Title: History of Science Society newsletter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093941/00032
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Title: History of Science Society newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: History of Science Society
Publisher: History of Science Society
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: October 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00093941
Volume ID: VID00032
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Vol 38 No 4, October 2009

o t is o Socie

Table of Contents


Member News

In the Service of
Galileo's Ghost

Historians and Contemporary
Anti-evolutionism 14

Making Visible Embryos:
Making a Virtual
Exhibition 17

"Lusty Ladies or Victorian
Victims?" 22

Lone Star Historians of
Science 23

Centaurus: A New Face at a
Respected Journal 24

World Congress of
Environmental History

Notes from the Inside

Activity in the HSS Executive Office continues to quicken as our
highly anticipated annual meeting in Phoenix approaches. Since this year's
conference will feature numerous changes, I want to provide you with an
update on a few of these changes. We are meeting later than usual, the
weekend before the U.S. Thanksgiving, and part of the reason for doing so
is that hotel rates are significantly cheaper this time of year. Since Phoenix
is a vacation destination, we also thought that members might want to
linger in the area and sample the natural beauty of the Southwest. But per-
haps the biggest change in the conference is its format. We are building on
last year's successful prize ceremony where we detached the prize ceremony
from the banquet so that more members could attend the ceremony. We
received many positive comments regarding the ceremony, but we learned
that our Saturday night was now too full: prize ceremony, distinguished
lecture, reception, and Society dinner. Therefore, we have moved the prize
ceremony to Friday night, to be followed by the distinguished lecture,
which will be given by M. Norton Wise. After the lecture we will host
an open reception honoring the prizewinners, allowing us to set aside all
of Saturday evening for an experiment. This is the experiment. After the
sessions end on Saturday, everyone is invited to make their way to the
beautiful Heard Museum for the Society dinner where we will celebrate
the prizewinners and the history of science (there is a space on the registra-
tion form to indicate if you plan to attend). We expect some 300 attendees
at the dinner, and we wish to create an atmosphere that will allow delegates
to circulate freely, converse, enjoy good food, and admire the splendid
holdings at the Heard (guided tours will be provided). It is our hope that
this event will facilitate discussion and friendship. The end result will be
a stronger Society, one well positioned to foster interest in the history of
science. Since this new format for the conference is experimental, I will be
grateful if you would provide me feedback on what worked, what did not
work, and what we could do to make the meeting even better.

And as always, thank you for your membership in the HSS.

History of Science Society Newsletter


Cartooning Evolution
Mark Aldrich has collected and posted images of cartoons on evolution culled from numerous newspapers
and journals. With many images on Darwin and the Scopes Trial, Cartooning Evolution provides a rich
repository of tongue-in-cheek representations of evolution. For further information, visit http://sophia.smith.

Evolution: A Journal of Nature, 1927-1938 available online
Evolution: A Journal of \ .,' e was published 1927-1938 by a New York-based group of pro-evolutionists
following the 1925 Scopes Trial. The magazine included commentary on events, resources for teachers, and
reviews/advertisements for supporting materials. For further information: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sts/cain/proj-

Generation to Reproduction: Wellcome Strategic Award for Cambridge His-
tory of Medicine
The University of Cambridge has secured major funding in the history of medicine from the Wellcome
Trust. A strategic award of 785,000 for five years from 1 October 2009 will allow a cross-disciplinary group
of researchers to take a concerted approach to the history of reproduction. The research will provide fresh
perspectives on issues ranging from ancient fertility rites to IVF. A strongly grounded account, building on a
lively field of historical investigation, will offer a fresh basis for policy and public debate. For more informa-
tion: http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/generation/ or contact generate@hermes.cam.ac.uk.

Postal Address
PO Box 117360
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7360

Physical Address
3310 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Phone: 352-392-1677/Fax: 352-392-2795
E-mail: info@hssonline.org
Web site: http://www.hssonline.org/
University of Chicago Press
Phone: 877-705-1878; Fax 877-705-1879
E-mail: subscriptions@press.uchicago.edu
Or write University of Chicago Press, Subscription Fulfillment
Manager, PO Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637-7363
Please notify both the HSS Executive Office and the Univer-
sity of Chicago Press.

The History of Science Society Newsletter is published in January, April, July, and October,
and sent to all individual members of the Society.
The Newsletter is edited and published in the Executive Office. The format and edito-
rial policies are determined by the Executive Director in consultation with the Committee on
Publications and the Society Editor. All advertising copy must be submitted in electronic form.
Advertisements are accepted on a space-available basis only, and the Society reserves the
right not to print a submission. The rates are as follows: Full page (7 x 9.25"), $625; Horizontal
or Vertical Half page (7 x 4.6"), $375; Quarter page (3.5 x 4.6"), $225. The deadline for inser-
tion orders is six weeks prior to the month of publication and should be sent to the attention of
the HSS Executive Office. The deadline for news, announcements, and job/fellowship/ prize
listings is firm: Six weeks prior to the month of publication. Long items (feature stories) should
be submitted eight weeks prior to the month of publication. Please send all material to the
attention of the executive office: info@hssonline.org.
2009 by the History of Science Society

History of Science Society Newsletter

Recent Doctoral Dissertations in the History of Science
The latest batch of recent doctoral dissertations pertaining to history of science has been downloaded to
http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/guides/histmed/researchresource /dissertations/index_html.
Because of budget cuts at the host institution these dissertation lists are now bimonthly. For further Infor-
mation: http://http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/guides/histmed/researchresource /dissertations/index_html

Official Web site of the 14th Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philoso-
phy of Science
The official Web site of the 14th Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, which will be
held in Nancy (France), 16-19 July 2011, is now available at http://www.clmps2011.org.

International History & Philosophy of Science Teaching Group Newsletter
The latest IHPST newsletter is available on the web at: http://www.ihpst.org/newsletters.html

2009 James T. Cushing Memorial Prize in History and Philosophy of Physics
The John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values, along with the Graduate Program in History
and Philosophy of Science at the University of Notre Dame and the Advisory Committee of the James T.
Cushing Memorial Prize in History and Philosophy of Physics has awarded the 2009 prize to Hanneke Jans-
sen. She is being honored for her Master's Thesis-"Reconstructing Reality: Environment-Induced Decoher-
ence, the Measurement Problem, and the Emergence of Definiteness in Quantum Mechanics."

Notice of Closure of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Con-
temporary Scientists
The University of Bath Libraries announces the closure of the NCUACS at the University of Bath to take
effect 31 October 2009. If you have any queries concerning this closure, please address them to Howard
Nicholson, University Librarian, University of Bath at H.D.Nicholson@bath.ac.uk. In the 22 years since the
Unit moved to Bath, it has secured the future of and processed nearly 200 scholarly archives now placed in
many institutional libraries throughout the UK. For further information: http://www.bath.ac.uk/ncuacs/.

2010 Archaeoastronomy Workshop Announced
The 2009 Conference on Archaeoastronomy of the American Southwest (CAASW) advanced the study and
practice of archaeoastronomy of the American Southwest. To continue to build upon the success of the 2009
conference, a two-day technical workshop to be held 11-12 March 2010 has been scheduled to include such
topics as methodological principles, surveying techniques, mathematical modeling, standardization of terms
and forms, and more. For further Information: http://www.caasw.org or e-mail administrator@caasw.org.

"Fathers of Astronomy"
In celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, the Frazier International History Museum
presents the mini-exhibition, Fathers of Astronomy, featuring authentic, first-edition books written by
ground-breaking scientists Galileo and Copernicus as well as the "Nuremberg Chronicle." The exhibit closes
3 January 2010. For more information: http://www.fraziermuseum.org or call (502) 753-5663.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Colloquium on the History of Psychiatry and Medicine, Francis A. Countway
Library of Medicine, Harvard

The Colloquium on the History of Psychiatry and Medicine offers an opportunity to clinicians, researchers,
and historians interested in a historical perspective on their fields to discuss informally historical studies in
progress. Colloquiums will be held on 19 November, 17 December, 2009, each from 4:00 5:30pm. For
further information e-mail David G. Satin at david satinchms.harvard.edu or call/fax: 617-332-0032. For
further information: http://https://www.countway.harvard.edu/menuNavigation/historicalResources.html.

Call for Proposals: Book Series in History of Medicine
Praeger is looking for potential projects for a book series entitled Healing Society: Disease, Medicine, and His-
tory. The object is to publish books that offer reliable overviews of particular aspects of medical and social
history while incorporating the most up-to-date scholarly interpretations. Books are intended to be narrative
surveys that serve as practical introductions or handbooks to their topics. Some topics of particular interest
(although proposals on any appropriate topic would be welcome) are: history of caesarean section; history of
pandemics (in general, or a particular disease such as influenza); history of drugs of abuse (or a specific drug
such as opium); history of specific disabilities, diseases and medical conditions (e.g., cerebral palsy, bipolar
disorder, leprosy, yellow fever, etc., either comprehensively or within a specific country/time period with
appeal to a broad, general English-speaking audience). If interested, contact John Parascandola at jparascan-
dola@verizon.net. For further information: http://www.praeger.com/praeger.aspx.

CFP: Special Theme Issue: Religion and Biotechnology
Papers are welcome for a special theme issue of the European Legacy that will seek to delineate, analyze and
discuss the current stage of the relationship between religion and biotechnology and the impact of all sorts of
human genetic engineering on traditional theological attitudes to life and the notion of the human person.
The special issue is expected to present as many religious positions as possible and offer a representative array
of themes and methodological approaches, encompassing discussions in epistemological, ethical, historical
or socio-political terms. Submission deadline: 31 August 2010. To submit please contact: Byron Kaldis at

Paolo Rossi Monti awarded the 2009 Balzan Prize
Paolo Rossi Monti, an emeritus professor at the University of Florence, has been awarded the 2009 Balzan
Prize for the history of science. He was honored for his contributions to the study of the intellectual founda-
tions of science from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Each prize carries an award of one million Swiss
francs, half of which must be used for research.

American Association for the History of Nursing Awards
At its 26th annual conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the American Association for the History of
Nursing awarded the Lavinia L. Dock Award for Exemplary Historical Research and Writing to Julie Fair-
man (University of Pennsylvania) for her Making room in the clinic: Nurse practitioners and the evolution of
modern health care (Rutgers University Press). The Mary Adelaide Nutting Award for Exemplary Histori-
cal Research and Writing was awarded to Barbra Mann Wall (University of Pennsylvania) for the article
"Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940-1972," which was published in Nursing History Review in

History of Science Society Newsletter

2009. The article analyses the complex roles that race, gender, and religion played in the practice of health in
the southern United States in the mid-20th century. The AAHN's Teresa E. Christy Award recognizes excel-
lence in historical research and writing done while the research was a doctoral student. This year the award
was presented to Jacqueline Margo Brooks Carthon (University of Pennsylvania), for her dissertation "No
place for the dying: A tale of urban health work in Philadelphia's Black Belt." For further information, go to:

PACHS Fellowships
The Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science offers fellowships for Dissertation Research (one-month,
with a $2,000 stipend) and Dissertation Writing (nine months, with a $20,000 stipend) for doctoral candi-
dates whose projects are concerned with the history of science, technology or medicine. One-month fellow-
ships are for students who wish to use the collections of two or more of the Center's member institutions,
which include some of the premier repositories of primary source materials in the United States. Nine-month
fellowships are for students who wish to participate in our interdisciplinary community of scholars while
completing research and writing their dissertations. Applications must be submitted online by 4 January
2010. For more information on the Center's fellowships, resources for research, events and activities, see

Kenneth O. May Medal
Ivor Grattan-Guinness, a historian of mathematics and logic, has received the Kenneth O. May Medal for
outstanding service to the history of mathematics. The medal was bestowed by the International Commis-
sion for the History of Mathematics (ICHM) on 31 July 2009 at the 23rd International Congress for the
History of Science. The May Medal is named for the mathematician and historian of mathematics who was
instrumental in starting the ICHM.

In Memoriam: Olga Amsterdamska
Olga Amsterdamska, sociologist of science and historian of science and medicine, died Thursday, 27 August
2009, from cardiac insufficiency, a complication ofmyositis. Olga was born in Lodz, Poland in 1953. She
studied philosophy and sociology at Yale University (BA, 1975) and completed her graduate education in
sociology at Columbia (PhD 1984). Her dissertation, written under the supervision of Robert K. Merton,
was published as Schools of Thought: The Development of Linguistics from Bopp to Saussure (Reidel, 1987).
Since 1984 she has worked at the University of Amsterdam, first in the Department of Science Dynamics
and more recently in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Her research focused on social studies
of science and medicine, particularly the historical development of the biomedical sciences and their relations
to medical practice. She will be greatly missed by all her colleagues and friends.

History of Science Society Newsletter

HSS Fellowship in the History of Space Science

The History of Science Society Fellowship in the
History of Space Science, supported by the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) His-
tory Division, funds a nine-month research project
that is related to any aspect of the history of space
science, from the earliest human interest in space
to the present. The program is broadly conceived
and includes the social, cultural, institutional and
personal context of space-science history. Proposals
of advanced research in history related to all aspects
of the history of space science are eligible. Sciences
of space and sciences affected by data and concepts
developed in connection with space exploration
include astronomy, Earth science, optics, meteorol-
ogy, oceanography, and physiology. The fellowship
is open to applicants who hold a doctoral degree in
history or a closely related field, or students who have
completed all requirements for the Ph.D., except the
dissertation, in history of science or a related field.
The stipend is $17,000 US; the fellowship term is
nine months and must fall within the period of 1
July 2010 to 30 June 2011. Go to http://hssonline.
org for further information and an application form.
The deadline for applications is 3 March 2010.

2010-2011 Fellowship in the History of Space
The fellowship, offered by the History of Science
Society and supported by the National Aeronautics
& Space Administration (NASA) History Division
will annually fund one Fellow, for up to one aca-
demic year, to undertake a research project related to
the history of space science.

What is Space Science?
The HSS Fellowship in the History of Space
Science is intended to fund research in the history of
space science broadly conceived, including its social,
cultural, institutional and personal context. The his-
tory of space science predates the founding of NASA.

For example, the organizers of the International Geo-
physical Year (1957-1958) realized the important con-
tributions spacecraft data could make to science, and
the launch of Explorer I in 1958 demonstrated that
feasibility with its discovery of the Van Allen radiation
belts. In addition, scientific questions that motivated
spaces sciences and scientific principles from which it
evolved have even earlier roots.
Space science has implications for our under-
standing of the moon and planets, fields and parti-
cles in space, celestial bodies beyond the solar system
such as stars and galaxies, the Earth itself, and the
life sciences, especially exobiology. Some works on
space science are listed at the NASA History Office
Web site: http://history.nasa.gov/on-line.html.

1. The recipient shall engage in space science
research for nine months, normally August-May, but
within the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011.
2. While receiving the stipend, the fellow shall
devote at least 50% of his/her efforts to the research
3. The Fellow shall provide to the NASA His-
tory Office a copy of any publications that emerge
from the research undertaken during the fellowship
4. The Fellow will be responsible for office space,
equipment, and supplies.
5. The Fellow will be expected to present a paper
or public lecture on the findings of the research.
6. The Fellow will write a report at the term's
7. By accepting the fellowship, the recipient
incurs no obligations to NASA or HSS as regards
future publications.
Applicants must possess a doctorate degree in
history of science or in a closely related field, or be
enrolled as a student in a doctoral degree-granting

History of Science Society Newsletter

program and have completed all requirements for the
Ph.D., except the dissertation, in history of science
or a related field. Eligibility is not limited to U.S.
citizens or residents.

Term and Stipend
The Fellowship term is for a period of nine
months. The Fellow will be expected to devote the
term largely to the proposed research project. The
stipend is $17,000 for a nine-month fellowship
during the period 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. The
starting and ending dates within that period are
flexible. Funds may not be used to support tuition or
fees. Sources of anticipated support must be listed in
the application form.

The applicant must complete an application form
and offer a specific and detailed research proposal
that will be the basis of the Fellow's research during
the term.

Please Note:
Submit your completed original application
plus 3 copies (each copy should contain an applica-
tion form, proposal, and CV collated).
Fill in the application form on your comput-
er or with a typewriter and use an additional sheet
if necessary (e.g., names of references for the letters
of recommendation). Applicants are responsible
for gathering the letters of recommendations and
sending them in their sealed envelopes to the ad-
dress below. The letters should address the historical
competence of the applicant, his/her ability to use
historical concepts and methods, and his/her ability
to communicate.

Deadline, Submission Information, and Notifica-
Applications must be received by 3 March
2010. Submit to: History of Space Science Fellow-
ship, History of Science Society, PO Box 117360,
3310 Turlington Hall (for courier delivery), Universi-
ty of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7360. Notifica-
tion: The names of the winner and an alternate will
be announced in early May 2010.

Among the resources available to historians of
space are the NASA Archives. These include mate-
rials related to the International Geophysical Year
and NASA missions, as well as to the history of the
institution itself. NASA's History Office is dedicated
to documenting and preserving the agency's history.
More information, including a list of some works on
the history of space science, is available at: http://his-
NASA's space science programs today are man-
aged by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at
NASA Headquarters, and carried out by its God-
dard Spaceflight Center and Jet Propulsion Labora-
tory. More details are available at http://www.nasa.
gov/missions/science/index.html, including a list of
all current NASA missions.

For Application Form, click on http://www.


History of Science Society Newsletter

Lawrence Badash (University of
California, Santa Barbara, emeri-
tus) recently published A Nuclear
Winter's Tale: Science and Politics
in the 1980s (MIT Press). Badash
maps the rise and fall of the sci-
ence of nuclear winter, examining
research activity, the populariza-
tion of the concept, and the Reagan-era politics that
combined to influence policy and public opinion.

James R. Fleming's response to Bjorn Lomborg's
"Climate engineering: Its cheap and effective" in The
New Security Beat can be found at

Nancy Nersessian has been elected a Fellow of the
Cognitive Science Society. She has also received a
grant from the National Science Foundation RE-
ESE Program: "Becoming a 21st Century Scientist:
Cognitive practices, identity formation and learning
in integrative systems biology."

A retirement symposium was
Held 17 April 2009 at the
University of Minnesota in
Honor of Alan Shapiro. Speak-
ers recognized Alan as a leading
scholar on Newton's optics, an
influential and effective teacher,
and thoughtful advisor and
friend. His leadership includes
twice serving on the Council of
HSS, as program chair, and as head of the Committee
on Honors and Prizes. He also has had notable involve-
ment with the Midwest Junto, the AAAS, and Sigma
Xi. Although retired, Alan remains active on the edito-
rial board of five journals and is Vice President of the
International Academy for the History of Science.

The History of Science Society would like to con-
gratulate members who won ACLS fellowships in

Michael C. Carhart, Old Dominion University
Alex Csiszar, Harvard University
Peter L. Galison, Harvard University
Monica H. Green, Arizona State University
Jen Hill, Dartmouth College
Susan Lamb, Johns Hopkins University
Tara E. Nummedal, Brown University
Emily J. Pawley, University of Pennsylvania
Chitra Ramalingam, Harvard University
Justin Sytsma, University of Pittsburgh
Matthew C. Underwood, Harvard University
Theresa Marie Ventura, Columbia University
Alex Wellerstein, Harvard University
Further information: http://www.acls.org/fel-

Do you subscribe to SCIENCE? If so, you are au-
tomatically a member of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). You should
also be a member of Section L, the History & Phi-
losophy of Science section of AAAS. As a section
member, you support history of science by giving the
field more visibility, increasing the AAAS resources
committed to sponsoring historians of science at the
AAAS's annual meeting. Be sure to check your sec-
tion membership status on the AAAS Web site at

Come to the AAAS's annual meeting, 18-22 Febru-
ary 2010 in San Diego go to http://www.aaasmeet-
ing.org to see the schedule. Graduate students get free
registration by serving as session aides!

"Not a member yet? HSS members are eligible for
reduced rate memberships (which include SCI-
ENCE magazine) of $99 US."

History of Science Society Newsletter

In Budapest: The US Consortium for the Division of History of Science and

This year more than 120 US scholars joined some
1,400 attendees at the XXIII International Congress of
History of Science and Technology held in Budapest,
28 July to 2 August. The meeting was memorable for
stimulating papers, cross-cultural discussions, hours
d'oeuvre plates heaped with the world's best petit fours,
and sightseeing on the
Danube River. Joseph
Dauben, Margaret Vining,
Jay Malone and I attended
the congress as members of
a consortium charged with
liaising with the Division
of the History of Science
and Technology (DHST).
The Division of History
of Science and Technology (DHST) is the global orga-
nization for history of science with about 50 member
nations. Like HSS, the origins of the DHST lie with the
activities of George Sarton and others. The DHST is one
of two divisions of the International Union of History
and Philosophy of Science (IUHPS) and is a showcase
for creative internationalism with regard to the history of
science, history of technology, and philosophy of science.
The scientific academies of many DHST member
nations pay dues to the organization and often select del-
egates to its quadrennial congresses. The US, however,
is somewhat exceptional and relies on National Science
Foundation funding. Many people including Mi-
chael Sokal, Keith Benson, Joan Cadden, Jay Malone,
and the HSS and DHST past-president Ron Numbers
- have worked with aplomb to secure the cost-effec-
tive continuation of a US presence in the DHST. The
consortium had its inception in 2003 when HSS joined
with other US-based societies to represent US interests.
The founding members believed it was important that
the US not withdraw from the international community
(although HSS is not a US society, a large number of
its members reside within the US). A major goal of the
consortium is to oversee US interests and to continue

funding travel grants for students and independent
scholars attending the congress.
An important function of each congress is to decide
where the next meeting will take place. In Budapest, the
British Society for the History of Science made a suc-
cessful pitch to hold the 2013 conference in Manchester.
So why go to Manchester
in 2013, aside from visit-
ing Manchester United's
shrine to real football the
"Field of Dreams," or the
lavish city hall built with
E tthe wealth of the Industrial
Revolution, or sampling
what has to be the stron-
gest mango pickle this side
of South Asia? As science, philosophy of science and
history of science have become more specialized, and the
latter two more professionalized, scientists have become
rare at HSS meetings. Yet they are in greater abundance
at DHST meetings, where they recall the rather dimin-
ished outreach function of our profession and add much
to the proceedings with their historical work, insights,
and concern with the praxis of science. Moreover, inter-
national scholars have distinctive views on historiogra-
phy and the cultural significance of science. Engaging
with them enlivens our profession and makes us all bet-
ter historians. With luck, and Jay Malone's skillful grant
writing, I hope the US will have substantial representa-
tion at the next congress in Manchester in 2013.

HSS members wishing to know more about the orga-
nization and its valuable projects, including the World
Web of Science and its relationship to UNESCO, are
directed to this Web page: http://www.dhstweb.org.

MichaelA. Osborne
Oregon State University
Officer in the Division of the History of Science and

History of Science Society Newsletter

In the Service of Galileo's Ghost: A Short Guide to History, Assault, and

As part ofher 2008-2009 Gug- .
genheim Fellowship, Alice Dreger
is writing a manuscript on science
and identity politics in the Internet"
age. In this article, she discusses her
experiences good and bad, activist i
and academic that led her to this
project, and the threats to both his-
tory and science.

I had another one of those
moments when I thought: "They
just don't prepare you for this in
graduate school." In June 2008,
I found myself in Cincinnati for
the National Women's Studies
Association (NWSA) conference,
sitting in one of those interchange-
able, soulless conference hotels,
in the bar at midday, drinking a
stiff gin and tonic, and calculating
when I'd be sober enough to drive
the hell away. A brave and tall and
funny transgender woman named
Rosa Lee Klaneski was telling me,
in her remarkably soothing voice, A L I L
about how she'd developed the
independence of mind and the
fortitude of gut to stand up against
a panel of other transwomen who'd been assailing me
and my work an hour earlier.
I'd had to sit quietly and listen to this panel, a
panel that included a Hollywood-based trans-entrepre-
neur whom the editors insist I identify only as "Madam
X" (for reasons that will soon become apparent). Since
writing of my young son as my "precious womb turd"
- a phrase now turned into a family joke Madam X,
had spent her time mounting Web pages mocking not

* only my work, but also my appear-
ance. (Trisfeminist, non?) At one
point in the panel, I heard a young
Women's Studies student next to
me say to her friend, "This Dreger
woman is terrible!" I whispered to
her, "Um, I'm that Dreger woman,
.and I don't recognize the person
they are describing." She looked
stunned and quietly moved away
from me, as if she'd just run into
San armed skinhead wanted for
As I listened in the bar to
Rosa's wry and wise remarks about
; transgender politics and contempo-
rary feminist theory, I realized that
her unexpected appearance during
the panel's Q&A reminded me of
that big angel who comes crash-
ing through the ceiling in Angels
S in America. When I had turned to
'see who from the audience would
Speak first, and saw it was a tall
transwoman, I had assumed I was
in for more of the same in terms
S(A \ I of utter misrepresentation of my
work. So much for my stereotyp-
ing. Instead of ganging on, Rosa
stood up and said:

Rosa Lee Klaneski, Trinity College. I cite Alice
Dreger's academically-rigorous work all the time
in my own work. She doesn't know who I am
but I know who she is. And I am just wonder-
ing[...] and I'm a transgender person myself
what gives any transgender person the right to
abrogate someone else's first amendment right to

History of Science Society Newsletter

freedom of speech just because they hold an un-
popular minority view? In my opinion [regard-
ing] the person that you are arguing against [i.e.,
scientist Michael Bailey, my historical subject],
I completely agree with you. Bunk. Ridiculous
science. And should be classified as such. I got
that. What gives us the right to censor [Dreger's
or Bailey's work] just because we don't like it?

The objection raised in return was that the panel
didn't constitute censorship. Technically this was true,
but anyone with any background on this knew as
Rosa and I did the intimidation tactics used to try to
silence Bailey, me, and others.
The latest had arrived in the form of a note posted
on the door of that very meeting room, stating that
anyone entering automatically consented to being
filmed by the aforementioned panelist, Madam X, and
that she could use the film at will. I had the notice
removed by a conference organizer before I entered, but
I still made sure I said nothing in the session.
After the session dissolved, I went to Rosa and
said, "You're right, I don't know you, but I want to
know you. Can I buy you a drink?" Then, just after we
walked out of the session room on our way to cranberry
juice with soda water and lime for Rosa and something
stronger for me, X came up and towered over me. She
said something like, "Alice, honey, I am not done with
you. In fact, I haven't even started with you. Iam going
to ruin you." She started naming how she would do
it. I stayed upright, but uncontrollable tears ran down
my face. And at that point, Rosa crashed through the
ceiling again. She stepped between us, and told me (but
actually X) that the legal definition of assault did not
require physical touch, and that I could call the police
right now. That made X go away.
No one tells you the legal definition of assault in
graduate school.
Taking on controversial work has been my
choice, and knowing full well X's capabilities, I
could have chosen to skip the trip to Cincinnati.
But I had grown, by that time, to be consumed by
the issues of academic freedom and standards of
scholarship. I felt I had to make a stand not in my

own name (which seemed, in that identity-politics-
crazed environment, hopeless), but in the name
of...well, Galileo.

If, during my Ph.D. in History and Philosophy of
Science at Indiana University, some had told me that,
by the time I reached full professor, I would be rhetori-
cally strung up at the National Women's Studies As-
sociation and, the very next summer, treated as some-
thing of a heroine at the Human Behavior & Evolution
Society you know, the sociobiologists I would have
told them they'd been reading my tea leaves in a mirror.
After all, my dissertation and my first book were
on the social construction of sex categories, specifically
on the theoretic and clinical treatment of people labeled
"hermaphrodites" in late 19th- and early 20th-century
France and Britain. Through that work, I found myself
embroiled in the intersex rights movement, and ended
up being one of that movement's leaders for about
a decade. (Among other activities, I helped run the
Intersex Society of North America, whose legal address
was, for about seven years, my home.) That work made
me a queer rights activist, and then a disability rights
activist, too, and a steady critic of scientists and clini-
cians whose work, I argued, harmed people by treating
them as pathological merely because they were atypical.
My work was (and probably still is) commonly used in
Women's Studies and Queer Studies courses.
What happened?
I took on a new historical project in 2006, one that
ultimately made me realize that my allegiance to truth,
scholarship, and justice had, for years, been misunder-
stood as an allegiance to left-wing identity politics.
My research covered the Bailey book controversy.
In 2003, J. Michael Bailey, a sex psychology researcher
at Northwestern University, published a book called
The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gen-
der-Bending and Transsexualism. In the book, Bailey
supported the work of the researcher-clinician Ray
Blanchard who argues that male-to-female (MtF) trans-
sexualism is not primarily about gender identity, as the
mainstream media and transgender rights movements
would have us believe, but rather about sexuality (eroti-

Continued next page

History of Science Society Newsletter

Continued from previous page
Blanchard believes MtF transsexuals divide logi-
cally into: (1) "homosexual transsexuals," meaning MtF
people who are sexually attracted to men, and who
transition in part to take straight male lovers; and (2)
"non-homosexual transsexuals," who Blanchard calls
"autogynephilic," because this latter group are sexu-
ally aroused by the idea of being of becoming women.
"Autogynephiles" are gynephilic (attracted mostly to
females), but their gynephilia is (at least in part) self-di-
rected. According to Blanchard's demographic research,
virtually all prominent transwomen, particularly the
academics would fall into the latter group. Blanchard's
theory is not popular among these women; most who
(dare to) express an opinion believe it paints them as
sexual perverts rather than people with gender-genital
As I documented in my work on the subject, in
2003 three very visible transwomen decided to take
it upon themselves to try to "kill" Bailey, the danger-
ously articulate messenger of Blanchard's work. Andrea
James, Lynn Conway, and Deirdre McCloskey mount-
ed what became an international campaign, organizing
formal charges against Bailey, accusing him of, among
other things, doing IRB-qualified human subjects
research without IRB oversight, writing about subjects
without their consent, having sex with a transsexual
research subject, and falsifying key parts of his book.
When I took on this project, I thought it would be
a he-said/she-said history of communication discon-
nects involving an insensitive scientist and some mostly
well-meaning activists. Instead, I found that Bailey had
not committed the crimes attributed to him, and that
Conway, James, and McCloskey had reason to know
that. I showed that the attacks nearly ruined Bailey's
professional and personal lives, all for the sin of sup-
porting an unpopular theory. It was an ugly history.
My fate since then: false charges lodged with my
administration; threats made against my own col-
leagues; and a powerful take-over of my Internet iden-
tity. Just my luck to piss off a population so computer-
savvy! Though it does come with occasional comic
relief. My favorite moment so far: a transwoman filed
a formal complaint with my husband's dean essentially
charging my husband with having had sex with me.

12 History of Science Society Newsletter October 2009

(To explain the "logic" behind this would take another
1,000 words.)
Part of me has thought about returning to study
dead people; there's nothing like this kind of experience
to turn an historian necrophilic. But first, I'm going to
finish a Guggenheim-funded book about science and
identity politics in the Internet age. I'm looking at sev-
eral cases, including Bailey's and my own twin experi-
ences my intersex identity activism, wherein I pushed
against scientists, and my post-Bailey experience,
wherein I've been constructed as a privileged academic
(true) with an anti-trans-rights, even eugenical agenda
As part of the book project, for the last nine
months, I've looked at what happened after self-styled
"journalist" Patrick Tierney published Darkness in El
Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the
Amazon. Tierney charges the late geneticist James Neel
and anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon with a host of
crimes against the Yanomamb of South America. And
I've looked at what happened to Randy Thornhill and
Craig Palmer following their book A Natural History of
Rape (death threats); to Elizabeth Loftus when she chal-
lenged "recovered memory syndrome" (California Su-
preme Court case); to Bruce Rind when he co-authored
a meta-analysis showing maybe people aren't quite so
harmed by childhood sexual abuse (denounced by an
Act of Congress); and to Charles Roselli, who had the
dubious honor of finding out what happens when Peo-
ple for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) teams
up with LBGT activists. These odd bedfellows charged
Roselli with developing an anti-gay eugenic program
via his research on "gay rams." Bizarrely, Roselli, a mild-
mannered animal researcher in Oregon, found himself
taken on by none other than Martina Navratilova. Oh,
and 20,000 e-mails were sent to Roselli's university
president calling for his firing.
More than one person has suggested I title my book
IAm Not Making This Up.
Lacking space for a complete report, let me say
what I think is most important for my fellow historians
of science to know. First and foremost, we academics
are all in danger. Maybe you already know this, but if
so, I want you to think about it some more: We live in

History of Science Society Newsletter

a world where our work, our identities, and even our
values can be reconstructed in utterly crazy ways at the
speed of light. The "democratization" of knowledge,
enabled by the Internet, has led to a widespread at-
titude that a peer-reviewed article is not that different
from a well-turned blog. And blogs move faster than we
possibly can. If you think what happened to me cannot
happen to you or your colleagues, think again.
We must reassert the difference between scholar-
ship and other, and do this not only with our students,
the media, our elected representatives and our religious
leaders, but also with each other. (Paging NWSA.) A
disturbing amount of what I see at conferences and
even in some journals is plain sloppy in terms of reason-
ing and language and weak in terms of evidence. We
can no longer afford to politely allow those with whom
we agree to get by with substandard work. Taking
academic freedom seriously must include the responsi-
bility to put solid reasoning and evidence before all else
- before ideology, before allegiance, before our desire
to seem or to not seem challenging. (Quick bottom line
application: Ward Churchill must go; see the outstand-
ing report by the Colorado faculty on what he actually
did in his "scholarship.")
And good news: as I've wandered from discipline to
discipline, I feel that historians are way ahead in terms
of protection of standards. I've become enormously
proud of being an historian in the last two years. As I
worked on the Neel and Chagnon history, I ran into
previous work done by Susan Lindee, John Beatty,
Diane Paul; to encounter fellow scholars so committed
to evidence, clarity, and honesty is like finding water in
the desert.
Historians have not, in my estimation, lost their
way amid all the well-intentioned academic politics of
the last half-century. As a class, even as we recognize
the imperfection of the historical record, the subjectivity
of the historian, the inevitable need to look at history in
artificially bounded ways, we retain at our core a sense
that a good argument is one with good support. To
quote my colleague Joel Howell, who helped correct the
public record on James Neel, we historians can agree
that making shit up is simply not acceptable.
For this reason I believe that historians of science

in particular now have an opportunity, perhaps even
a duty, to take the lead as these controversies break, to
ask the evidentiary questions of who really said, found,
and did what, and what the historical context was. By
providing this kind of accountability, we have an op-
portunity to become guardians of the environment in
which good science can happen.
I do not suggest that we become handmaidens to
science, but rather that we become standard-bearers of
quality scholarship (regardless of discipline) that we
reassert often why universities are not corporations; why
tenure is necessary for those doing hard inquiry; and
why peer review is fundamentally different from the
court of public opinion.
As the mainstream press collapses, this role will
become ever more important. No longer can we count
on good science reporters and excellent investigative
journalists to sort out what's happened. As I've worked
on this book, I've met reporter after reporter who told
me she or he wanted to pursue some of what I pursue,
but were blocked for lack of time or funding.
I am not suggesting most of us turn to dealing with
ongoing scientific controversies. I think it is critically
important that most of us deal with the past, in part be-
cause it is from these histories of "finished" events that
we gain insight about how human knowledge works.
But I suggest that we go to the archives fully aware of
what's happening outside our climate-controlled mauso-
leums. Because, in the end, we can't live in the archives
as if they were bomb shelters outfitted with 50 years'
worth of supplies. We must make sure the world is kept
safe for real scholarship be it history or science.
I feel in the last year, as I never did in graduate
school, a true vocation as an historian of science. I feel
urgently aware of what is at stake, of what we can (and
must) do for the world. Having now experienced the
contemporary equivalent of house arrest, on many days
I feel I can hear the ghost of Galileo. And he's asking us
to make damned sure we move.

Alice Dreger is Professor of Clinical Medical Humanities
and Bioethics at the Feinberg School ofMedicine, North-
western University.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Some Thoughts on Historians and Contemporary

By John M. Lynch

In a recent book review for The British Journal of Epicurean
for the History ofScience, Thomas Dixon asks what (i.e. pagan,
contribution historians of science can make to the anti-Christian)
debate about intelligent design (ID).1 As myself and materialism
others noted in a 2008 Isis Focus article, historians and a cause of
have many opportunities to make contributions to many modern
this most public of debates, yet our community has ills.4 Even the
largely resisted the Siren's call of engagement with briefest exami- John M. Lynch
creationism.2 In this brief note, I would like to offer nation of some
some thoughts on current creationist tactics with re- of these works clearly indicates the furrow that the
gards to the history of science and hopefully inspire ID movement is attempting to plough.
some readers to engage in this significant debate. Political scientist John West outlines these claims
The modern ID movement arose in the last two in his book, Darwin Day in America: How Our
decades of the last century, although to a significant Politics and Culture Have Been Dehumanized in the
degree its roots were planted in the Young Earth Name ofScience. According to West, who echoes a
Creationist movement which re-emerged in America claim previously made by Benjamin Wiker, the pa-
in the 1960s. The Discovery Institute (DI, the gan materialism of the Greek philosopher Epicurus
leading proponent and founder of ID) disputes this and the Roman poet Lucretius gave rise to modern
historical fact even in the face of manifest evidence scientific naturalism. As West sees it, this influence
presented in the Kitzmiller v. Dover trial. While in turn has lead to the rule of a scientific elite over
purportedly beginning with the secular purpose of democracy, utopian idealism, moral relativism, cen-
convincing scientists that their adherence to natural- sorship of dissent, and dehumanization.
istic explanation was misplaced, the ID movement's This theme of dehumanization has become
religious motivations became obvious both in private something of an idde fixe for modern anti-evolution-
and public writings.3 Having failed to convince the ists. Darwin is seen as, if not a causative factor of,
scientific community and having been dealt a sig- then an inspiration for, the totalitarian regimes of
nificant blow by the ruling in Kitzmiller the move- the 20th century. Darwin's work, we are told, led to
ment has recently stepped up its incursions into his- the devaluation of human life, eugenics, the Holo-
torical analysis with a series of works that collectively caust, Planned Parenthood, and fetal stem cell re-
see modern biology, in the guise of an historically search. Nowhere is this theme more evident than in
uncontextualized "Darwinism," as both the product the pro-ID movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed,
in which Ben Stein unsubtly portrays Darwin's writ-

1 T. Dixon, British Journal for the History of Science (2009)
42:440. 4 For example, B. Wiker, Moral Darwinism: How We Became
2 G. Gooday et al. Isis (2008) 99:322-330. Hedonists (InterVarsity, 2002) & The Darwin Myth: The Life
3 See, for example, the notorious "Wedge" document and Lies of Charles Darwin (Regnery, 2009); R. Weikart, From
(http://www.antievolution.org/features/wedge.html) for the Darwin to Hitler (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004); J. West, Darwin
former and the evolution of the writings of Philip E. Johnson Day in America (Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 2007). All
or William Dembski for the latter. the authors are connected formally with the DI.

History of Science Society Newsletter

ings as leading to the Holocaust and "Darwinists" as
waging a campaign of terror against ID proponents.
Egregiously, Stein selectively quotes Darwin to make
it appear as if he disapproved of measures to aid the
sick and infirm. Even more egregiously, in publicity
interviews Stein has baldly stated that "science leads
you to kill people" and "Darwinism led in a pretty
much straight line to Nazism and the Holocaust."5
While it would be comforting to imagine that Stein's
position was that of a politically motivated crank, it
has received support from historian and DI fellow
Richard Weikart, who appears onscreen with Stein
during an interview conducted at Dachau. Weikart's
published attempts to link Darwin to Hitler have
received negative commentary from such historians
as Robert Richards, Paul Farber, Sander Gliboff, and
Nils Roll-Hansen, yet these ideas have continued
to be promulgated by Benjamin Wiker (again, a DI
fellow) in his The Darwin Myth: The Life and Lies of
Charles Darwin, a biography that Gliboff accurately,
if caustically, compares with the writings of the jour-
nalist Rita Skeeter from the Harry Potter series.6
Given the rigorous peer review process required
for publication in leading academic journals and
presses, it is unsurprising that ID proponents make
little attempt to engage with the community of
professional historians. Their claims are made in
books published largely by conservative (e.g. Regn-
ery, Intercollegiate Studies Institute), religious (e.g.
InterVarsity, an outgrowth of InterVarsity Christian
Fellowship campus ministry) or vanity (e.g. Erasmus
Press, owned by William Dembski) presses. Unsur-
prisingly papers are neither presented at conferences
nor published in relevant journals and little attempt
is made to undergo review by practicing historians
with expertise in Darwin, his ideas, and their socio-
cultural effects. In short, anti-evolutionist historical
scholarship accurately mirrors creationist scientific

5 For more of Stein's utterances, and a complete debunking
of the claims made in the movie, see http:///expelledex-
6 S. Gliboff, Reports of the National Center for Science
Education (in press) http://ncseweb.org/rncse/29/review-

work in being directed at the true believers rather
than the academic community. The temptation may
thus be for professional historians to ignore their
claims a temptation that I feel must be rejected. As
historians, we have a social duty to correct error and
over-simplification where it is foisted on the public
by politically and religiously motivated individuals,
and this responsibility goes beyond what sociologist
and ID sympathizer Steve Fuller has dismissively seen
as "catching the errors" of the creationists.7 There is
something far more fundamental at stake. At a time
where historians have eschewed Whig or "Great
Man" histories, anti-evolutionists are presenting their
"Not-So-Great Man" view of Darwin. They mis-
represent the very nature of historical enquiry; they
manipulate history until it risks becoming a mere
shadow of the rich and intricate tapestry that it is.
Our collective research as historians can obvi-
ously help disprove claims made by anti-evolutionists
regarding both the social effects of scientific ideas
and how the scientific community functions. Many
of us study scientific change, community forma-
tion over time, and the treatment of heretical ideas
and controversy. In so doing, we have developed a
realistic view of science and its social effects both
positive and negative along with a clear conceptu-
alization of how evolutionary biology has matured as
a field over the past two hundred years. Our re-
search directly opposes the erroneous and simplistic
views of the anti-evolutionists, yet it remains largely
unknown to the public. While I am not calling for
historians to engage in popularization of their work,
although that too may have benefits, I do believe
that increased public engagement for those of us who
have something relevant to say debunking the claims
of anti-evolutionists is nothing less than a shared
social responsibility. Such engagement is, thankfully,
Such public engagement is not, however, with-
Continued next page

7 S. Fuller, Isis (2009) 100: 115.
8 For example, Mark Borrello has publically engaged with
John West on the claim that there is a link between Darwin
and dehumanization. See http://www.mnscience.org/index.

History of Science Society Newsletter
Continued from previous page
out its perils. As detailed in the last issue of this
newsletter, Peter Bowler, Sandra Herbert and Janet
Browne were not given full disclosure by Fathom
Media (an offshoot of the creationist organization
Creation Ministries International) when inter-
viewed for the documentary The Voyage That Shook
The World.9 Unaware of the underlying anti-evo-
lutionary agenda of the work, the historians gave
interviews that were apparently selectively edited to
highlight certain aspects of Darwin's life. Equally
as problematic was the equation of the contribu-
tions of historians with those of unqualified non-
experts on matters of history. As Bowler et al. note,
"if academic historians refuse to participate when
movements they don't approve of seek historical
information, these historians can hardly complain if
less reputable sources are used instead." When we
speak out, we risk being caught between the Scylla
of non-engagement and the Charybdis of having
our statements misused.
Still, if the past few years are any indicator, it is
highly likely that the future will see further cre-
ationist manipulation of history within the public
sphere, and the only way to combat that trend is
active engagement. Public engagement with those
communities who seek to misuse history will be
frustrating and not without dangers. Yet it also of-
fers us an opportunity to enlighten the public about
the nature of historical enquiry and the fertile area
that the history of science represents.10

John M. Lynch is an Honors Faculty Fellow and Prin-
cipal Lecturer at Arizona State University, where he
divides his time between Barrett, the Honors College
and the Center for Biology &" Society at the School of
Life Sciences. The opinions contained herein are solely
his own.

9 P. Bowler et al. History of Science Society Newsletter
(2009) http://hssonline.org/publications/Newsletter2009/
10 Previous discussion regarding historians' engagement
on this issue resulted in a number of letters to Isis. I would
like to encourage an ongoing dialog at http://blog.jmlynch.
org (search for "HSS newsletter").

History of Science Society Newsletter

Making Visible Embryos: Making a Virtual Exhibition


F1 L -

Electronic media and
the Internet have dramati-
cally changed academic pub-
lishing and communication
across numerous disciplines,
including history of science,
technology and medicine.
Journals are on their way
to becoming exclusively
electronic; jobs and confer-
ences are advertised through
discussion lists; societies
communicate with their
members through electronic
newsletters and Web sites;
groups collaborate using The front page of Making v
wikis. Now, with the expan-
sion of digitized museum,
library and archival collections, research practices
have changed as well. Electronic books are not yet
standard, and Google's monopolistic and commercial
library digitization is a problem as well as a boon,
but convenience of use and accessibility are continu-
ally attracting new readers. Funding bodies are fond
of the visibility the Internet brings to a project. Yet
for all the expansion of the electronic content as well
as the increasingly sophisticated and user-friendly
technologies, historians of science overall are putting
little effort into designing material specifically for the
Web. Blogs, such as Biomedicine on Display (http://
www.corporeality.net/museion/), have acquired
faithful audiences, as did the instructive podcast
series The Missing Link, (http://missinglinkpodcast.
wordpress.com/). But investing time and effort into
exclusively Web-based forms of publication and
communication is still rare. Here I draw on a recent
personal experience of creating an online exhibition
to discuss the historical and current issues surround-

visible embryos (www.hps.cam.ac.uk/visibleembryos)

ing the production of Web-based content; the online
HSS Newsletter seems an especially suitable place for
Pioneered in the early 1990s, the online origi-
nally "virtual" exhibition was an attempt by mu-
seums and libraries to showcase their work to wider
audiences and engage with the then-new medium of
the Internet. The Library of Congress's collections
of files and images from the exhibitions 1492: an
ongoing voyage (http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.
exhibit/Intro.html), Scrolls from the Dead Sea
hibit/intro.html) and Revelations from the Russian
archives (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intro.
html) could be seen as the first, although in those
pre-Netscape days they had to be downloaded from
a FTP server. The National Library of Medicine of
the National Institutes of Health, which in its 1986
Long Range Plan (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ar-
chive/20040721/pubs/plan/ei/contents.html) foresaw
the era of digital images distributed over high-speed

History of Science Society Newsletter



-~b k~I~ I P-

-E F _Q~lC~L


Aristotelian epigenesis in Jacob Rueff's midwifery textbook (www.hps.cam.ac.uk/visibleem-

computers, was especially committed to communi-
cating history of medicine in this format. sitting oftext and im
In 2004, Nick H(
Early on, attempts were made to define the online
exhibition and delineate it from another heavily im- Department of Histo
at the University of C
age-oriented web-based genre, digital collections. It t the Uivrsty
student there, first di,
was argued that objects had to be tied together by a
hibition about the his
narrative or in another relational form; and while col- h ton aot t
long-term research ar
elections often had a common theme too, the connec-
S interests in anatomic
tion was never as tight.' Others defined them as "on-
line, World Wide Web-based, hypertextual, dynamic Images of human em
*e,2 rywhere, in clinics,
collections devoted to a specific theme."2 As new
albums, newspapers a
projects of this type followed, it became clear that any
Debates about aborti(
one exhibition rarely respected all the rules, whether Debates about abort
tion and stem cells ha
1 Kalafatovic, Martin R. Creating a winning controversial, but the:
online exhibition: a guide for libraries, archives the absence of any su
and museums, Chicago: American Library Asso- how, over the last twc
ciation, 2002, 1-3. images were produce
2 Silver, D. "Interfacing American culture: of the most potent bi
The perils and potentials of virtual exhibitions." of our time. The exhi
American Quarterly 49(1997), 825-850 (http:// public engagement ac
muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_quarterly/v049/ hancement award in 1
49.4er_folklore.html). Department has used

of tight narrative link, exten-
sive hyperlinking, or frequent
updating of content. Many
were no longer attached to a
physical exhibition but ex-
isted on the web only. Other
projects, such as The virtual
laboratory (http://vlp.mpiwg-
combined the elements of
virtual exhibitions with digi-
tal collections of images and
texts into larger, looser, more
open-ended entities. By the
mid-2000s, virtual exhibi-
tions had built up a tradition
and achieved a certain level
of recognition, but the rules
of the genre were more fluid
than ever. For my purposes,
defining it as a web-based,
structured presentation con-
iges will do.
opwood, a lecturer in the
ry and Philosophy of Science
;ambridge, and I, then a Ph.D.
cussed the idea of an online ex-
tory of embryo images, Nick's
ea and a theme linked to my
al disciplines and in the visual.
bryos today surround us ev-
:lassrooms, laboratories, family
nd, not least, on the Internet.
on, evolution, assisted concep-
ive made these representations
y are also routine. Our aim, in
rvey of this field, was to show
and half centuries, embryo
I and made to represent some
medical objects and subjects
bition was funded as the main
tivity under a Wellcome en-
the history of medicine that the
to build expertise in history

~ara11aarrA .......... ...~~

History of Science Society Newsletter

of reproduction. (It recently .
gained a higher-level strate- _..
gic award in this field.) By
using the format of a freely
accessible online exhibition,
we hoped to circumvent the
temporary unavailability of
local gallery space, to reach
a wider audience in what .
was becoming the domi- .
nant medium for displaying
embryo images, and to do
so at relatively low cost. The
last point was essential: the
budget covered a one-year ..
salary for a postdoctoral
(me), a modest budget for
images of about 2,500, a
computer, a scanner and a Ernst Haeckel's controversy
digital camera.
We initially intended to
complete the exhibition by
2006 but it took twice as long. While much work
was invested in the 36,000-word text, which was
supposed to communicate major themes as well as
support and explain the images, we gave images
pride of place. The low cost of the web space al-
lowed us to reproduce 125. For each of the eight
chronologically arranged sections, study of the
existing scholarship (listed in the Resources section,
html) was followed by the often much more diffi-
cult quest for the right images and the information
about them. Sometimes the choice was clear: for
instance, of Samuel Thomas Soemmerring's pioneer-
ing developmental series in Icones embryonum hu-
manorum (1799); Ernst Haeckel's controversial and
canonical figures from the 1870s bringing human
and other vertebrate embryos into the same frame,
and Lennart Nilsson's vivid and widely reproduced
photographs that since the 1960s have become
political weapons in abortion debates. In other cases
choices were more open especially on the variety



ial and canonical grid (www.hps.cam.ac.uk/visibleembryos/

of premodern representations of the unborn in the
opening sections and on the interventions of the last
thirty years in the closing section. Along with now-
iconic images, we wanted to show those considered
representative, standard or widely used-an early
modern midwifery textbook image, an encyclopae-
dia illustration, an embryo model, an ultrasound
scan-and to demonstrate how these images were
produced, who made them and who saw them, in
which settings. The big image databases, such as
Wellcome Images and the commercial Getty Im-
ages, were a great help, but we obtained many of the
most interesting representations through correspon-
dence with scientists, artists, professional societies
and curators, as well as research in libraries and
archives, not least the Carnegie Institution of Wash-
ington Archives collection. Explanations of how
early ultrasound machines worked or of the artistic
and editorial decisions behind the Time cover page
that announced the birth of the 'first test tube' baby
simultaneously made the work on the exhibition fun
and the final product fresh.

History of Science Society Newsletter


The first test tube baby in Time (www.hps.cam.ac.uk/visibleembr

But writing the text and collecting the images is
just part of the work: developing and designing the
exhibition represented an equally demanding task.
Everyone knows what books look like and what they
do, but rules for the new digital genres are much
less firm. We decided that a chronological-thematic
organization was best suited to convey the sense of
historical change. We also wanted the images to be
reproduced as well as possible, while keeping the
pages uncluttered and the site light to load. These
requirements were fulfilled by using a horizontal,
left-to-right menu bar with titles of sections and
pages, and by formatting images into small thumb-
nails that upon clicking opened into separate win-
dows each containing an enlarged and sometimes
zoomed-in image with an accompanying legend.
Overall, the design was kept simple, mainly because
notwithstanding the generous assistance of family
and friends with professional IT experience, I am a
self-taught designer.
The exhibition was launched in October 2008,
first through discussion lists and then through press

20 History of Science Society Newsletter October 2009

S' releases. It was quickly
.-. .- picked up by blogs, online
magazines and various other
SWeb sites. Useful tools such
as Google Analytics and
social bookmarking collec-
tions showed us that some
visitors came from parts of
the world that an academic
book probably would not
reach or certainly not so
fast. Initial worries that the
general audience might find
the exhibition too dry or too
difficult were dispelled by
enthusiastic comments in
places we had not expected.
For instance, the acute
"- remarks by the writer for
yos/s8.html) the highly popular Jezebel,
a Web site on "celebrity, sex,
fashion for women" (http://
agery-of-the-human-embryo) generated several pages
of discussion on Lennart Nilsson's work and the
use of his images in abortion debates. New Scientist
(http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1674 5-how-
html) used images from our exhibition to build a
slideshow in their Galleries section. Some readings
surprised us, and those were especially useful as an
insight into the extent to which knowledge seen
as standard in scholarly circles is accepted outside
Now, almost a year later, we can ask what we
have learned. What are the advantages and disad-
vantages of an online exhibition compared to the
more traditional forms of publication? Was it worth
producing, and did it fulfil our expectations?
One disadvantage is that while a good virtual
exhibition may require as much research as a book,
the rewards are fewer and less certain. An exhibi-
tion may be based on extensive research, have a
tight argument and attract numerous reviews, not to

History of Science Society Newsletter

mention vastly more readers than most books, but
it will not help an academic career in the same way.
There is no compulsory peer-reviewing, and lifespans
can be short. This last concern, based on the (short)
history of the Web, is valid, but recent initiatives for
archiving at least some Web sites for posterity, such
as the UK Web Archiving Consortium (http://www.
webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/) and the U.S. National
Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation
Program (http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/li-
brary/index.html) might alleviate this fear. Finally,
for all the immediacy and accessibility of the Web,
for some people and some purposes it is more conve-
nient to work with a book.
Many of these problems are not specific to vir-
tual exhibitions or indeed web-based content, and
are shared by academics engaged in producing other
non-traditional genres such as films and TV material.
Yet the ubiquity of the Internet makes them more
common and more visible, and may be the reason
why change is on the horizon. Less than a decade ago
scholarly journals were reluctant to review (http://blog.
manities-e-book) online books published within the
Gutenberg-e Project (http://www.gutenberg-e.org/),
a prestigious joint scheme of the American Historical
Association, Columbia University Press and Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation. Between 1999 and 2004, the
scheme simultaneously promoted electronic publish-
ing and helped junior scholars in need of a home for
their first manuscript. In contrast, our exhibition
had been reviewed in several HSTM journals and in
Nature within a year of the launch.
Issues around intellectual property are another
minefield. Some owners of images generously waive li-
cense fees for academic use, but many charge hefty rates,
often higher than for print publications. This is presum-
ably partly because the moment these images appear on
the Web they are copied and used elsewhere. Easy access
also makes it easier to plagiarize content. The extent
to which an exhibition should hyperlink to other Web
sites is another tricky issue, related to the short average
lifespan and lack of permanence on the Internet.

Possibly the biggest problem lies in the fact that
producing virtual exhibitions (and Web-based content
more generally) requires general and more specialized
skills that historians especially those who did not
grow up with the Internet in most cases do not have.
Even if they do, they may not have the time. Elisabeth
Green Musselman ended her podcast project because
each episode took 40-60 hours to produce. Yet while
academics are commonly aware of what it takes to
make a highly illustrated book, and of the design,
printing and publishing networks behind it, the costs
of designing a Web site are still far less obvious just
as they were to us at the start. For many less experi-
enced users including some reviewers the simple
fact that certain technologies exist is enough to expect
them in a university-based project on a slim budget;
yet they would readily accept that books can be popu-
lar without high production values. In a post discuss-
ing the reasons for the end of the Gutenberg-e scheme
(http://www.hastac.org/node/1232), Cathy Davidson
has warned that early expectations for cheap produc-
tion of Web-based content were over-optimistic, and
that deceptively simple Web sites depend on extensive
professional teamwork.
Yet there are ample compensations. The breadth of
readership is wonderful. So is feedback at speeds that
leave the usual modes of response, especially in the
humanities, far behind. We found that, while writing
for the Web is different from writing scholarly articles,
it is possible to make moderately complex arguments
and to take historical specificity seriously. Some read-
ers plan to use the exhibition in teaching and it will be
interesting to see, as the academic year begins in much
of the world, how this goes. The academic response
indicates that Web-based publishing is on its way to ac-
ceptance. The technical demands of production remain
an obstacle, but new publishing platforms (for example
Wordpress) might alleviate, if not entirely remove them.
Overall, the reception met and even exceeded our ex-
pectations; personally, I learned a great deal.

Tatjana Buklijas
Liggins Institute
The University ofAuckland, New Zealand

History of Science Society Newsletter

"Lusty Ladies or Victorian Victims?"

At a standing-room-only event
during the 117th Annual Conven-
tion of the American Psychological
Association (APA) in Toronto this
past August, audiences were treated
to the extremely rare, and probably
unprecedented, group appearance of
Dr. Lawson Tait, Dr. James Jackson
Putnam, Dr. Elizabeth Garrett An-
derson, and Mr. Richard Paternoster.
The occasion: an early 21st century
re-enactment of a late 19th-century
conference to discuss a troubling case
of nymphomania. The event was
particularly unusual because all of
the presenters have been dead for at
least 90 years. Bringing them, and
their views on women, madness, and
sexuality to life were Jennifer Bazar,
Lisa Held, Kelli Vaughn-Blount, and
Laura Ball, four doctoral students in
the History and Theory of Psycholo-
gy graduate program at York Univer-
sity in Toronto.
Bazar, Held, Vaughn-Blount
and Ball began to conceptualize their
dramatic re-enactment in the fall
of 2008, during a graduate reading
course on the history of women and
the asylum directed by Alexandra
Rutherford. The course readings,
which focused on the links between
gender, insanity, and sexuality in the
mid-to-late 19th century, prompted
them to consider multiple histo-
riographic issues, including a close
evaluation of whose agendas and
perspectives were represented in
both primary and secondary read-
ings. With their intellectual curiosity
piqued, and their creative juices flow-
ing, the students came up with an

idea for a course assignment.
The resulting script,
entitled "Lusty Ladies or
Victorian Victims: Perspec-
tives on Women, Madness,
and Sexuality," was based
entirely on segments taken
from 19th century American
and British primary source Back r
materials. Represented were Vaugh
the perspectives of Lawson the froi
Tait (Bazar), a women's
surgeon and gynecologist who pio-
neered the ovariotomy as a treatment
for women's mental distress; James
Jackson Putnam (Held), a neurologist
and one of the most distinguished
nervous disease specialists in the
United States; Elizabeth Garrett
Anderson (Vaughn-Blount), a female
physician, surgeon, and suffragette,
and the first female physician licensed
and listed on the British Medical
Register; and Richard Paternoster
(Ball), a barrister, former asylum
patient, and co-founder of Britain's
Alleged Lunatics' Friends Society, one
of the first patients' rights groups. The
combative, yet respectful, dialogue,
augmented by period-appropriate
costumes, vividly presented the audi-
ence with the characters' perspectives
on the social and medical treatment
of women's insanity, sexual surgeries,
patient voices, the social construction
of gender, neurological theories, and
patient rights.
A spirited panel discussion fol-
lowed the 30-minute re-enactment,
with audience members posing
questions to the presenters. The four
students responded to questions from

ow, from left to right, are Jennifer Bazar (Tait), Kelli
n-Blount (Anderson), Laura Ball (Paternoster), and in
nt, Lisa Held (Putnam).

their character's perspective, using
their knowledge from the course and
their own areas of historical research.
Questions included: How was female
insanity defined (or who defined
female insanity and to serve what
aims)? Were women truly victims,
as many 1970s feminist historians
have suggested, and if not, how did
they express their agency? How did
gender affect the diagnoses and treat-
ments selected by female physicians,
compared to their male counter-
parts? For what other reasons, besides
insanity, were women committed
to the asylum? Where can patient
voices be heard in this history, and
what can they tell us? Are there "vil-
lains" in this history, and should we
even look for them?
The Society for the History of
Psychology (SHP), Division 26 of
the APA, acknowledged the pre-
sentation with their Best Student
Paper Award for this year's program.
SHP's Student Awards Commit-
tee described the performance and
subsequent discussion as "innovative
and original." And by the way, they
all got As in the course!
by Alexandra Rutherford

History of Science Society Newsletter

Lone Star Historians of Science

The Lone Star History of Science Group wel-
comed Angela Creager of Princeton University as
the speaker at its 22nd annual meeting, held on 27
March 2009 at Rice University in Houston. Cyrus
Mody hosted the meeting, which was sponsored by
Rice's Humanities Research Center.
Creager, a native Texan, earned a bachelor's
degree in biochemistry and English at Rice before
heading to UC-Berkeley to complete a Ph.D. in bio-
chemistry in 1991. She then moved into the history
of biology and, after postdoctoral work at Harvard
and MIT, has taught in the history of science pro-
gram at Princeton since 1994. Her book The Life ofa
Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Mod-
el, 1930-1965 appeared in 2002, and she is currently
studying how radioisotopes were used in biomedical
research in the mid-20th century.
At the Lone Star meeting, Creager spoke on
"Tracing Radioisotopes through the Biomedical
Complex, 1935-1955: From Gift Exchange to Com-
modification in the Atomic Age," focusing on the
consequences of the transition from the early produc-
tion of radioisotopes in cyclotrons to their mass-pro-
duction in the X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennes-
see, the first big nuclear reactor built as part of the
Manhattan Project, and their subsequent distribu-
tion for biomedical uses. As the nuclear arms race
took off in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the U.S.

Seated: Steve Kirkpatrick,
Victoria Sharpe, Angela
Creager, Anna Fay Wil-
liams. Standing: Roger
Hart, Colleen Witt, Helen
Hattab, Angela Smith,
Bruce Hunt, Frank Benn,
Alberto Martinez, John
Zammito, Tom Williams,
Cyrus Mody, and Anthony

government sought to emphasize its radioisotope
program as a way to show that atoms could cure as
well as kill. Deftly illustrating her presentation with
anecdotes and images, Professor Creager showed how
the intersection of military and biomedical concerns
behind the radioisotope program both propelled and
constrained efforts to promote nuclear medicine and
biology. In particular, radioisotopes shifted from
being "gifts" exchanged by individual researchers to
commodities distributed and controlled by govern-
ment agencies. After lively discussion of Creager's
talk, the group headed off to enjoy dinner and fur-
ther conversation at the Black Lab restaurant (named
for the breed of dog, not for some dark and mysteri-
ous experimental space).
Each spring, the Lone Star Group draws together
historians of science, technology, and medicine from
around Texas and the Southwest to discuss their
shared interests and enjoy a friendly meal. Its consti-
tution, adopted over dinner in an Austin restaurant
in 1988, provides that there shall be "no officers,
no by-laws, and no dues," and the group remains
resolutely informal. The next Lone Star meeting will
be held at Texas A&M University in College Station,
Texas, in April 2010. Anyone interested in attend-
ing should contact Tony Stranges of the Texas A&M
History Department at a-stranges@tamu.edu.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Centaurus, an International Journal of the History of Science and its Cul-
tural Aspects: A New Face at a Respected Journal

When I tell my American colleagues that I will
be the new editor of Centaurus, I run the risk of
an uncomfortable silence. The
reason is not, as I originally
thought, because I am Dutch
instead of Danish, but that my
colleagues don't know about
the very existence of this "Inter-
national Journal of the His-
tory of Science and its Cultural
Aspects." This is all the more
striking, because in 2008 Cen-
taurus celebrated the publication
of its 50th volume. Although
Isis is now publishing its 100th
volume, most history of sci-
ence journals are considerably
younger than Centaurus, which
celebrated its 50th volume with
a special issue that reflected
on the past by reprinting some
classic articles and looked into the future through
contemporary comments on these classics.
The editors of Centaurus have always demon-
strated a good mix of acknowledging past develop-
ments along with present and future trends. Its
founder, Jean Anker, reacted in 1950 to a "demand
for facilities for publication" in the future, because of
past developments of "increasing interest in the study
of the history of science." The journal was founded
with the aim of being an "international journal of
an independent character." The hitherto exclusively
Danish editors served the international professional
community well by giving historians of science the
opportunity to publish their scholarship in a first-
class journal.
Over the years interest in the history of science
increased and the discipline went through a process
of institutionalization and professionalization. More
journals were established. Many countries started

national journals in their own language and founded
national history of science societies. International
and national journals and societ-
ies existed side by side. Although
it took quite some time, ulti-
mately political, economic, and
social developments in Europe
resulted in the establishment of
a European Society for the His-
tory of Science (ESHS) in 2004.
The editor and staff at Aarhus
University, the home base of
Centaurus, realized the moment
had arrived for Centaurus to be-
come the journal of that Euro-
i i pean society, although with the
journal retaining its internation-
al and therefore transcontinental
character. In 2007 Centaurus
became the official journal of
the European Society.
Although a non-Danish editor can be considered
a natural step in the process of Centaurus'transfor-
mation, I was nevertheless surprised when asked to
become editor. Under the guidance of Hanne Ander-
sen, the process started by Helge Kragh to broaden
the scope of the journal and to let it reflect the latest
developments in the discipline was coming to
fruition. I saw no reason to move the journal from
its home base in Aarhus, where it has been nurtured
almost its whole lifetime.
I was surprised not only because I was not Dan-
ish, but also because I was mainly focused on the
American and the international history of science
communities. I regularly attend the HSS annual
meetings and participate in sessions about statistics,
genetics, and women and gender in science. I also
serve in various capacities, among others on the Isis
editorial board and the Margaret W. Rossiter His-
tory of Women in Science Prize Committee. On the

History of Science Society Newsletter

international level I was for eight years the president
of the Women's Commission of the international
organization of history of science (IUHPS/DHST)
and have been a member of the Executive Council.
But for the past couple of years I have been a
dedicated associate editor of Centaurus. I was con-
vinced that a journal connected to the European
society would have good prospects and regularly
discussed that with Hanne, the editor. I therefore
trust that my taking over the editorship will again
turn out to be a good combination of past attain-
ments and future trends. I have become an honorary
member of the Aarhus Science Studies Department,
where the assistant editor Claire Neesham is also
located. Although I am not Danish, the basis of the
journal will remain in Aarhus, where it is well taken
care of.
In the near future my aim is to further cultivate
the relationship with the European Society, but
also to offer members of the international history
of science community a journal in which to publish
papers that treat broad issues of general interest. My
ambition, like my predecessor's, is that the journal
also be used to inform ourselves about important
trends in our discipline. These aims will be pursued
by special submissions, one of which is a spotlight
section that will bring together a number of shorter
articles that focus on a common theme. This feature
will offer contributors the opportunity to raise issues
concerning current historiographical discussions.
Another development is a section for scholarly inter-
action through a target article with invited commen-
taries and author response.
I look forward to receiving high-quality papers
via our electronic submission system (see http://
mc.manuscriptcentral.com/cnt). I am open to sug-
gestions about topics for future spotlights sections
and target articles. You can always reach me by
e-mail, stamhuis@few.vu.nl. I hope that Centaurus
will receive its well-deserved place in the American
history of science community. Take a look at http://
by Ida Stamhuis

In this picture, taken in Aarhus, you see from left Claire
Neesham, the assistant editor, Helge Kragh, Hanne Ander-
son, myself and Kirsti Andersen. Together Helge, Hanne and
Kirsti cover many years of editorship.

History of Science Society Newsletter

Report from the First World Congress of Environmental History

The first World Congress of Environmental
History (WCEH) was held in August 2009 in
Copenhagen. Titled "Local Livelihoods and Global
Challenges: Understanding Human Interaction with
the Environment," WCEH included more than four
hundred presentations with 560 participants from 45
Denmark was a significant choice for the first
WCEH since it was the first country to establish a
Ministry of the Environment, in 1971. The venue
and participants shifted the narrative from an Amer-
ican-dominated version of the evolution of environ-
mental history to one that includes the contributions
of various countries and movements that preceded
the work of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, such as
the global movement to end nuclear weapons testing
in the 1950s.
A sampling of just a few of my favorite pan-
els shows the scope of the World Congress and its
emphasis on a multinational analysis of policies and
issues: the co-option of environmental rhetoric by
NATO and Spain; recent deforestation in the coastal
forests of Brazil; changing perceptions of the Arctic;
the place of animals in environmental history; and
making warfare's consequences visible.
These broad views were enhanced by indigenous
perspectives that created an emerging global nar-
rative of responses and practices. For example, the
Mowachaht Muchalaht First Nation, an indigenous
village in Canada, experienced disproportionate
exposure to industrial toxins. The case revealed the
limits of western science to detect what was sensed
as poisonous by the Mowachat Muchalaht and this
mirrored the experience of the Navajo Nation with
uranium mining pollution in the United States. For
me, WCEH fulfilled environmental history's prom-
ise to be a working template to respond to global
issues, a response not limited by borders or language.
I was also privileged to participate in a pre-con-
ference workshop for PhD students held at Roskilde

University 1-3 August, organized by European lead-
ers in environmental history, including the chair of
the World Congress Program Committee, Verena
Winiwarter, who helped usher the inaugural meeting
of the World Congress into reality.
At the pre-conference, Winiwarter shared her de-
sign of the "T" model of environmental history ped-
agogy. We broke into small work groups that mixed
scientists with social scientists based on Roskilde's
progressive multidisciplinary research units to
create a proposal using ecological history to address
complex current issues. I experienced the value of
combining these different approaches to address
environmental history as a competent discipline
(the vertical line of the T) in an interdisciplinary
conversant style (the horizontal line of the T, which
reaches out in understandable terms to a variety of
disciplines). The T model acknowledges the need for
holistic approaches to address complexity while
highlighting the case-study approach and prepared
me to glean the most out of the World Congress.

WCEH was organized by the International Consor-
tium ofEnvironmental History Organizations, Malmo
University (Sweden) and Roskilde University (Den-
mark) and included organizers from Brazil, Swit-
zerland, UK, India, South Africa, France, Canada,
China, United States, Ireland, the Netherlands, and

Linda Richards is a graduate student in the history of
science at Oregon State University

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