.edu/graduate/ where a copy of the handbook
is also available.

*Apr 2010 21

History of Science Society Newsletter

Feeding a War: Q & A with Daniel Ragussis

Daniel Ragussis wrote and directed Haber, a short film
on the German chemist Fritz Haber (1868-1934).
Haber won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1918for
developing an economical process for synthesizing am-
monia from atmospheric gases, which could then be
used to make synthetic fertilizer, yet became infamous
forpioneering the use ofchemical weapons during
World War I

What drove you to make a
film about Fritz Haber? M
I heard about Haber in
2001 or early 2002. I saw a
Discovery Channel special on
him and immediately became
obsessed. One of the things I
love about the story is its mas-
sive historical sweep. It's about
the invention of weapons of
mass destruction, the power
of science, and the world at an I.
incredible crossroads, but it's
also a personal and intimate H TR
story about Haber as a human
being and his relationship with
his wife.

Which historical issues did
you choose to focus on?
One of the huge challenges
I faced was that I had only 34 minutes. In the end
I decided to focus on one moment in time, when he
confronted the dilemma about chemical weapons.
I was fascinated by the power that science has-the
way that scientists can be called upon to produce
that power at times of incredible need and how that
power can be used and sometimes abused. At the
time, most Germans saw themselves in a fight for
their survival; so when Haber had the opportunity
to help the war effort through the use of poison gas,

he saw it as an opportunity to save his country and
his fellow men. The Haber-Bosch process produced
fertilizer that helped to feed the world-so I was
fascinated by a man who had done these wonder-
ful things, yet was then willing to create a weapon
for the good of his country. One of my objectives
was not to make any judgments about Haber, but
to explore the situation and his decision and let the
viewers judge what they thought the right and wrong
of it was.

What would you have liked to
include, but couldn't?
Nuances about Haber's
decision, the time period, and
more details about his wife,
Clara. I'm working on a feature-
film version, so I will have the
opportunity to include these
then. In the feature version a
major supporting character is
Einstein, who was a friend of
Haber's. Also I'll include more
of his relationship with Clara,
which is the emotional part of
the story where you see and feel
the impact of Haber's decisions.
There's no conclusive evidence
as to exactly why she killed
herself. She committed suicide
the night before Haber was due to leave for the Rus-
sian front, and she did it in the garden-part of the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute-a fairly public place.
The combination of Clara's suicide, its location,
and its timing point to the fact that she was terribly
opposed to what Haber was doing and killed herself
in protest. But there were other grave problems in
their marriage as well. When they married, she was
one of the first women in Germany to get a Ph.D.
in chemistry. Haber proposed, and she accepted, the


History of Science Society Newsletter

idea that they would have a dual career. His career
quickly took off, but they had a son and not a lot of
money and no servants, so her career came to a halt.
It was terribly upsetting to her.
What struck me about Haber is that he thought in
big historical terms, in big actions. He made decisions
with big consequences and wasn't always sensitive to the
personal and human side of things. He could make a
decision like inventing chemical weapons to save Ger-
many, end the war, and save millions of lives without
looking at the personal ramifications of the people get-
ting gassed and the implications for his own life. Clara
is a foil in that sense-someone who is rooted in the
personal and tries to remind him of those concerns.

You have a fascination with science. Why is that?
At the ACS [American Chemical Society] pre-
sentation of the film [on 18 August 2009], one of the
issues that came up is the ethical responsibility that a
scientist bears. Someone said, "Why is this responsi-
bility any different than a chef who makes food used
to feed soldiers?" My answer lies in the difference
between what a scientist does and what a chef does.
A scientist's work changes the whole nature of the
game-the rules we have to live by. The fascinating
thing about science and scientists is that they alter
the nature of reality. What is possible changes. We
see that every day in how we communicate and how
we get resources. How can that not have an ethical

How do you balance telling an accurate history
with creating a compelling narrative?
My goal is that after viewing the film, audience
members will have roughly the same sense of the
people and the events that I have after doing all the
research. Some details may have to be changed, and
that's always a tough decision as I want to stay as
true to the details as possible. The biggest change I
made in the film was portraying Haber as unwill-
ing to go to the front to supervise the gas attack.
In reality he was very involved in operations at the
front-he felt a duty and an obligation to be there-
and in the feature that will be how it's portrayed. In

the short I had to crystallize his dilemma in a short
time frame, and the most effective way was to have
him protest. Everyone has to make up his or her own
mind as to whether that's appropriate or not, but I
had to be able to dramatize his dilemma and reserva-

How has Haber been used?
After the film appeared in festivals, I started
getting e-mails from high school and college teach-
ers in the United States, Australia, Germany, Swit-
zerland, and the Netherlands about using the film
in an educational setting. I realized this would be a
great educational tool to provoke discussion among
students. By selling the DVD to teachers and educa-
tors we're also demonstrating that there is a market
for this subject matter. We can then turn to the film
industry and say, "We've shown there is a market for
this film; now help us make a feature version."

For more information on the film, visit http://www.

This article was first published in the Spring 2010 issue
ofChemical Heritage magazine.

* Apl 2010 23

History of Science Society Newsletter

Honoring Scientists

By Maurice Glicksman
Professor Emeritus, Brown University

As a physicist interested in the history of
science, I have developed a collection of postage
stamps issued by various countries to honor scien-
tists. Nations usually honor their own scientists,
but there are many that issue stamps honoring
scientists from other nations. Sometimes these
stamps are dignified portraits of the scientists;
sometimes they are not. Examples of both, honor-
ing Albert Einstein, are shown in Figure 1.
The United States portrayed a scientist (Ben-
jamin Franklin) on its very first stamp, issued in
1847; a later Franklin stamp, issued in 1870, is
shown in Figure 1. His stint as the first American
postmaster-general was the reason for his appear-
ance on those stamps. The first American stamp
to commemorate a scientist or scientific work is
the stamp shown in Figure 1, honoring the inven-
tor engineer Robert Fulton. In 1940 the United
States issued seven sets of five stamps each, honor-
ing authors, poets, educators, scientists (Audubon,
Long, Burbank, Reed and Addams), composers,
artists and inventors (Whitney, Morse, McCor-
mick, Howe and Bell). The Audubon and Bell
stamps are shown in Figure 2.
Although the United States can claim 297 of
the 596 winners of the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry,
Economics, Physics or Physiology and Medicine,
only seven (2.4%) of those have been honored on
American postage stamps (three non-American
Nobelists were also so honored), while 136 Ameri-
can Nobelists have stamps honoring them, issued
by many countries. Of the eighteen science Nobel
prize winners who were Americans and received
their prizes 1907-1939, all of whom were deceased
by 1991, only three have been shown on United
States Stamps: Einstein, Millikan and Fermi.
Other countries appear to issue stamps com-
memorating people and accomplishments in the

24 History of Science Society Newsletter Aprl 2010

sciences more frequently than the United States.
France issued its first stamp honoring a scientist,
Louis Pasteur, in 1923, and it is shown in Figure
2. France has had 33 French Nobel-prize win-
ners in the sciences and 21 have been honored
on stamps. Twelve (36%) appeared on French
stamps. Great Britain issued its first stamp hon-
oring a scientist, Joseph Lister, in 1965, and it is
shown in Figure 2. Britain has had 82 British
Nobel-prize winners in the sciences, and 51 have
been honored on stamps. Ten (12%) appeared on
British stamps. Germany issued its first stamp
honoring a scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, in 1926
and it is shown in Figure 2. Germany has had 78
German Nobel-prize winners in the sciences, and
64 have been honored on stamps. Eighteen (23%)
appeared on German stamps.
Three individuals received two Nobel science
prizes: Marie Curie (who has appeared on 23
French and French colonial stamps, as well as 14
Polish stamps), Frederick Sanger (who is 91 and
has not yet been honored by a British stamp) and
John Bardeen (who died in 1991 and was honored
by an American stamp in 2008, shown in Figure
Nobel prizes are not the only mark of the im-
portance of the work of a scientist to society. But
the comparison through the postage-stamp-hon-
oring way may indicate the attention a country
devotes to its scientists and their contributions.
The United States post office continues to feature
media personalities and pay little attention to sci-
ence, and I am certain these subjects are chosen to
reflect the interests of the people using the stamps.
Other countries feature their political leaders, or
their poets or authors or artists, but those with
significant science contributions honor their scien-
tists more than the United States does.
Examining the postage-stamp policies of a na-
tion may give one a measure of the relative values its
people or its government espouse and cherish.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Fig. 1: From left to right: Albert Einstein on a United States stamp issued 24 March
1966; Albert Einstein on an Israel stamp issued 27 September 2005; Benjamin Frank-
lin on a United States stamp issued in 1870; The work of Robert Fulton on a United
States stamp issued 25 September 1909.

Fig. 2: From left to right: John Audubon on a United States stamp issued in 1940;
Alexander Graham Bell on a United States stamp issued in 1940; Louis Pasteur
on a France stamp issued in 1923; Joseph Lister on a Great Britain stamp issued
1 September 1965; Gottfried Leibniz on a Germany stamp issued in 1926; John
Bardeen on a United States stamp issued 6 March 2008.

SApril 2010 25


History of Science Society Newsletter

Searching Smartly in the HistSciTechMed Database
By Stephen Weldon, Kim Rudolph, and Sam Spence

Although most of us are now able to find our way
around online resources with at least a little facility, few
of us are able to do this with the precision and skill that
makes us feel satisfied that we have done it well. The
problem is compounded because every database and
every search engine has different quirks and protocols.
As the Isis bibliographer, I have come to realize that
few people understand enough about this particular
resource in its online form (the HistSciTechMed data-
base, or HSTM) to take advantage of the many useful
subject indexing features it offers.
This article by me and my two graduate assistants,
Kim Rudolph and Sam Spence, will explain how to get
the most out of your searches when you use the HistSci-
TechMed database. Most of you will be familiar with
this database, as it contains the digital version of the
annual Isis Bibliography. As you also likely know, it con-
tains the citation data from three other bibliographies as
well. What we say here will be most relevant to finding
information submitted by Isis, but some of the sugges-
tions will be useful for doing global searches.1

Part I: The structure of Isis CB subject indexing
The citations in the Isis Bibliography are indexed in
two ways. They are organized according to a scheme
that places each work in one location according to a
classification system originally developed by George
Sarton and modified several times over the past one
hundred years. Moreover, they are indexed with subject
terms based on a thesaurus that is expanded as neces-

1 One word of caution before we begin: The HISTSCI-
TECHMED database has data formatted and submitted by
different bibliographers, which means that certain types of
searches will only work with some of the data. Even the for-
mat of the Isis data has changed over the years. This means
that you will need to employ different search tactics to find
data that includes citations from both the earlier submissions
and the more recent ones and for data submitted by other us-
ers. This article will focus mostly on extracting information
from recent Isis data, from 2000 to the present. In future ar-
ticles we hope to provide suggestions on integrating searches
across the database.

sary to accommodate new subject matter. Anyone do-
ing subject-based searching in the bibliography, whether
in the print or in the electronic database, will benefit
from knowing the basic construction of the classifica-
tion and index terms and how to use them for effective
Sarton's original classification system derived from
his understanding of history of science as a discipline
based fundamentally on time period (which sometimes
included geographical or ethnographicall" aspects as
well) and scientific discipline. He characterized these
two classification modes as horizontal and vertical, a
horizontal view being a broad multi-disciplinary effort
to understand science in a single period or culture,
and a vertical view being a narrower focus on a single
scientific discipline as it developed across time. This
horizontal and vertical access to the historical literature
remains a consistent element throughout the classifica-
tion systems of the Isis bibliographies from Sarton's
time to today. Revisions that I made in the structure
of the bibliography since 2002 have rearranged signifi-
cant parts of the system, but the period-plus-discipline
framework remains the fundamental structural feature
of the bibliography even today. (See figures 1 and 2.)
The creation of an indexing system that would
supplement the classification framework was an innova-
tion introduced by Magda Whitrow when she worked
on the first cumulative bibliography spanning the
period from 1913 to 1965. Her indexing system came
directly from a faceted classification structure that she
employed for placing citations with greater precision in
this extremely large printed cumulation. By creating a
much more detailed classification system, she was able
to make fine distinctions in otherwise broad topical
areas (so that instead of merely classifying a work as
about "geology," for example, she could tag it as "min-
eralogy" or even "gem stones"). Whitrow advanced the
system in another way as well. Not only did she increase
the precision of existing horizontal and vertical classifi-
cation forms, she also introduced a detailed vocabulary
to describe wholly new features of the works: aspects of

History of Science Society Newsletter

scientific organization, historical analysis, and biblio-
graphical form, such as "privately sponsored," "free-
dom and secrecy," "methods of communication," and
"archives; manuscripts."
John Neu, the University of Wisconsin librarian
who edited the Isis CB for over thirty years, employed
the Whitrow category system as the basis for his subject
indexing in the HistSciTechMed database. The de-
tailed terminology proved ideal for this, although there
were some disadvantages. Developed for classification,
the Whitrow system concatenated many terms that
made it function less precisely for a database index. For
example, when the single subject phrase "North Ameri-
ca: United States; Canada" is used to tag citations, users
have no way of separating those entries dealing with
Canada, from those on North America or the United
States. To solve this problem, I have continued to use
Whitrow's terminology, but have frequently broken the
phrases into discrete units: "North America," "United
States," and "Canada." In addition, I freely add new
terminology to the thesaurus as needed, and I don't
hesitate to use multiple chronological, geographical, and
disciplinary terms for a single entry-something which
was impossible as long as the Whitrow terminology was
tied to a single-entry classification structure.

Part II: Practical search techniques in the Hist-
SciTechMed database
The indexing system of the HistSciTechMed
database makes it possible to utilize both the standard
annual classification scheme as well as the index terms
in the thesaurus for discovery. All of the items pub-
lished since 2000 now have subject terms from both
the annual print-volume classification and Whitrow-
based thesaurus index terms. (See figure 3.) This gives
researchers a good bit of flexibility in subject searching,
allowing both narrowly focused subject searches as
well as broad category listings. By combining the two
in ingenious ways, researchers can perform a variety of
specialized searches.
The advantage of utilizing both of these features,
the classification system and the thesaurus, is that
scholars can find their way into the literature using
search strategies that are designed to accommodate

more types of research projects. The data continues
to provide access according to horizontal and vertical
categories of chronology and discipline, but many other
kinds of searches are possible. By analogy one can think
of these other ways of searching through the data as di-
agonal methods. The topic area of science and religion,
for example, spans many disciplines and time periods,
cutting through those two fundamental structures. The
citations in the database added after 2002 are indexed
with such diagonal strategies in mind.

Understanding the OCLC terminology
To understand the indexes in HistSciTechMed,
let's first examine a typical record. Looking at figure 4,
you can see how records utilize the subject tagging that
we've been talking about. You'll notice that there are
several types of subjects listed in this record, most of
which can be searched separately (time, the main excep-
tion, cannot). OCLC has seven types of indexes acces-
sible. They are subject, identifier, descriptor, geographic
name, named corporation, named person, and time.
(See figure 5.)
Of these indexes, we will focus on three: subject,
identifier, and descriptor. The subject index is the meta-
index, and it includes all of the other fields within it.
You will want to use this field for general searching,
when you do not need or desire to differentiate types of
The identifier index is the one Isis data uses for the
print classification structure. The identifiers include
only Isis CB classification terms and none of the other
thesaurus index terms. This means that the Hist-
SciTechMed identifiers correlate closely, though not
exactly, to the classification headings in most of the
print bibliographies. The current classification system
is shown in figure 2; this list differs slightly from those
found on back covers of recent bibliographies.
The descriptor index is the one in which incor-
porates the Isis subject thesaurus terms. By selecting
either identifier or descriptor, you can perform the more
advanced searching described here. The important dis-
tinction to remember is the one between the descrip-
tor and the identifier fields.

*Apr 200 27

History of Science Society Newsletter

Replicating the annual printed CB categories in
the online database
Depending upon your research project, you may
find it helpful to replicate the print categories of the
CB. Let's say your area of interest is early modern
chemistry and you find the "Chemistry-17th Cen-
tury" section of the printed bibliography to be the most
helpful to you. You can recreate this category through a
search using the identifier field.
To perform a search of this sort, you must go to
the advanced search window and enter terms as found
on the list in figure 2. In our example, we enter "17th
century" in the first box, and then "chemistry" in the
second box. The dropdown box next to these terms
should be marked as identifier. (See figure 6.) Perform
the search, and you will find all Isis results for "Chemis-
try-17th Century."
Replicating the category search has advantages
and disadvantages. A second example will show you
some of the limitations of this kind of search. Let's say
you are interested in East Asian medicine. In order to
replicate this Isis category exactly, first find the exact
category terms: "Asian cultures-Medical sciences,
general works." Following the procedure laid out above,
you would enter "Asian cultures" into the first box
and "medical sciences, general works" into the second
box, selecting identifier for both. Upon performing the
search, you will find all Isis bibliography results for this
category. In this case, however, it is a disappointingly
small search result.
The main advantage to this form of searching is its
familiarity to print users who find the print classifica-
tion valuable for discovery in their particular field. The
disadvantages are that searches of this kind currently
omit records classified prior to 2000 (this ought to
change soon however), and that these general category
searches tend to be imprecise.

Using the subject index to do more refined
An alternative means of searching by index terms
will produce more specific results. Using the subject
and descriptor indexes allows both greater precision
when doing standard horizontal (time-bounded) and

vertical (discipline-bounded) searches and makes vari-
ous kinds of diagonal searching possible. Searching
by subject is a far better and more customizable tool.
Below, we will illustrate how you can use and custom-
ize subject searches to find results that you may not
have found otherwise.
Effective subject and descriptor searching is some-
what more complicated than identifier searching
because finding the correct search terms and learning
how to combine them appropriately takes more work
than identifier searching. There are three main ways to
locate search terms: scanning the index of the print bib-
liography, exploratory searching, and using the Related
Subjects button.
(1) Scanning the index of the print bibliography is
still a good place to start if there are any index terms
you find yourself using often. The Isis CB Web site
also has a list of the subject terms which can be down-
loaded. (http://www.ou.edu/cas/hsci/isis/website/the-
saurus/index.html). By looking at this list carefully
one can discover the precise terminology that is used
for classification. Sometimes there are patterns that
might be helpful in searching. The thesaurus contains
a number of parallel terms, for instance, that reflect
similar topic areas in different disciplines. The term
"science and war," parallels both "technology and war,"
and "medicine and war." Understanding the nature of
this thesaurus, thus, can dramatically help with either
more precise or more comprehensive discovery.
(2) An exploratory search using keywords is anoth-
er method of finding relevant search terms. Here is an
example where the most relevant subject terms may not
be the ones that immediately come to mind. The first
step in an exploratory search is doing a keyword search
using the terms you think most appropriate. Let's
assume that you are interested in finding material on
science in Russia during the Cold War. If we limit our
search only to Isis records after 2000, a quick keyword
search of cold war and Russia yields only nine records.
(See figure 7.) Judging by the number of results, you
can immediately tell that this search is not getting
all of the records that you want. It turns out that the
term Cold War is not a commonly used index term.
The most commonly shared terms are "20th century,"

History of Science Society Newsletter

"20th century, late," "Russia," and "Soviet Union." 2
(See figure 8.)
(3) Using the Related Subjects button is a third
very useful method for identifying related terms. This
button is on the top right hand side of the search results
screen. (See figure 7.) When you are looking at your
search result, this button will take you to a list with all
of the index terms of all of the records in the found set,
ranked according to the percentage of records in your
found set tagged with that term. (See figure 9.) Using
this screen may help you identify terms you did not
expect to be associated with your search. (Discovering
subjects through exploratory searches and the Related
Subjects button will work with all four databases in-
cluded in HistSciTechMed.)
After identifying the most relevant search terms,
the actual search process is relatively simple, the choice
you have will be determining whether to search by
subject or by descriptor. The broadest type of search and
probably the one you'll want to do most often is a sub-
ject search because it includes all of the subject indexes.
To do this, make sure the drop down box next the each
search field is set to subject3 (see figure 10) and use the
Boolean operators as desired. (OCLC has a guide to
Boolean operators in its help section.) If you want to
search a particular phrase such as "science and war"
you should put quotation marks around the phrase;
otherwise the search will return all terms that have

2 Notice that the terms "Russia" and "Soviet Union" appear
both together and separately. Because of this, we want to find
records that include either "Russia" or "Soviet Union" or
both. The Boolean search operator "OR" performs this func-
tion. A subject search of "Russia" OR "Soviet Union" will
return all the records that have at least on of those identifiers.
This search returned 312 results a much larger number
than our previous result of 8. Remember, though, that we are
interested particularly in Cold War science in Russia, so we
need to limit our results to that time period. For this example,
let's use "20th century, late" to find material on Russian
science after WWII. If you look to the left side of the search
boxes on the advanced search screen, you will see a drop
down box with the options "and," "or," and "not." Using
these boxes we can refine the parameters of our search. We
have already determined that we want to use "Russia" OR
"Soviet Union"; now, to limit our search we should add AND
"20th century, late".
3 Note that you should not use "subject phrase."

both science and war anywhere in one of the descriptor
fields, not just those items listed as "science and war." In
Figure 11 we have used "20th century, late" and "Soviet
or Russia" in the second box, both searched as subjects.
This now produces a much longer list of terms that deal
with Cold War Russian science. (See figure 11.)
Although using the subject index is easy, there
may be times in which using the specific indexes such
as descriptor, geographic name phrase, or the like
will be advantageous. Let us assume that you want to
find sources that deal with science and literature. The
print category "Science and literature; science and art"
includes literature, but neither a subject search nor an
identifier search will work well for this search, because
both will result in far too many unwanted records. In
this case, using the descriptor field will to allow you to
focus on "science and literature" alone. (See figure 12.)
The most complex type of search you can do will
allow you to combine searches within the classification
categories and thesaurus terms. By using the identifier
index to do a category-based search for the time period
we can isolate items with a primary focus on a time
period. Let's take the example of medieval traditional
medicine. If we run an identifier search using "medi-
eval" and a descriptor (or subject) search for "medicine,
traditional," we will find about 4 records. (See figure
13.) So, too, for a search of works specifically on eugen-
ics in the 19th century. Using the index term "eugenics"
and the classification category of"19th century" we can
use the descriptor and identifier fields, respectively, to
yield results that focus on this period. (See figure 14.)
A subject search of the period in each case would
have returned more results, but these would have in-
cluded works with a much broader chronological range.
In the eugenics example, we wanted to exclude the mass
of records dealing with 20th-century eugenics. This sort
of combination is just not possible in the print version.

Figure 1. Classification structure of the Isis
Current Bibliography. The current classification
structure is related to George Sarton's period-
plus-discipline framework, which he spoke of on
occasion in terms of the vertical and horizontal

*April 2010 29

History of Science Society Newsletter

study of history. The bibliography indexes work in multiple categories and pay special attention
to topical areas in the first four general categories-such as "science and literature" or "scientific
institutions." By doing this, it supplements vertical and horizontal classification with "diagonal"
categories that cut through both time and discipline.

A Tools for Historians of Science
B. Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Science General categories
C. Thematic Approaches to the Study of Science (the basis for "diagonal" searching)
D. Aspects of Scientific Practice and Organization
E. Disciplinary Classification "Vertical" classification
F. Classification by Cultural Influence "Ho" cliici
Horizontal" classification
G. Chronological Classification

Figure 2. Full classification structure of the Isis Current Bibliography as of August 2009. In order
to make the previous classification system used by John Neu work more closely with the one that I
have used, I have recently made some terminological changes in the classification structure. These are
printed in the most recent Isis CB (volume 100). Below is the complete classification system as it is
now set up and in use in the HistSciTechMed database.

A. Tools for Historians of Science
1. History of science, general works; 2. National contexts; 3. Reference works and repositories; 5.
Historiography and historical methods; 6. History of science as a profession; 7. Historians of science
B. Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Science
10. Philosophy and methods of science; 11. Sociological or psychological analysis of science; 12. Rhetorical
or representational analysis of science
C. Thematic Approaches to the Study of Science
20. Science and society, general works; 21. Science and ethics; 22. Science and society (esp. politics, law, and
economics); 23. Science and culture (esp. literature and the arts); 26. Science and race; science and ethnicity;
27. Science and gender; 28. Science and religion; 29. Science and war
D. Aspects of Scientific Practice and Organization
40. Scientific institutions; 41. Scientific instruments; 42. Scientific education; educational institutions; 43.
Professional activities of scientists
E. Disciplinary Classification
101. Occultism and natural magic; 102. History of philosophy; 103. Mathematics; 104. Music
110. Astronomy and cosmology; 111. Astrology; 112. Physics; physical sciences, general works; 113.
Chemistry; 114. Alchemy
120. Earth and atmospheric sciences; 121. Geography; cartography; exploration; 122. Natural history; 123.
Environmental sciences; 124. Paleontology
130. Biological sciences, general works; 131. Botany; 132. Zoology; anatomy and physiology; 133. Heredity;
evolution; genetics; 134. Microbiology; molecular biology; 135. Physical anthropology; human anatomy and
physiology; 136. Neurosciences; 137. Psychology; comparative psychology
140. Social sciences; 141. Sociology; 142. Cultural anthropology; 143. Economics; 144. Linguistics; 145.
Archaeology; 146. History as a discipline
150. Medicine, general works; 151. Psychiatry; medical psychology; 152. Public health; 153. Pharmacy

History of Science Society Newsletter

160. Technology, general works; 161. Communication and computer technology; 163. Agriculture; 164. Air
and space technology
F. Classification by Cultural Influence
200. Cross-cultural contexts, general works; 210. Arabic-Islamic cultures; 220. Medieval Byzantium; 230.
Asian cultures; 240. Indian cultures; 250. Jewish culture; 260. Native American cultures; 270. Traditional
G. Chronological Classification
300. Prehistory; 311. Ancient Near East; 312. Ancient Greece and Rome; 320. Medieval; 330. Renaissance;
340. 17th century; 350. 18th century; 360. 19th century; 370. 20th century; 375. 20th century, late

Figure 3. The two types of subject tagging in the Isis bibliography: (1) classification, based on the
broad fields established initially by Sarton for his semi-annual print bibliographies, and (2) subject
index tags, providing more precise classification, based initially on Magda Whitrow's classification
system and now regularly expanded.
Examples of classification categories Examples of subject index terms
Science and war Biological warfare
Geography; cartography; exploration Maps, atlases
Botany-Asian cultures China
Alchemy-Medieval Hermeticism
Science and society, general works-20th Popularization

Figure 4. Example of a record in HistSciTechMed showing the different subject types.

Title: Eclipse records in historical documents of the Qing Dynasty and current research on them
Source: Guangxi Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao 12, 1 (2006), 32-36
Language: Chinese
Descriptor: Astronomy
Eclipses: transits: occultations
Geographic: East Asia, civilization and culture
Time: Qing dynasty (China, 1644-1912)
Identifier: Astronomy and cosmology -- Asian cultures
Note(s): [Translated title.] In Chinese.
Document Type: Journal Article
Accession No: XISI701130-H
Database: HistSciTechMed

Figure 5. Subject types in HistSciTechMed and their Isis equivalent.

The HistSciTechMed database draws on additional academic providers of bibliographic data beyond the
Isis bibliography. Their methods of classification do not conform to this list; it is for Isis data only.

Subject type in HistSciTIehllMed ~EUuivalent Isis subject type (post-2()()()
subject all tags (thesaurus terms affd clssificatiofi categories)
identifier classification category (see figure 2)

*April 2010 31

History of Science Society Newsletter

descriptor thesaurus term representing a subject, but not a proper name (place,

institution, or person) or a time period
geographic name thesaurus place name

named corporation thesaurus institution name

named person thesaurus personal name

time thesaurus chronological period

Figure 6. Dropdown list for field type in the HistSciTechMed database.
HistSciTechMed Advanced Search
Enter search terms r one or more boxes and click cn Search.

Basic Search .d.and driih E Previous searches Go to page
Current database: HistSciTechrMed
Nawl Hdp

Search I Clear I
Search in database: IHistSciTechMed J 0
Inernational bibliography of history of science, technology, and medicine.

Search for: 117th century I .
Iand IChemistry I'C I
l-an-d 1 Abstract -
___ Access Method
Year Accession Number
Database Name Phrase I No Lii Author
Limit to:
to Document Type Phrase
Language Phrase No L Conference Name Phrase
Corporate Author Phrase
Limit to: r 2 Full text Database Name Phrase
Limit availability to: rF Subscriptions held by my DescrptorPhrase
Ih Library Code.
Rankby: No ranking'-" '
Named Corporation
Search I Clear I Named Corporation Phrase
Named Person
Named Person Phrase

Figure 7. Search results of a keyword search of "Cold War" and "Russia."

0 i eg (| C i History of Science, Technology, and Medicine results for: (kw: Cold and kw: War) and kw: Russia, Save Search)
Sort Related Related Lmit E-mail Prin Eiport Hep Records found: 17
subjects Authors
Find rlaed Book tc. Articles Journal rticles Referene Reou
(W. IdCdtcliF-rsfl -ECO (.idAPl

Prev Next
I Introduction: Science and National Identity
Author: Harison, Carol E,; Johnson, Ann Source: Osiris 24, (2009), 1-14 Do. Type: Journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibiography of History of Science. Libraries Worldwide: 7
See more details for locating this terri
r 2 *: r n ,1 i. -iI' i i l:. I. I IJ T .- I .. ..:.1.:.. T r 7.. .-r 1, .. I :ir ,. I [. I.:. .r .r .
".r,:.i :.-1 :.,,,,,, e_ _. .:*: ,ei ,I ,:0 i. i -me: ISIS Current Bibhography of History of Science, Libraries Worldwide: 718 @ ee.
r 3 Images of Disease: Science, Public Policy, and Health in Post-war Europe
Publication: Luxembourg: Office of the Offical Pubi cations of the European Communities 2001
Document: Monograph
Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. See more details or locating this item
S4. The Phenomenon of Soviet Science
Author: Kojevnkov Alexei Source: Osirls 23, (2008), 115-135 Doc. Type: journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. Libraries Worldwide: 718 @ Se
r5. Cold War in the Kitchen: Gender and De-Stalinization of Consumer Taste in the Soviet Union under Khrushchev
Author: Reid, Susan E Source: Slavic Review 61:2, (2002), 211--252 Doc. Type: journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Biblography of History of Science. Libraries Worldwide: 1094
See more details for locating this item
F b Reappraisinc Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections
Publication: Berkeley, Call.: Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, Bereley 2005
Document: Monograph
Database Name: IISI Current Bibliography of i Soience. @see more details for location this item

32 Hstory of Sience Socety Newsletter I Apr 2010

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 8. Detailed view of the fourth record in the search results displayed in figure 7.

The Phenomenon of Soviet Science

Alexei Kojevnikov

English Journal Article
Osiris, 23, (2008), 115-135


External Resources:

Database Name:
Standard No:




Check the catalogs in your library.
* Libraries worldwide that own item: 718
* A Search the catalog at OU Libraries--Norman Campus

* AarTc OU ArticleLinker
* L]STOR Full Text
* O.Cite This Item
ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science.
Koievnikov. Alexei
The Phenomenon of Soviet Science
Osiris 23, (2008), 115-135
ISSN: 0369-7827
National histories
Science, general histories
Soviet Union
20th century, late
National contexts -- 20th century, late

* ANM133

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 9. The Related Subjects button, which is found on the upper left side of the search results screen.
(See figure 7.)

r Russia 52%
r Soviet Union 35%
F Science and politics 29%
F Cold War 23%
F National histories 23%
F United States 17%
F National identity 17%
F 2?r1t, century 17%
F Cross-national companision 17%
r- rl century, late 17%
F Science and society (esp. politics, law, and economics) -- 20th century 11%
F War 11%
F Germany 11%
F Military technology 11%
r Surgery 11%
r France. 11%
Science and society 11%

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 10. The advanced search screen showing the complete list of indexes from the dropdown box.




[Basc Search Advanced Search I Expert Search PreviousSearches Go to page


Nem Help

Search in database:


Search Clear

[HistSciTechMed 0
International bibliography of

Search for: 20th century, late

rand -:q

[and -

Limit to:

Soviet OR Russia

Database Name Phrase
Document Type Phrase
Language Phrase

isis Cunm
I No LmmR
[ No Limrt

Limit to: D3 Full text@

Limit availability to: D ( Subscrlptons held by my II
match any of the r, ilwr'n; ULbrary Code

Rank by: [ No ranking 1


/ Keyword
Access Method
Accession Number
Author Phrase
Conference Name
Conference Name Phrase
Corporate Author Phrase
Database Name Phrase
Descriptor Phrase
Geographic Name Phrase
Language Phrase
Named Corporation
Named Corporation Phrase
Named Person
Named Person Phrase
Personal Name
Personal Name Phrase
Publication Dare
Series Title
Series Title Phrase
Source Phrase
Standard Number

Subject Phrase
Table of Contents
Title Phrase

SApril 2010 35

ogy, ar


- -- --L --L

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 11. Search results for a subject search of "20th century, late" and "Soviet OR Russia"

Sort Related Related Lint E-mail Prit Eport Help
SubJ.ll Abth-orr
Fi.rd -11 B.ketr

History of Science, Technology, and Medicine results for: (su: Soviet OR su: russia) and ((su: 20th and su: century, an
Records found: 88

Journal Artles

Reference Resour.ce

Prev Next
S1, Soviet/Russian-American Space Cooperation
Author: Karash, Yuri Y, Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A 70/03, (2009) Doc. Type: Journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. Librari
SUNIV OF OKLAHOMA See more details for location this item
r2. On the Side: Car Culture in the USSR, 1960s--1980s
Author: Segelbaum, Lewis H. Source: Technology and Culture 50, (2009), 1--22 Doc. Type: ournal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. Libraries
See more details for ocating this item
F3, The Development of Photodiodes and Lasers: The Contribution of Russian Scientists
Author: Nosov, Yu. R Source: Voprosy istorl estestvoznana i tekhnlks 6, 2 (2006), 49-61 Doc. Type: journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. L
See more details for locating this item
r4, Academician Pavel Alekseevich Cherenkov and the Collaboration between FIAN (the Physical Insititute of the Academy of Sciences)
Laboratory for High-Energy Physics)
Author: Baranov, P. S.; Lebedev, A. I.; Cherenkova, E. P. Source: Voprosy istaor estestvoznania i tekhnki 8, 2 (2008), 140--153 Doc. Type: Journal Article Database Name: ISIS Currer
Libraries Worldwide: 58 @See more details fr loatin this itern
rF5 In the Shadow of the Moon: A Challenging Journey to Tranquility, 1965-1969
Author: French, Francis; Burgess, Coin
Publication: Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 2007
Document: Monograph
Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography H ry of Science. See more details for ocating tis item
r The Red Stuff: A History of the Public and Material Culture of Early Human Spaceflight in the U.SS.R.
Author: Lewis, Cathleen Susan Source: Dissertation Abstracts International A 69/2, (2008) Doc. Type: Journal Article Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science.
SUNIV OF OKLAHOMA See more details for locating this item

Figure 12. Using the dropdown menu to do a descriptor search.




[ BasicSearch IAdvanced Search Expert Search 1 Previous Searches ]Go to page


Nem Hel

Search in database:


Search Cear

HistSciTechMed 'J
International bibliography of


No Limil
No LimM

Limit to: 0D Full text

Limit availability to: D A Subscriptions held by my III
match any of the following Lbrary Code L

Access Method
Accession Number
Author Phrase
Conference Name
Conference Name Phrase
Corporate Author Phrase
Database Name Phrase

S *4I

Descriptor Phrase
Geographic Name Phrase
Language Phrase
Named Corporation
Named Corporation Phrase
Named Person
Named Person Phrase
Personal Name
Personal Name Phrase
Publication Date
Series Title
Series Title Phrase
rntuirrp Phraci
V j

Search for: Science and Literature

[ anid i-


13gy, al

and `


t t Database Name Phrase
Limit to:
Document Type Phrase

Language Phrase



History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 13.The search results after doing a combination search, seeking "medieval" in the identifier index
and "medicine, traditional" in the descriptor index.

G d a 0~ c bQ "3| History of Science. Technology, and Medicine results for: id: Medieval anc
Sort Related Related Limit E-mail Print Export Help Records found: 6
Subjects Authors

Prev Next
F 1. Medieval Herbal Remedies: The Old English Herbarium and Analo-Saxon Medicine
Author: Van Arsdall, Anne
Publication: New York: Routledge 2002
Document: Monograph
Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. See more details for locating this item
r2. La prevencion de la enfermedad en la Espaina baio medieval
Author: Pefa, Carmen; Giron Irueste, Fernando
Publication: Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada 2006
Document: Monograph
Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science, _) .- ,,:., .1. I r., .: .. ,- 1 r.
Fr. The "Old English Herbarium" in a New Context
Author: Van Arsdall, Anne Source: Dissertation Abstracts Intrnational. A 62, (2002), 2756 Doc. Type: Journal Article Database Name: ISIS
SUNIV OF OKLAHOMA See more details for locating this item
r4, Words, Stones, and Herbs: The Healing Word in Medieval and Early Modern England
Author: Bishop, Louise M.
Publication: Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press 2007
Document: Monograph
Database Name: ISIS Current Bibliography of History of Science. ) -..- .: 1.- I r.:. I... ,, r.-,,

Figure 14. A similar search result as in figure 13, seeking "eugenics" in the descriptor index and "19th
century" in the identifier index.

Hn Dbases a gsta
*L r t R I. r,. Detailed Record Harked Recrds Saved Reords o to caqe

^^ ^^ ^ ^^L^ C Hist"r of Science, Technology, and Medicine results for: (Id: 19th and Id: century)
sort RteReled Udt Ed Print Eprt Help Hlisbtryof Sclence". (SaveSearch)
sub)%c Aulibir Records found: 24

Prev Next
D 1. Kolonialismus, Eugenik und Birgerliche Gesellschaft in Deutschland 1850-1918 /
Author: Grosse, Pascal.
Publication: New York: Campus, 2000.
Document: Monograph
Database Name: Isis Current Bibliography of History of Science. See5 mc.re r drall fi,r Ix.airg [his i Ir
S2. Eugenics and Freedom at the Fin de Siccle /
Author: Richardson, Angelique. In: Culture and Science in the Nineteenth-Century Media; p.275-286; Aldershot, U.K.; 3urig;ri.r.i, VT: Ash
3,Dllo -rapln of History of Science. On Se mrr- lraii f(.i loltinr tr, r ,trr
03. Love and Eugenics in the Late Nineteenth Century: Rational Reproduction and the New Woman /
Author: Richardson, Angelique.
Publication: Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Document: Monograph
Database Name: Isis Current Bibliography of History of Scence. @ S mt nior i .cIaii for i.xj:ari, riii, itln,
04. Aspects et developpements recents de I'histoire de I'eua nisme /
Author: leanmonod, Gilles. Source: Gesnerus Vol. 60 (2003), p. 83-100 Doc. Type: Journal article Database Name: Isis Current Biblioi
SUNIV OF OKLAHOMA See more details for location this item

*0ApN = 137

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 15. Choices available when using the Limit button, which can be found on the upper left hand
side of the search results screen. (See figure 7, 13, or 14.)

Limit Results
Select a term from one of the following categories to limit your search.
Click on the + sign to display the available terms.

Home Databases Searching Results

List of Records I Detailed Record 1 Marked Records 1 Saved Records ] o to page

History of Science, Technology, and Medicine results for: (Id: 19th and Ih
Help Records found: 24
SLiUmit Your Results by Subscriptions held by your library (Ku, UNIV OF OKLAHOMA)

SLimit Your Results by Author

SLimit Your Results by Subject Headings

SLimit Your Results by Year

Lirmi Your Results by Document Type Phrase

SLimit Your Results by Language Phrase

38 History of Science Socety Newsletter Aprl 20

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 16. Screen showing how to limit by year.

Home Databases Searching Results

List of Records 1 Detailed Record 1 Marked Records Saved Records ] Co t pagi

Ui History of Science, Technology, and Medicine results for: (Id: 19th and
Help Records fund: 24
O Umit Your Results by Subscriptions held by your library (OKU, UNIV OF OKLAHOMA

SLimit Your Results by Author

SLimit Your Results by Subject Headings

SSelect a Year to Limit Your Results

Date range: YYYY-YYYY

02006 1
0 2004 4
D2003 6
S2002 2
O2001 3
S2000 3
S1998 1

Search I Clear I

Limit Your Results by Document Type Phrase

Limit Your Results by Lanaiuaee Phrase

* ApN 2M 0 139

History of Science Society Newsletter

Figure 17. The Basic Search screen.



Basic Soarch TAdand S..A ]Ch E

InltrG New Hep

Search in database:

Current database: HistScITechMed

Search Clear

HistSciTechMed 0'
International bibliography of history of science, technology, and medicine.

Keyword [I
Limit to: E0 Full text
Searh Cd

Useful Hints and Tips for Working
with your Search Results
The Limit button, which can be found in the top
row of buttons on the results screen (see figure 7 or
figure 11) may provide some useful refining tools for
your searches. (See figure 15.)
Limiting by Year. For example, if you wish to
set a date range on your results, select Limit and then
"Limit by Year." (Figure 16.) This function will allow
you to enter a date range and also presents a useful list
that relates the year published to the frequency of your
results. By using this function you can see trends on
the rate of publishing on your subject.
Limiting by Document Type Phrase will limit
your results to the medium of your choosing: Journal
article, Book review, Chapter, Monograph, Serial.
.Limiting by Author will show the frequency of
authors who have written about this subject this is a
useful tool to find authors who are publishing about
your area of interest, and in what frequency.
Limiting by Subject Heading is especially useful.
By clicking this option, you will see a list of subjects
that occur frequently with the subject you searched.

You can search these related terms by selecting them
and clicking Search at the top, and it will search for the
additional terms plus the original term using the AND
operator. Note that this function can also be reached
by clicking Related Terms on the results page.
All of these Limit functions can be used simulta-
neously to produce a very specific, very refined result.
Note that many of these functions can be set before
a search is done using the Advanced Search feature.
However, you may find you prefer working with the re-
sults rather than setting limits on the search before you
obtain results. (Subject Heading and Author feature are
not available before your search.)
One word of caution regarding author and title
searches. If you are doing a simple author or title
search, it is best to use the Basic Search screen, (see
figure 17) which is relatively selfexplanatory; however,
there are a few points to note. Of the three search fields
(keyword, title, and author), do not use keyword if
you are searching for a specific author. Neither order of
names nor punctuation matters in basic searches; all of
these searches find all words irrespective of their loca-
tion in a field.

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