Title: History of Science Society newsletter
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Title: History of Science Society newsletter
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Language: English
Creator: History of Science Society
Publisher: History of Science Society
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July 2009
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Vol 38, No. 3, Juy 2009


NEWSletter
o t is o Socie


Table of Contents

Notes from the Inside
News & Inquiries
Member News


In Memoriam 12
From the President 14
First Person: Darwin, in a Dif-
ferent Voice 16
Workspace: John Lienhard and
Engines oflngenuity 18
When Speaking as a Scientist is
Not Enough: Leo Szilard on
Playing with Dolphins 20
The Perils ofPublicity 24
Alexandre Koyre'Medal 25
How Telescopes Made Earth a
Planet 26
New York Section of the History
of Science Society 28
Southern HoST 29
Program Profile: University of
Leeds 30
History of Science at Michigan
State University 32
SPACEWORK 34
Thomas Jefferson: Intellectual
Property Rights Populist 35
Preliminary Program 37


Arizona State University Welcomes HSS to
Phoenix

We are eager to welcome our HSS friends to the Phoenix meeting.
Just for the record, we were surprised when Jay Malone reported that
the HSS had decided to meet here, since the search process through the
committees did not involve asking us. We were worried by the slightly
dumpy hotel, a city hard to get around without a car, and a dead down-
town. That was three years ago, and HA! we were so wrong. Jay had
checked things out, and knew that the hotel was to undergo renovations
(it has), and that the city was to complete a light rail system (which it
has, and it works great). And because of the light rail and a new down-
town campus for Arizona State University, the area has come alive. By
the time of the meeting, there will be a just-opened grocery store near
the hotel, and new restaurants and other shops keep popping up.
When you arrive in November, the weather should be perfect. It
might rain a little, so bring a sweater or jacket at night, but we prom-
ise no snow or ice or sleet or hail. You are much more likely to need
sunscreen. And be prepared for some great food. We'll post informa-
tion about local eateries, drinkeries, activities, and possible excursions
for those of you who care to stay on for a little vacation, as the meeting
is the week before the U.S. Thanksgiving. There are great hikes within
a 30-minute drive of Phoenix, and some terrific hotels and resorts as
well. A bit farther afield lie Sedona; the excellent Museum of Northern
Arizona; the mining town ofJerome; the Grand Canyon and Tucson;
Saguaro National Monument; the Globe-Bisbee mining area; and the
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
The program that co-chairs Cathryn Carson and Jessica Riskin
have put together looks great, and we understand they regretted having
to turn away quite a number of outstanding proposals. The conference
will feature some innovations with receptions and suchlike.


Continued on p. 3






History of Science Society Newsletter


I Notes from the Inside


Your Officers
Having just finished my board meeting with
the HSS Executive Committee, I am reminded of
(and grateful for) the dedication of our officers.
Their commitment lies far beyond the detachment
demonstrated by many officials in academic societ-
ies. For example, at the recent Executive Commit-
tee meeting, Editor, Bernie Lightman; Secretary,
Maggie Osler; Vice President, Paul Farber; and
President, Jane Maienschein spent three days
laboring over a 200-plus page briefing book, dis-
cussing everything from the revival of HSS's life
memberships, to practical points in planning the
annual meeting. Another example of this dedica-
tion comes from earlier this year, when Maien-
schein (from Arizona) and Farber (from Oregon)
visited the Executive Office at the University of
Florida (a two-hour car ride from major airports).
Here they discussed Society business, our future,
and provided an intellectual lift for the history of
science at the University of Florida.
The latter bit of service was all the more ap-
preciated due to UF's recent decision to suspend
its graduate program in the history of science.


History of Science Society
EXECUTIVE OFFICE
Postal Address Physical Address
PO Box 117360 3310 Turlington Hall
University of Florida University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7360 Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 352-392-1677/Fax: 352-392-2795
E-mail: info@hssonline.org
Web site: http://www.hssonline.org/
SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES
University of Chicago Press
Phone: 877-705-1878; Fax 877-705-1879
E-mail: subscriptions@press.uchicago.edu
Or write University of Chicago Press, Subscription Fulfillment
Manager, PO Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637-7363
Moving?
Please notify both the HSS Executive Office and the Univer-
sity of Chicago Press.


The budget crisis here in Florida contributed to
the program's suspension and while we are grate-
ful to UF for their continuing support of the HSS
(last year, before the suspension vote, we signed
an agreement to house the Office through 2013),
the lack of a graduate program has prompted us to
seek proposals from other universities to host the
Executive Office (see the April 09 Newsletter). We
were surprised and delighted to receive six letters
of interest from potential hosts, and we will keep
HSS members apprised of our progress. We expect
to move in the summer of 2010, and for better or
for worse, I plan to follow.
Even though such moves are disruptive, es-
pecially for families, the transition will be all the
more tolerable due to our active and caring of-
ficers. In that vein, I would like to thank Rachel
Ankeny, who devoted untold hours to the HSS as
Treasurer and welcome our new Treasurer, Adam
Apt, a long-time HSS member (see story p. 5). I
would also like to welcome and congratulate our
Vice President elect, Lynn Nyhart, another dedi-
cated member with many strengths that will take
us far.


EDITORIAL POLICIES, ADVERTISING AND SUBMISSIONS
The History of Science Society Newsletter is published in January, April, July, and October,
and sent to all individual members of the Society; those who reside outside of North America
pay an additional $5 annually to cover a portion of airmail charges. The Newsletter is available
to nonmembers and institutions for $25 a year.
The Newsletter is edited and desktop published in the Executive Office. The format and
editorial policies are determined by the Executive Director in consultation with the Committee
on Publications and the Society Editor. All advertising copy must be submitted in electronic
form. Advertisements are accepted on a space-available basis only, and the Society reserves
the right not to print a submission. The rates are as follows: Full page (7 x 9.25"), $625; Hori-
zontal or Vertical Half page (7 x 4.6"), $375; Quarter page (3.5 x 4.6"), $225. The deadline for
insertion orders is six weeks prior to the month of publication and should be sent to the atten-
tion of the HSS Executive Office. The deadline for news, announcements, and job/fellowship/
prize listings is firm: Six weeks prior to the month of publication. Long items (feature stories)
should be submitted eight weeks prior to the month of publication. Please send all material to
the attention of the managing editor, Michal Meyer: michal@hssonline.org.
0 2009 by the History of Science Society






History of Science Society Newsletter


Continuedfromp. 1


There will be cash bar options in the hotel, there are
many informal places within walking distance and oth-
ers easily accessible by light rail for those who want to
arrange alternative get-togethers, and we are planning a
big event on Saturday night.
For other evenings, take advantage of being down-
town. Across the street from the hotel are the Herberger
Theater and the Arizona Opera (http://www.azopera.
com/), which offers Salome that weekend. The Desert
Botanical Garden, not far from ASU's Tempe campus,
is a world-class attraction, and well worth the short trip
(there's even a zoo next door). There are also sporting
venues, including the US Airways Center, where the
Phoenix Suns basketball team will be active during our
meeting. The downtown Arizona State campus offers
occasional events as well. Rather than fill this message
with more Web links that are not yet fully updated,
we'll maintain a Web site with local information as we
learn more. For those who would like to know about
opportunities for birding, field trips, and other out-
door activities, Matt Chew (matt.chew@asu.edu) and
Andrew Hamilton (ahamilton@asu.edu) are prepared
to help you learn more.
Instead of the usual hotel dinner with its choice of
rubbery chicken and such, we had the option to go off
site. We have chosen the excellent Heard Museum, one
of the finest anthropological museums anywhere, and
which allows guests to tour the museum during the
evening. We will have outdoor drinks (cash bar) and
entertainment, then a reception-style buffet featuring
Southwest foods for dinner and dessert. This lovely site
is an easy ride on the light rail or a short cab ride. We
will help provide transportation for anyone with spe-
cial needs. The opportunity to hold this event at this
very popular museum site comes thanks to the Center
for Biology and Society in the College of Liberal Arts
and Sciences at Arizona State, which is serving as host
and sponsor.
We also want to highlight another innovation for
this dinner. One of the first two Biology and Society
graduates from ASU is Melanie Hunter, a long-time
HSS member. Melanie will be coordinating the gradu-
ate-student volunteers at the meeting. She has also
donated $1000 to allow us to hire Native American


musicians to entertain us during the evening. She offers
this as an invitation to others: get involved, help out
where you can, with donations or volunteering. She
notes that we could have naming opportunities, with
sponsors helping to make possible receptions or other
events. We look forward to others following Melanie's
inspiring lead.
Just a quick note about your hosts. The local ar-
rangements team comes from Arizona State University,
where we do things a little differently in our "New
American University." Yes, we have first-rate historians
and graduate opportunities through the new School of
Historical, Philosophical, and Religious Studies, where
Monica Green, Paul Hirt, and Hoyt Tillman lead the
way in history of science. We have historians of sci-
ence on the brand new campus of the Barrett Honors
College that is part of the ASU Tempe Campus, and
others in the School of Evolution and Social Change.
The formal History and Philosophy of Science Program
resides in the School of Life Sciences, and is directed
by Richard Creath, with lively graduate programs
directed by Andrew Hamilton and Karin Ellison. That
group coordinates closely with the Bioethics, Policy,
and Law Program directed by Jason Scott Robert and
the Consortium for Science Policy and Outcomes led
by Dave Guston and Dan Sarewitz. These programs
all connect with the new Human and Social Dimen-
sions of Science and Technology Program directed by
Clark Miller. Paul Hirt, Ben Minteer, Steve Pyne, and
others offer opportunities in environmental history and
ethics. The new medical school collaboration in down-
town Phoenix brings together scholars from the Uni-
versity of Arizona and Arizona State, and Jason Scott
Robert directs the Medicine and Society theme there.
There are even more portals through which
graduate students, undergraduate students, post-
doctoral fellows, and faculty members come to-
gether in scholarship across diverse areas related to
the history of science. The Center for Biology and
Society coordinates many research projects, includ-
ing the Embryo Project, Carnap Project, Theoreti-
cal Biology Project, and History and Philosophy
of Systematics Project. All of these offer training
opportunities for graduate students and postdocs.
Continued next page

History of Science Society Newsletter July 2009 3






History of Science Society Newsletter


(See http://cbs.asu.edu/ for graduate, research, and other opportunities.)
We are fortunate to be supported by great administrators who are also intellectual colleagues. Robert
Page is the Director of the School of Life Sciences and has attended two of the Marine Biological Laboratory
Seminars on the History of Biology (now MBL-ASU), and our Senior Vice President and Dean Quentin
Wheeler has a current Focus Section essay (with Andrew Hamilton of the School of Life Sciences) in Isis. As
you can see, this is a tremendously friendly place for our field. We invite you to come visit when you are in
Phoenix; we now enjoy being able to say, "it's just a light rail ride away."

by Jane Maienschein




From your Local Arrangements Committee
Rick Creath, Chair
With Melanie Hunter, Graduate Student Coordinator
Jessica Ranney, Center for Biology and Society
Program Coordinator
Felicity Snyder, Center for Biology and Society
Program Manager

Brad Armendt
Matthew Chew
Karin Ellison
Andrew Hamilton
Manfred Laubichler
John Lynch
Jane Maienschein
Jason Scott Robert
David Steffes
Jamey Wetmore
Michael White
Grant Yamashita

Graduate Students
Melissa Baker
Jennifer Brian
Lijing Jiang
Matthew Laubacher
Cera Lawrence
Steve Elliott
Mark Ulett
Karen Wellner
Johnny Winston






History of Science Society Newsletter


NEWS AND INQUIRIES


Results of the 2009 Election
The 2009 Nominating Committee of M. Norton
Wise, Thomas Sbderqvist, Katherine Anderson, Pamela
Smith, and chair David Kaiser produced a marvelous
slate for the 2009 elections. The quality of the pool was
reflected in some of the razor-thin margins of victory.
We offer our thanks to all of those who agreed to run
and we congratulate our new officers. We also thank
the more than 350 members who voted.

Vice President (2010-2011, President 2012-2013), Lynn
K. Nyhart, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Council (2010-2012)
John Carson, University of Michigan
Deborah R_ Coen, Barnard College
Mi Gyung Kim, North Carolina State University
Helen Rozwadowski, University of Connecticut, Avery
Point
Marga Vicedo, University of Toronto

Nominating Committee (2010 slate)
John Beatty, University of British Columbia
Deborah Harkness, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles
Pamela O. Long, Independent Scholar
Paul Lucier, Independent Scholar
Liba Taub, Whipple Museum, Cambridge University

New Treasurer for the Society
Many people around the world feel rather unsettled
and unsure about their financial futures. Fortu-
nately, the HSS is in good hands. Rachel Ankeny,
who stepped down 1 July, has done an excellent
job as Treasurer in overseeing the Society's budget


for two-and-a-half years, and we thank her for her
diligence. Rachel stepped down for professional
reasons, in order to devote more time to research and
teaching. We wish to note that beyond her labor get-
ting the everyday details of the Treasurer's job done,
she has helped to reconfigure and streamline many
processes, which will make the role of Treasurer
more sustainable in the long run. She also helped to
maintain the Society's strong financial condition,
despite current challenges. We offer a warm thanks
to Rachel for her tremendous service and wish her
well in her many other professional roles.
Our new Treasurer, who will begin by complet-
ing Rachel's term, is Adam Apt. Adam has served on
the Finance Committee for 13 years and has con-
siderable experience with investment management.
In fact, Adam has recently begun his own business,
Peabody River Asset Management (http://www.
peabodyriver.com/), where "the essence of intelligent
investing is to achieve a balance of return and risk
that is appropriate for the investor." Adam's attention
to what is appropriate is important for our Society at
this point in time, and we will benefit from his guid-
ance in financial matters. Adam is a perfect example
of the diversity of careers open to those with educa-
tion in the history of science: many years in financial
services, as well as a keen interest in hiking the White
Mountains of New Hampshire, round out his own
portfolio of special skills. The Treasurer serves on the
Executive Committee and oversees financial mat-
ters, including preparation of the budget, monitoring
of operating accounts, and overseeing investment
accounts. Adam has served as treasurer for a number
of other organizations and brings considerable talent
and enthusiasm to the position.






History of Science Society Newsletter


Furthermore, we are fortunate that another mem-
ber of the Finance Committee, Spencer Weart, a for-
mer HSS Treasurer, has agreed to serve as chair of the
Finance Committee. In that capacity he will set up a
new investments review to ensure our investments are
as safe, as productive, and as appropriate as possible.
We are very fortunate to have Spencer's help at this
time, and his own work at the American Institute of
Physics has been brilliantly successful and has brought
us "History that Matters" ( http://www.aip.org/his-
tory/historymatters/weart.htm ). Like Adam, Spencer
has followed a creative career path that can inspire all
of us. We are very fortunate to have the help of these
two talented historians of science.
Currently, we have projected workable (though
somewhat reduced) budgets into the future. Mem-
bers who would like to donate to support Society
operations or any special funds are encouraged to do
so at https://www.hssweb.org/donate.
From the Executive Committee

Oral History Collection
The Chemical Heritage Foundation has created
an online oral history collection. Recipients of the
Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences Award are
interviewed at the end of their four-year program
and their oral histories deposited in the collection.
The collection contains well over two hundred oral
histories and is expanding, with new oral histories
being added on a regular basis. See http://www.
chemheritage.org/exhibits/ex-nav2-pew.asp. In addi-
tion, bound volumes of the oral histories are housed
in CHF's Othmer Library.

ACLS Humanities E-Book Subscriptions
ACLS Humanities E-Book (HEB) now provides in-
dividual subscriptions through standing membership
in the History of Science Society as an added benefit
of your membership.
Individual subscriptions are USD $35.00 for a
twelve-month, renewable, subscription. $15 of your
subscription will come back directly to the History of
Science Society and the balance will help sustain HEB
as a resource for the entire scholarly community.


For subscriptions, follow the link below. You will
need to choose the History of Science Society from
the pull-down menu and provide your membership
number.
https://www.humanitiesebook.org/subscription
purchase.html
The subscription offers unlimited access to its
collection of cross-searchable, full-text titles across
the humanities and related social sciences (https://
www.humanitiesebook.org/titlelist.html).
Titles have been selected and peer reviewed by
ACLS constituent learned societies for their contin-
ued value in teaching and researching, and approxi-
mately 500 are being added each year.
The collection includes both in- and out-of-print
titles ranging from the 1880s to the current year.
Titles link to publishers, Web sites and to online
reviews in JSTOR, Project MUSE, and other sites.
Individual subscriptions are ideal for those whose
school might not yet have an institutional subscrip-
tion to HEB or for individual members of a learned
society who might not be affiliated with a subscrib-
ing institution. For inquiries e-mail: subscriptions@
hebook.org.

Moving Philosophy of Science
The Editorial Office for Philosophy of Science has
moved from the University of South Carolina to the
University of California, Irvine. The Philosophy of
Science Association thanks Michael Dickson, his
associate editors, and his staff for their service, and
welcomes Editor-in-Chief Jeff Barrett, his associate
editors, and his staff.
We expect to be able to provide an initial decision
on most submissions within six to eight weeks. Sub-
missions to the journal should be made through the
Editorial Manager software at http://phos.edmgr.com.
Detailed information about the journal and the submis-
sion procedure can be found at http://journal.philsci.org.
In order to review submissions quickly and hence
to encourage the submission of the very best work,
referees are welcome to make whatever comments
they wish, but extensive referee commentary will not
be required.






History of Science Society Newsletter


The July 2009 issue of Philosophy of Science will
be edited and produced through Michael Dickson's
office at the University of South Carolina. We expect
that other submissions made to the South Carolina
office before April 2009 will be transferred to UC
Irvine. Please contact us at philsciouci.edu concern-
ing the status of your submission, and we will pass
along whatever information we have.

International Workshop on Lysenkoism
Co-sponsored by the Harriman Institute for Russian
Eurasian and Eastern European Studies at Columbia
University, and the City University of New York,
the workshop will take place 4-5 December 2009.
Trofim D. Lysenko was a Ukrainian agronomist
responsible for banning genetics in the Soviet Union
and its allies, following a week-long session of the
Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences
in 1948. The workshop will bring together scholars
from over a dozen countries to present their work on
the impact and response to Lysenko's anti-genetics
campaign in over a dozen countries in Europe, Asia,
and Latin America. The sessions on 4 December will
be held at the CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth
Ave., Room 9204/9205. The sessions on 5 December
will be held in the International Affairs Building,
at Columbia University, Room 1501. The confer-
ence will be free and open to the public. For further
information please contact William deJong-Lambert
at WRL4@columbia.edu/william.dejong-lambert@
bcc.cuny.edu.

Joint Atlantic Seminar in the History of Biology
The Department of the History of Science at Har-
vard University is pleased to host the 2010 meet-
ing of the JAS. The meeting will be held on 26-27
March in the Science Center, Harvard University.
Further information from Janet Browne: jbrowne@
fas.harvard.edu.

Metropolitan New York Section of the History of
Science Society Reestablished
The Section for History and Philosophy of Science
and Technology at the New York Academy of


Sciences concluded its 2008-2009 season of monthly
programs on the evening of 21 May with a lecture by
Kim Plofker (Department of Mathematics, Union
College), who spoke on "Mathematics and Astronomy
in India: An evening in honor of David Pingree." A
special symposium followed on 22 May, devoted to
"Astrolabes: An Evening in Honor of Marjorie and
Roderick Webster, and David Pingree," and held at
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The symposium
featured Clare Vincent (Associate Curator, Depart-
ment of European Sculpture and Decorative Arts),
Bruce Chandler (The College of Staten Island, City
University of New York), and Bruce Stephenson (Cu-
rator, History of Astronomy Department, The Adler
Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, Chicago).
Following discussion over the past several
months and circulation of a revised Constitution and
By-Laws, a vote was taken during the meeting at the
Academy on May 21 to reestablish the Metropolitan
New York Section of the History of Science Society
(MNYSHSS), originally founded on September 1,
1953. Elected to serve as President: Matthew Stanley
(The Gallatin School, New York University), Vice
President: Sheila Rabin (St. Peter's College, New Jer-
sey); Secretary: Luis Campos (Drew University); and
Treasurer: Deirdre La Porte (AT&T, retired).
For information about the 2009-2010 schedule
of lectures, to be jointly sponsored by The New York
Academy of Sciences, the MNYSHSS, the City Uni-
versity of New York, Columbia University and The
Gallatin School, New York University, please contact
either Joseph W. Dauben at jdauben@gc.cunv.edu,
Pamela Smith at ps2270@columbia.edu, or Mat-
thew Stanley at ms5100g@(nvu.edu.

New Journal
Philosophy &d Theory in Biology (P&TB), a new peer-
reviewed open-access online journal, will be launched
in the fall of 2009. We aim to bring together philoso-
phers of science and theoretically inclined biologists.
Instructions for authors can be downloaded at http://
www.philosophyandtheoryinbiology.org. Further
information can be obtained by e-mailing editors@
philosophvandtheorvinbiologv.org.


* July 2091






History of Science Society Newsletter


ASP Archives
Lloyd Library and Museum and American Society
of Pharmacognosy (ASP) announce the agreement
for the transfer of ASP Archives to the Lloyd Library
and Museum, Historical Research Center for the
Natural Health Movement. For more information
visit ASP at http://www.phcog.org/ and the Lloyd
Library at http://www.lloydlibrary.org.

Thirtieth Anniversary for BSHS Monographs
The British Society for the History of Science is
celebrating by creating a digital collection of past
monographs. These monographs are available for
viewing and download free-of-charge at www.bshs.
org.uk/monographs.

Call for Articles: Thematic Issue for Antropologia
Portuguesa
Antropologia Portuguesa is receiving articles for its
next thematic issue, coming out in 2010, which is
dedicated to the theme, "151 years of Darwinism."
Deadline is 31 December 2009. Go to http://www.
uc.pt/en/cia/publica/call for papers for more infor-
mation.

Generation to Reproduction Research Project
The University of Cambridge has secured major
funding in the history of medicine from the Well-
come Trust. A strategic award of 785,000 for five
years from 1 October 2009 will allow a cross-dis-
ciplinary group of researchers to take a concerted
approach to the history of reproduction. Entitled,
"Generation to Reproduction," the project will
provide fresh perspectives on issues ranging from
ancient fertility rites to IVF. A strongly grounded
account, building on a lively field of historical inves-
tigation, will offer a fresh basis for policy and public
debate. For more information visit http://www.hps.
cam.ac.uk/generation/.

Special Issue: Darwin and the Evolution of Victo-
rian Studies Available
Victorian Studies 51:2 (Winter 2009) is a special issue
devoted to several essays on the theme of "Darwin


and the Evolution of Victorian Studies." Those essays
include: George Levine, "Reflections on Darwin and
Darwinizing;" Heather Brink-Roby, "Natural Rep-
resentation: Diagram and Text in Darwin's 'On the
Origin of Species';" Tina Young Choi, "Natural His-
tory's Hypothetical Moments: Narratives of Contin-
gency in Victorian Culture;" Jim Endersby, "Sympa-
thetic Science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and
the Passions of Victorian Naturalists;" and Gillian
Beer, "Darwin and the Uses of Extinction." Jonathan
Smith authored the introductory essay.

Images from the History of Medicine
The History of Medicine Division of the National
Library of Medicine announces the launch of a new
image platform for its premier database, Images from
the History of Medicine (IHM). IHM is available
online, free of charge, at http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov.

InternationalJournal of Gender, Science and
Technology
The International Journal of Gender, Science and Tech-
nology is an independent, peer reviewed, open access
journal that welcomes contributions from practitio-
ners, researchers and policy makers concerned with
gender issues in and of science and technology. For
further information, including details of the sub-
mission procedures go to http://genderandset.open.
ac.uk. For enquiries contact Jenni Carr at j.g.carr@
open.ac.uk.

Forum for the History of the Mathematical Sci-
ences Luncheon.
The luncheon will be held 12:00-1:15 p.m. on Fri-
day at the 2009 HSS Annual Meeting in Phoenix,
AZ. All those who share an interest in the history
of mathematics are invited to this complimentary
event, sponsored by the Legacy of R.L. Moore
Project. Seating is limited, and reservations are re-
quired. Contact Karen Parshall at khp3k@virginia.
edu if you would like to attend.

Updated APS Fellowship Information
The American Philosophical Society has revised the






History of Science Society Newsletter


Fellowships and Research Grants section of their
Web site for 2009-2010. Please check the "About the
Fellowships and Research Grants" section periodi-
cally at http://www.amphilsoc.org/grants/ for more
information.

Travel/Research Grants for History of East Asian
Science
The D. Kim Foundation for the History of Science
and Technology in East Asia offers two Traveling/
Research Grants. Established in 2008 the D. Kim
Foundation is dedicated to furthering the study of
the history of science and technology in East Asia
since the start of the 20th Century. For more infor-
mation visit http://www.dkimfoundation.org/.

Annals of Science Offer
Submit your unpublished paper to Annals of Sci-
ence for a chance to win US$500 and a year's free
subscription. This prize is offered every two years to
the author of an original, unpublished essay in the
history of science or technology, which is not under
consideration for publication elsewhere. http://www.
tandf.co.uk/journals/authors/tascauth.asp

Doctoral Fellowships
A four-university consortium based out of Florida
State University will support one graduate student
to participate in a 30-month research project on the
ways in which historic and contemporary concep-
tualizations of the Arctic are impacting state and
non-state actors' proposals for exercising sovereignty
in the region. Please contact Phil Steinberg at pstein-
be@fsu.edu or +1 850 644 8378.











-M-B-Ris-


History of Science Society Newsletter


The American Physical Society and the American
Institute of Physics have selected Stephen G. Brush,
past president of the HSS, to receive the 2009 Abraham
Pais Prize for the History of Physics for his pioneering,
in-depth studies in the history of nineteenth- and twen-
tieth-century physics.

Joshua Blu Buhs' Bigfoot: The Life and Times ofa
Legend (The University of Chicago) was published this
year. With Bigfoot, Joshua Blu Buhs traces the story of
America's favorite homegrown monster. Buhs delves
deeply into the trove of lore and misinformation that
has sprung up around Bigfoot. Buh's focus is on under-
standing why Bigfoot has inspired drama and devotion.
What does our fascination with this monster say about
our modern relationship to wilderness, individuality,
class, consumerism, and the media?

David A. Hollinger, University of California,
Berkeley, has been elected President-Elect of the Or-
ganization of American Historians, and will become
President of that 9,000-member professional associa-
tion in March of 2010.

The Society for History in the Federal Government
(SHFG) presented the first Annual Roger R. Trask
Award to Roger D. Launius, Senior Curator in the
Space History Division of the Smithsonian's Na-
tional Air and Space Museum and SHFG President
from 20032004. The award is given in recognition
of his commitment to federal history at the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration and the
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, and
for his promotion of the mission of the society and
his generous mentoring of colleagues.


York University's Bernard Lightman, recently received
a $306,000 grant from The Andrew W Mellon Foun-
dation for his latest research venture, the John Tyndall
correspondence project. The objective is to publish the
collected correspondence of prominent British physicist
John Tyndall (1820-1893).

William R. Newman, Ruth N. Halls Professor of
History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana Univer-
sity, received the title of Distinguished Professor on 27
March 2009.

Jahnavi Phalkey won the 2008 Sardar Pate Award
for the best dissertation submitted at any American
university on the subject of modern India. "Science,
State-Formation And Development: The Organiza-
tion of Nuclear Research In India" is a history of the
beginnings of nuclear research and education in India,
between 1938 and 1959, traced through the trajectories
of particle accelerator building activities at three institu-
tions: the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore; the Palit Laboratory of Physics, Uni-
versity Science College, Calcutta, later (Saha) Institute
of Nuclear Physics; and the Tata Institute of Fundamen-
tal Research, Bombay. John Krige, Georgia Institute of
Technology, was Phalkey's supervisor.

The Adler Planetarium's Webster Institute for the
History of Astronomy announces the publication of
Eastern Astrolabes by David Pingree. More informa-
tion can be found at http://www.adlerplanetarium.org.

Volume 11 of the Papers ofJoseph Henry, edited by
Marc Rothenberg, won the 2009 Thomas Jefferson
Prize of the Society for History in the Federal Gov-
ernment for outstanding documentary edition. For
further information, go to http://www.shfg.org.






History of Science Society Newsletter


Nicolaas Rupke has been elected to a Lower Saxony
Research Professorship in the History of Science.
Rupke is one of the first half dozen to be offered a
Lower Saxony Chair and the only humanities scholar
among them.

The American Council for Learned Societies names
Nancy Sirasi, Distinguished Professor, Hunter Col-
lege, City University of New York (retired), as the
2010 Charles Homer Haskins Prize Lecturer. The
lecture will take place on 7 May at the 2010 ACLS
Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. For more informa-
tion, http://www.acls.org/news/Default.aspx?id=4198.

Jeffrey Sturchio takes up his new position as President
and CEO of the Global Health Council on 1 August.
For details, see http://www.globalhealth.org/news/ar-
ticle/11138. He previously worked as President of the
Merck Company Foundation and Vice President,
Corporate Responsibility. He continues as Chairman
of the Corporate Council on Africa and as a Visiting
Scholar, Institute for Applied Economics and the Study
of Business Enterprise, The Johns Hopkins University.

C. Michele Thompson has been promoted to Full
Professor in the Department of History at Southern
Connecticut State University. She was also named
the 2008-09 Connecticut State Trustees Research
Scholar of the Year for Southern Connecticut State
University.


*July20091 11






History of Science Society Newsletter


Martin J. Klein (1924-2009)
Martin Jesse Klein, Eugene Higgins Professor
Emeritus of History of Physics and Professor Emeritus
of Physics at Yale University and the former Senior
Editor of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein,
passed away on March 28, 2009.
Martin Klein was born in New York City on June
25, 1924. He graduated from Columbia University
at the age of 18 and earned his Master's degree there
two years later. After his war service during 1944-46,
which primarily comprised sonar research, he com-
pleted his Ph.D. in physics at MIT in 1948. In 1949,
having declined Edward Teller's invitation to work
for the nuclear weapons program, Klein joined the
physics faculty at Case Institute of Technology (now
Case Western Reserve University), where he served
for 18 years and completed his transformation from a
theoretical physicist to a historian of physics. In 1967,
he moved to Yale University, where he chaired the
Department of History of Science and Medicine from
1971 to 1974, and was named Eugene Higgins Profes-
sor of the History of Physics and Professor of Physics
in 1974. From 1978 to 1980 he also served in Yale's
prestigious William Clyde DeVane Professorship.
Klein was an authority on the lives and works of
major physicists of the 19th and early 20th centuries,
including Albert Einstein, Paul Ehrenfest, Josiah Wil-
lard Gibbs, and Niels Bohr. In 1970, he published his
magnificent biography of Ehrenfest, which has been
widely praised by both physicists and historians of sci-
ence. He served for ten years (1988-98) as the Senior
Editor of The Collected Papers ofAlbert Einstein, further
enhancing his reputation as one of the most profound
analysts of Einstein's life and work.
Klein lectured widely and published a large
number of historical papers on topics ranging from
the origins of thermodynamics and quantum theory
to 19th-century mechanical explanations. He gave
the George Sarton Memorial Lecture at AAAS (1969)


I IN MEMORIAL


and the Morris Loeb Lectures at Harvard (1975). He
also held visiting appointments at the Institute for
Advanced Studies in Princeton (1972), University of
Amsterdam (1974 and 1993), and Rockefeller (1975-
79) and Harvard (1989-90) Universities.
Klein received numerous honors. He was the winner
of the first Abraham Pais Prize in 2005, awarded by the
American Physical Society and the American Institute of
Physics for exceptional accomplishments in the history
of physics. The Prize Selection Committee cited Klein's
"pioneering studies in the history of 19th- and 20th-
century physics, which embody the highest standards of
scholarship and literary expression and have profoundly
influenced generations of historians of physics."
Klein was a National Research Fellow in Physics
(1952-53), a two-time Guggenheim Fellow (1958-59
and 1967-68), and a Fellow of the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science and of the Ameri-
can Physical Society. He was elected to the Academie
International d'Histoire des Sciences (1971), the Na-
tional Academy of Sciences (1977), and the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences (1979). In the National
Academy of Sciences, Klein was one of only three
members who were not primarily scientists.
Klein is survived by his daughters Rona Klein of
Bowling Green, OH, Sarah Zaino of New Haven, CT,
Nancy Klein of El Sobrante, CA, and Abby Klein of
New Haven, CT. In addition, he is survived by his for-
mer wives, Miriam Klein and Linda Booz Klein, and
was predeceased by his wife, Joan Warnow-Blewett.
A memorial service is being organized by Martin
Klein's family in collaboration with Klein's friends and
colleagues. A session in memory of Martin has also
been proposed for the upcoming HSS meeting. Notices
of these events will be posted on the HSS Web site.
Danian Hu
(In preparing this obituary, I benefited fom Roger H.
Stuewer's earlier report on Klein's Pais Prize (http.//www.
aps.org/units/fhp/awards/pais/klein.cfn), from which I have
quoted feely. I wish to thank Sarah Zaino, Linda Klein,
Diana Buchwald, Daniel Kevles, Roger Stuewer, andAlan
Shapiro for their comments and corrections.)






History of Science Society Newsletter


Marjorie Grene (1910-2009)
Philosopher of science Marjorie Grene passed
away 16 March 2009 at age 98 after a brief illness.
Marjorie Glicksman Grene, born 13 December
1910, was an important historian of philosophy
(with books on Aristotle, Descartes, and various
existentialist philosophers), epistemologist (with a
special emphasis on perception and the contextual
relations of knowers to the world around them) and
a philosopher of science, publishing several books in
the philosophy of biology.
After obtaining a bachelor's degree in zoology
at Wellesley College in 1931, Grene studied with
such figures as Heidegger and Jaspers as an Ameri-
can-German exchange student 1931-33 and David
Prall, Alfred North Whitehead, and C.I. Lewis at
Harvard. Radcliffe awarded her a doctorate in phi-
losophy in 1935 since women were not then formally
admitted to Harvard. From 1937-1944 she was an
instructor at the University of Chicago, where she
participated in seminars run by Rudolf Carnap and
Carl (Peter) Hempel. From 1944 to 1957 she contin-
ued to publish, but her main occupations were rais-
ing her family and running a farm, first in the US,
then in Ireland. In 1950 she met Hungarian-British
scientist-philosopher Michael Polanyi and served as
his research assistant (largely by correspondence) for
the conversion of his 1950 Gifford Lectures into his
well-known book, Personal Knowledge. Her work
with Polanyi led her to consider metaphysical and
ethical issues in science, particularly biology, tack-
ling questions as fundamental as what constitutes a
person. She later was a founding member of the In-
ternational Society for the History, Philosophy, and
Social Studies of Biology, the largest such organiza-
tion of scientists, historians and philosophers.
Thanks in part to her work with Polanyi, Grene
earned temporary positions at the University of
Manchester (1957-8) and then at the University of
Leeds (1958-60), before becoming a Lecturer in
Philosophy at Queens University, Belfast (1960-65).
She returned to the US, first as a faculty member,
then as Chair of the Department of Philosophy at
the University of California, Davis, which she built


into a major department, with strengths in history
of philosophy and philosophy of science. Since 1988,
she had been Honorary University Distinguished
Professor at Virginia Tech.
Marjorie Grene is survived by her daughter
Ruth, who is on the Virginia Tech faculty in Plant
Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, her son
Nicholas, who is the Professor of English Literature
in the School of English, Trinity College, Dublin,
his wife Eleanor, six grandchildren, Sophia, Hannah,
Jessica, Clement, Nick and Lucy
Grene and one great-granddaughter, Nazyia
Terry.


*July 2009 13






History of Science Society Newsletter


From the President


When I agreed to run for the position as HSS
Vice President/President in 2005, I knew of the NEH
fundraising hopes for the HSS Bibliographer and that
the Society was in good shape financially and on an
even course. I saw three areas for improvement that
made it seem worth investing the time and energy to
bring some change.
First, I worried that the profession had become
so diverse and diffuse that it lacked the energy to
carry the field forward. In particular, I saw too
much of a swing toward a version of the social his-
tory of science that seemed to forget the science.
I imagined I might help bring back a balance of
interests science at the core, along with plenty of
room for social history, economic history, political
history, environmental history, and so many other
histories. This is especially true since history of
science benefits from connections with philosophy,
with the sciences, and with other fields; for history
of science to remain a focused field that warrants
positions and a professional society it must remem-
ber its subject matter science.
Second, lost opportunities because of our failure
to educate our students to communicate effectively
to a wide audience. Jed Buchwald and George Smith
at the Dibner Institute both pointed out that it has
often been the science writers, journalists, and some-
times scientists who sell books and get press coverage
with their histories of science. And, it seemed, that
history made popular wasn't always the best possible
history, or the best possible understanding of science.
We can all learn how to communicate our ideas more
effectively beyond the academy and into the world.
Naomi Oreskes' work with the U.S. Congress and
with policy leaders on global climate change by
using historical climate science data and narratives
- is an example of what we can do. Science writing
programs like the one led by Kenneth Manning at
MIT show what we can do in education. We can
do much more, and I had visions of helping support
such inspiring work.
Third was the goal of moving history of science


beyond history departments. In fact, the field and
our young scholars have already moved into various
niches beyond history departments: communities
in honors programs, science departments, connec-
tions with social scientists, science studies programs,
working with environmental researchers, national
labs and museums, and others. At Arizona State,
we are hiring historians and philosophers into the
School of Life Sciences, for example, as well as into
the History Department, Law School, School of
Human Evolution and Social Change, Sustainabil-
ity, and so many other places. Yet many graduate
programs continue to focus on training historians
for history departments. Qualifying exams and dis-
sertations are set up to prepare graduates for such
positions, with the expectation that their disserta-
tion will turn into their first monograph. This works
for a few, but we must be more creative about the
skills we give our students, including technical and
communication skills. We have to embrace a range
of scholarly products, including well-crafted blogs
that have more impact and reach a larger audience
than the typical academic book, public presenta-
tions, and collaborations with scientists.
I agreed to run for HSS office because I have a
passion for changing things in productive ways, and
was especially interested in implementing more elec-
tronic and Web-based support and communication
for our community. I hoped to change and inspire
the community in small ways. And I hoped to bring
back scholars who had become disaffected with our
swing toward the social and away from the science.
In my time on the Executive Committee, we
have made some progress on all these fronts. Some
will be evident at the Phoenix meeting. However, the
major energy of my time in office has been spent on
financial issues. At first, the emphasis was on bring-
ing the NEH Challenge to a close and on strategic
thinking and planning, including financial, for the
Society. We were concerned about securing our
investments and making sure that the Society was
on a solid financial footing. We have expended much






History of Science Society Newsletter


energy working on budgets and endowment planning
- even before the "financial downturn," as it's called
by optimists. Since then, we have worked even harder
to understand every aspect of our budget. Areas that
we took for granted have been reviewed, revisited,
and reformed as needed.
We report with some pride that the Society is in
good shape, though we face challenges ahead. Thanks
to the endowment drive, our resources are stron-
ger than they would have been. John Servos, Mike
Sokal, and Joan Cadden, as the former presidents,
did a great job in leaving a solid financial legacy with
the NEH Challenge Grant, as Gerald Holton and
others did years ago with other major fundraising
efforts. Thanks to Jay Malone, and with the assis-
tance of Virginia Hessels, the Executive Office is in
great shape. Jay has had a virtually 100% success rate
with grant proposals. Indeed, he has attracted some
small unrestricted grants practically without trying.
We are convinced that this is because he is charming
and because we are all so deserving, of course. Jay
has worked effectively to network with others and to
pursue every possible avenue of support. He continues
to develop great ideas, and we need to ensure that we
provide support for his office so that he can continue
these efforts. We also need more members to step
forward with great suggestions and prospects so that
Jay can work his magic.
Bernie Lightman as Society editor has also made
important contributions. We think of his innovations
with the journal and his scholarship as his major
contribution, but Bernie is also a brilliant administra-
tor. Despite labor actions, rising salary costs, aging
equipment, and other challenges, he has managed
to control costs for Isis by persuading York Univer-
sity to invest in the effort. The result is a journal in
solid financial and scholarly shape, both of which are
important for the Society. Kathy Olesko is complet-
ing her long-time editorship of Osiris and has also
managed excellent financial and scholarly produc-
tivity while handing the editorship on to Andrea
Rusnock. Stephen Weldon guides the Current Bibli-
ography so that the number and quality of entries has
risen substantially, and he has taken us in innovative


directions with digital publishing. All of these are
important contributions, and they place the Society's
publications on solid ground.
The Society is in good shape. We are solid. Our in-
vestments are secure. Our budgets are balanced, though
we will have to work to keep them so. Challenges
remain. As a Society, and as a profession, the history of
science carries far more potential than we have yet real-
ized: we can achieve a stronger role with more places
in academia than we have, and greater roles in policy-
making and in other government and social roles. We
must better educate our students in communication
and technical skills so they can go places we have not
yet imagined. I wish I had done more as president, but
we have excellent leadership for the future.
President Obama gave the commencement ad-
dress this past May at my institution, Arizona State
University, which is providing local arrangements
support and will help sponsor the dinner at the No-
vember meeting in Phoenix. Obama acknowledged
that ASU had chosen not to give him the customary
honorary degree since we have a policy of not giving
such honors to sitting politicians. He acknowledged
that he had not "yet completed his body of work"
and that therefore it was premature to award him a
degree. He noted that few of us have completed our
body of work, and called on all to step forward and
engage. And Obama noted that success will require
change. "Many of our current challenges are unprec-
edented," he said. "There are no standard remedies, or
go-to fixes this time around. That is why we are going
to need your help."
Whatever your political preferences, I hope you
agree. We need your help. We need donations from
those who can afford to contribute. We need volun-
teers for committees and to carry out Society business.
And we need far more of us to engage in the larger
communities in which the history of science exists to
carry the message about who we are, what we can do,
and why the history of science matters. I thank you in
advance for getting involved and helping out. We look
forward to seeing you in November in Phoenix.

-Jane Maienschein, HSS President


*July 2009 15






History of Science Society Newsletter


First Person: Darwin, in a Different Voice

As part of Phi Beta Kappa's visiting scholar program, Betty Smocovitis has spent the past academic year
speaking about Darwin throughout the U.S.


Each year, Phi Beta Kappa (PBK), America's old-
est academic honor society, sponsors a visiting scholar
program, sending some 12 to 13 scholars to approxi-
mately 100 American colleges and universities. For
two days, the visiting scholars are invited to work with
students, faculty and administrators, to teach classes,
guide discussions, give department seminars and deliver
at least one large public lecture. Since the program was
introduced in 1956, 555 scholars have made a total of
4,651 visits. Historians of science who have participated
include Marshall Clagett, William B. Provine, Lynn
White, Ruth Schwartz Cowan, Richard S. Westfall,
Barbara Rosenkrantz, and Steven Shapin, as well as
Stephen Toulmin, Harriet Zuckerman, Judith Reppy,
Sandra Harding and others in related areas.
This is a stellar list of scholars, yet when I received an
invitation to join them for 2008-2009, I was reluctant to
accept. It wasn't just the brutal travel schedule of up to
eight on-campus visits (mine went up to nine, then ten;
see the list of places visited below), it was evolution, my
subject of study. As anyone following American news
knows, this is an unsettling topic for many audiences; the
mere mention of the word can turn off a large segment
of the population. In recent years, it has become dif-
ficult even for historians to engage the subject in public;
virtually anything said that locates evolution in a critical
historical context can arm its many opponents (see, for
example, the egregious misuse of history in Ben Stein's
Expelled; see also historians' response, on page 24, to their
misrepresentation in a new documentary on Darwin).
The usual set of challenges facing historians of
evolution was made more complicated by the fact
the invitation came on the eve of 2009, the so-called
"year of Darwin." As someone who examined the
1959 centennial celebrations, I was aware of how such
anniversaries can serve a number of interests, many of
which are questionable in nature. I didn't want to join
any attempt at re-inventing the "founding father" as


happened in 1959, and I most certainly did not want
to fall into the trap of endorsing "The Great Man of
Science," no matter how benign it might appear on the
surface. I did, however, want to stress the importance
of evolution and to convey something of its rich history.
If I refused the invitation, no historian of science would
serve as visiting lecturer for the year 2008-2009. That
would have been a missed opportunity to convey the
excitement of our field to audiences who don't normally
get much exposure to it.
I accepted, but only after I figured out what I'd do
- something festive, lighthearted, with broad appeal to
diverse audiences, yet with enough historical substance
to leave audiences thinking a bit differently about
evolution and what it has meant to different audiences.
A project I had long been contemplating seemed ideal;
a study of Darwin and his theory in song and musical
production, beginning with a piece of provocative sheet
music dated to 1874 I had found over 20 years ago in
my thesis advisor's library. The result was a one-hour
multimedia presentation titled "Singing His Praises"
that demonstrated the creative ways audiences have en-
gaged both Darwin and the implications of his theory
since they entered the public sphere 150 years ago. I
relied not only on sheet music, but also original historic
recordings on "tin-foil" and wax cylinders, working
my way through old scratchy gramophone recordings,
vinyl albums to CD's and then finally to video produc-
tions available on You Tube. I learned to edit some of
this musical material, translate it into various programs,
and then embed it in PowerPoint (all that proved very
challenging). Assuming audience behavior as a good
indication, the "lecture" was a success; how often do
historians of science stand in front of an audience of
toe-tapping, head-bobbing people that included both
seniors and children along with garden-variety academ-
ics singing along to music? To be honest, the lectures
turned out better than I expected, especially since some






History of Science Society Newsletter


of the material that explored race, class, and gender in
Darwinism was truly disturbing.
So much for the public lecture; what about the re-
maining three to four other lectures expected of Phi Beta
Kappa scholars? For department seminars ranging from
history to various departments of biology, I used my usu-
al research talks, but for classes I had to be more creative:
my invitations ranged from European intellectual history,
to gender studies, anthropology, philosophy, a huge range
of biology classes (genetics, biodiversity studies, plant
biology, molecular biology, and general biology) along
with one or two classes in history of science (far too few
of those). In these, I pulled out individual lectures from
years of teaching and re-crafted them for an audience of
diverse students, not assuming that people knew much in
advance. That worked fine, I think, but in teaching such
a broad range of courses in just two semesters I learned
that history of science has far more potential to reach
undergraduates than I had ever imagined.
This insight was confirmed multiple times when I
met with college and university administrators to discuss
undergraduate programs, and interdisciplinary initia-
tives that draw on the resources of the history of science.
For example, at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs,
New York, a school with traditional strengths in the fine
arts and humanities, there is a new initiative underway
to increase scientific literacy. I was invited to a special
workshop with faculty from the sciences, the humani-
ties, and the fine arts to discuss the uses of historical and
philosophical approaches to teaching science in a way
that would reach students in a wide range of non-sci-
ence programs. At St. Olafin Northfield Minnesota,
a new undergraduate freshman program titled "The
Great Conversation" formally includes the history and
philosophy of science in the sequence of courses that
introduces them to critical perspectives in the Western
intellectual tradition. This program is required of all stu-
dents and appears to be very successful. In yet another
place, Colorado College in Colorado Springs, Colorado,
I was able to contribute to an on-going conversation
in interdisciplinarity organized to bring faculty and
students together. Some of the places I visited had just
hired or were planning to hire junior faculty in history
of science in these new programs. Others just wanted to


know about the history of science and what it could do
to enhance more traditional liberal arts and science edu-
cations. In yet another instance, I learned what history
of science could offer to institutions with active Honors
Colleges. Visiting the University of Vermont as the Mi-
chael Zeltzerman Visiting Scholar, I worked closely with
students, faculty, and staff in suggesting ideas for courses
and programs for the Honor's College.
In short, in this year of travel I learned that history
of science is a far more valuable resource for undergradu-
ate instruction in liberal arts and science programs than
many of us appreciate, and that the field has far greater
potential to reach public audiences, even with the most
contentious subjects. As we continue to face severe cut-
backs to our programs in graduate education and as we
adapt to hiring freezes, we might work at more creative
ways of interacting with our administrations and with
national agencies like Phi Beta Kappa that are dedicated
to fostering breadth in undergraduate education.

Betty Smocovitis teaches the history ofscience in the new
department ofBiology and in the department ofHistory at
the University ofFlorida. She will continue her outreach
activities as the 16th DistinguishedAlumni Professor dur-
ing 2009-2011 for the largest student alumni organization
in the US.


Schools Visited 2008-2009 for the Phi Beta
Kappa Visiting Scholar Program
Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New
York
St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota
Sweet Briar College, Virginia
Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri
Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado
University of Wyoming, Laramie Wyoming
University of the Pacific, Stockton, California
San Francisco State University, San Francisco,
California
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania
University of Vermont, Michael Zeltzerman
Visiting Lecturer Program for the Honors
College, Burlington, Vermont


*July 2009 17






History of Science Society Newsletter


Workspace: John Lienhard and Engines of Ingenuity

John Lienhard has created a long-running history of science and technology radio program.


Music, dyslexia, and a six-week workshop in the
history of science, are the threads that bind John
Lienhard's history of science and technology radio
show on KUHF-FM Houston. Lienhard is turning
79 this year, and his show, Engines of Ingenuity, is
now in its twenty-first year of broadcast.
Trained as a mechanical engineer -he earned his
Ph.D. at Berkeley Lienhard has spent much of his
career teaching mechanical engineering. In 1970,
with no plans for the summer, he happened to apply
for a workshop at the Smithsonian Institution and
spent an intense six weeks studying the history of
technology. Those few weeks kindled an interest that
expanded into teaching history of technology courses
and, eventually, into writing articles.
In 1987, while teaching at the University of Hous-
ton, the Dean of Engineering told Lienhard he wanted
publicity for his college, specifically, 30-second history-
of-technology spots on public radio to advertise engi-
neering at the university. Lienhard said "Let's make
this a little more than that; let's make it stand-alone
pieces and stories. I took the bit between my teeth and
before the college knew what was going on, I had cut a
deal with the director of the radio station." Engines of
Ingenuity went to air 4 January 1988.
The show combines a long-time love of music
- off air Lienhard was a long-time singer of liturgi-
cal, theatre, and small-ensemble music, and voice
strongly informs the program and the drawback
of childhood dyslexia. "I was a very poor student
through public school I clawed my way up. It
means that I'm visually driven as far as on-air stuff."
Time constraints mirror the precision required in
engineering. The show runs for exactly three minutes
and twenty-seven seconds, plus or minus two sec-
onds. "I have become very adroit at densifying. Writ-
ing an episode is about adding material and making
it fit into the barrel you wind up learning what
fat to cut, when you are saying something that the


listener's ear will patch in anyway. Reading it, the
prose might strike you as a little elementary school-
ish, and that's because it's spoken prose."
The program has become more fluid with time,
says Lienhard, better at weaving the technical and
non-technical. As the audience has grown, he ex-
plains less. "The public learn," he says. "I didn't
believe in the idea of a teaching mission when I first
began, but the public knows and hears and remem-
bers more than you might think." Even some of the
now grown-up children of the early listeners tune
in, telling Lienhard that they got hooked when their
parents listened to his show.
The first few hundred episodes were a learning
curve. Since then Lienhard has developed threads of
interconnection tying a story together. "I find a thread
of context and I follow that thread." The preponder-
ance of men in history, led Lienhard to ask, "Are
there any women?" "I looked around and there are all
these terrific women. Mary Somerville surfaced early.
I looked at some of her prose, her background, and
more and more she began to assume shape and form
as someone who was remarkably influential in her cir-
cle in London. You feel the skein, so you pick up other
figures. I have several skeins, including airplanes."
The on-air program and the Web site for Engines of
Ingenuity are intimately related, allowing Lienhard to
include lots of photographs.
Behind the show lies a long, hard slog. One
episode takes approximately 10 hours to research and
write. The program runs daily, and Lienhard cre-
ates 120 shows a year, filling in the rest with reruns.
Since 2002, an increasing number of guest writers
and presenters have reduced the load. "I hope as
guests gain more and more traction, the show will go
on without me," says Lienhard, who is now emeri-
tus at the University of Houston. The one ironclad
rule is that the person who speaks is the person
who writes and researches the script. Though many






History of Science Society Newsletter


people volunteer, relatively few have what it takes to
speak on air create an episode from start to finish.
"I'm careful not to coax too much, I want to get
people who are driven to do this."
History plays a utilitarian role on Engines of
Ingenuity. "I use it not as history for itself but as a
way of telling people this is how other people use
their minds, this is how other people function this
is how you can function." The show revolves around
stories. Because of his dyslexia the only stories Lien-
hard knew as a child were read to him by his father,
"stuff that really flowed," says Lienhard, "Kipling
and Melville." Stories, combined with his model
airplane building saved him, he says, and gave him
strong visual and pictorial sense.
In Engines of Ingenuity, stories range from the
origins of computing through the industrialization
of weaving to Salman Rushdie's fairytale, Haroun
and the Sea ofStories, and how his vision of skeins of
stories describe modern information networks and
their mix and flow.
"All the great writers of history have been story-
tellers. If you go back to the origins of information
theory, Claude Shannon in the 1940s introduced
this term surprisall.'" Based on the idea of linking
surprise to knowledge transfer, Lienhard says that,
"if there is no surprise, then no learning has taken
place. This means that in my own episode writing,
I absolutely have to get it all together in the writing
of the last few sentences." In those final sentences
Lienhard must tell his audience that he is finishing
and find a way to reinforce what they are hearing.
The only advice Lienhard will offer is to be-
gin from a point of ignorance. "I have no time for
experts; for an expert there can be no surprisal.
Nobody learns more than I do from this. I want my
audience to appreciate that pushing yourself in the
life of the mind is a joyous thing."

Michal Meyer

Engines ofIngenuity is available online, including web
audio or podcast at http://uh.edu/engines/


*July 2009 19






History of Science Society Newsletter


When Speaking as a Scientist is Not Enough: Leo Szilard on Playing with
Dolphins

HSS member R. Scott Sheffield's personal reflections on Leo Szilard's allegory of science.


"You must see that in a sense all science, all human
thought, is a form of play."
-Jacob Bronowski, Ascent ofMan'


Once upon a time scientists learned to communi-
cate with dolphins and the world was never the same
again. This was the premise of Leo Szilard's "The Voice
of the Dolphins," the title story in his collection of
science fiction short stories published in book form in
1961. The cover of the 1992 expanded edition of the
book captures the impish essence of Szilard's story by
depicting the dolphins at play, with their sonic voices
dispersing in ever-widening circles in the water. In "The
Voice of the Dolphins" Szilard metaphorically articu-
lates the voice of science, synonymous with the voice
of reason for Szilard, in a time of Cold War ideologi-
cal dogmatism. The absurdity of nuclear annihilation
seemed only too possible to him at the time and "The
Voice of the Dolphins" was his playful, fictional attempt
to show a way out of the morass of mutual assured
destruction (MAD). From our vantage point today,
however, Szilard's story offers the historian of science a
unique opportunity to explore Szilard's conceptualiza-
tion of science and evaluate the efficacy of his beliefs
about the nature of science. To see, in other words, if
"The Voice of the Dolphins," when viewed as an alle-
gorical presentation of Szilard's scientific voice, somehow
resonates in a post-Cold War world.2
I think it is worth our time to ponder for a moment
Szilard's fear of ideological dogmatism and its negative
effects on the practice of science. The Cold War may
be over, but attempts to control science in the name
of ideologically dogmatic beliefs are all too real in this
so-called post-ideological world. Szilard's allegory of sci-
ence as it appears in "The Voice of the Dolphins" speaks
to this issue and articulates a belief that we may have
forgotten, one that may be worth remembering, the idea
of a public discursive space for science. Exactly what this


means is certainly open for discussion, but it might be a
discussion worth having.
Inspired by research on dolphin language skills,
"The Voice of the Dolphins" is a detailed future his-
tory of how man's ability to communicate with dol-
phins transformed the world between 1960 and 1988.3
Szilard's story begins during the last days of the Eisen-
hower Administration. After the atomic bomb was
developed, an anonymous narrator tells us, the slogan
"scientists should be on tap but not on top" guided gov-
ernmental policy making.4 However, a presidential ad-
visory committee made one recommendation that came
to fruition in 1963, the establishment of a joint Russian-
American Biological Research Institute in Vienna.
The institute attracted a number of young but
distinguished Russian and American molecular biolo-
gists, so the story goes, who began producing research
on a most surprising topic, "the intellectual capacity
of dolphins." Scientists at the institute discovered that
not only could they communicate with dolphins, if the
dolphins were given "Sell's liver paste," but that dolphins
were more intelligent than humans.5
Soon, with the help of the scientists at the insti-
tute, the dolphins began to produce brilliant scientific
insights and political guidance. The first great "discov-
ery" made by the dolphins was a mutant alga called
"Amruss" that was both a good protein food source and
a birth control drug. The profits from "Amruss" enabled
the institute to independently fund itself to influence
political developments around the world. The institute
invested in commercial-free television stations that
broadcast programs such as "The Voice of the Dol-
phins," a program devoted to "clarifying" the world's
political problems. According to a bulletin describing
the show, political discussions needed to become more
like scientific discussions.
After about a year of this new kind of discussion,
the dolphins began to make some minor political sug-
gestions, with some success. When a crisis in Iraq in






History of Science Society Newsletter


1970 threatened a catastrophic end to the atomic stale-
mate that had existed between the United States and
Russia, the dolphins took action; the institute issued a
list of the cities in the United States and Russia targeted
for destruction. The effect of this in both the United
States and Russia was to heighten awareness of the cost
of nuclear war and, as a result, both countries pulled
back from the brink.
Between 1980 and 1985, however, the world again
came very close to destruction. The fear of nuclear
war became so great in the U.S. that wealthy people
moved to Arizona and New Mexico to build elaborate
homes equipped with bomb shelters and transferred
their money to neutral countries like Switzerland.6 The
economic and social burden of the arms race slowly con-
vinced many in America that disarmament was the only
rational choice, and in 1987 an informal conference was
convened in Vienna under the auspices of the dolphins
that led to "controlled-arms reduction." The dolphins,
according to the story, had led the world to almost total
disarmament, and in this safer world, where money was
not wasted on arms, the world economy flourished and
a new, utopian age of prosperity began.
The dolphins at the Vienna Institute, unfortunately,
succumbed to a mysterious virus, and a little later the
institute itself burned down. Inquiries into exactly what
had transpired at the institute led many to speculate
that there had never been any communication with the
dolphins, and that, in fact, the "voice" of the dolphins
was that of the scientists at the institute.7
As John Canaday has pointed out, the multiple voic-
es in "The Voice of the Dolphins" makes Szilard's story a
literary and personal act of ventriloquism. As literary ven-
triloquism, the story represents Szilard's attempt to escape
his sense that he, and the voice of science in general, were
not being included in Cold War political discussions.8
Beyond the immediate Cold War context of the story,
however, the story can also been understood as a fictional
elaboration on a problem Szilard faced throughout his
life: maintaining a discursive space for what he thought
of as rational, scientific discourse. As a Jew in Hungary
in 1919, he experienced the anti-Semitism of the Horthy
regime when he and his brother were harassed at the Bu-
dapest Technical Institute.9 He escaped this environment


by pursuing a science career in Berlin. As a graduate
student at the side ofAlbert Einstein in Berlin during the
Weimar Republic, he again experienced fascist ideo-
logical politics. He responded by conceiving of a youth
movement inspired by science that he hoped would save
science from the irrationality of ideological politics. He
called this organization "Der Bund," and it was Szilard's
first attempt to deal intellectually with the issue of main-
taining, in his view, the non-ideological values of science
in a highly charged, dogmatic ideological environmental0
Indeed, the fearful years of Nazi fascism in the Thirties,
when coupled with Szilard's recognition of the impor-
tance of James Chadwick's discovery of the neutron,
pushed Szilard to obsess on the idea of "nuclear transmu-
tation" (his early nomenclature for nuclear fission). His
fear that the Nazis would come to possess nuclear power
moved him first to patent his ideas on the subject with
the British Admiralty, then to encourage other scientists
like Frederic Joliot to keep their work secret, and finally
to persuade the United States government to pursue the
development of the atomic bomb. All of this can be seen
as attempts by Szilard to save science and the positive
fruits of science, atomic power in particular, from the
ideological fanaticism of the fascists."
Inside the bureaucracy of the Manhattan Proj-
ect, the discursive space of rational science, as Szilard
conceived of it, faced another challenge the secrecy
and ultra-nationalism of the United States government,
personified in General Leslie Groves. Szilard actively
resisted and confounded Groves over the compartmen-
talization of research related to building the first nuclear
fission reactor at the University of Chicago. In addition,
during the war and after, Szilard openly confronted
bureaucratic, nationalistic, and militaristic views on the
use of the atomic bomb and scientific research (Ameri-
can and Russian) whenever they conflicted with his
rationalist and internationalist understanding of science.
To Szilard, bureaucracy, nationalism, and especially Mc-
Carthy-style nationalism and militarism, which echoed
Nazi fascism, were all threats to the discursive space of
scientific rationalism.
If we see "The Voice of the Dolphins" as the cul-
mination of Szilard's personal confrontation with po-
litical dogmatism, several aspects of the story become
Continued next page

History o Sien Soiety Newsletter July 2009 21






History of Science Society Newsletter


more comprehensible. First, the isolation and insula-
tion of the "Research Institute" in "The Voice of the
Dolphins" can be seen as another attempt by Szilard to
save the discursive rational space of science from politi-
cal dogmatism.12 Second, Szilard's strange distinction
between political "persuasion" and scientific "clarity"
in his description of the TV show becomes an impor-
tant qualifier in understanding Szilard's allegory of
science. It represents Szilard's attempt to create a sense
of separation between the discursive space of scientific
rationality and political dogmatism. "Scientists rarely
think that they are in full possession of the truth...,"
according to the story. Instead, they seek "clarity." Poli-
ticians, on the other hand, seek to "persuade" people
and often believe that they are in possession of the
"Truth," leading to dogmatic political ideology.
Szilard's distinction between scientific "clarity" and
political "persuasion" begs the question of his concep-
tualization of scientific rationality, a key component
in Szilard's allegory of science.13 While the published
version of "The Voice of the Dolphins" does not directly
elaborate on this point, an unpublished appendix to
the story does. In this appendix Szilard outlines "The
Operations of the American Research Foundation"
(ARF), a sister research facility set up in the United
States, according to the story."4 Although the thickness
of Szilard's description of the ARF makes it difficult to
see, the appendix focuses on science as creative intel-
lectual play. Szilard felt this important aspect of the
practice of science was being lost and in the appendix
he brainstormed on how it might be fostered within the
ARF.15 Szilard emphasized the importance of scientific
creativity more directly in a 1964 interview:
The creative scientist . has much in common
with the artist and the poet. Logical thinking and
an analytical ability are necessary attributes to a
scientist, but .. they are far from sufficient for
creative work. Those insights in science which have
led to a breakthrough were not logically derived
from pre-existing knowledge; the creative processes
on which the progress of science is based operate
on the level of the subconscious.16
Both the appendix of "The Voice of the Dol-
phins" and this interview clearly illustrate that Szilard


understood scientific rationality as an amalgam of
logic and creative intuition, with no distinct, logical, a
priori, dividing line between humanistic and scientific
discourse.17 Because science was essentially a creative
exercise for Szilard, it was also an antidote to any system
of control, ideological or otherwise, because its logi-
cal pursuits were not predetermined by the dogmatic
premises of any belief system, only the playful whimsy
of the subconscious as it interacted with nature."1 Scien-
tists, therefore, were not the puppet masters, the social
engineers, controlling the world with their knowledge.
They were merely a voice of reason interacting with the
world and occasionally cajoling the world to seek a bet-
ter place. After all, who could be afraid of dolphins?
Tragic visions of mushroom clouds and dogmatic
nationalist symbolism may make it impossible to again
see science in the playful way that Szilard saw it. We
may never again be able to have the faith that Szilard
had in the power of science to "save the world," as he
put it, nor should we.'9 And certainly it is not possible to
forgive Szilard's scientific elitism, also an inherent part of
his vision of science.
I believe that any consideration of a public discursive
space for science today should no devolve into a return
to an angry, dogmatic belief in scientific infallibility.
Philosophy in the latter half of the twentieth century,
and, in particular, discourse analysis, has rightly cri-
tiqued this belief
Nevertheless, since the beginning of the Cold War,
public discussions that involve science all too often
portray science as just another overt discursive political
act and all too quickly reduce scientific discussions to
political dogmatism. Both of these extremes deny what
Szilard thought was essential in science, the tentative
nature of truth and creative play. Maybe it is time to
reconsider these concepts and create a new allegory of
science for the post-ideological world that once again
puts truth in play and conceives of science as an impor-
tant part of public discourse. Perhaps then we may begin
to remember the value of public science without visions
of mushroom clouds and dogmatic, nationalist (or any
other) symbolism prescribing the place of science and
the role of scientists in society.







History of Science Society Newsletter


1 Jacob Bronowski, he Ascent of Man (Boston: Little Brown,
1973), 432.
2 This essay is a small part of a much larger article I am writing
that analyzes all of Szilard's science fiction. This essay and the
larger article owe much methodologically to N. Kathrine Hay-
les's, The Science ofH.G. Wells, John Canaday's Nuclear Muse,
Bruce Clarke's article in C... f'.. .-'... entitled "Allegory and
Science," and his larger edited work with Linda Henderson, From
Energy to Information: Representation in Science and Technology,
Art, and Literature, and to many others too numerous to list here.
3 Dr. John C. Lily, a NIH marine biologist, is actually men-
tioned in the story. See also William Lanouette with Bela Szilard,
Genius in the Shadows: A E'..'._ -. i ofLeo Szilard, the Man
Behind the Bomb (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992), 415.
4 Leo Szilard, "The Voice of the Dolphins" in The Voice of the
Dolphins and Other Stories (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1961), 20. The fact that the Institute was placed in Vienna, not
exactly in proximity to any ocean, gives us our first clue that the
dolphins may be fictitious.
5 Szilard, "The Voice of the Dolphins" in The Voice of the Dol-
phins and Other Stories, 22.
6Szilard himself went to Switzerland after the Cuban Missile
Crisis.
7"The Voice of the Dolphins" was Szilard's only utopian work.
All the rest of his stories are better characterized as dystopian.
8 John Canaday, The Nuclear Muse: Literature, Physics, and the
First Atomic Bombs (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press,
2000), 236-237. Because of the absence of humanists at the
research institute in the story, Canaday, in the end, reduces the
"voice" of dolphins to the elitist, insular, narrative voice of the
story that does not seem to recognize the validity of any other
type of discourse, especially humanistic discourse. Based on a
close examination of Szilard's personal history, his characteriza-
tion of the process of science in all of his science fiction stories
and other writings, his autobiographical "Recollections," and
an examination of the sociology of science as Szilard knew it
in Berlin in the nineteen twenties, I am presenting a less harsh
interpretation of Szilard's understanding of science. Leo Szilard,
"Recollections," in Leo Szilard: His Version of the Facts, Spencer
R. Weart and Gertrude Weiss Szilard, eds. (Cambridge, Mass.:
The M.I.T. Press, 1978). Hereafter cited as "Recollections."
9 Lanouette, Genius in the Shadows, 48-49. Tibor Frank in
particular has argued that the year 1919 was an important year
in Szilard's life because of what he experienced in Budapest. See
Tibor Frank, "Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo
Szilard," Physics in Perspective, 7 (2005): 204-252.
10 A detailed analysis of Szilard's "Der Bund" is a part of a larger
work that I am writing that re-evaluates Szilard's political sci-
ence. The best analysis of Szilard's political thinking after World
War II is found in Michael Bess, Realism, Utopia, and the Mush-
room Cloud (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago


Press, 1993), 41-90.
11 For Szilard atomic energy was a positive fruit of science in the
sense that it could be used to power the world and help human-
ity escape the inevitability of entropic heat death, the focus of his
early work in information theory. Only in the hands of ideologi-
cal fanatics, like the Nazis or ultra-nationalistic United States
capitalists and Russian Marxists, did atomic energy become
poison fruit in his view.
12 The Salk Institute was perhaps the closest Szilard ever came to
seeing his idea of a research institute become reality.
13 Szilard's thoughts on scientific rationality were mostly apho-
ristic. He never produced a systematic, analytical account on
scientific rationality, as his friend Michael Polanyi did. However,
as I argue in my larger work on Szilard's science fiction, Szilard's
other science fiction stories and his autobiographical "Recollec-
tions" offer important insights into his philosophy of science and
the sociological origins of his conceptualization of science.
14 Leo Szilard, "Appendix No. 2" (Unpublished), The Voice of
the Dolphin, Leo Szilard Papers, Mandeville Special Collections
32, Box 34, Folder 2,1.
15 This was not a new theme for Szilard. In the late forties, he
wrote two short stories which make this same argument. "Sci-
ence is My Racket," Leo Szilard Papers, Mandeville Special Col-
lections 32, Box 31, Folder 2, and "The Tombstone of Science,
Leo Szilard Papers, Mandeville Special Collections 32, Box 32,
Folder 7.
16Tristram Coffin quoting Szilard, "Leo Szilard: The Con-
science of a Scientist," Holiday, 35 (Feb. 1964): 68.
17Szilard's reference to the Hungarian classic The Tragedy ofMan
by Imre Madach in his allegorical presentation of science in his
"Recollections" and his recognition of H.G. Wells's influence on
his thinking about nuclear fission are examples, in my view, of how
Szilard continuously blurred the dividing line between humanistic
and the scientific thinking in his presentation of scientific rational-
ity. Szilard always recognized the importance, if not the epistemo-
logical primacy, of literature. He always acknowledged that H.G.
Wells's The World Set Free (1914) shaped his thinking about the
importance of nuclear power and that Wells's political ideas in The
Open Conspiracy (1929) converged with his own. In the end, both
the logic of his conceptualization of science and his acknowledge-
ment of the connection between his scientific ideas and literature
indicate that he understood the nature and importance of subcon-
scious creativity in all human endeavors.
18 Szilard's "Recollections," dictated by Szilard at about the same
time he wrote "The Voice of the Dolphins," reveal a metaphori-
cal understanding of science as "childlike" that must be fully
analyzed to understand the playfulness of Szilard's allegory of
science in his science fiction.
19 Szilard, "Recollections," 3.


* July 200923






History of Science Society Newsletter


The Perils of Publicity

Three historians of science find themselves misrepresented by a film company's selective reconstruc-
tion of Darwin's voyage


In Darwin Year 2009 many historians have
helped to bring our subject to the general public. Yet
we are writing to the Newsletter with a cautionary
tale. We have recently been featured in a documen-
tary film, "The Voyage that Shook the World," pro-
duced by Fathom Media of Australia and directed
by Stephen Murray of Synergy Films, New Zealand.
We were led to believe that the movie was being
made to be shown as an educational film on Aus-
tralian broadcast television and possibly elsewhere.
Fathom Media was revealed to be a subsidiary of
Creation Ministries International when publicity for
the movie began to appear on the internet. We were
alerted to the true nature of the movie by James Wil-
liams of the University of Sussex shortly before its
release in about April of this year.
"The Voyage that Shook the World" is an ex-
pensively produced movie which charts Darwin's life
through interviews and reconstructions (docudrama)
filmed on location. It is clearly intended to challenge
evolutionism, but stops short of openly endorsing the
more extreme alternatives favored by some creation-
ists. It is highly critical of Charles Lyell's unifor-
mitarianism and features geologists who point to
evidence of limited catastrophes in earth history, but
it does not imply that the whole geological record is
the product of a single flood. The interviews filmed
with us have been edited to highlight certain aspects
of Darwin's views and character. Janet Browne's re-
marks about his childhood delight in making up sto-
ries to impress people is used to imply that the same
motive may have driven his scientific thinking. Peter
Bowler's description of Darwin's later views on racial
inequality is used in the film, but not Bowler's ac-
count of Adrian Desmond and James Moore's thesis
that Darwin was inspired by his opposition to racism
and slavery. Sandra Herbert's comment that Darwin's


theory required explanation of many aspects of life
was edited down to imply that his theory required
explanation of all aspects of life. The overall impres-
sion is given that Darwin had an enquiring mind
but was led astray by his theoretical preconceptions,
a view backed up through interviews with several
scientists, including one who expresses open doubts
about evolution. The film also suggests that what is
ultimately at stake is a clash of world views rather
than the resolution of scientific questions.
The Darwin bicentenary has offered many op-
portunities for historians to reach out to a wider
public. The film "The Voyage that Shook the
World" is one project that turned out differently
than we imagined it would. Academics perhaps do
need to be more aware of the fact that the media
organizations are not always open about their un-
derlying agendas. Had we known the true origins of
Fathom Media, we probably would not have contrib-
uted, but the producers do have a point: if academic
historians refuse to participate when movements
they don't approve of seek historical information,
these historians can hardly complain if less reputable
sources are used instead. Because this article is avail-
able on the Web, we would like to suggest the fol-
lowing links that list works on the history of Darwin
and evolution: http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk (the
Darwin Correspondence Project's Web site which
has a section on science and religion), http://www.
nsf.gov/news/special reports/darwin/ (the National
Science Foundation's "Evolution of Evolution" Web
site which features interviews with historians of
science), and http://www.ncseweb.org (the National
Center for Science Education Web site which has a
section on science and religion).

Peter Bowler, Janet Browne, Sandra Herbert






History of Science Society Newsletter


The Alexandre Koyre Medal of the International Academy of the History of
Science awarded to the European Space Agency History Project


The International Academy
of the History of Science (IAHS)
decided to award the prestigious
Alexandre Koyrd medal for 2009
to the European Space Agency
History Project. The official cere-
mony is scheduled for September
4th at the Agency's Headquarters
in Paris, in the presence of the
Director General, Jean-Jacques
Dordain, and the members of
the Study Team who carried out
the project: John Krige, Arturo
Russo and Lorenza Sebesta. The
event will also include a din-
ner in honor of Reimar List, a
former Director General who
initiated the project and then
chaired the ESA History Advi-
sory Committee.
During the 1989 Interna-
tional Congress of History of
Science in Hamburg, John Krige
and I decided to contact Profes-
sor List to make a case for a
project to write the history of
the joint European space ef-
fort. His answer was extremely
encouraging: not only did he
approve the idea, but he also
offered to support the project. It
took one year to carry out a fea-
sibility study and set up a proper
institutional framework. Even-
tually, the project was based at
the European University Insti-
tute in Florence and realized by
the History Study Team under
the supervision of an Advisory


Committee including renowned
European science historians and
space pioneers.
During the 1990s the ESA
History Project helped to es-
tablish an important European
scholarship in space history, and
eventually it produced two im-
portant follow-ups. First was the
ESA support to historical stud-
ies of national space programs
in European countries, whose
results are now being published
under the aegis of the IAHS.
Second was the award of the first
HSS/NASA fellowship to sup-
port my study of the history of
ESA planetary missions. Within
the framework of the ESA Histo-
ry Project, in fact, I had studied
the history of the ESA Science
Programme. Therefore, it was an
obvious move for me to apply
for the first HSS/NASA fellow-
ship, in order to pursue my study
beyond the time framework
covered by the ESA History
Project (1960-1987). I decided,
in particular, to focus my new
research program on the history
of ESA planetary missions. Two
main reasons motivated this de-
cision. Firstly, the invitation by
Roger Launius to contribute to
his planned book on the history
of planetary exploration, and I
thought that the European effort
in this field deserved a chapter in
this book. Secondly, the consid-


eration that ESA's major in-
volvement in planetary research
started only in the second half
of the 1980s, within the frame-
work of its long-term scientific
program Horizon 2000. It was
an honor for me to be eventually
selected as the first recipient of
the HSS/NASA fellowship, and I
think that decision was not only
a recognition of my professional
record, but also a tribute to the
high standard of the whole of
the ESA History Project, which
is now confirmed by the Koyrd
medal.

Arturo Russo
Dipartimento di Fisica e
Tecnologie Relative
University of Palermo, Italy


* July 200925






History of Science Society Newsletter


How Telescopes Made Earth a Planet: 400 Years Since Galileo

A session co-sponsored by Section D (Astronomy) and Section L (History and Philosophy of Science) at the
annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 14 February 2009.


Just about 400 years ago, Kepler and Galileo
became the 15th and 16th Copernicans in the
world, holding the opinion that a heliocentric rath-
er than geocentric system was veridical as well as a
reliable way to describe motions of the sun, moon,
and planets. Incidentally, in order of publication,
the first Copernican was his student Rheticus,
and Copernicus himself only second or third. The
session, co-organized and chaired by Saeqa Vr-
tilek (Harvard) included five speakers, whose time
frames were the 16th (Copernican) century (Den-
nis Danielson, University of British Columbia);
the Galilean, 17th century (Maurice Finocchiaro,
University of California, Santa Barbara); the 17th
to 19th centuries of increasing astronomical preci-
sion (Alan Hirshfeld, University of Massachusetts,
Dartmouth); the 20th century in which Mars was
gradually eliminated as an abode of advanced life
(David DeVorkin, National Air & Space Museum);
and the most recent 15 years ofexo-planet searches
and discoveries (Geoffrey Marcy, University of
California, Berkeley).
Galileo himself, whose early astronomical
applications of the telescope in 1609-10 are com-
memorated in the International Year of Astronomy
in 2009, is remembered as much for his philosophi-
cal point of view and conflict with the Catholic
Church as for his astronomical and other scientific
achievements. Finocchiaro began with astronomi-
cal discoveries (mountains on the moon, moons of
Jupiter, phases of Venus, resolution of portions of
the Milky Way and some nebulae into stars, spots
on the sun, and solar rotation), pointing out that,
although most were seen by others in the same
time frame, Galileo had more fully appreciated
what they meant, saying, among other potentially
inflammatory ideas, that scripture should not be
regarded as a guide to science. While the astro-


nomical issues have long been settled, the question
of whether scientists ought to adhere to standards
other than scientific truth has not.
Recent critics of "the tyranny of truth" have
included Koestler and Feyerabend, criticized in
turn by Finocchiaro, who ended by urging a high
standard of behavior in the continuing debates
between science and other ways of looking at the
world, such as, he felt, both Galileo and his critics
had upheld.
The contemporaries and successors of Coperni-
cus were, Danielson pointed out, as distressed by
the removal of the sun from among the planets as
by the placing of the earth among them (remember
Pluto at the 2006 IAU, he remarked!). Also lost was
the "two storey universe" of heaven and earth. And,
though Copernicus made a point of honoring the
sun (in Chapter 10, Book 1 of De Revolutionibus),
his ideas were slow to catch on. Among his geo-
centric contemporaries, Regiomontanus and Apian
emphasized the importance of triangles, geometry,
and gnomons (including obelisks!) at least as much
as what goes at the center. The application of earth
geometry to the sky perhaps helped pave the way
for a more planet-like earth and a central, station-
ary sun. Of the early Copernicans, the ones you are
most likely to have heard of are Harriott (who drew
what he had seen of the moon through a telescope
before Galileo, but never published the result), Wil-
liam Gilbert (who said the earth was like a sphere
of lodestone), and Giordano Bruno (who has a
statue on the site where he was burned, though the
Vatican statue of Galileo has yet to be erected).
Accustomed as we are to regarding data as
paramount, participants were much surprised by
the rant of Flamsteed (first Astronomer Royal; and
the current one was by then in the session room)
against ill-conceived and ill-executed observations






History of Science Society Newsletter


and experiments. But the rest of Hirshfeld's talk
dealt with these observations and experiments and
the increasing precision of the instrumentation that
enabled them. He began with a 17th century "to do"
list, on which finding parallax was the most criti-
cal item, along with the sizes and motions of the
planets, satellites, and comets. The speaker noted
that Galileo had looked for parallax; not found it
(small wonder with his flawed and poorly-mounted
refractors); and not advertised the non-detection.
We met the long, skinny telescopes of Hevelius, the
zenith instruments of Hooke and Bradley (who set
a roughly 1 arc-sec limit to parallax, but found the
29 arc-sec aberration of starlight in the process, an
equally firm demonstration of earth's orbital mo-
tion), the mural quadrant of John Bird, Troughton's
transit circle, and Piazzi's 5" transit circle (built by
Jesse Ramsden and still on site in Italy), en route
to the 9" Great Refractor of Dorpat and the 4"
heliometer of K6nigsburg, built by Fraunhofer for
Struve and Bessel respectively. These yielded, along
with a Troughton-like instrument used by Hen-
derson at the Cape, the first stellar parallaxes, all
indeed less than 1 arc-sec (Bessel for 61 Cyg, Struve
for Vega, and Henderson for Alpha Centauri).
A century ago, a significant subset of observers
thought they had seen straight, dark features on
Mars, connecting the polar caps with dark sur-
face areas, and that these were canals, built by the
intelligent inhabitants of a dying planet. DeVorkin
suggested, reluctantly, possible explanations for the
illusion and the delusion. Even before that, Wil-
liam Herschel had reported changes in the surface
appearance; Huggins had claimed absorption lines
in the spectrum of Mars not seen in moonlight
and which were strongest at the limb; and chang-
ing polar caps and haziness at the limb had been
recorded by many observers. All of these things are
true, but the surface changes in absorption lines are
not aggressive enough to have been seen when first
claimed. Efforts to understand the surface and to
detect water and/or oxygen in the Martian atmo-
sphere were pursued at Lick and Mt. Wilson obser-
vatories as well as at Lowell's own facility in Flag-


staff (and, noted DeVorkin, anybody who worked
there had better see the canals! Indeed Lampland
even managed to photograph them with the Am-
herst 18" refractor in Peru).
Lowell died proclaiming that because his site
and his eyesight were so much better than Yerkes,
Mt. Hamilton, and Mt. Wilson his results should
be accepted. But the spectroscopic limits on water
and oxygen crept down from at most a quarter of
the terrestrial value (Campbell and Keeler at Lick)
to 10-3 (Dunham and Adams at the 100" in 1932)
to, finally, a detection at 0.03% of terrestrial by
Kaplan, Munch, and Spinrad with the 100". Their
numbers helped to guide construction of instru-
ments for Mariner IV, which found a very inhos-
pitable Mars. This was a sort of relative minimum,
and DeVorkin pointed out, briefly, that recent evi-
dence strongly favors (without absolutely proving) a
much wetter past Martian climate.
But, after centuries of uncertainty and decades
of searching, we now know that our solar system
is not the only game in town. Marcy began by
noting that the University of California, Berke-
ley astronomy department is still to be found in
W. W. Campbell Hall (seismically unsound, it is
to be torn down in the next year and replaced by
something that will probably also be called Camp-
bell Hall). He then took us back to 1995, when
his group and another in Switzerland reported a
Jupiter-mass, short orbit period planet orbiting 51
Peg. By 1996 there were three, and the number of
stars with planets now exceeds 300, including 27
multiple systems. Most have been found by careful
tracking of changing radial velocities of the host
stars, a dozen or so by transits across their stars,
and a handful in direct images (some of which still
need confirmation).
About 100 planets with masses less than 10
times earth are in the current inventory. Detectable
masses will be pushed down and orbit sensitivity into
the "habitable zone" by upgrades of current ground-
based systems, the Kepler (transit) mission launched 6
March, the Allen Telescope array near Mt. Lassen, and
the more distantly future SIM (astrometry) mission.


*July 27






History of Science Society Newsletter


Earths are, in other words, within reach, and are
likely to be common, given 200 billion stars in the
Milky Way with at least 15% of them (in our neigh-
borhood) with one or more planets. Marcy believes
that, given the ubiquity of water, organic molecules,
and energy, simple life forms should also be fairly
common, perhaps like the bacteria and algae that
manage to live in the near-boiling, very alkaline wa-
ters of Yellowstone. Should at least one in a million of
these have intelligent life? If so, then we need an an-
swer to the Fermi question, "where are they?" Marcy
suggested several. These include: (1) the bracketing
risks of deserts and water worlds (the latter unfa-
vorable to technology where do you put your car
keys?); (2) evolution not favoring intelligence (none of
the mesozoic fossil assemblages included chess boards;
but, says the discussant, there was a good deal ofen-
cephalization through the Mesozoic, reaching the late
Cretaceous Stenonychosaurus); and much the scariest,
short lifetimes of civilizations.
Among the items that came up in the dis-
cussion period was the question of whether the
eccentricities of exo-planets (many of which are
large by solar system standards) are correlated
with host star ages in the sense of gradual circu-
larization. Not noticeably, said Marcy, but nearly
all the interesting dynamics takes place in the first
10 to 100 million years, and most of their sys-
tems are much older. The others items discussed
were largely historical. When was the Copernican
model generally accepted? What about the near re-
lationship between the sun and other stars (which
Kepler did not accept)? Was the significance of
Bradley's aberration generally understood, given
that it is hard, even now, to explain it to students?
And would Bessel, Struve, and Henderson have re-
ceived Nobel Prizes if the prizes had existed then?
Yes, said Marcy (echoing contemporary praise
by John Herschel), even though, by then, noted
Hirshfeld, neither the existence nor the small nu-
merical values for parallax were a surprise.

Virginia Trimble, University of California,
Irvine and LCOGT


Metropolitan New York Section of the
History of Science Society

CUNY Liberal Studies Bioethics, Science and Society Lec-
ture Series
New York Academy of Sciences
Section for History and Philosophy of Science and Technol-
ogy

All lectures begin at 6:00 PM

2009
Wednesday, October 28 (Columbia University)
Nathan Sivin (University of Pennsylvania)
"Is Chinese Science Really an Exotic Subject?"

Wednesday, December 3 (CUNY Graduate Center)
Roger Cooke (University of Vermont)
"The File on Academician N.N. Luzin"

2010
Wednesday, January 27 (The Gallatin School, New York Uni-
versity)
Bert Hansen (Bernard Baruch College, City University of New
York)
"Wonders of Nature and Miracles of Medicine: Popularizing
Science in LIFEMagazine, 1936-1972"

Wednesday, February 24 (Columbia University)
Peder Anker (New York University):
"History of Spaceship Earth Science"

Wednesday, March 24 (CUNY Graduate Center)
DavidE. Rowe (University of Mainz, Germany)
"Einstein's Encounters with Mathematicians: The Swiss Years"

Wednesday, April 28 (The Gallatin School, New York Univer-
sity)
Richard W Burkhart (University of Illinois):
"Evolutionary Thought before Darwin: Lamarck's Philosophie
zoologique, Fr6deric Cuvier, and the Paris menagerie"

Wednesday, May 26 (New York Academy of Sciences, 7 World
Trade Center, 40th floor)
Naomi Oreskes (University of California, San Diego)
"How the Cold War changed American Science"

For additional information, or to reserve a place for the lecture
or for dinner with the speaker after the lecture, please contact
either Joseph W. Dauben at jdauben@gc.cuny.edu, Pamela
Smith ps2270@columbia.edu, or Matthew Stanley at ms51000
nyu.edu, at least one week in advance of any lecture you plan to
attend.






History of Science Society Newsletter


Southern HoST, April 3-4 2009: VCU Department of History and Science,
Technology, and Society [STS] Initiative


On one of Richmond's first lovely Spring
weekends, Virginia Commonwealth University's
Science, Technology, and Society [STS] Initia-
tive hosted the third annual Southern History
of Science and Technology [or "SoHoST"] re-
gional meeting. SoHoST's original organizer,
Susan Rensing (Mississippi State) attended, as did
several dozen faculty and graduate students from
throughout the southern U.S. from the border
state of Maryland to as far down as Florida. Flor-
ida and frontier history of science received spe-
cial attention in a well-attended keynote address
- "Nature's Enslavement in an Enslaved Land"
- delivered on Friday evening by the History of
Science Society's Executive Director, Robert J.
Malone.
The two-day program featured sessions on
"Early Modern Science and Medicine" (with
papers by Christopher Carter (University of
Virginia) and Andrew Benedict-Nelson (Johns
Hopkins); "The Science & Technology of Music"
(with papers by Alexandra Hui (Mississippi St.)
and Fred Katz (University of Maryland); "Tech-
nology in the Southern Context" (with a paper on
Jefferson and patent law by Virginia patent lawyer
Jeffrey Matsuura) and "Consumer Technology"
(with papers by Benjamin Cohen (University of
Virginia), Matthew Lavine (Mississippi State), and
Amy Gangloff (Mississippi State)). Saturday's ses-
sions concluded with papers on "Controversies in
Sociobiology" (by Mary Richie McGuire (Virginia
Tech) and Erika Milam (University of Maryland))
and "Medicine and Public Health" (by Kelly
Joyce (College of William & Mary) and Elena Co-
nis (Center for Health, Culture & Society, Emory
University). After the formal sessions ended, the
event's organizers Karen Rader and John Powers
- hosted a conference banquet, featuring Virginia
barbecue specialties, at their home.


The organizers wish to thank all the attend-
ees, as well as the following people and organiza-
tions, all of whom helped us continue SoHoST's
vibrant and well-planned regional meeting tradi-
tion: Mary Ann Andrei (University of Virginia,
and SoHoST program co-chair); Wanda Clary
(STS Administrative Assistant); Marisa Benson
(of Emory University, who offered all the organi-
zational materials and strategies she used in last
year's meeting) and the History of Science Society,
who offered moral support and logistical advice.

by Karen Rader


*July 29






History of Science Society Newsletter


Program Profile: University of Leeds


When was your program established and how
has it developed since its inception?
The origins of History & Philosophy of Sci-
ence at Leeds date back to 1954 when mathemati-
cian Mary Hesse encouraged the newly arrived
philosopher Steven Toulmin to set up an HPS
group. Three years later Toulmin hired June Good-
field and the historian of science Jerome Ravetz,
who became a leading figure in the HPS commu-
nity. Arriving at the height of McCarthyite inqui-
sitions, Ravetz's long stay at Leeds owed much to
the US government's withdrawal of passport rights
from left-wing American scholars. Continuing to
cultivate radical ferment, Ravetz nurtured a vigor-
ous community of early modernist science, notably
Charles Webster and Piyo Rattansi.
The next generation of Leeds HPS scholars:
Robert Olby, Geoffrey Cantor, John Christie and
Jonathan Hodge shifted research to more recent
topics, as epitomized in their edited Companion
to the History of Modern Science (Routledge 1990).
The subsequent history of the program to 2006
has been told by Graeme Gooday in "History and
Philosophy of Science at Leeds," Notes and Records
of the Royal Society 60 (2006), 183-92 http://www.
hps.leeds.ac.uk/HPS/RSNR20050093p.pdf

At present the Centre for HPS at Leeds includes:
Stathis Arapostathis history of electrical engineer-
ing and patents
Geoffrey Cantor (emeritus) history of science
and religion
Alix Cohen Kant, anthropology and the history
of the human sciences
Steven French philosophy of science and history
of modern physics
Graeme Gooday history of electrical technology
and intellectual property
Gregory Radick history of biology and human


sciences, especially genetics
Juha Saatsi philosophy of science and history of
physics
Jonathan Topham book history and history of sci-
ence communication
Sophie Weeks Francis Bacon and early modern
natural philosophy
Adrian Wilson history of medicine, philosophy
of history.

What are the comprehensive exam fields?
To be admitted to our Ph.D. program, you
must normally have a Masters degree in a relevant
subject, or at least be on track to complete it. The
HPS Centre currently offers three one-year Masters
degrees of this sort, principally the M.A. in History
& Philosophy of Science. This contains modules
in "Modern Science," "Current Research in HPS,"
a 12,000-word research dissertation, a skills train-
ing module (e.g. "Historical Skills and Practices");
students must choose one elective e.g. in history
of medicine, science communication, science and
religion, history & philosophy of biology, or gen-
der and science. We also offer M.A. programs in
Science Communication, with a strong historical
focus, and in the Philosophy of Physics.

What are the faculty, program, and resource
strengths?
Our program strengths lie in the history of
early modern science and medicine; nineteenth cen-
tury life sciences, physics and technology; history of
science communication; history of modern phys-
ics; and the history of intellectual property. Ph.D.
students are supported by grants from the Arts and
Humanities Research Council, the Department's
own funds, and University studentships.
Our department has been successful in obtain-
ing funds from the UK's Arts and Humanities






History of Science Society Newsletter


Research Council (AHRC), the Leverhulme Trust
and the British Academy (BA) to lead internation-
ally significant collaborative research projects. From
1999-2006 Geoffrey Cantor co-led a project funded
by the AHRC and Leverhulme involving Topham
and Gooday (among others) "Science in the Nine-
teenth Century Periodical" that produced two
books and the free searchable database http://www.
sciper.org/. Since 2007 Gooday has led the AHRC
funded collaborative project involving Arapostathis
and Radick (among others) "Owning and Dis-
owning Invention: Intellectual Property, Identity
and Authority in British Science and Technology,
1880-1920." Gooday also leads the BA-funded
Leeds branch of the international Tyndall Corre-
spondence Project while Radick now has his own
developing "IPBio Project" on intellectual property
rights in contemporary biosciences.
Over the last five years, HPS at Leeds has built
up strong working relationships with regional mu-
seums, notably the Thackray Medical Museum and
the Leeds City Museum, as well as with national
museums, such as the National Maritime Museum
in London and the Porthcurno Telegraph Museum
in Cornwall. We now have six students working
on museums-related Ph.D. projects funded by the
AHRC's Collaborative Ph.D. awards. The Leeds
program is also developing its own Museum of
the History of Science, Technology and Medicine
incorporating resources from the Leeds Nobel Prize
winner William H. Bragg, the pioneering molecu-
lar biologist William Astbury, and the prototype
of the MONIAC analog computer for economic
computation and modelling. Further nearby mu-
seums providing opportunities for collaboration
include the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds and
the National Media Museum in Bradford.
Leeds' vibrant and international HPS commu-
nity is ideal for graduate students wanting to study
history of science, technology and medicine in the
modern era, including book history. Our University
Libraries hold excellent archival, journal and book
collections for historical research, and comparably
rich in book holdings is the Leeds Library set up


by Joseph Priestley in 1768 which is the UK's
oldest surviving private subscription library.
Our graduate students have excellent job
prospects: James Sumner (Ph.D. 2004) is now a
lecturer in history of technology at the University
of Manchester, and Sophie Weeks (Ph.D. 2007)
commences as a lecturer in history of science at the
University of Leeds in fall 2009.

What are some recent dissertations that have
been produced by graduating students?
Current graduate students work on a wide
range of topics, including the development of
transatlantic Newtonianism; the development of
ultraviolet and X-ray therapies for skin disease; the
rise of medical trade catalogues; the development of
agricultural genetics; lunatic asylums and sciences
of the brain; anthrax in Victorian Yorkshire; nine-
teenth-century embryology; early telegraph techni-
cians; science communication in Thailand; and the
rise of the forceps in midwifery.
Doctoral theses from students graduating in the
last five years include:
James Sumner, "The Metric Tun: Standardisation,
Quantification and Industrialisation in the British
Brewing Industry, 1760-1830"
Sophie Weeks, "Knowledge and Power in Francis
Bacon's Instauratio Magna"
Richard Gunn, "A Critical Examination of Lewis
Mumford's Account of Technics"
Christopher Renwick, "The British Debate about
the Identity of Sociology, 1876-1908"
Josep Simon, "Communicating Physics in Nine-
teenth-Century France and England: The Produc-
tion, Distribution and Use of Ganot's Textbooks"

Further information about our HPS program can
be found at: http://www.hps.leeds.ac.uk/
Further information about our graduate students
can be found at: http://www.philosophy.leeds.
ac.uk/PhilosoohvPostfraduate/praduates.htm


* July 209 31






History of Science Society Newsletter


History of Science at Michigan State University

History of science is growing at Michigan State with its launching of a specialization in the history of
science and the adoption of the Women in Science Digital Collection.


The Department of History at Michigan State
University has long been known for its premier
African History program. In the past few years the
department has also made a serious commitment
to the history of science. Michigan State University
now has five historians of the life sciences and boasts
courses, conferences, and an online digital collection
in the history of science.
Our faculty includes:
o Mark Largent, a historian of American biol-
ogy and medicine who teaches history of science and
public policy courses in James Madison College.
Mark is the book review editor for the Journal of the
History ofBiology and editor of the Rutgers Series
Studies in Modern Science, Technology and the Envi-
ronment. His current project explores the ongoing
debates over compulsory vaccinations.
o John Waller, a historian of science and medi-
cine who teaches the history of disease, health care,
and psychiatry. He has written on the development
of the British eugenics movement, the conditions of
child laborers in early industrial England, outbreaks
of collective hysteria, and is currently writing a study
of hereditarian concepts in western history.
o Rich Bellon, a historian of science who
divides his attention between the Victorian world
of natural history and the modern age of molecular
biology. His current research project explores the im-
pact of Darwin's botany on the debate over evolution
in the 1860s. Most of his undergraduate teaching,
on the other hand, is driven by an interest in con-
temporary biomedical and biotechnology policy.
o Georgina Montgomery, a historian of science
who teaches the history of animal behavior stud-
ies, primatology, and gender and science. Georgina
is currently working on her manuscript "Seeing
Primates Scientifically," which explores the develop-
ment of places and practices for the study of natural


primate behavior. She is also working on a new
project about the lives of individual gorillas used for
science and spectacle in the early to mid-twentieth
century.
o Helen Veit, a historian of the United States
in the 19th and 20th centuries whose first book-
length project, Victory over Ourselves: American Food
in the Era of the Great War, explores food and nutri-
tion in the Progressive Era, and their relationship
to ideas about individual self-discipline, scientific
rationalization, social and racial progress, and inter-
national power. Helen is also the general editor for a
book series on food and history with Michigan State
University Press.
Many of you will already be familiar with
Michigan State because of H-Net and MATRIX.
The Department of History's relationship with
MATRIX has enabled Michigan State to adopt the
Women in Science Digital Collection from Judith
Zinsser (Miami University). Under the guidance of
Georgina Montgomery, the collection is being ex-
panded to include archival documents for a number
of women in science with accompanying introduc-
tions and articles. Georgina welcomes e-mails about
how to get your archival documents and research
integrated into the site. The Web site will be a won-
derful tool in research and undergraduate education,
and represents part of the Department of History's
commitment to expanding its focus on the history of
science.
The curriculum already includes courses such as
'Evolution and Society,' 'Science and Social Policy,'
'Gender, Sex, and Science in Popular Culture,' 'Ani-
mal Histories,' 'Food and Power in American His-
tory,' 'A History of Nutrition,' 'A Brave New World?
Biology, Biotechnology, and Human Identity,' 'The
Human Genome Project,' 'Minds and Madness' and
'Medicine in Society'. In the future, survey courses






History of Science Society Newsletter


and team-taught classes will be added to the under-
graduate and graduate curricula.
Such courses within the Department of His-
tory are complemented by a range of opportunities
at different colleges on the Michigan State campus.
The Science, Technology, Environment and Public
Policy Specialization [STEPPS] in James Madison
College, for example, requires all students to take
two science studies courses, and over a third of the
specialization's faculty are historians of science. Simi-
larly, all students in the residential Lyman Briggs
College take courses in the history, philosophy, and
sociology of science (HPS), which encourage them
to explore the connections between science and the
wider world. Briggs is a national leader in science
pedagogy; its historians actively collaborate in edu-
cational innovation, which is generously supported
by grants from the National Science Foundation and
other agencies. HPS courses, by highlighting the
intellectual, social and cultural connections between
scientific disciplines, serve as a linchpin in Briggs's
core mission to break down conceptual and educa-
tional barriers among physics, chemistry, biology
and mathematics. History of science at MSU is thus
indispensable to one of the nation's most dynamic
and grant-winning efforts to reform the education of
aspiring scientists and medical professionals.
The interdisciplinarity that characterizes many of
the colleges, departments, and programs at Michi-
gan State was exemplified by the "Animals: Past,
Present, and Future" conference organized by Geor-
gina Montgomery in April 2009. This interdisciplin-
ary and international conference on human-animal
relationships attracted 70 people representing more
than seven disciplines and eight countries. Many of
the 53 talks were histories of science, including pre-
sentations by Erika L. Milam (University of Mary-
land), Tania Munz (Max Planck), and Ruthanna
Dyer (York University). The conference marked the
emergence of Michigan State as a leader in Animal
Studies, with a graduate specialization in animal
studies already established within the Department of
Sociology. Georgina is an affiliated faculty with the
Animal Studies specialization and will teach one of


the core graduate seminars in 2010-2011.
Looking ahead, Michigan State plans to build
on these strengths by adding additional graduate
and undergraduate history of science courses to the
Department of History curriculum, building up the
Women in Science Digital Collection, and expand-
ing our faculty. In the fall, for example, we will be
searching for a historian of science and a philosopher
of science to fill positions at Lyman Briggs College
with joint appointments with the Department of
History and the Department of Philosophy respec-
tively. To find out more about how Michigan State is
integrating history of science into the undergraduate
and graduate curriculum, visit the links below.

Useful Links
Department of History: http://www.history.msu.
edu/
James Madison College: http://www.jmc.msu.edu/
Lyman Briggs College: http://www.lymanbriggs.
msu.edu/
Animal Studies Graduate Specialization: http://
www.animalstudies.msu.edu/


* July2009133






History of Science Society Newsletter


SPACEWORK: Labor and Culture in America's Astronaut Corps, 1959-1985

Matthew H. Hersch, a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, is this year's recipient of the
HSS/NASA Fellowship. He describes his project here.


Fifty years ago, the United States selected its
first group of space travelers: men who were part
pilot, part field scientist, and part "systems man."
Well-educated, middle-class strivers comfortable
maneuvering in large organizations, America's
astronauts recognized the changing relationship
between humans and technology in the 20th
century and created a managerial identity in space
not much different from that of the white-col-
lar workers proliferating on Earth. Despite the
seemingly inexhaustible public fascination with
all aspects of human spaceflight, much remains
to learn about how the United States created and
maintained its professional astronaut corps, how
this professional group influenced space policy,
and what it tells us about the evolution of "big sci-
ence" in postwar America.
These first space travelers were members of a
new profession that seemed to be without clear
antecedents. The National Aeronautics and Space
Administration wasn't sure, at first, exactly who it
wanted for the job. Scientists? Combat veterans?
or Athletes? Air Force research, though, pointed to
a particular kind of person: a keen observer, quick
thinker, and skilled aviator-calm, resourceful,
able to react quickly even under extreme duress.
Such a person would do all of these things, more-
over, without a desire for validation or personal
aggrandizement. One can scarcely imagine that
such a person actually existed, but after examining
hundreds of military test pilots in 1959, NASA's
Selection Committee thought it had found seven
of them.
These first American astronauts did not neces-
sarily enjoy long space careers (only one reached
the Moon), but they did define the bounds of a
new technical profession. During NASA's first
decades, these astronauts (and the pilots they


recruited) constituted a distinct and powerful sub-
culture within the organization, with substantial
authority over day-to-day engineering, training,
and flight operations.
Like other 20th-century engineers, astronauts
grappled with questions of professionalization,
employee-management relations, working condi-
tions, pay, office culture, gender, and deskilling.
Unlike other workers, though, astronauts had to
negotiate the hazards of their workplace while
satisfying the fickle demands of politicians and
the public, and the complex emotions that often
accompanied spaceflight and the return to Earth.
Astronauts also attempted, with partial success, to
police the boundaries of their profession, relying
upon membership standards both objective and
so intangible that the astronauts themselves did
not know what they were. During the 1960s and
1970s, these men (and, eventually, women) found
themselves divided by skill and experience, con-
strained by technology, and besieged by a diffuse
national culture that simultaneously embraced
spaceflight and starved it of funds. Veteran pilots
struggled to fill an ever-smaller number of flights
with an ever-larger number of qualified astronauts,
including new "scientist-astronauts," who waged
an often bitter battle for acceptance.
Despite the seemingly inexhaustible public
fascination with all aspects of human spaceflight,
much remains to learn about how the United
States created and maintained its professional
astronaut corps, how this professional group influ-
enced space policy, and what it tells us about the
evolution of "big science" in postwar America.






History of Science Society Newsletter


Thomas Jefferson: Intellectual Property Rights Populist


Thomas Jefferson's status as one of America's
leading polymaths is well-known. Less well-known
is his role in the development of an American frame-
work for intellectual property rights. Throughout the
history of the United States, arguably no single in-
dividual has demonstrated the breadth of experience
and knowledge concerning the diverse, and often
competing, perspectives on balancing intellectual
property rights of ownership, access, and use that Jef-
ferson developed. The populist vision of intellectual
property that he embraced, based on his experience,
remains valuable today.
Jefferson had a thorough understanding of the
competing interests associated with intellectual prop-
erty rights. A founding members of the U.S. Board
of Arts, Jefferson played a direct role in awarding the
first American patents. The Board of Arts eventually
evolved into the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,
and in his capacity as the most active member of that
first Board, Jefferson served, in effect, as America's
first patent examiner. Believing in the limited use of
patents, he feared that the monopoly nature of pat-
ents interfered with rapid application of innovations
into useful functions. He sought to award patents
only to unique and innovative inventions. On the
Board, he learned the difficult challenges associated
with determining which inventions merited grant of
patent rights.
A guiding light in science at the time, Jefferson
understood the importance of preserving accessibility
of knowledge and information to facilitate research,
education, and innovation. A long-time president of
the American Philosophical Society, the leading sci-
entific organization in the United States at that time,
he was active in America's scientific community. He
cherished his membership in that community, and
participated in numerous knowledge networks of
his time. He firmly believed in the power of those
networks to enhance knowledge, foster innovation,
and address effectively difficult technical challenges.


He opposed the use of legal barriers, including intel-
lectual property rights, which interfered with the
sharing of information and knowledge.
Jefferson experienced the frustration associated
with the use of intellectual property rights to restrict
access to innovations. With other mill operators of
his time, he was involved in a patent dispute against
one of America's leading inventors, Oliver Evans.
Evans obtained a patent for technology using water
to power mill operations. He enforced that patent
against many mill operators, including Jefferson.
From this experience, Jefferson understood the
frustration of technology users confronted by activ-
ist patent holders. Ironically, it was his Board of Arts
that granted Evans the patent.
A vision of intellectual property rights that dif-
fered from Jefferson's ideas developed in his time.
It viewed intellectual property rights as economic
assets, distinct from the products they enabled. Jef-
ferson did not accept that perspective. For Jefferson,
inventors should be free to manufacture and sell
products based on their work, permitting them to
profit if their inventions improved the quality of the
products they sold. Inventors would succeed to the
extent that they effectively integrated their inven-
tions into popular products. He did not believe that
inventors should benefit from denying access to
innovations.
In contrast, inventors such as Oliver Evans made
the process of invention a source of commercial rev-
enue, distinguishing that process from the manufac-
ture and sale of final goods. They were in the busi-
ness of inventing, treating their work as commercial
assets to be licensed to others, for profit. They chose
not to manufacture and sell their own products,
opting instead to use patent law to require others to
pay them in exchange for the right to incorporate
their inventions into their products. This philosophy
of intellectual property as proprietary economic asset
grew dominant. Yet, recent initiatives and trends


* July2009135






History of Science Society Newsletter


highlight some of the potential weaknesses associ-
ated with that vision. For example, copyright-law
conflicts that involve digital media file sharing and
open source software, as well as patent controversies
over ownership of genetic sequences, underscore the
continuing struggle to balance proprietary control
over intellectual property with essential rights of
access and use.
As we consider moderating our strongly pro-
prietary vision of intellectual property, Jefferson's
more nuanced perspective on those rights has much
to offer us. Perhaps the key lesson from his popu-
list vision is the recognition that those rights are
means to an end, not the end itself. We establish
and enforce intellectual property rights in an effort
to advance the public interest. Those rights are tools
to help foster innovation, economic development,
and the public welfare. Jefferson never lost sight of
the fact that intellectual property rights should be
enforced in ways that serve the entire public, not
only the owners of that property. He insisted that
the rights of creators of intellectual property must
always be balanced with public rights of access and
use. That is a principle we should never forget.

Jeffrey Matsuura is an attorney with the law firm, the
Alliance Law Group, specializing in technology law.
The author ofsix books on technology law and policy,
his most recent book, Jefferson vs. the Patent Trolls:
A Populist Vision of Intellectual Property Rights,
was published in 2008 by the University of Virginia
Press.






History of Science Society Newsletter


2009 Preliminary Program


Registration hours (see p. 51)
(* indicates session organizer)

Thursday, 19 November

Thursday, 5:30-7:00 p.m.

SPECIAL SESSION: SCIENCE AND RELI-
GION: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES
*Jessica Riskin, Stanford University
Commentator: Ann Blair, Harvard University
Chair: Paula Findlen, Stanford University
* The Perils of Physico-Theology in Late Sev-
enteenth-century England, Stephen Gaukroger,
University of Sydney
* The Changing Boundaries of Science and
Religion, Peter Harrison, Oxford University

SPECIAL SESSION: PANEL DISCUS-
SION: How SHOULD WE WRITE THE HISTORY
OF SCIENCE?
*Jane Maienschein, Arizona State University
Chair: Kenneth Manning, MIT
Panelists:
Deborah Heiligman, FreelanceAuthor
Thomas Levinson, MIT
William Newman, Indiana University
Naomi Oreskes, University of California, San
Diego
Jonathan Weiner, Columbia School ofJournalism

Thursday, 7:00-7:45 p.m.
First-time Attendees and Mentor/Mentoree
Reception

Thursday, 7:30-8:30 p.m.
Opening Reception. Cash Bar only

Friday, 7:30-8:45 a.m.
Women's Caucus Breakfast (Co-chairs: Mar-
sha Richmond & Susan Rensing)


Friday, 9:00-11:45 a.m.
WOMEN'S STRATEGIES FOR PARTICIPATING IN
SCIENCE
*Marsha Richmond, Wayne State University
* Twentieth Century Women Scientists through
the Decades: Changing Conscious and Uncon-
scious Strategies, Nancy G Slack, The Sage Colleges
* Strategies of Participation by Subordina-
tion: Female Technical Assistants in Biological
Research of the 20th century, Helga Satzinger,
Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine,
University College
* Strategies in the Cases ofTwo Pioneer Women
Professors: Kristine Bonnevie and Tine Tammes,
Ida Stamhuis, Free University ofAmsterdam
* Sex and Gender in the Lab: The Strategies for
Studying Sex Determination Employed by Anna
Rachel Whiting and Phineas Wescott Whiting,
Marsha Richmond, Wayne State University

BEYOND THE ARGUMENT FROM DESIGN: NATU-
RAL THEOLOGY IN LATE MEDIEVAL AND EARLY
MODERN CATHOLIC THOUGHT
Chair/Commentator, Mordechai Feingold,
Caltech
* Noel-Antoine Pluche as aJansenist Natural
Theologian, Ann Blair, Harvard University
* Catholic Natural Theology in Italy after Gali-
leo, Massimo Mazzotti, University of Calfornia,
Berkeley
* Atheists, Politicians, and Natural Theology in
the Work of Leonard Lessius, S.J., *Brian Ogil-
vie, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
* Astrology as Natural Theology in the Later
Middle Ages, Laura Smoller, University ofArkan-
sas at Little Rock


* July2009137






History of Science Society Newsletter


UNDERSTANDING EXTINCTION
Chair/Commentator: Phillip Sloan, University
of Notre Dame
* The Fur Flies over Spotted Cats: Science and
the Politics of Endangered Carnivores in the Age
of Ecology, Mark V. Barrow, Jr., Virginia Tech
* Extinction, Nature's Economy, and Natural
Theology, Kevin Francis, Evergreen State College
* Dying Americans: Race, Extinction and
Conservation in the New World, Sadiah Qureshi,
University of Cambridge
* Hunting America's Big Game of the Past:
Fossil Collecting and the Conservation Ethos,
Lukas Rieppel, Harvard University
* A Victorian Extinction: The Great Auk,
Alfred Newton, and Early Wildlife Protection,
*Henry Cowles, Princeton University

THE MANY LIVES OF THE PROJECTOR: INVENTORS
AND CHARLATANS, PHILOSOPHERS AND STATES-
MEN IN ELIZABETHAN AND STUART ENGLAND
Commentator/chair: Lesley Cormack, Simon
Fraser University
* 'The good or bad success of this project':
Projectors and the Fens, 1580-1630, Eric H. Ash,
Wayne State University
* Character of a Projector: Vernacular Repre-
sentations of Technological Invention in Sev-
enteenth-century Comedies, Poems and Pam-
phlets, Jessica Ratcliff, Cornell University
* Francis Bacon, the Patent System, and the
Utopian Reform of Invention, *Cesare Pastorino,
Indiana University
* Philosophizing Projectors and Projecting Phi-
losophers: The Late Projects of Cornelis Drebbel
(1572-1633), Vera Keller, McGill University

PARAPHRASING HISTORY: NAMING, TRANSLA-
TION, AND SYNONYMY IN EARLY MODERN CHINA
AND JAPAN
Commentator/chair: Ruth Rogaski, Vanderbilt
University
* Tradutore, Traditore: Constructing Science
Via Translation in China 1600-1900, Benjamin


Elman, Princeton University
* Anatomy of a Textual Monstrosity: Dissect-
ing the Mingli Tan (De Logica, 1631), Joachim
Kurtz, Emory University & Max Planck Institute for
the History of Science
* Radicle Translation: Synonymy and the Roots
of Resemblance in QOng Natural History, *Carla
Nappi, University ofBritish Columbia
* Indexing Nature: Homonymy and Synonymy
in Early Modern European and Japanese Ency-
clopedias of Natural History, Federico Marcon,
University of Virginia

UNDERSTANDING COMPLEXITY IN BIOLOGICAL
SYSTEMS
* From Ecosystem to Complex Adaptive Sys-
tem: Shifting Strategies in Modern Ecology,
Sharon Kingsland, The Johns Hopkins University
* Reassembling the Pieces: Biological Systems
and Systems Biology, James Collins, National Sci-
ence Foundation
* The Superorganism: How Did We Come to
Understand What It Is? Bert H11dobler, Arizona
State University
* Organisms, Systems, and Networks: Overlap-
ping Paradigms to Explain Complexity in 20th
Century Biology, Manfred Laubichler, Arizona
State University

DEFINING APPLIED SCIENCE IN THE LONG 19TH
CENTURY: ANGLO-AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES IN
INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS
Commentator/chair: James McClellan, Stevens
Institute of Technology
* From Art to Applied Science: The Discourse of
Science and Industry in the Nineteenth Century,
Eric Schatzberg, University of Wisconsin, Madison
* Scientific Authority and the Civil Model:
Science, and the State in Different Branches of
Anglo-American Engineering, Jennifer K. Alex-
ander, University ofMinnesota
* Born in Translation: The Origins of the
Phrase "applied science," *Robert Bud, The Science
Museum, London


Friday Morning






History of Science Society Newsletter


* "Vague and artificial": The Historically
Elusive Distinction Between Pure and Applied
Science, Graeme J. Gooday, University ofLeeds

RESEARCH AND PEDAGOGY: A HISTORY OF
QUANTUM PHYSICS THROUGH THE TEXTBOOKS.
(I) FROM THE ORIGIN TO THE EVE OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS: SESSION I
* Drude's Lehrbuch der Optik, Marta Jordi Talta-
vull, University ofBarcelona, Max Planck Institute for
History of Science
* Against the Wind: Otto Sackur and His Daring
Lehrbuch der Physikalische Chemie, *Massimiliano
Badino, Max Planck Institute for History of Science
* Fritz Reiche's 1921 Quantum Theory Text-
book, Clayton A. Gearhart, St. John's University
* Sommerfeld'sAtombau und Spektrallinien,
Michael Eckert, Deutsches Museum
* Max Born's Vorlesungen iiberAtommechanik,
Domenico Giulini, Max Planck Institute for Gravi-
tational Physics

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY: ORIGINS,
BOUNDARIES, LIMITS
Commentator/chair: Greg Eghigian, Pennsyl-
vania State University
* The Utilitarian Self: The Neurosciences and
Political Reform in Nineteenth-century Britain,
Cathy Gere, University of Calfornia, San Diego
* On Hans, Rolf, and Others: Wonder Animals
in French Psychical Research and Early Psychol-
ogy, Sofie Lachapelle, University ofGuelph
* Deception, the "Law of Economy," and the
Making of Psychological Americans, *Michael
Pettit, York University
* Escaping the "Alien Framework": Indigeniz-
ing Psychology in India, Wade Pickren, Ryerson
University

NETWORKS/COMMUNITIES IN EARLY MODERN
SCIENCE
Commentator/chair: Alix Cooper, SUNY,
Stony Brook
* Cultivating a Discipline: Marin Mersenne as


Mathematical Intelligencer, *Justin Grosslight,
Harvard University
* The Camel's Face: Exotic Animals in the
Sixteenth-Century Arts and Sciences, Daniel
Margocsy, Northwestern University
* 'Rest assured, I expect some pretty things from
Candia': Venetian Apothecaries and the World of
Collecting, Valentina Pugliano, Oxford University
* Contradictory Tropics: Columbian Geopoli-
tics in Oviedo's Official Histories of the Indies,
Nicholas Wey-Gomez, Brown University

SPECIAL SESSION: SESSION 1: ROUNDTA-
BLE DISCUSSION ON CLASSIFICATION IN SPECIAL
FIELDS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE
*Stephen Weldon, University of Oklahoma
* History of Science and the Universal Decimal
Classification, Elaine de Souza, PUC-SP
* Sources on Medieval Arabic Science, Ana M.
Alfonso-Goldfarb, Centre Simao Mathias of Studies
in History, PUC-SP
* Problems of Classification Considering
Chinese Texts in History of Science, Georges
M6taili6, CNRS
* Documents on Latin American Colonial Sci-
ence, Mircia H. M. Ferraz, Centre Simao Mathias
of Studies in History, PUC-SP
* Issues in Classification and Controlled Vo-
cabulary: Experiences from Work in Nineteenth-
Century American Science, Daniel Goldstein,
University of California, Davis

Friday, 12:00-1:15 p.m.
FORUM FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN AMERI-
CA BUSINESS MEETING

Friday, 12:00-1:15 p.m.
FORUM FOR THE HISTORY OF THE MATHEMATICAL
SCIENCES LUNCHEON.
All those interested in the history of mathematics
are invited to this complimentary event, sponsored by
the Legacy of R.L. Moore Project. Seating is limited,
and reservations are required. Contact Karen Parshall
at khp3k@virginia.edu if you would like to attend.


*July2009139


Fri. Morning -Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


Friday, 1:30-3:10 p.m.
MATHEMATICAL GENEALOGIES: ASTRONOMY,
GEOMETRY, NUMBER THEORY
* Realism in Ptolemaic Astronomy: The Case
of the Flawed Lunar Model, Elizabeth Burns,
University of Toronto
* Geometrical Loci: Ancient and Modern, Sa-
betai Unguru, University of Tel-Aviv
* Irrational Ratios: Music and the Develop-
ment of the Modern Concept of Number, Peter
Pesic, St. John's College
* "Seeking Our Own Forerunner": A Reap-
praisal of the Role of the Idea of "the Intellectual
Sameness of Mankind" in Mei Wending's (1633-
1721) Study of Western Mathematics, Shin Min
Cheol, Seoul National University

INDUCTION, ERROR, AND CONTEXT: PROBLEMS
IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
* Jacopo Zabarella's Real Influence on Early
Modern Science, John P. McCaskey, Stanford
University
* On Leaping to Conclusions Inductively: In-
terpretation and Anticipation in Bacon's Cosmo-
logical Reasoning, Daniel Schwartz, University of
Calfornia, San Diego
* Is it Wrong Not to Speak About Errors? Bart
Karstens, University ofLeiden
* Autonomy and Delocalisation of Knowledge,
Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen, University ofLeiden

MANIFOLD FORMS OF NATURAL KNOWLEDGE
TRANSMISSION
* To Popularize Medicine: A Study on Medi-
cine and Society in China (10-12th century),
Ruixue Yan, Peking University
* How Did Knowledge Circulate in Early
Modern Natural History? Aldrovandi's Building
Blocks, Fabian Krimer, Max Planck Institute for the
History of Science
* Receipt Books: Evidence of Non-traditional
Alchemy, Robin L. Gordon, Mount St. Mary's College
* Botany between Knowledge and Science:
Botany in the Romantic Vienna and "Voyages


into the Flower Fields of Life," Marianne Kl-
emun, University of Vienna

ASTRONOMY AND SOCIETY
* Hidden Eclipses and Misidentified Com-
ets: Debate and the Extent of Astronomical
Knowledge in 10th-12th CenturyJapan, Kristina
Buhrman, University of Southern Calfornia
* On the Boredom of Science: Material Culture
in Nineteenth-Century Astronomy, Kevin P.
Donnelly, Brandeis University
* Frederik Kaiser, Popular Astronomy, and the
Decline of Natural Theology, Frans van Lun-
teren, Leiden University
* Educating Astronomers. The Astronomical
Community, 1880-1940, David Baneke, Leiden
University
STRAINS OF DEFINITION IN 20TH-CENTURY BI-
OLOGY: E. COLI, SEX, DEATH, LIFE
* Cultures of Cultures: Standardizing a Model
Organism at theYale E. Coli Genetic Stock Center,
1968-1990, Thomas J.H. Reznick, Yale University
* How the X andY Became the Sex Chromo-
somes, Sarah S. Richardson, University ofMassa-
chusetts, Amherst
* Researching Aging under Glass: The Discov-
ery of the Hayflick Limit and the Moleculariza-
tion of Cellular Aging, 1961-1992, Lijing Jiang,
Arizona State University
* Cell Model Experiments, Biosignatures and
Microscopy in the 1930s: Wilhelm Reich's Bion
Experiments, James E. Strick, Franklin and
Marshall College

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: To, FROM, AND
AROUND EAST ASIA
* The Typing Rebellion: Toward a Global His-
tory of the Chinese Typewriter, Thomas S. Mul-
laney, Stanford University
* Engineers as the Agents of Science and
Empire, 1880-1914, Xiao (Shellen) Wu, Princeton
University
* Japanese Chemistry and the Russo-Japanese
War, Yoshiyuki Kikuchi, ChemicalHeritage Foundation


Friday Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


* Self-Sufficiency for the Colony or for the
Empire? Research of Substitutes at Central
Research Institute in Korean Peninsula Under
Japanese Colonial Rule in the Late 1930s, Taehee
Lee, Seoul National University

THEORIES OF MIND, BRAIN, AND COGNITION IN
SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT
* Giving Shape to the Common Brain: Cerebral
Organization and Political Unity in the 18th Cen-
tury, Nima Bassiri, University of California, Berkeley
* "Crazy, bedeviled, bewitched or something":
Concepts of Insanity in the United States, 1800-
1843, Rachel Ponce, University of Chicago
* Nervous Societies and the Fragmented Self
- Sigmund Freud and Biological Psychiatry,
Katja Guenther, Princeton University
* Crisis and Method. Edmund Husserl's
Logical Investigations in History of Economic
Thought, Andreas Georg Stascheit, Dortmund
University ofApplied Sciences andArts

INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH
COMMUNITIES OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY
* Where are the I.G. Farben Observatories?
The World of Industrial-Scientific Collabora-
tion in German Astrophysics, Juan Andres Leon,
Harvard University
* Fundamental Research at Du Pont in the
Interwar Years and the Rise of'Microphysi-
cal Thinking', Augustin Cerveauz, Universite de
Strasbourg, France
* The Formation of Spectroscopy Users' Group
and the Changing Status of Spectroscopy, Mina
Park, MIT
* Fact, Fiction, and Fortran: Computers Be-
tween Science and Engineering at MIT and
Carnegie Tech, 1962-1975, Andrew B. Mamo,
University of Calfornia, Berkeley

TEACHING THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE USING THE
WEB, SPONSORED BY COMMITTEE ON EDUCA-
TION
*Michael Reidy, Montana State University


* Online Images and Learning: Going Beyond
Visual Aids, Kerry V. Magruder, University of
Oklahoma
* Blogging the Classroom? The Promise and
Limits of Web 2.0 for Teaching the History of
Science, Audra J. Wolfe, University ofPennsylvania
* Your Daily History of Science: Blogging a
Discipline, Michael D. Barton, Montana State
University

Friday, 3:30-5:30 p.m.
SCIENCE AS EMPIRE? NATURAL KNOWLEDGE,
POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND IMPERIAL GOVER-
NANCE IN THE EARLY MODERN ATLANTIC WORLD
Chair: Robert Westman, University of Califor-
nia, San Diego
Scientific Practices in the Iberian Atlantic:
The Comprehension of the New World and the
Construction of a Eurocentric World Picture,
Mauricio Nieto Olarte, Universidad de los Andes
* Scientific Practice as Political Economy in
the English West Indies, 1650-1688, Matthew
Underwood, Harvard University
* The Order of Nature and Empire at Stake:A
Botanical Debate in the Spanish Atlantic (1792-
1801), *MatthewJ. Crawford, University of Cali-
fornia, San Diego
* On the Practice of Collecting Natural Objects
in the Spanish Context: Old Bureaucratic Devices
for New Scientific Aims? 1712-1812, Marcelo
Fabion Figueroa, European University Institute

POPULARIZING AND POLICING 'DARWINISM'
1859-1900
* Charles Kingsley: Darwin's Other Bulldog,
*Piers Hale, University of Oklahoma
* Asa Gray: Design Theorist Among the Dar-
winians? T. Russell Hunter, University of Oklahoma
* St George Jackson Mivart: Theistic Evolu-
tionist and Darwinian Outcast, John M. Lynch,
Arizona State University
* Anglo-American Popularisers of Evolution,
1859-1900, Bernard Lightman, York University


*July 41


Friday Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


BAROQUE SCIENCE
* Making "Nothing, All": Imagination, Pas-
sions, and Early Modern Science, Raz Chen-
Morris, Bar-Ilan University
* From Divine Order to Human Approxima-
tion: Mathematics in Baroque Science, Ofer Gal,
University of Sydney
* The Baroque Nature ofBoyle's New"Physi-
co-Chymical" Science, *Victor Boantza, McGill
University
* Instruments and the Habits of Knowledge,
Jean-Francois Gauvin, Harvard University

FROM GIBBS TO EINSTEIN, IN MEMORY OF MAR-
TIN J. KLEIN
Chair: Jed Z. Buchwald, Caltech
* Einstein, Lorentz & M. Klein, A. J. Kox, Uni-
versity ofAmsterdam
* Thermodynamics and Relativity: Einstein
and Klein, Daniel Siegel, University of Wisconsin,
Madison
* Fathoming Max Planck: A Personal Account
of Klein, Kuhn, and the Shaping of Quantum
History, Allan Needell, Space History Division,
NASA
* Martin Klein and Chinese Studies in the
History of Modern Physics, Danian Hu, 7he City
College of the City University ofNew York
* Fathoming Einstein: M. Klein &The Ein-
stein Papers Project, *Diana Kormos Buchwald,
Caltech

BEYOND THE CABINET: COLLECTIONS AND COL-
LECTING IN TWENTIETH CENTURY SCIENCE
Chair: Robert Kohler, University ofPennsylvania
* Laboratories, Museums, and the Comparative
Perspective: Alan A. Boyden's Serological Taxon-
omy, 1925-1962, Bruno J. Strasser, Yale University
* Building a Statistical Laboratory: A Collec-
tor's Tale, *Dan Bouk, Colgate University
* Taking Stock: Situating and Standardizing
Collection Practices in the International Biolog-
ical Program, 1962-1974, Joanna Radin, Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania


* Accounting for Taste: Home Economists,
Quantification, and Changing Eating Patterns
in 20th Century America, Gabriella M. Petrick,
New York University

TECHNIQUES OF THE SUBJECT IN THE HUMAN
SCIENCES
Sponsored by the Forum for the History of the
Human Sciences
Commentator: Henrika Kuklick, University of
Pennsylvania
* Subjects of Delusion: EarlyTwentieth Century
Psychopathological Methods, *Susan Lanzoni, MIT
* Seeing the Heart: Feeling Emotions, Otniel
E. Dror, The Hebrew University ofJerusalem
* The Multiple Psychologies of Subjectivity: Ac-
countings of Experiments in Mid-century America,
Jill Morawski and Nicholas Alt, Wesleyan University

MATHEMATICAL RECREATIONS AND THE HISTORY
OF MATHEMATICS
* Having Laid Great Wagers: Mathematical
Instruments as Popular Culture in Early Modern
England, *Kathryn James, Beinecke Library, Yale
University
* Franklin's Mathematical Recreations, Paul
Pasles, Villanova University
* Playing Cards and American Mathematical
Learning, 1800-2000, Peggy Kidwell, Smithsonian
Institution
* WFF'N PROOF and other Mathematical
Recreations from the 1960s, David L. Roberts,
Prince George's Community College

TECHNOSCIENCE, PAST AND PRESENT
* Science and Power: Toward a History ofAp-
plied Science, Ann Johnson, University of South
Carolina
* Hybrid Experts in Eighteenth-century Prus-
sia, *Ursula Klein, Max Planck Institute for the His-
tory of Science
* Naturalizing Natural Knowledge in Tokuga-
waJapan: The Career of Hiraga Gennia (1729-
1779), Lissa Roberts, University ofTwente


Friday Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


* From Private Networks to Bureaucratic Pro-
cedures, Beate Ceranski, University of Stuttgart

SMALL GROUPS, BIG SCIENCE
Commentator: Nathaniel Comfort, Johns Hop-
kins University
* The Board and the Ward: Practicing Ethics
at the National Institutes of Health circa 1953,
*Laura Stark, Wesleyan University
* Smokers, Salons, and Small Groups: Model-
ing Society in Cold War America, Jamie Cohen-
Cole, Yale University
* Between the Doctor and His Plumber: Mak-
ing Embryo Research Ethics Public, J. Ben Hurl-
burt, Harvard University

COUGHING IT UP TO EVERYTHING ELSE: THE UN-
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY
Commentator/chair: Angela Creager, Princeton
University
* Tobacco Industry Research on Smokers and
Smokers' Behavior in the Era of the Tobacco and
Health Crisis, 1950-1990, Louis M. Kyriakoudes,
7he University of Southern Mississippi
* Filter Farce or Filter Frustration? Dashed
Faith in Big Science, and the Intractable Ciga-
rette "Filter Problem," *Bradford Harris, Stanford
University
* "It Has the Potential of Waking a Sleeping
Giant": The Tobacco Industry's Private Debate
on Publishing Internal Polonium Research, *Bri-
anna Rego, Stanford University
* Agnotology in Action: The History of Popu-
lar Ignorance ofTobacco Harms as Revealed
through the Tobacco Industry's Formerly Secret
Archives, Robert N. Proctor, Stanford University

Friday, 6:00 6:30 p.m.
Announcement of 2009 Awards & Prize Winners

Friday, 6:45-7:45 p.m.
Distinguished Lecture, M. Norton Wise,
UCLA, "On Science as Historical Narrative"


Friday, 7:45 8:30 p.m.
Reception, Cash Bar only


Saturday, 21 November

Saturday, 9:00-11:45 a.m.
REORIENTING GALILEO IN HIS DIFFERENT INTEL-
LECTUAL TRADITIONS
Chair: Domenico Bertoloni Meli, Indiana
University
Practitioners, Galileo and the Emergence of
Pre-Modern Mechanics, Matteo Valleriani, Max
Planck Institute for the History of Science
Strange Realism: Galileo's Struggle with As-
tronomical Hypotheses, Mario Biagioli, Harvard
University
The Information Order of Galileo's'Dia-
logue,' Nick Wilding, Georgia State University
The Cannon Tables of the 'Two New Sci-
ences': Connections between Galileo's Mechan-
ics and Contemporary Astronomical Practice,
*Renee J Raphael, University of Cambridge
Rethinking 1633: Writing about Galileo after
the Trial, Paula Findlen, Stanford University

PRODUCING KNOWLEDGE FOR POLICY: RE-
SEARCH PROGRAM PLANNING AND SCIENTIFIC
ASSESSMENTS
Chair: Naomi Oreskes, University of Calfornia,
San Diego
Collapse and Translation: How Scientists
Assess the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, *Jessica
O'Reilly, Princeton University & University of Cali-
fornia, San Diego
* Constructing Science and Politics in Global
Affairs, Clark Miller, Arizona State University
* Producing Knowledge for Policy: Ozone
Depletion Science and Scientific Assessments,
Keynyn Brysse, Princeton University and University
of Calfornia San Diego
* The Past, Present, and Future ofWestAntarcti-
ca: Research on the Behavior of a Continent, 1957-
1990, William Thomas, American Institute ofPhysics


* July2009143


Fri.-Sat. Morning






History of Science Society Newsletter


THE FACES OF NATURAL THEOLOGY: GOD'S
BOOKS) OF NATURE?
Commentator: Christopher Hamlin, University
ofNotre Dame
* Charles Bovelles: Natural Theology and the
Harvest of Late Medieval Mysticism, *Richard
Oosterhoff, University ofNotre Dame
* Lutherans Read the Book of Nature, Kathleen
Crowther, University of Oklahoma
* "Ex Naturae Libro Declarabimus": William
Harvey and Natural Theology, Benjamin Gold-
berg, University ofPittsburgh
* The Credible Audiences of the NaturalTheol-
ogy, Adam Shapiro, University ofBritish Columbia

ENVISIONING AND IMPLEMENTING SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN, 1860-1960
Commentator: James Bartholomew, Ohio State
University
* The Origin of Modern Developmentalism in
Japan, Nobuhiro Yamane, Waseda University
* Made ForJapan: Sorting Silkworms and
Standardizing Cocoons, *Lisa Onaga, Cornell
University
* Japanese Engineers and"Comprehensive
Technology" in Wartime "Manchukuo" and
China, 1931-1945, Aaron S. Moore, Arizona State
University
* Securing "National" Food and Science: Ex-
amining Japan's Science on Whales, Fumitaka
Wakamatsu, Harvard University

RISK AND SCIENTIFIC AUTHORITY
* Science, Certainty, and the "Negro Question":
A Narrative of Life at Risk, 1896, Megan Wolff,
Columbia University
* Coronary Artery Disease and the Consoli-
dation of Medical Authority, Todd Olszewski,
National institutes of Health
* Making the Crash Barrier: Medical Authority,
Engineering Culture, and Bureaucratic Practice
in American Automotive Safety, 1966-1980, Lee
Vinsel, Carnegie Mellon University
* "These rays that blast and wither but do not


consume": American Physicists' Evolving Rhet-
oric on Radiation, 1895-1935, *Matthew Lavine,
Mississippi State University
* Mothers and Home Isolation in EarlyTwenti-
eth Century American Medical Practice, Bridget
Collins, University of Wisconsin-Madison

RESEARCH AND PEDAGOGY: A HISTORY OF
QUANTUM PHYSICS THROUGH THE TEXTBOOKS
(II) QUANTUM BOOKS IN A TIME OF FAST
CHANGE: SESSION II
Commentator: David Kaiser, MIT
* Van Vleck's Quantum Principles and Line
Spectra (1926), Michael Janssen, University of
Minnesota
* Teaching Quantum Physics in Cambridge,
*Jaume (James) Navarro, Max Planck Institute for
the History of Science/University of Cambridge
* The Infancy of Quantum Statistics, Daniela
Monaldi, Max Planck Institutefor the History of Science
* Pauli's 1933 Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der
Wellenmechanik, Don Howard, University ofNotre
Dame

NOTES FROM UNDERGROUND: DIGGING THROUGH
NARRATIVES IN THE EARTH SCIENCES
Commentator: Mott Greene, University ofPuget
Sound
* Accounts of the New Madrid Earthquakes,
Conevery Bolton Valencius, Harvard University
* "DidYou Feel It?" Earthquake Spotters in
the Nineteenth-Century Alps, *Deborah Coen,
Barnard College
* The Chilean Earthquake and the Pulse of the
Earth, Matthias D6rries, University of Strasbourg
* Serpentine Histories: ThinkingAboutAssem-
bling California, Jon Christensen, Stanford University

JESUIT SCIENCE AND FAITH AT THE MARGINS
OF EMPIRE: FRENCH AND SPANISH MISSIONARY
BOTANY, SURGERY, AND NATURAL HISTORY IN
THE COLONIAL ATLANTIC WORLD
Commentator/chair: Alan Greer, University of
Toronto


Saturday Morning









* Reevaluating and Assessing the American
Sources ofNieremberg's Historia Naturae (1635),
Domingo Ledesma, Wheaton College
* The Natural History of Secrets: The Jesuit
Encounter with the Indigenous Knowledge Sys-
tems of French North America, Christopher M.
Parsons, University of Toronto
* The Blood of Christ and the Knowledge of
Man:Jesuit Natural Philosophy and Medicine
ConfrontJesus' Sacred Heart in Eighteenth-
Century Mexican Anatomical Analysis, Michelle
Molina, Northwestern University
* From the Rhetoric of Savagery to a Science
of Race: Humans as a Category of Analysis in
Eighteenth-CenturyJesuit Natural History, Rio
de la Plata, 1754-1790, *Kristin Huffine, Northern
Illinois University

A QUESTION OF ORDER? STANDARDIZING TIME,
SPACE, AND SELF
Commentator: Kenneth Alder, Northwestern
University
* Standard Timescales: Between Science and
History, Jimena Canales, Harvard University
* Standardizing Identity Pragmatically: Civil
Status Standards in Imperial Germany, *Deborah
A. Brown, UCLA
* Interrupted Narratives: Standardizing Time
on Indian Railways, Ritika Prasad, University of
North Carolina, Charlotte
* The Standardization of Space: Cartographic
Grids and the Politics of Computation, William
Rankin, Harvard University


Saturday, 12:00 12:30 p.m.
Forum for the History of Human Sciences
Business Meeting

Saturday, 12:00 1:15 p.m.
SPECIAL SESSION: I'VE GOT A PH.D. IN
THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, Now WHAT? HISTO-
RIANS AT WORK IN A DOWN ECONOMY
Sponsored by the Graduate Student and Early


Career Caucus
Chair: *Gina Rumore, University of Minnesota
*Jacqueline Wernimont, Brown University
Marc Rothenberg, National Science Foundation
Liba Taub, Whipple Museum, University of
Cambridge
Ronald Brashear, Chemical Heritage Foundation
Pamela O. Long, Independent Scholar
David Lebrun, Film Maker

Saturday, 12:00 1:15 p.m.
Forum for the History of Human Sciences
Distinguished Lecture

Saturday, 1:30-3:10 p.m.
GOD, SOUL, AND MATTER IN EARLY MODERN
COSMOLOGY
* Before Copernicus, Were the Celestial Orbs
'fictions'? Peter Barker, University of Oklahoma
* Kepler's Astrology and the International Year
ofAstronomy, PatrickJ. Boner, 7he Johns Hopkins
University
* Newton's Empiricism and the Emanation of
Space in De Gravitatione, Mary Domski, Univer-
sity of New Mexico
* Newton in North America: The Reception of
Newton's Theory of Comets in the Colonies, To-
figh Heidarzadeh, University of California, Riverside

EARLY MODERN ENGAGEMENTS IN THE STUDY
OF THE EARTH AND OF LIFE: MAGIC, RELIGION,
PHYSICS, AND HISTORY
Chair: Jessica Riskin, Stanford University
* Franciscans at the Boundaries of the Natural
and the Permissible in Early Modern Venice,
Jonathan W. Seitz, Drexel University
* The Toad in the Stone: Vitalism, Fertility and
Earth History in Early Modern Europe, Lydia
Barnett, Stanford University
* Andr6 Francois Deslandes (1689-1757). His-
tory and Physics in Early 18th-century France,
Marita Huebner, University of Calfornia, Berkeley
* Secularization of Science? A Case Study,
Monika Gisler, ETH Zurich


Sat. Morning-Afternoon


History of Science Society Newsletter


* July2009145






History of Science Society Newsletter


BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY ACROSS BORDERS
* Seeds of Knowledge: Dutch Botany in Brazil
and Southeast Asia (1596-1696), Matthew B.
Watts, University ofAlabama
* Imagining a Tropical Laboratory: US Science
in the Caribbean after 1898, Megan Raby, Uni-
versity of Wisconsin-Madison
* At Home in the Wild: Ynes Mexia, Naturalist,
Kathryn Davis, San Jose State University
* Birds Over the Borders: Imperial Power and Na-
tional Pride in U.S.-Colombia Scientific Relations,
1910-1948, Camilo Quintero, Universidadde losAndes

EXTREME PHYSICS: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEO-
RETICAL FRONTIERS, 1860 TO THE PRESENT
* "No such spectrum as I expected!": William
Huggins and the Riddle of the Nebulae, Barbara
J. Becker, University of Calfornia, Irvine (retired)
* Leiden's Quest for Cold and the International
Temperature Scale 1927, Dirk van Delft, Museum
Boerhaave/Leiden Observatory
* On the Emergence of Deviant Science: The
Opposition to the Theory of Relativity in the
1920s, Milena Wazeck, Max Planck Institute for the
History of Science
* The Multiple Ways to Decoherence, Fabio
Freitas, Universidade Federal da Bahia

FOOD AND WATER: PUBLIC HEALTH, CA. 1850-
1950
* Reasoning about Cholera:John Snow and the
Miasma Theory of Disease, Dana Tulodziecki,
University of Missouri, Kansas City
* A Conflict ofAnalysis: Milk Adulteration
and Analytical Chemistry in Victorian Public
Health, Jacob A. Steere-Williams, University of
Minnesota
* "The Science of Living Begins at the Mouth":
When Nutrition Became a Part of Food and Eat-
ing, 1880-1920, Chin Jou, Princeton University
* Food Psychology, Food Technology: Ancel
Keys and the WW II Development of the K Ra-
tion, Sarah W. Tracy, University of Oklahoma


ALTERNATIVE PICTURES OF EVOLUTION
Chair: Abigail Lustig, University of Texas
* How Darwin Drew the Primate Phylogenetic
Tree, Joy Harvey, University of Oklahoma
* The Spencer-Weismann Dispute and Alter-
native Evolutionary Mechanisms in the 1890s,
Trevor Pearce, University of Chicago
* Morphogenesis, Slime Molds, and Searching
for Shared Developmental Processes, Mary E.
Sunderland, University of California, Berkeley
* Sociobiology and the Superorganism, Abigail
Lustig, University of Texas

SECRET, PROPRIETARY, AND PRIVILEGED
KNOWLEDGE
Chair: Cathryn Carson, University of Califor-
nia, Berkeley
* Secrecy and the Bomb, From the Postwar to the
Cold War, Alex Wellerstein, Harvard University
* Fat Men, Not Little Boys: The Trinity Test
and the Use of the First Atomic Bombs, Bruce J.
Hunt, University of Texas
* Who Owns What? Private Ownership and the
Public Interest in Recombinant DNATechnology
in the 1970s, Doogab Yi, NationalInstitute ofHealth
* Discriminating Appraisers: A Study in Histori-
cal GIS,Jennifer Light, Northwestern University

WORKSHOP-DIGITAL MEDIA AND THE HISTORY
OF SCIENCE
*Dawn Digrius, Stevens Institute of Technology
* What is Digital History? Trevor Owens,
George Mason University
* NINES, Dana Wheeles, University of Virginia/
NINES
* History and Digital Technology, Jeremy
Boggs, George Mason University
* Rethinking Archives, Rethinking Publishing:
The Digital Humanities, Jo Guldi, University of
Chicago


Saturday Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


SPECIAL SESSION: SESSION 2: ROUND-
TABLE DISCUSSION ON CLASSIFICATION IN THE
HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN DIFFERENT MEDIA
*Ana Alfonso-Goldfarb, Centre Simao Mathias
of Studies in History of Science, PUC-SP
* Images as Documents for the History of Sci-
ence: Some Remarks Concerning Classification,
Maria Helena Roxo Beltran & Vera C. Machline,
Centre Simao Mathias of Studies in History ofSci-
ence, PUC-SP
* Management of Digital Media in History of
Science, Silvia Waisse Priven, Centre Simao Math-
ias of Studies in History of Science, PUC-SP
* Classification Issues Related to Metadata,
Software Archives, and Virtual Objects, Henry
Lowood, Stanford University Libraries
* Information Retrieval in History of Science
Resources on Internet: The End of Classifica-
tions? Christine Blondel, CNRS, CRHST

SPECIAL SESSION: HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN
FILM
* A Screening of"Proteus" and a Conversation
with Director David Lebrun
*Lynnette Regouby, University of Wisconsin,
Madison
Film-60 minutes plus discussion

Saturday, 1:30-3:30 p.m.
POSTERS
* Cognitive Illusions and the Evolution of Sci-
ence, Burton Voorhees, Athabasca University
* International Year ofAstronomy Celebrating
the Publication of Kepler'sAstronomia Nova, 1609:
Kepler's Construction of the First-Ever Planetary
Orbit, A.E.L. Davis, Imperial College (retired)
* Computers and the Visual Language of Pa-
leobiology, David Sepkoski, University ofNorth
Carolina, Wilmington
* The Geography ofTransnational Scientific Cor-
respondence during the Revolutionary and Napole-
onic Era, Elise S. Lipkowitz, Northwestern University
* Transplantation and Tolerance: Theoretical
Study of Organismic Changes and Expertise in


Tissue Transplantation in Peter Brian Medawar's
Immunological Research, Hyung Wook Park,
University of Minnesota
* A New History of the Discovery of the 20 Ca-
nonical Amino Acids, Rachel Rodman, University
of Wisconsin
* Historical Scholarship and Digital Archival
Collections: The Contagion and Expeditions
and Discoveries Websites at the Open Collec-
tions Program at Harvard University, Rebecca H
Wingfield, Harvard University
* The Changing Place of Mathematics at U.S.
Universities: 1865-1880, Andrew Fiss, Indiana
University
* The Rise of Radio Astronomy in the Nether-
lands: 1944-1956, Astrid Elbers, Leiden University
* The Development and Popularization of the
Big Bang Theory, Gustavo Rocha, State University
ofFeira de Santana
* The Significance of Experience in the Pe-
riphery. Engineers from the First World in the
Second Half of 19th-century Chile, Jaime Parada,
Universidad Cat6lica de Chile & UniversidadFinis
Terrae, Chile
* Global Science from a Dutch Perspective: Dutch
Participation in 19th-century Humboldtian Net-
works, Azadeh Achbari, Free University ofAmsterdam
* The Pasteurization of American Mushroom
Caves: A Study in Mycological Secrecy, Greg
Brick, University of Minnesota
* The Air-Pump at the Princely Court: Natural
Philosophy or Useful Technology? Peter Schim-
kat, Independent Scholar
* Domestication & Decline: The Degenera-
tion Thesis of Curt P. Richter, Nick Blanchard,
Oregon State University

Saturday, 3:30-5:30 p.m.
THE DUTCH DESCARTES: EMPIRICISM AND
MEDICINE
Chair: Lisa Shapiro, Simon Fraser University
* Descartes and Medical Cartesianism, Harold
J. Cook, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of
Medicine at University College


Saturday Afternoon


* July2009147






History of Science Society Newsletter


* Cartesian Sex. Ren6 Descartes, Dutch Physi-
cians and the Problem of Procreation in the Sev-
enteenth Century, Eric Jorink, Huygens Institute
* Christiaan Huygens and the Limits of Mech-
anism, *Rienk Vermij, University of Oklahoma

SPEAKING OF DARWIN: THE MEANING AND APPLI-
CATION OF EVOLUTION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Commentator/chair: Vassiliki (Betty) Smoco-
vitis, University ofFlorida
* "The Great Grandfather of Hybrid Corn":
Charles Neo-Darwin & Identity Formation
among the Maize Hybridizers, Theodore J. Varno,
University of California, Berkeley
* Evolution in the Biological Sciences Curricu-
lum Study: How the Modern Synthesis Perme-
ated 1960s American Classrooms, Joy M. Lisi
Rankin, Yale University
* Between the Two Biologies: Competing Vi-
sions of Molecular Evolution, *Sage R. Ross, Yale
University

THE PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IN PRINT
Commentator/chair: Lawrence Principe, The
Johns Hopkins University
* The Histoire des Animaux and the Early
Publication Projects of the Paris Academy of Sci-
ences, Anita Guerrini, Oregon State University
* Paper Voyages: Publishing the Paris Academy
of Sciences' Scientific Expeditions, *Florence C.
Hsia, University of Wisconsin, Madison
* Mathematics, Print Culture, and the Paris
Academy of Sciences, Robin E. Rider, University
of Wisconsin, Madison

SCIENTIFIC CONVENTIONS IN THIRD REPUBLIC
FRANCE
Commentator: Peter Galison, Harvard University
* Conventionalism in Practice: Henri Poin-
care's Analysis of Otto Wiener's experiment
(1890), Scott Walter, Universite Nancy 2
* On the Conventionality of Simultaneity,
Connemara Doran, Harvard University
* Conventions and the Organization of Scien-


tific Research at the Turn of the 20th century,
*Alex Csizar, Harvard University

PRACTICING BORDERLAND SCIENCE: MEDICAL
PHYSICS AND THE PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE
Commentator: Nicholas Rasmussen, University
ofNew South Wales
* Medical Physicists, Biology and the Physiol-
ogy of the Cell (1920-1940), Alexander Schwerin,
Technical University Braunschweig
* "Whither Medical Physics"? Medical Physics
in Britain, 1943-1960, Alison Kraft, University of
Nottingham
* Circuit Morphology: Interwar Medical Physics
and the Excitable Cell, *Max Stadler, Imperial College

THE KNOWN AND THE LIVED: SCIENCE AND EX-
PERIENCE IN 20TH-CENTURY BIOLOGY, PHYSICS
AND EARTH SCIENCES
Commentator: Adhelaid Voskuhl, Harvard
University
* Cell Cultures and the Specificity of Life:
From Philosophy of Biology to Histories of the
Organism, Isabel Grabel, Columbia University
* Turbulent Times: Pilots, Physicists, and the
Problem of Scale, Daniela Helbig, Harvard Uni-
versity
* Earthrise, or the Globalization of the World
Picture, *Benjamin Lazier, Reed College

LISTENING, ATTENTION: PERFORMANCE AND
PERCEPTION IN GERMAN CONCERT CULTURE,
1865-1965
Commentator: TBA
* The Aesthetics ofAttention: Ernst Mach's
Accommodation Experiments, His Musical Aes-
thetics, and His Friendship with Eduard Kulke,
*Alexandra Hui, Mississippi State University
* Listening to Emotions. Musical Hermeneu-
tics and the Concert Hall in the Culture of the
Fin de Siecle, Hansjakob Ziemer, Max Planck
Institute for the History of Science


Saturday Afternoon






History of Science Society Newsletter


* Listening to Noise: The Global Village as Con-
cert Hall, Ute Holl, Bauhaus Universitiit Weimar

PRACTICES OF SCIENCE IN MODERN INDIA
Chair: Asif Siddiqui, Fordham University
* Constructing Bhadralok Physics: Images
and Practices of Modern Science in Early 20th-
century India, Somaditya Banerjee, University of
British Columbia
* The Importance of Being Nuclear: Science
and State Formation in India, Jahnavi Phalkey,
Georgia Tech-Lorraine
* Ninety: A Story of Indian Thorium, Jaideep A
Prabhu, Vanderbilt University

COLLABORATIONS IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY
MATHEMATICS
* Unwilling Collaborations: Mathematics and
the Ethics of Professional Responsibility during
the Cold War, Sarah Bridger, Columbia University
* "Ifyou would consider a woman..." Gertrude Cox
and Collaboration in Experimental Statistics 1940-
64, Edith D. Sylla, North Carolina State University
* Gertrude Cox and Ronald Fisher: Two Statis-
tical Pioneers Often Collaborate and Sometimes
Collide, *Nancy S. Hall, University ofDelaware

PANEL DISCUSSION: FEDERAL FUNDING OP-
PORTUNITIES IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, NEH,
NSF, NIH
*Julia Nguyen, NEH
Frederick Kronz, NSF
Robert Martensen, NIH

Saturday, 6:00-11:00 p.m.
SOCIETY RECEPTION, MUSEUM TOUR AND DINNER
In honor of the 2009 Prize winners.
Heard Museum (http://www.heard.org)


Sunday, 22 November

Sunday, 9:00-10:00 a.m.
HSS Business Meeting


Sunday, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
DRAWING IN PRINT CULTURE: WHY CARTOONS
MATTER TO THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Commentator: Constance Clark, Worchester
Polytechnic Institute
* Chair: Bert Hansen, Baruch College
* Science Most Attenuated: The Entertain-
ing and Educational Development of Television
Weather Cartoons, *Roger Turner, University of
Pennsylvania
* Demonizing Evolution: Fundamentalist
Cartoons from the Scopes Era, Edward Davis,
Messiah College
* Graphic Tales of Cancer in Modern America,
Michael Rhode, National Museum ofHealth and
Medicine

BEYOND EVOLUTION VS. SPECIAL CREATION:
THE COMPLEXITY OF THE SPECIES QUESTION IN
THE AGE OF DARWIN
* The Autogenesis of Species in German Sci-
ence, 1790-1860, Nicolaas A. Rupke, Institut fir
Wissenschaftsgeschichte
* "[A]s we rise in the animal scale": Recapitu-
lation, Progressive Development, and Teaching
Comparative Anatomy in 1835 Britain, James
Elwick, York University
* Darwin's "Conversion" Reconsidered
(Again!), Paul D. Brinkman, North Carolina Mu-
seum ofNatural Sciences
* Darwin's Methodologically Conservative Revo-
lution, *Richard D. Bellon, Michigan State University

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE IN MEDIEVAL AND
EARLY MODERN EUROPE
Chair: William Eamon, New Mexico State
University
* Translatio as Scientific Practice: Chaucer as
"Lewd Compilator" of the Treatise on the As-
trolabe, Elly Truitt, Bryn Mawr University
* Universalizing Nature: Prediction and Ob-
servation in Renaissance Astrometeorology,
Darin Hayton, Haverford College


* July2009149


Sat.-Sun. Morning






History of Science Society Newsletter


* Making Remedies as Wissenschaft in Early
Modern Germany, *Alisha Rankin, Tufts Univer-
sity

FAMILIES, HOUSEHOLDS AND SCIENTIFIC WORK
IN FRANCE, 1620-1750
Chair: Andrea Rusnock, University of Rhode
Island
* Family Status and Engineering Authority:
The Case of Pierre-Paul Riquet and the Canal
du Midi, Chandra Mukerji, University of Calfor-
nia, San Diego
* The Family in the Network of Scientific
Creativity: The Case of Claude Perrault, 1666-
1688, *Oded Rabinovitch, Brown University
* Natural History Household: R6aumur and
Helene Dumoustier, Mary Terrall, UCLA
* Scientific Families: Emilie du Chatelet and
the Domestic Intellectual, Meghan Roberts,
Northwestern University

EUGENICS AFTER 1945
Commentator: Phillippa Levine, University
of Southern California
* Swedish Eugenics -Was it Ever Abandoned?
The Transformation of the Discourse and Prac-
tice on Reproductive Control in the 1960s and
1970s, Mattias Tyd6n, Institutefor Future Studies
* From Neon Genesis to Ectogenesis: The
Phenomenology of Posthuman Eugenics in
Japan, Jennifer Robertson, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor
* Old Eugenics, New Eugenics, and the Long
Twentieth Century, *Alison Bashford, Harvard
University

PHOTOGRAPHY AND AUTHENTICITY IN NINE-
TEENTH CENTURY SCIENCE
Chair: Jennifer Tucker, Wesleyan College
* W.H.F. Talbot and Roger Fenton at the Brit-
ish Museum. Photographs as Proxy in 19th-
century Assyriology, Mirjam Brusius, Cambridge
University
* Is Photography Trustworthy? Depicting


Antiquity in 19th-century Archaeology, Stefanie
Klamm, Max Planck Institute for the History of
Science
* Authenticating Nature: Situating Photo-
graphic Trust in the Late Nineteenth Century
Scientific Periodical Press, *Geoff Belknap,
Cambridge University
* Portraits of a Spark: Authenticating the In-
visible in Victorian Physicists' Images of Elec-
tricity, Chitra Ramalingam, Harvard University

HISTORICAL SCIENCE IN HISTORICAL SCIENCE:
HISTORICAL RECORDS AS SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Chair: David Spanagel, Worcester Polytechnic
Institute
* Past as Prediction: Victorian Scientists on
Ancient Eclipses and the Power of Science,
Matthew Stanley, New York University
* Dr. Velikovsky's Catastrophic World: Histor-
ical Evidence and Cosmological Conflict in the
Construction of Scientific Boundaries, Michael
Gordin, Princeton University
* Antiquities, Artifacts, and Agriculture: The In-
tersection of Natural and Human History in Early
Modern Britain, Elizabeth Yale, Harvard University

MAKING EARTH SCIENCE: PRACTICES, CON-
CEPTS, THINGS
* How American were the 49ers? The Transmis-
sion of Prospecting Knowledge from Germany to
America, Warren Dym, Bucknell University
* Earth, Wind, Water and Mining Machines:
Leibniz, Andre Wakefield, Pitzer College
* Archaeology and Erudition: Serapis and
Suess, *Ernst Hamm, York University

STATES, INSTITUTIONS, AND CULTURES OF HIGH
LATITUDE SCIENCE DURING THE TWENTIETH
CENTURY
Chair: Michael Robinson, University of
Hartford
* Bona Fides and Indiscretions: Defining Sci-
entists and Explorers in the Interwar Canadian
North, Christine Sawchuck, Cambridge University


Sunday Morning






History of Science Society Newsletter


* Heroes in the Age of Polar Aviation, 1925-
1930, Marionne Cronin, University of Toronto
* Ivory Towers and Icy Frontiers: Cambridge
and British Polar Exploration, 1920-1958,
*Peder Roberts, Stanford University
* Memory and Legacy: the Divergent Fate of
the International Biological and Geophysical
PolarYears, Michael Bravo, Cambridge University

MODELS AS TECHNOLOGIES OF CONCILIATION IN
THE EARLY MODERN REPUBLIC OF LETTERS
Chair: Matt Jones, Columbia University
* Orreries and Bowling Greens. Real and
Imaginary Models in'familiar' Introductions to
Astronomy, c. 1730-1780, Florence Grant, King's
College, London
* Condillac's Exemplary Theory, Jeff Schweg-
man, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
* Restitution, Plans and Knowledge in Archi-
tecture and Natural Philosophy, ca. 1650-1750,
Alexander Wragge-Morley, Cambridge University
* Making Philanthropy with Models, *Kelly
Whitmer, Max Planck Institutefor History of Science


Book Exhibit in Atrium

Hours:
Thursday, 7:00-8:30p.m.
Friday, 8:00 a.m.-5:00p.m.
Saturday, 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.
Sunday, 8:00 a.m.-12:00p.m.

Registration Desk Hours

Thursday, 3:00-7:00 p.m.
Friday, 8:00 a.m.-5:00p.m.
Saturday, 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.
Sunday, 9:00 a.m.-12:00p.m.


*July 51


Sunday Morning




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