Vo 38, No. 1, January 2009
o t is o Socie
Roger Turner with poster at the 2008 HSS Meeting. (Photo courtesy Sage Ross)
I LAUGHING AT THE WEATHER? THE SERIOUS WORLD
I've discovered that the TV
weather report was invent-
ed by discharged military
meteorologists during the
late 1940s, who combined
the narrative form of the
pre-flight briefing with com-
ic art to produce a popular
and broadly accessible
form of public science.
OF WEATHER CARTOONS
Roger Turner, a Ph.D. candidate in
History and Sociology of Science
at the University of Pennsylvania,
discusses his experiences as part of
the inaugural poster session at the
2008 HSS Meeting.
My first thought on reading
the call for papers was not
noble. I'm on the job market, and a
poster seemed a reliable route onto
the program. After all, how many
historians make posters? What began
as a resume builder ended up as an
exploration of popular print culture
in America and its intersection with
weather forecasting; from Wonder
Woman and her lasso of truth (created
by the inventor of the lie detector) to
But first, the medium. I hadn't
touched static visual media since a
bitter experience in a high school
language arts class. I love museums,
though, so I took wall exhibits as
my model. Posters are good for a
visual argument, allowing audiences
to linger over several images and to
compare them. Standing next to a
poster also lets you have a longer chat
with an audience, but the poster's text
and images must form a complete
story in the absence of an external
presenter. Unlike a verbal presenta-
tion, narrative is hard to control;
hardly anybody starts reading at the
Unfortunately, my dissertation
project is long on narrative and short
on images. A history of aeronautical
meteorology in the first half of the
20th century, my research tracks a
group of Scandinavian and American
meteorologists through their writ-
ings in operations manuals, research
journals, memos, and textbooks.
Out of all these, one drawing from a
1943 textbook stuck out. It shows the
hand of reason pulling back a curtain
marked "Weather Superstitions and
Fallacies," to reveal a winding path
posted with signs like "Bacon, Gali-
leo, Torricelli, Boyle," and "Air Mass
Analysis," and leading to a gleaming
peak labeled "Weather Control." Sort
of a cartoon history of meteorology.
Inspired by that cartoon, I
looked more closely at materials from
World War II.
continued, page 4
nS 1stor y
IN THIS ISSUE
IO Restoring Science as Culture in
12 Spencer Weart and his History of
A Where is History in the Science
20 HSS 2008 Prize Winners
5 Call or Papers for HSS 2009 Meeting
6 News & Inquiries
7 HSS/NASA Fellowship
8 International Congress of History of Science
15 Thank you to HSS Volunteers
16-17 Future Meetings/Jobs
17 Request for HSS Prize Nominations
19 Donations to NEH Challenge Fund
* History of Science Society
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Please notify both the HSS Executive Office and the Univer-
sity of Chicago Press.
Notes from the Inside
What's in a meeting?
As of this writing, 329 attendees of the 2008 HSS/PSA conferences
had responded to our meeting survey, a 33% response rate and a 14%
increase over the last joint-meeting results. What have we learned? Most
delegates said they were either satisfied or very satisfied with Pittsburgh
and the Omni William Penn (the conference hotel), 71% and 85% re-
spectively. This was our third meeting in Pittsburgh in the last 25 years
and each time, the city has not disappointed. Since our goal is to meet
in interesting cities, we asked which first-tier cities, such as Berlin, New
York, and San Francisco, would be most appealing. Chicago came out on
top, followed closely by San Francisco and then Seattle. The most popular
city outside the U.S. was London, but fewer than a third of respondents
preferred London, with costs the apparent limiting factor. In fact, over
40% of respondents recorded that they would not spend more than $175
U.S. per night for any hotel venue, effectively ruling out most major cities.
Indeed, when asked to identify obstacles for attending the meeting, 65%
cited costs, followed by problems receiving funding, covering classes, and
excessive travel time to Pittsburgh. Since second-tier cities typically offer
less expensive hotel rates, but also are more difficult to reach, we asked
respondents to indicate which of these they would most like to visit.
Portland, Oregon was mentioned most often, followed by Nashville, Ten-
nessee. Some of those surveyed suggested that we meet in cities with easy
access to large cities, but most people do not find the idea of meeting in
a suburb enticing. Some delegates stated that they rarely leave the confer-
ence hotel anyway, no matter where it is located, and so had no preference
for where we meet. But since experience shows that an attractive venue
can swell the meeting numbers as we experienced in Vancouver and
since expense looms so large in determining whether or not people can
attend, and since attendance affects whether or not we lose money on a
meeting, we will continue to balance all of these factors while planning
future HSS meetings. Organizing the HSS conferences gives me sympathy
for the alchemists, since, like the chymists of old, I rely on a combination
of science and art, and, sometimes, the dross does not turn into gold.
Thank you for your membership in the HSS.
-Jay Malone, Executive Director
EDITORIAL POLICIES, ADVERTISING AND SUBMISSIONS
The History of Science Society Newsletter is published in January, April, July, and October,
and sent to all individual members of the Society; those who reside outside of North America
pay an additional $5 annually to cover a portion of airmail charges. The Newsletter is available
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The Newsletter is edited and desktop published in the Executive Office. The format and
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on Publications and the Society Editor. All advertising copy must be submitted in electronic
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o 2009 by the History of Science Society
A Note on the History of Science in Portugal
I was surprised and disappointed to see no reference made to
the late Professor A. Jorge Andrade de Gouveia or to the Lisbon
Academy of Sciences in Dr. Ana Sim6es discussion of the "His-
tory of Science in Portugal: Where Do We Stand?"' A former
Rector of the University of Coimbra and a prominent chemist,
Professor Gouveia had a long interest in the history of science.
He had a special interest in the history of chemistry in Portugal
where there was an early acceptance of the new chemistry of
Lavoisier.2 He had earlier invited Professor R. Hooykaas to lec-
ture at Coimbra and he invited me in 1983 where I gave a series
of four lectures on the historiography of the history of science at
Coimbra and the Academy of Sciences in Lisbon.3
The following year Professor Gouveia was instrumental in
organizing the first of two symposia on the development of the
sciences in Portugal with Professor Pinto Peixoto at the Academy
of Science in Lisbon. The first of these dealt with the period to
1900 and met 15-19 April 1985. The proceedings of this meeting
were published in two volumes.4
A second symposium was convened at the Academy four
years later which was devoted to the 20th century. These papers
were gathered together in three volumes published in 1992.5
The significance of the history of Portuguese science was
recognized by the international community of scholars in a meet-
ing sponsored by the University of Coimbra, the International
Union of History and Philosophy of Science, and the Interna-
tional Council of Scientific Unions (18-22 April 1988). Professor
Hooykaas returned to Coimbra for this meeting and the collected
papers from 16 scholars were published as Revolutions in Science:
Their Meaning and Relevance (Canton, Massachusetts: Science
History Publications, 1988). Professor Gouveia's contribution
was recognized in the dedication to him as a "distinguished
chemist, long-time Rector of the University of Coimbra, and a
driving force behind the rapid growth of the History of Science in
1. Ana Sim6es, "History of Science in Portugal: Where Do We
Stand Today," History of Science Society Newsletter, 37(2008), 16-17.
2. See especially his introduction to Vicente Coelho de Seabra,
Elementos de Chimica: Reprodufao Fac-similada da Edicao Impressa
em Coimbra, na Real Oficina da Universidade em 1788 (Parte I)
e 1790 Parte II (Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra: Departa-
mento de Quimica, 1985), pp. vii-xviii.
3. Allen G. Debus, Science and History: A Chemist's Appraisal
(Coimbra: Edigio do Servigo de Documentagio e Publicac6es
da Universidade da Coimbra Subsidiado pela Fundagio Calouste
4. Histdria e Desenvolvimento da Ciincia em Portugal: I Coldquio
ate ao Secolo XX. Lisboa, 15 a 19 Abril de 1985 (2 vols., Lisboa:
Academia das Ci&ncias de Lisboa, 1986).
5. Histdria e Disenvolvimento da Ciincia em Portugal no Sec. XX:
Lisboa, 13 a 17de Novembro de 1989 (3 vols., Lisbon: Publicaq6es
do II Centenairio da Academia das Ci&ncias de Lisboa, 1992).
To celebrate the 500th anniversary of the birth of Paracel-
sus, Professor Gouveia arranged for additional lectures given at
the University of Coimbra and the Lisbon Academy of Sciences,
which were published in 1996. Unfortunately, illness and ad-
vancing age brought a halt to these efforts. Nevertheless, I think
that it is hard to judge the state of the history of science in Portu-
gal without taking into account Professor Gouveia's devotion and
significant contributions to the field.
-Allen G. Debus, The University of Chicago
6. William R. Shea, editor, Revolutions in Science: Their Meaning and
Relevance (Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1988), p. 9.
7. Allen G. Debus, Paracelsus and the Chemical Factor in the
Scientific Revolution, introduction by A.J. Andrade Gouveia and
J. Sim6es Redinha (Lisbon: Academia das Ci&ncias, 1996). These
papers were also published separately in the Memdrias da Aca-
demia das Ciincias de Lisboa Classe de Ciincias, vol. XXXVI.
Ii r Massachusetts Institute of Technology
I'lir -- --,,..,.,,,
Postdoctoral Fellowship in
Energy and Society
The MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI), established in September
2006, is an Institute-wide initiative designed to help transform
the global energy system to meet the needs of the future
and to help build a bridge to that future by improving today's
energy systems. As part of this important effort, the School
of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences will offer a two-year
postdoctoral fellowship (with a possible third year) in Energy
and Society, effective 1 July 2009. Candidates must have a
Ph.D. in history, economics, political science, history and/or
social studies of science and technology, or anthropology. This
postdoctoral fellowship will help the candidate develop a project
that concerns energy production, consumption, or regulation
in a broad context. The successful candidate will develop an
undergraduate class on energy and society, teach one class per
year in the relevant department, and will work with departmental
and Institute colleagues to conceive and sponsor a workshop
and other activities on energy issues that would benefit the
discipline and the social study of energy at MIT.
Applications should include a cover letter, research proposal
(2 pages maximum), curriculum vitae, and three letters of
Dean Deborah Fitzgerald,
School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E51-255,
77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139
Applications must be received by 15 January 2009.
MIT is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.
Applications from women, minorities, veterans, older workers,
and individuals with disabilities are strongly encouraged.
For more information about the MIT School of Humanities, Arts, and
Social Sciences please go to: http://web.mit.edulshass/
II I I I
(continued from page 1)
Over the last five years, I've collected
several hundred items of weather-related
ephemera and books, mostly on eBay.
Going through my shelves, I noticed
the many cartoons in texts designed to
train soldiers and pilots. Simple line
art, often featuring recurring comic
characters, these images reinforced key
messages with a funny and memorable
picture. Up until my poster research, I
had ignored the silly cartoons that now
proved the most obvious and interesting
feature of these manuals.
Figuring out why
the military went mad
for cartoons whisked
me into a far richer
story than I expected,
one that included Ken
Alder's article on the
lie detector, which
mentioned that one of
the machine's inventors
also created Wonder
Woman and her lasso
of truth. "Of course!" I
thought. Comic books
were the favorite read-
ing material for young
men in the 1940s. A bit
of time in the library
revealed that comic books and, even
more so, comic strips in newspapers and
advertising had made comic art the
most widely shared aspect of American
print culture by the 1930s. A day or
two later, while searching for second-
ary literature on comic art in weather
training, I found references to meteo-
rologists who drew cartoons for televi-
sion weather reports. After a semester's
worth of research, I've discovered that
the TV weather report was invented by
discharged military meteorologists dur-
ing the late 1940s, who combined the
narrative form of the pre-flight briefing
with comic art to produce a popular and
broadly accessible form of public sci-
ence. But comic art's enduring valences
as entertainment and low culture had an
unexpected consequence on meteorol-
ogy. Some TV stations required trained
forecasters to take cartooning classes,
while many others hired entertainers
rather than meteorologists. Meteo-
rologists have struggled to control TV
weather ever since.
Constructing the poster was fun
but challenging. I used PowerPoint,
which can create posters up to 36"
x 56". That gave space for 18 images
and about 500 words of captions and
header text, though somewhat bigger
text would have been better; 24pt is
probably a minimum.
I laid out the argu-
ment in three frames,
echoing the form of
a comic strip. I used
solid black text over a
very light, cloudy blue
sky background, and
arranged color as well
as black and white im-
ages. Printing on glossy
paper cost about $100
at Kinkos, and took
overnight. Have them
print you a proof first,
and scrutinize it!
poster was a wonder-
ful experience. For nearly four hours,
people paused to look and ask ques-
tions. Viewers seemed more engaged
than during paper presentations, and
I could readily assess which aspects
Best of all, the poster improved
my scholarship while sparking research
that also engaged the wider public. My
university's publicity group featured
weather cartoons in a Web-slide show,
which attracted a profile in the universi-
ty newspaper and a freelance writer who
produced a forthcoming piece for Air
e Space magazine. Finally, creating this
poster reinforced the power of images to
communicate ideas, a power up till now
I'd not considered in my dissertation.
A 1940 aviation insurance booklet used car-
toon strategies like recurring characters, per-
sonified clouds, and humorous scenes to make
safety messages more memorable for pilots.
i S6 W
I I Itc .-~
I noticed the many
cartoons in texts
designed to train
soldiers and pilots.
Simple line art, often
these images rein-
forced key messages
with a funny and
SPARRING WITH THE WEATHE-
AtO INSURANCE LUWNOWRfIES
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 HSS MEETING
Some Guidelines to Presentations at the
Those who are not familiar with the HSS annual
meeting may wonder what kinds of papers should be pre-
sented. The answer is that this is not the place to try out
an introduction to a topic from a seminar paper, nor is the
meeting a workshop for you to explore preliminary ideas
on a topic or to discuss the bibliography of a work in prog-
ress, nor is it the time to edit during your presentation or
read a densely packed paper, inaccessible to others. Rather,
attendees at the annual HSS meeting expect polished and
practiced presentations that end on time. You may read a
paper, though that is often much less effective than talk-
ing through your ideas in a logical and coherent fashion.
You may use Powerpoint, but too many people rely on
images rather than words, thus weakening the impact of
their argument. You must be aware of exactly how long it
takes to present your ideas (15-20 minutes). A 20-minute
slot translates into no more than 12 pages (large type size,
double spaced) and 12 slides, and we insist that session
chairs observe the allotted amount of time (practicing
your presentation beforehand is always recommended).
HSS conferences feature multiple, competing sessions,
in which all papers are arranged to begin and end at the
same time. Not only will audience members leave if you
are not effective, if you go over your allotted time, you
disrupt the schedule and curtail the time for co-present-
ers in your session. The best presentations make a clear
point that listeners can remember and discuss later. The
HSS Web site will have answers to FAQs to offer further
guidance. By observing these guidelines, you will not only
enhance your professionalism, you will elevate the quality
of the annual meeting.
HSS 2oo9 Annual Meeting:
Call for Papers
Phoenix, AZ, USA
19-22 November 2009
The History of Science Society will hold its 2009
Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona in the Hyatt
hotel in downtown Phoenix (the weekend before the
U.S. Thanksgiving). Proposals for sessions, contributed
papers, and posters must be submitted by 1 April
2009 to the History of Science Society's Executive
Office. Papers that are part of a session (i.e. sessions
with an organizer) are due no later than 8 April 2009.
Poster proposals must describe the visual material that
will make up the poster. The HSS encourages pre-
circulated papers. Electronic submissions are strongly
encouraged please go to http://www.hssonline.org
after 1 January 2009.
Submissions on all topics are requested. All
proposals must be submitted on the HSS Web site
(http://www.hssonline.org) or on the annual meeting
proposal forms that are available from the HSS
Executive Office. HSS members are asked to circulate
this announcement to non-HSS colleagues who may
be interested in presenting a paper or poster at the
Annual Meeting. You do not need to be a member to
participate, but all participants must register for the
meeting. Applicants are encouraged to propose sessions
that include diverse participants: a mix of men and
women and/or a balance of professional ranks (e.g.,
mixing senior scholars with junior scholars and graduate
students). Strong preference will be given to panels
whose presenters have different institutional affiliations.
Only one proposal per person may be submitted. In
order to ensure broad involvement, an individual may
only appear once on the program (see the guidelines
for exceptions). Prior participation (not including poster
sessions) at the 2007 or 2008 meetings will be taken
Before sending a proposal to the HSS Office,
we ask that everyone read the Committee on
Meetings and Programs' "Guidelines for Selecting
Papers, Posters, and Sessions" (on the HSS Web site).
The 2009 program co-chairs are Cathryn Carson
(University of California, Berkeley) and Jessica Riskin
Arts & Sciences
The History of Science Society and the Philosophy
of Science Association wish to thank The School of
Arts and Sciences (University of Pittsburgh) for its
sponsorship of the 2008 Meeting.
NEWS AND INQUIRIES
Applicants Wanted for Seminar on
Disease in the Middle Ages
Scholars are invited to apply to participate in the seminar
"Disease in the Middle Ages," to be held 5 July 8
August 2009 in London. Gathering scholars interested
in health, disease and disability in medieval Europe,
the seminar's primary goal will be to explore how the
new scientific technologies of identifying pathogens
(particularly leprosy and plague) can inform traditional,
humanistic methods of understanding cultural responses
to disease and disability. A stipend of $3800 is provided
to all participants. Deadline: 2 March 2009. For further
information: http://medievalseminar2009.asu.edu. Or contact
by phone: (480) 965-4661, fax: (480) 965-1681, or e-mail
Making Visible Embryos: Online Exhibition
10 1% anow- -HL _
Ella Lippmann (1882-1967)finishes a wax embryo. From
1918 until 1959 she was the head modeller or mouleuse at the
German Hygiene Museum in Dresden.
This online exhibition is about how embryo images were
produced and made to represent some of the most potent
biomedical objects and subjects of our time. It contextualizes
6 History of Scence Sociey ewsletter *January 2009
such icons as Ernst Haeckel's allegedly forged Darwinist
grids and Lennart Nilsson's 'drama of life before birth' on a
1965 cover of Life magazine. It also interprets over 120 now
little-known drawings, engravings, woodcuts, paintings,
wax models, X-rays and ultrasound scans from the fifteenth
to the twenty-first century. It displays the work of making
visible embryos. The exhibition is by Tatjana Buklijas and
Nick Hopwood (University of Cambridge) with support
from the Wellcome Trust. Visit http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/
visibleembryos/ or contact: email@example.com.
Call for Authors: ABC-CLIO, Science/
ABC-CLIO is developing a comprehensive 21-volume En-
cyclopedia of World History. We are looking for interested
scholars to prepare 200-1500 word articles with a global
perspective in the area of the History of Science, Medicine,
and Technology. Contributors must have a Ph.D., ABD or
have recognized expertise in the field. For listing of open
topics, visit: http://www.abc-clio.com/academic/aboutus/
Arizona State University: Graduate Pro-
grams in Science and Society
ASU has particular strengths in the history and philosophy
of developmental biology, conservation biology, evolution-
ary theory, social evolution and systematics as well as in
general philosophy of science and decision theory. Research
in these areas is conducted in close collaboration with cam-
pus research centers and institutes in the sciences, social
sciences, humanities, and science policy. Contact: Jane
Maienschein (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Felicity Snyder
(email@example.com) or Paul Hirt (firstname.lastname@example.org).
For further information: http://history.clas.asu.edu/gradu-
ate; http://sols.asu.edu/grad/bio_soc.php; or http://sols.asu.
Vienna International Summer University,
"The Culture of Science and Its Philoso-
The ninth annual Vienna International Summer University
(VISU) will be held at the University of Vienna, Austria,
on the topic, "The Culture of Science and Its Philosophy,"
13-24 July 2009. This two-week course for international
graduate students reflects the heritage of the Vienna Circle
and is dedicated to major current issues in the natural and
social sciences and their history and philosophy. Deadline for
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
applications is 30 January 2009 (later applications will be
considered if space is still available). For further informa-
tion, see http://www.univie.ac.at/ivc/VISU.
Call for Authors: History of Science and
Technology Reference Book
M.E. Sharpe, a New York-based academic and reference
publisher, and East River Books, a reference book pro-
ducer, seek contributing scholars for a reference work on
the history of science and technology from prehistoric
times through the present-day. The project is aimed at the
academic high school and undergraduate student. Articles
will vary in length from 1,000-4,000 words and many will
be accompanied by ancillary materials, including charts,
sidebars, tables, and primary documents. Contributors will
receive authorial credit, a modest cash honorarium and/or
copy of the full encyclopedia set. For further information:
New Book Series: Science/Technology/
This series seeks to publish engaging books that illuminate
the role of science and technology in American life and
culture. Although the series is open to a diverse range of
approaches and encourages interdisciplinary scholarship,
the editors are particularly interested in manuscripts and
proposals that address issues such as: The ways in which
history, culture, politics, and/or power shape scientific
and technological processes and products; the production,
consumption, and reappropriation of technological and
scientific objects and ideas; the historical and cultural
factors that influence technological and scientific "failure"
and "success"; the impact of U. S.-produced science
and technology at home and abroad; the unintended
consequences of science and technology, within and beyond
the United States. Further information: http://www.umass.
Editor Seeks Contributor for Historical
Section in Chemical Risk/Safety Book
For over 40 years multi-lateral instruments have addressed
the safety and dangers of chemicals on the world stage.
Many international organizations, professional societies,
and legal instruments are already in place to deal with
chemicals management. A multi-authored book in
preparation, Global Collaborations in Managing Chemical
and Environmental Risks (Taylor and Francis) will review
and analyze these efforts. A contributor is sought for the
introductory section, which will set the historical context
of chemical use, misuse, and control. This section will be
about 25 printed pages. Send expressions of interest to the
Editor-in-Chief, Philip Wexler, at email@example.com.
Chapter must be completed by May 1, 2009.
The HSS/NASA Fellowship in the
History of Space Science
The History of Science Society Fellowship in the
History of Space Science, supported by the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) History
Division, funds a nine-month research project that is
related to any aspect of the history of space science.
Applicants must possess a doctorate degree in history of
science or in a closely related field, or be enrolled as a student
in a doctoral degree-granting program and have completed
all requirements for the Ph.D., except the dissertation, in
history of science or a related field. Eligibility is not limited
to U.S. citizens or residents. Deadline: Applications must be
received by 3 March 2009.
Obligations of the Recipient
1. The recipient shall engage in space science research for
nine months, normally August-May, but within the period
from 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010.
2. While receiving the stipend, the fellow shall devote his/
her efforts largely to the research program.
3. The Fellow shall provide to the NASA History Office
a copy of any publications that emerge from the research
undertaken during the fellowship year.
4. The Fellow will be responsible for office space, equipment,
5. The Fellow will be expected to present a paper or public
lecture on the findings of the research.
6. The Fellow will write a report at the term's conclusion.
7. By accepting the fellowship, the recipient incurs no
obligations to NASA or HSS as regards future publications.
Term and Stipend
The stipend is $17,000 for a nine-month fellowship
during the period 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010. The
starting and ending dates within that period are flexible.
For further information and application form
go to http://www.hssonline.org/about/society_
Travel Grants: XXIII International Congress of
History of Science
Travel grants are available for graduate students, independent
scholars and junior faculty to attend the XXIII International Congress
of History of Science, 28 July 2 August 2009, Ideas and Instruments
in Social Context, Budapest, Hungary.
The National Science Foundation, in conjunction with a consortium
comprised of members from HSS, PSA, SHOT, and 4S, has travel grants for
graduate students, independent scholars, and junior scholars to participate
in the quadrennial meeting of the International Union of the History and
Philosophy of Science. Only those participating in the meeting may receive
grants and priority will given to graduate students and independent scholars
and members of the four societies. The maximum award will be $1200 U.S.,
to be used solely for travel expenses. Awards will be provided as a reimburse-
ment for expenses upon receipt of an official travel reimbursement form, along
with receipts. For reimbursement, air travel must be completed in accordance
with NSF guidelines. All applications will be processed through the History
of Science Society Executive Office. To apply, go to http://www.hssonline.org
and click on the link for the Budapest grants. The travel grant deadline is 1
May 2009. For questions about the grants, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
To participate in the conference, submit an abstract using the abstract
form available on the Congress Web site: http://www.conferences.hu/ichs09
no later than 15 February 2009. (Only one paper per person). Notification
of acceptance will be sent 15 March 2009. For further information, please
consult the Congress Web site.
History of Meteorology 4 (2008)
is now available at http://
21 11 ,sl-, r. ,. Fi .r ,,,.1..; _-i'.
The second number of the
Museum History Journal has now
The University of Notre Dame
and Rome's Pontifical Gregorian
University will hold a conference
in March on evolution as part
of the celebrations of the 150th
anniversary of the publication On
the Origin of Species.
IHPST November newsletter is
now available: http://www.ihpst.
Perrin Selcer (University of
Pennsylvaina) won the 2008
Burnham Award for his essay
"The View from Everywhere:
Disciplining Diversity in post-
WWII International Social
WGBH Boston Video and
NOVA have produced three
documentaries: ancient dino-
saurs in the Arctic with Arctic
Creatures of the Cretaceous?; the
NASA space shuttle program
and where it went wrong with
Columbia: Space Shuttle Disaster;
and Alien from Earth: The Little
Klaas van Berkel (University of Gron-
ingen) will be the next Erasmus Lecturer
on the History and Civilization of the
Netherlands and Flanders at Harvard Uni-
versity. He will teach at the Department of
History of Science during the fall semester
of the academic year 2009-2010.
H. Floris Cohen (University of Utre-
cht) won the Dutch Eureka Prize for De
herschepping van de wereld. Het ontstaan
van de moderne natuurwetenschap verk-
laard (Recreation of the World: The Rise of
Modern Science Explained). The prize was
awarded for the best 2007 book to make
science and scholarship accessible to a
Angela Creager (Princeton University),
Richard Creath (Arizona State Univer-
sity), and David H. DeVorkin (National
Air and Space Museum) have been elected
Fellows in the AAAS.
Thomas Stapleford (University of Notre
Dame) has been awarded a fellowship as
part of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences' Visiting Scholars Program.
His project is titled "Home and Mar-
ket: Women, Economics, and the Study
of Consumption, 1910-1960," which
describes how female economists working
in universities and government agencies
pursued the first, major empirical research
on "household economics."
Laura Stark received the 2008 FHHS/
JHBS John C. Burnham Early Career
Award for her dissertation "Morality in
Science: How Research is Evaluated in the
Age of Human Subjects Regulation."
Alain Touwaide (Smithsonian Institu-
tion) has been elected as a Fellow in the
AAAS for distinguished contributions to
the understanding of ancient, medieval
and early modern roots of the modern life
sciences and especially for all that followed
from knowledge of plants in antiquity.
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marika Ainley died 26 September
2008. Born in 1937 in Hungary, Ainley
studied industrial chemistry before
moving to Canada, where she taught
chemistry at Concordia University.
She earned her Ph.D. in the history of
science from McGill University in 1985.
Ainley was principal of the Simone
de Beauvoir Institute at Concordia
University from 1991 to 1995. She then
served as professor and chair of women's
studies at the University of Northern
British Columbia, and continued to
teach until 2002. Her work focused on
the history of Canadian women and
John C. Greene, former president of
the HSS, died on 12 November 2008.
He was 91. Born 5 March 1917 in
Indianapolis, Indiana, he was raised in
South Dakota and received his Ph.D.
John C. Greene
from Harvard in 1952, after serving
in World War II. He spent most of his
career (1968-1998) at the University of
Connecticut, Storrs, where he taught the
history of science. In addition to serving
as President of the HSS (1975-76) he
also served as the Society's Secretary. In
2002, he received the Sarton Medal for a
lifetime of scholarly achievement.
Michael S. Mahoney died 23 July 2008.
Born in New York City on 30 June 1939,
he received his Ph.D. from Princeton
University in 1967. Mahoney divided his
research and teaching between the de-
velopment of the mathematical sciences
from antiquity to 1700 and the recent
history of computing and information
technology. He was the author of "The
Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fer-
mat, 1601-1665"; a series of monographs
on the mathematics of Rend Descartes,
Isaac Barrow, Christiaan Huygens and
Isaac Newton; and dozens of articles on
the development of computer science and
software engineering as new technical
disciplines. Mahoney was a member of
the History of Science Society, the Soci-
ety for the History of Technology, and the
Association for Computing Machinery.
To subscrbe to any of these ournals, please visit the IndGdual Ffari
ounal's webslte and click on "News and Offers",n .
RESTORING SCIENCE AS CULTURE IN PORTUGAL
Using the 27th Annual Conference of the Scientific Instru-
ment Commission as a starting point, David Pantalony
presses for the integration of scientific objects into a wider
variety of cultural venues.
Portugal, once a country of explorers, is now for explorers
the cultural kind; and the history of science is emerg-
ing as an important part of this scene. At the opening session
of the 2008 annual conference for the Scientific Instrument
Commission (16-21 September) at the Museu de Ciencia in
Lisbon, Mario Soares, the former President of Portugal, ad-
dressed participants about the urgency to preserve scientific
heritage; he was followed by the Rector of the University of
Lisbon, who spoke eloquently about the Museu de Ciencia's
historic instrument collections, botanical gardens and natural
history collections as a vital part of a developing cultural zone
in Lisbon. It is rare to hear decision-makers talk about the
history of science as a central part of the
national and urban culture economy.
There was much anticipation for the
27th annual SIC conference. In recent
years, scholars have been learning about
remarkable collections of historic instru-
ments in Lisbon, Porto, and Coimbra.
The perfectly preserved, near-complete
collection of nineteenth-century French
instruments at the University of Coimbra
(the reason I have visited there three times
in the last four years) is one of the best
snapshots of the Parisian precision trade
outside of France. One finds its parallel
in French paintings and decorative arts at
Lisbon's renowned Gulbenkian Museum.
Outside the entrance to the Museu de Ciencia, Lisbon, Portugal
(photo from SIC Lisbon 2008 Web site)
What can we do with
these collections? One
answer is to encour-
age more integration into
tions, programs and
installations that raise
unlikely connections and
foster a new dialogue with
the public about science.
With this kind of untapped potential,
institutions across the country are in the
midst of coordinating a national inventory
of scientific collections. One of the leaders of
this effort, Marta Lourengo, has studied the
origins and present challenges of hundreds of
university collections across Europe (includ-
ing those in archaeology, fine arts, scientific
instruments, medical, natural history etc.).
She calls this vast network of neglected
material knowledge, which has shaped and
continues to shape Western civilization, the
"dark matter" of our universities.'
One outgrowth of this work in Portu-
gal is a unique emphasis on preserving the
original spaces related to these collections.
The Museu de Ciencia in Lisbon, formerly
the Polytechnical University, has restored
The "Gabinete de Fisica,",:' .- F..* 1772 at the
University of Coimbra (photo courtesy Davidr .- P '. ,)
a 19th-century chemical laboratory with the original instru-
ments, documents, laboratory benches, basins, fume hoods and
an adjacent demonstration/lecture amphitheater. Within the
same museum one finds a natural history collection from the
19th century; outside the building, part of the larger museum
complex, one can wander through the historic botanical gardens
of Lisbon that were once a research and teaching resource. Each
collection offers parallel, comparative exploration into Portugal's
past; each embodies an astoundingly preserved diversity. At the
University of Coimbra, the oldest university in Portugal (1308),
recently named a UNESCO world heritage center, a wide
spectrum of the 18th century is similarly preserved in a baroque
library, historic botanical gardens, the old physics faculty, and
the former chemistry building and laboratory, which is now a
restored museum and education
a complete physical cabinet front
with instruments from London,
makers, which remain in their o
the Brazilian wood cases. The U
other local collections are under
These Portuguese initiatives
appropriate backdrop for the an
activities (talks, workshops, seve
and collection visits), with an in
emphasis on integration into a b
historical and public audience. C
repeated conference theme, ow-
ing to Portugal's strength in this
area, was instruments and their
spaces. There were several
talks about instruments and
architecture and their inter-
actions in a wider historical
context. There were also talks
about innovative and ambi-
tious preservation projects,
including descriptions of lit-
tle-known collections and musei
new faces, such as an installation
mation from collections world-w
installation piece of historic sam
about a relatively familiar instru
demonstrated the shift within tl
to novel interpretations and there
Debbie Douglas of the MIT Mu
has been creating an exhibit on
recently-acquired Keuffel & Ess
rule collection. The exhibit will
be an old-fashioned tale of slide
how they worked and their imp
science; rather, it will be a culture
ploration of this scientific icon,
along with browline glasses and
ties were part of the standard M
uniform in the 1950s and 60s.
What can we do with these
elections? One answer is to encou
more integration into mixed-dis
exhibitions, programs and instal
that raise unlikely connections a
foster a new dialogue with the p
about science. Historic instrume
not just a strange sub-specialty v
the history of science, but have t
potential to play a larger public r
become part of other discussions
life and society. The basic theme
how we need to explore and size
center. The physics faculty has surroundings, for example, followed me throughout the week
Sthe late eighteenth-century of the conference. On a trip to the Centro de Arte Moderna
Paris and local Portuguese at the Gulbenkian Foundation, I visited Susana Anigua's
original positions within installation "Northless" which featured a wall-size video
diversity of Porto and projection of an inchworm (family name- Geometridae
talkln inil Iv pr .' ,, ni ."i r juggling to find its way in an
,t, iI, Ii- Ii-1..n lt. Two other walls displayed
ssci .. d .1', a n '. f ..... .Iir l, .usly rotating radar antenna
nul >!C_ n11d 1 p L,1J IIl.d with hundreds of randomly
ral ,r .u. ,r, u,.:r Irn i r'. Kinetic compasses. A day later,
cre in ,,, l1 r k ,, ,'Lisbon's Museu de Ciencia,
. road, r ~I colleagues and I fumbled with
)n, 1 on. L ned to operate replicas of Ka-
nl, i. Lstrolabes, Jacob's staffs, and
qu dirants with the help of Jos6
IP reira, a retired officer of the
Portuguese Navy, I felt like
we were acting out the hu-
man section ofAnigua's
Multi-colored chemical samples in the collc. of at the Parada Leitdo installation, unexpected
Museum, Institute Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal (photo partners with radar sys-
-ourtesy David P .- to teams, inchworms and navi-
gators of all stripes. A visit
to the Maritime Museum
ums in Brazil. There were many provided the full breadth of this quintessential Portuguese activ-
n artist who has gathered infor- ity, in all its instrumental, nautical and colonial manifestations.
tide to produce a photographic Could these diverse but related experiences be brought together
ples of Iceland Spar.2 One talk into an unofficial city-wide exhibition? There is something about
ment the dense and diverse cultural landscape
xe SIC of Lisbon that produces these kinds of
nes. connections. I look forward to seeing
iseum how their collections develop, and how
their they integrate further into the city's
er slide ............. ... culture zone.
rules, DavidPantalony is Curator oj-[' .'
act on Sciences and Medicine at the Canada
al ex- Science and Technology Museum.
slim For information on the conference, visit:
rage 1 1. "Between Two Worlds: The
cipline Distinct Nature and Contemporary
lations Significance of University Museums
nd and Collections in Europe," Ph.D.
public dissertation, Conservatoire National
nts are des Arts et M&iers, Paris
within October, 2005, Marta C. Lou-
he rengo, http://webpages.fc.ul.
ole Costantino Sigismondi of the University ofRome pt/rmclourenco/
about at a navigation workshop on the roofofthe Museu 2. See Toril Johannessen's "In
of de Ci~ncia. Participants linedup their sites Search of Iceland Spar," at http://
-up our overlooking historic Lisbon and the Tagus river. www.torilj ohannessen.no/
(Photo from SIC Lisbon 2008 Web site)
SPENCER WEART AND HIS HISTORY OF SCIENCE
F or a historian, Spencer Weart has a surprising tendency to
focus on the issues of today. His work spans sunspots and
global warming, archives and education, modern physics and
nuclear fears. Director of the Center for History of Physics
at the American Institute of Physics, he will retire in January
2009 after a 35-year career at the AIP.
Weart's own career took him from doing physics to under-
standing the cultural resonances of nuclear technologies and
to a sweeping survey of the history of climate change. After a
Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado and a
post-doctoral stint in solar physics at Caltech, NASA offered
Weart ajob building a solar telescope, which he turned down
(just as well, he notes, as the solar telescope was delayed for 30
years). Weart was faced with either finding a physics position
outside the unpromising field of solar physics or returning to
school. He chose Berkeley and the history of science. "What
the hell, I always enjoyed doing history," says Weart. "I took a
chance and it worked out. I was born in 1942, so I could afford
to take a few years and slip in before the baby boomers started
filling the job market."
The first sign of his changed circumstances was the loss of
access to the machine tools and screws of the physics depart-
ment's stock room, and thus a inability to fix his bike. Of more
importance were the cultural differences. "In physics, depart-
ments doors are always open; in history departments, doors
are closed." Roger Hahn, one of Weart's teachers at Berkeley,
described it to him thus: "In physics, different lines of inquiry
attract one another; in history they repel one another." Despite
some cooperative history of science work, including a statistics
project with John Heilbron and Paul Forman, Weart says the
cooperative spirit of the physics community does not adapt well
to history of science.
One historically useful aspect of his background is the
general physical knowledge Weart brings to subjects such
as climate science. "Beyond that, physics encourages you to
generalize and to look for evidence to test and not to fool
yourself, so you can come out with general conclusions without
getting carried away." This approach helped Weart in Nuclear
Fear: A History of Images (1988), a psychosocial and sociological
analysis of the irrational components of human relationships
with nuclear energy. "It's quite extraordinary how many hooks
latch on to very deep things monsters and mad scientists and
the end of the world, death rays and life rays and weapons."
Weart expected his work on climate change (The Discovery
of Global Warming, 2003, updated 2008) to provide similar
hooks, but found little. Despite the Cold War's end, nuclear
fear now, via terrorism remains potent (a second, up-to-
date edition of Nuclear Fear will appear in 2010). "If you take
away the nuclear aspect, it is not clear that 9/11 would have had
anything like the impact it did have. Weapons of mass destruc-
tion are supposed to include nuclear, biological and chemical,
but biological and chemical weapons are not weapons of mass
destruction, they're weapons of mass mortality." Studies of
Google hits on linked words such as "terrorist" and "nuclear"
compared with "terrorist" and "poison" give much greater
numbers to the former.
Global warming is not completely bereft of deep symbol-
ism. "It's not by accident that the rising sea level which isn't
going to affect most people in the present century is neverthe-
less the one people talk about the most. The city being flooded
has a deep, old resonance." Weart is both amused and bemused
by the choice of the polar bear as global warming's iconic im-
age a completely fearless land predator that regards humans
as nothing but food. "To most people global warming affects
polar bears and, maybe, the inhabitants of Pacific Islands."
Weart's research has taken him beyond the history of sci-
ence and physics. Sparked by his work on radicals and nuclear
opponents for Nuclear Fear, Weart began to wonder about the
term "better red than dead," and its ideological implication that
communist countries did not war against each other. "By the
1970s we knew that communist countries went to war with one
another, so that was a false thing to say, and of course democra-
cies fight each other, too... then I stopped to think: when do
democracies ever go to war with one another?"
While teaching part-time at Princeton, Weart buttonholed
other historians to ask if they knew of any warring democracies.
They all shook their heads. A year later he found a small group
of political scientists studying the topic, with Michael Doyle,
one of the pioneers, working in the political science department
at Princeton. "Talk about the ghettoization of scholarly fields,"
Weart says, adding that when he gave seminars on what became
his book Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One
Another (1998) he was introduced not as a historian doing
political science, but as a physicist doing political science. "That
sounded far more prestigious to the political scientists."
y/feart joined the Center for History of Physics in 1974.
~ "It was fun to go up to any great physicist with a tape
recorder and say, 'tell me all about your life.' Scientists are
underappreciated; they get Nobel Prizes but that doesn't mean
their grandchildren ask them, 'What did you do grandpa?"'
The History Center, established in 1965 and developed by
Charles Weiner and Joan Warnow, was created by physicists
with a dual motive: to preserve their history and to publicize it,
so that, as Weart says, "the public would appreciate them more."
"There was a kind of leverage model: we would save the
material, scholars would use it to write books, journalists and
teachers would read them, and they would be presented to stu-
dents. Then the Internet came along and we could skip all that
and go directly to the public."
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physicists remain a major audience, and
while much of the History Center's funding
comes directly through the AIP, individual physi-
cists will also donate money. "Physicists don't
take an instrumental attitude; they just think
history is a good thing and that the memory of
what they did and what their teachers and their
colleagues did should not be lost." And physicists
on the whole, says Weart, are fascinated by their
own history. "Physics' impact on humans think-
ing about their place in the universe has been
profound; there is a tradition of having a deep
engagement with religious questions. Darwinism
engages with the Bible, but not in deeper religious
questions Spinoza's questions to the same
extent as physics."
Yet no one is calling for Newtonianism to be
banned in schools. Not so fast, says Weart. "The
anti-Darwinists range from people who don't like
the idea that we're descended from apes and the
struggle for survival to Young Earth creationists. These people
have a lot of trouble with astronomers, geologists, and with the
whole range of physical sciences. You hear controversies over
the age of the Grand Canyon and over radioactive dating; these
are sub rosa battles being fought out over Darwinian evolution,
but if, for some reason, people were able to teach pure Creation-
ism, they would very quickly find themselves in conflict with
the entire physical science community."
Weart's online work on global warming for the History
Center (http://www.aip.org/history/climate) dwarfs his book
on the subject. "Probably more people read the Web site or
at least visit it in a week than have ever read the book. I get
e-mail responses from people saying, 'I find your site useful for
giving me arguments to use against skeptics'; or 'the historical
approach gives me a good insight into the science'; or 'you're
nuts; don't you realize that carbon dioxide is heavier than air,
it settles down to the surface and can't possibly be causing the
greenhouse effect.'" At approximately 450,000 words, the site
is a scholarly work with thousands of footnotes, references, and
hyperlinks between essays, the latter especially useful since
many of the researchers in climate science remained unaware of
each other's work until recently.
His science background gives Weart the ballast to go
beyond historical discussion and into the rapids of political
activism. In a personal note on the global warming section of
the Center for History's Web site, he wrote:
"In short: individuals can and should do two things (as I
have done). Cut back your greenhouse gas emissions. And at
appropriate times let your political representatives know that
your vote will be swayed by their actual activity not mean-
ingless lip service to push for serious action against global
Plenty of work remains to be done in the history of physics;
even internalism is not tapped out, believes Weart, though
Spencer Weart (photo courtesy Sage Ross)
opportunities are limited. While a barely dug field awaits
historians of some recent physics, the sheer technical difficulty
is overwhelming. "If you do know enough about particle theory
and string theory to write it up, no one can understand it
except string theorists; even the average physicist can't." Other
fields within physics such as cosmology are less technically
difficult and can be mined by historians of science, but Weart
adds that journalists, rather than historians, dominate. Solid
state physics has also been neglected, probably, says Weart, "be-
cause it doesn't have the philosophical resonance of quantum
mechanics and relativity. It doesn't have the fascination that
can interest you, and interest your students, and be written up
for the general public."
Apart from continuing to work on the History Center's
Web site, Weart's future includes travel, preferably to places
not already overrun with tourists and development. "When
my father was born there were about a billion people; when I
was born there were maybe three billion, there are six billion
now. This has been a driving force behind a lot of my work
- the great historic changes we're involved in now. We can't
support nine billion people in the style to which we ought to
be accustomed. The choices are fairly simple in how the popula-
tion comes down: we can do it rationally through birth control
and through living frugally, or we can kill each other through
nuclear war or trashing our environment.
"It's too late to go back to hoeing the fields; the only way
through this is with better science, including nanotechnology
and genetic engineering. The human race is still going to be
around 500,000 years from now, but the state of the human
race is going to depend on whether we mobilize scientific
research and technology in the next 50 to 100 years. I think
history of science has a role to play by showing scientists and
the public how this enterprise works, warts and all." History of
science, says Weart, must be part of the R&D of the business of
by Michal Meyer
WHERE IS HISTORY IN THE SCIENCE CLASSROOM?
Michelle Klosterman, Alumni Graduate Fellow at the Univer-
sity of Florida, is a doctoral candidate in science education
researching mass media use in the secondary science classroom.
Few secondary and post-secondary science educators would
claim that science is the only discipline students need to
understand science. Without reading skills or some knowledge of
history, science content alone is insufficient for understanding the
larger discipline of science. This makes it all the more remarkable
that science teachers fail to incorporate other subjects into their
yearly curricula. This failure takes on added significance when one
considers that the history of science is at the foundation of U.S.
national and state recommendations for science teaching. Unfor-
tunately, teachers often lack the knowledge, ability, or resources to
integrate history into secondary science curricula.1
History in Science Education in the United States
In 1985, the American Association for the Advancement of
Science (AAAS) sponsored a panel comprised primarily of scientists
and post-secondary science educators who developed Project 2061,
its goal being to encourage national reform in science education
in the United States. The subsequent publication of Science for All
Americans outlined their recommendations and included goals for
incorporating history into science education. The reasoning was
two-fold. First, "generalizations about how the scientific enterprise
operates would be empty without concrete examples," and second,
"some episodes in the history of the scientific endeavor are ofsur-
passing significance to our cultural heritage."2
Following Sciencefor All Awricans, the
National Research Council, a group developed
and funded primarily by the National Science
Foundation and the U.S. Department of Educa-
tion, published the National Science Education
Standards (1996), which still serves today as
the primary document guiding instruction in
secondary science classrooms in the United
States. The National Science Education Standards
(NSES) closely mirror the recommendations of
the AAAS and reiterate that 10 historical events
Although the NSES echoed the recommendations outlined by the
AAAS, individual states were left to interpret those recommenda-
tions as deemed appropriate by each state. This resulted in highly
variant views of the importance of history in science classrooms. For
example, some states only address science, technology, and society
from the context of today's society, completely disregarding the his-
torical perspectives surrounding the development of science. These
discordant interpretations of national standards have perpetuated
the divide between science and the other disciplines.
Why don't teachers themselves adopt the NSES or the
Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy guidelines rather than their own
state standards? By doing this on a national level, science would
at last be taught as an interdisciplinary subject rather than as a
discrete body of knowledge.
First is the issue of time. A regular school year in the U.S.
lasts 180 days. Within that day, a secondary teacher sees a student
in his or her class for an average of 45 minutes. In reality, 45
minutes translates into 35 minutes of instructional time once
classroom management and review strategies are considered.
Further, many hours are spent on school events such as pep rallies,
safety drills, science and art fairs, athletics, and so on.
In some states, science teachers are required to teach a
minimum of 60 benchmarks for physical science compared to
129 benchmarks for life science. While that may seem like a
simple task, the diversity of students in a secondary classroom
and the limited amount of class instructional time make those
If teachers are expected
to incorporate history
into science instruction,
programs should require
a history of science com-
+rx hn r e \r irr rr,'r, \f
stand out as culturally significant and should CItII dl -i
be taught in secondary science classrooms. programs s
Additionally, students learn to appreciate that instruction
science is a human endeavor and that anyone
can practice science. The Standards' rationale is ers can inTL
that "the introduction of historical examples will the sciencE
help students see the scientific enterprise as more
philosophical, social, and human."3
In light of the national calls for science educational reform and
with the implementation of the No ChildLeft BehindAct of2001,
every state in the U.S. was required to develop standards for teach-
ing in all subject areas. In science, this was translated as adapting
the NSES to develop a set of state standards for science teaching.
14 History of Scence Sociey newsletter *January 2009
;Jdi CLIuI I
on how teach-
jse history into
A lingering issue is how thoroughly
each benchmark must be taught, since the
requirement to meet accountability standards
- as measured by state assessment measures
- haunts teachers. Not surprisingly, a teacher
trying to cover each of the benchmarks in lim-
ited instructional time might resist including
instruction on the history of science, especially
since the history of science may only be tested
every two to three years on the state exam.
While time is the biggest issue for
teachers, student motivation also presents a
challenge.4 Students come to science classes
expecting to learn basic concepts not the
history behind the concepts. The AAAS rec-
ommends that "schools should pick the most
important concepts and skills to emphasize
so that they can concentrate on the quality of understanding
rather than on the quantity of information presented."5 Includ-
ing instruction on the history of science is one way to improve
the quality, but the AAAS fails to recognize that teachers face
the daily challenge of convincing students of the importance
of quality. That is, assuming the teachers themselves have the
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
resources and knowledge to invest in the quality of understanding.
The last obstacle, physical and intellectual resources, may be the least understood
and most undervalued challenge facing teachers. Teachers can only teach what they
know. Not only is it rare for a science text to offer historical contexts, undergraduate and
graduate teacher-preparation programs in the United States typically ignore the history
of science. Ironically, the history of education is a staple in teacher-preparation programs,
but not the history of science in secondary science education programs.
Despite these constraints, there are national reports, national standards, and even
some state standards that mandate that history be incorporated into science. Recommen-
dations on how this could be done vary from general suggestions by the AAAS to more
specific strategies recommended by the National Research Council (NRC).
The AAAS strategies include concentrating on the collection and use of evidence,
de-emphasizing the memorization of scientific facts, and using team approaches for
exploring science. Each of these suggestions are expected to offer a context for science
knowledge and help students "develop a sense of how science really happens...of the
growth of scientific ideas, of the twists and turns on the way to our current under-
standing of such ideas, of the roles played by different investigators and commentators,
and of the interplay between evidence and theory over time."6
The AAAS' suggestions for incorporating history into science education are
clearer in Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and extend beyond suggestions aimed
only at classroom teachers. Benchmarks advises teachers to use historical case studies,
biographies, and films in science instruction. It also suggests that "...science and his-
tory textbooks will need to be modified to include the history of science."'
Not surprisingly, the NSES suggestions resemble those of the AAAS, including
case studies, historical vignettes, short stories, and videos. Through these media,
"teachers can introduce interesting historical examples of women and men who
have made contributions to science."8
Unfortunately, such vague suggestions underscore why many individual states have
difficultly adapting the NSES to state guidelines and why teachers find it difficult to
incorporate history into science instruction. The issue of disconnected disciplines is more
systemic and requires changes that begin with teacher preparation programs.
Using my own experience as an example, I was never required to enroll in a history
of science class in either my undergraduate career in engineering or in my graduate
career in science education. It was not until my postgraduate degree that I elected to
take such a course. If teachers are expected to incorporate history into science instruc-
tion, then teacher-preparation programs should require a history of science component.
Furthermore, teacher-preparation programs should provide instruction on how teachers
can infuse history into the science curriculum.
The reality remains that current accountability trends require American teachers
to address each of their state benchmarks, which (although inadequately) include some
reference to the history or philosophy of science. Yet, until more practical methods of
incorporating history in science instruction are offered, and possibly even required, we
will lose the true conceptual understanding of science, the scientific enterprise, and the
significance (or insignificance) of our cultural heritage.
1. Monk, M. & Osborne, M. (1997). "Placing the history and philosophy of science on the curriculum: A
model for the development of pedagogy," Science Education, 81(4), 405-424.
2. AAAS, ScienceforAllAmericans (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 145.
3. NRC, National Science Education Standards (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1996), p.170.
4. Sadler, T.D. (2006). "I won't last three weeks": Preservice science teachers reflect on their student-teaching
experiences. Journal ofScience Teacher Education, 17(3), 217-241.
5. ScienceforAllAmericans, p. 198.
6. ScienceforAllAmericans, p. 201.
7. AAAS. Benchmarksfor scientific literacy, (New York: Oxford University Press., 1993), p.4.
8. National Science Education Standards, p.6.
Thank you to our Volunteers!
HSS Council 2006-2008
Ken Alder, Katherine Pandora,
Marsha Richmond, Alan Rocke, James Strick
Kathy Olesko, Osiris Editor
Julie Newell, Chair
Ken Ludmerer, Darwin Stapleton, Liba Taub
Honors and Prizes
Peggy Kidwell, Chair
Meetings and Programs
Anita Guerrini, Bill Newman, Keith Benson
Research and the Profession
Robin Rider, Chair
Derek Price/Rod Webster Prize
Stuart "Bill" Leslie, Chair
SuzanneJ. Levinson Prize
Nathan Reingold Prize
Alain Touwaide, Chair
Margaret W Rossiter Prize
Judith Johns Schloegel, Chair
Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, Chair
Watson Davis & Helen Miles Davis Prize
Janet Browne, Chair
Joseph H. Hazen Prize
Kathy Cooke, Chair
Susan Lindee, Chair, Ted Porter,
Janet Browne, Daniel Kevles, Karen Rader
Mary Lou Gleason, Darwin Stapleton
Edward Larson, Spencer Weart
Ken Ludmerer. Rich Kremer, Michael Sokal
Lynn Nyhart, Co Chair
AAAS, Section X delegate
Call for Papers
Southern HoST Meeting,
3-5 April 2009, Virginia
Richmond, VA. Contact Karen
Rader or John Powers: karader@
Deadline: 1 February 2009.
BSHS Annual Conference.
2-5 July 2009, University of
Leicester, England. Abstract
deadline: 23 January 2009.
I... I I i. ..l./bshs/
Animals and Society: Minding
Animals. 13-18 July, 2009,
Newcastle, Australia. Panel
submission deadline: 15 January
2009. Abstract deadline: 30
January 2009. http://www.
Religious Responses to
Darwinism, 1859-2009. 15-18 July,
2009, Oxford, England. Abstract
deadline: 16 February 2009.
Ideas and Instruments in Social
Context, International Union of
History and Philosophy of Science
XXIII International Congress of
History of Science and Technology,
Budapest, Hungary, 28 July
- 2 August 2009. Deadline for
submissions 15 February 2009.
(See p. 8 for more information. )
IEEE Conference on the
History of Technical Societies,
Philadelphia, USA, 5-7 August
2009. Proposals due 13
March 2009. http://www.ieee.
Stockholm, Sweden, 7-9 June
2010. Abstract deadline:
31 January 2009. Send to
Evolution the Experience,
Melbourne, Australia, 8-
13 February 2009. http://
Evolution and Religion:
Towards a History of an
Evolving Relationship, Clemson
University, Clemson, SC, 13-15
February 2009. Contact Dawn M.
Digrius at email@example.com.
Darwin's Reach: A Celebration
of Darwin's Legacy Across
Academic Disciplines. Hofstra
University, 12-14 March
culctr events darwin.html.
Integrated History and
Philosophy of Science
Conference, 12-15 March
2009, University of Notre
Dame, South Bend, IN. http://
Nature in International
History: ConIH 9, 13-14 March
2009, Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA. http://www.
AAG Conference: Modest
Witnesses: Fieldwork, Indigenous
Knowledges, and Truth-
Making, 22-27 March 2009, Las
Vegas, NV. 1.tI. .,.org/
British Society for Literature
and Science, 27-29 March 2009,
University of Reading, England.
International Network for
the History of Hospitals Fifth
Hospitals and Communities. 1
April 2009, Barcelona, Spain.
Climate Change Science,
Environmental Challenges, and
Cultural Anxiety: Historical
Perspectives. 1-4 April 2009,
Colby College, Waterville, ME.
MAASA Conference: Identities
and Technoculture, 3-4 April
2009, Iowa City, IA. http://
Hagley Fellows Conference, 4
April 2009, Hagley Museum and
Library, Wilmington, Delaware.
Animals: Past, Present and
Future, 16-18 April 2009,
Michigan State University, East
Lansing, Michigan. http://
Instruction, Amusement and
Spectacle: Popular Shows and
Exhibitions 1800-1914, 16-18
April 2009, University of Exeter,
Conference: Medicine and
Healthcare: History and
Context, 16-18 April 2009,
University College, Dublin.
The fi...i..' announcements have been edited for space. For full
descriptions and the latest announcements, please visit our Web site
(http://www.hssonline.org). The Society does not assume responsibility for
the accuracy ofany item; interested persons should verify all details. Those
who wish to publish a future meeting/job/grant announcement should
send an electronic version ofthe posting to firstname.lastname@example.org.
AAHM 82nd Annual Meeting.
Cleveland, OH, 23-26 April
2009. 1. ... ..1.. .
Science, Technology and the
Humanities: A New Synthesis, 24-
25 April 2009, Stevens Institute of
Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Ports, Forts and Sports:
Maritime Economy, Defense
and Recreation through Time
and across Space, California
Maritime Academy in Vallejo,
California, 14-17 May 2009.
I . .. I, c .
European Spring School
of History of Science and
in the Public Sphere," 21 -23
May 2009, Menorca, Spain.
GTG Annual Conference,
22-24 May 2009, Hochschule
fiur Gestaltung, Offenbach
am Main, Germany.
CSHPS Annual Conference, 26
28 May, 2009, Carleton University,
Economic and Biological
Interactions in Pre-Industrial
Europe from the 13th to
the 18th Centuries. Prato,
Italy, 26-30 May 2009.
Knowledge and Identities,
Madrid, Spain, 28-30 May
2009. http:// convivencia2009@
The Johns Hopkins
University, Fifth Laboratory
History Conference, 4-5
June 2009, Baltimore, MD
USA. Contact: Stuart W.
Leslie at email@example.com.
Women Of Science, Women
In Science: Figures And
Representations 18th Century
to Present. 4-6 June 2009,
Grenoble, France. http://
Predisciplinarity and the
Divisions of Knowledge
1750-1850, London, 18-20
June 2009. http://www.bbk.
AHS: The Changing Face of
Agriculture and the Rural
Landscape, 18-20 June 2009,
University of Arkansas at
Little Rock, Arkansas.
The International Margaret
Cavendish Society's Conference
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR, 18-21 June 2009.
Cheiron, 25-28 June 2009
Penn State University,
University Park, PA.
ISHPSSB Biennial Meeting,
12-16 July 2009, Brisbane,
Alexander von Humboldt,
2009: Travels Between
Europe and the Americas.
Freie Universitit Berlin, 27-
31 July 2009. http://www.
The 36th International
conference on Hume's
Philosophy, Halifax, Nova
Scotia, Canada, 2-6 August
r1. .. .. I ....... r i I Ii .
September 2009, San Carlos
de Bariloche, Argentina.
Astronomy and its Instruments
Before and After Galileo,
28 September 3 October
2009, Venice. http://web.
HSS Annual Conference.
18-22 November 2009.
Phoenix, AZ, USA.
150 Years of Evolution?
Darwin's Impact on the
Humanities. San Diego State
University, 20 November
HSS Annual Conference. 4-
7 November 2010, Montreal,
Canada. Joint meeting with PSA.
PSA Biennial Meeting, 4-6
November, 2010, Montreal,
Canada. Joint meeting with HSS.
The John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technol-
ogy and Values (University of Notre Dame) is
searching for a Managing Director of the Center.
The Center engages in interdisciplinary educa-
tion, research, and outreach at the interface of
science and technology with the humanities and
social sciences. Please send a cover letter, c.v., and
three letters of recommendation to: Gerald McK-
enny, Director, John J. Reilly Center for Science,
Technology, and Values, 305 O'Shaughnessy
Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame,
IN 46556. Review of applications will continue
until the position is filled. Further information:
The California Institute of Technology, in col-
laboration with the Huntington Library, invites
applications for the annual Eleanor Searle Visiting
Professor in the field of history of science. The po-
sition is for a full academic year (September 2009
-June 2010). This is a half-time teaching position
(two one-quarter courses) at Caltech and a half-
time research position at the Huntington Library.
All applicants must currently hold a Ph.D. and
a full-time tenure-track appointment at another
university. Please include a statement detailing the
research you wish to carry out at the Huntington
Library, send a c.v., a recent sample of writ-
ing, copies of teaching evaluations, and a list of
references. Applications will be accepted until
the position is filled. Contact Sabrina Boschetti,
administrative assistant for the Eleanor Searle
Visiting Professorship, Division of the Humani-
ties and Social Sciences, MC 228-77, California
Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125.
Further Information: http://www.caltech.edu/.
Grants, Fellowships, and Prizes
The CHF Beckman Center Visiting Scholar
Program : l.I t' I... I ..1 1 ... .org or
The H. Richard Tyler Award for research at
the AAN Rare Books Collection at the Bernard
Becker Medical Library in St. Louis, MO. Ap-
The University of Oklahoma: The Andrew
W. Mellon Travel Fellowship Program. E-
mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Grants in Aid for History of Modern Phys-
ics. Deadlines: 15 April, 15 November. http://
"ww'" **1 'I.' '. ,
INA Grant-in-Aid Program for research at the
Vanderbilt University Medical Center Archives,
Nashville, Tennessee. Deadlines: 1 March, 1
June, 1 September, 1 December. Applications
to: INA Grant-in-Aid Program, c/o CINP
Central. Office, 1608 17th Avenue South,
Nashville, TN, 37212.
Scientific Instrument Society Research
Grants. Application forms and details available
a t I... I , ,I c .... I......
California Institute of Technology Grants-
in-Aid. Applications reviewed 1 January, 1
April, 1 July, and 1 October each year. http://
Friends of the University of Wisconsin
- Madison Library, Grants-in-Aid. Applica-
tions due 1 February of any year. l-. I ...c ~ .
APS's Franklin Research Grants. Deadlines:
1 October/1 December; notification February/
A pril. l., .... I.l.l c.
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Research fel-
lowships at the Needham Research Institute,
Cambridge, U.K. http://www.nri.org.uk/.
2009 Jerry Stannard Memorial Award encour-
ages research by young scholars in the pre-1700
fields of the history of material medical, medicinal
botany, pharmacy, folklore of drug therapy, and
the bibliography of these areas. Correspondence
to Victor Bailey at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Bakken Library and Museum in Minne-
apolis offers travel grants for research in its col-
lection of books, journals, manuscripts, prints,
and instruments. The next application deadline
is 20 February 2009. Contact: Elizabeth Ihrig;
e-mail Ihrig@thebakken.org, http://www.
The Forum for History of Human Science
invites submissions for the 2009 John C. Burn-
ham Early Career Award I I- I .. .... I..I,.,
graduate students, without a tenured position and
not more than seven years past the Ph.D.) Unpub-
lished manuscripts dealing with any aspect of the
history of the human sciences are welcome. E-mail
manuscript and curriculum vitae (PDF format)
by 15 June 2009, to email@example.com.
Further information @ 1.1 11.1. ,.
The Forum for History of Human Science
awards a prize for the best recent (2006-2008)
article on some aspect of the history of the human
sciences. Deadline: 15 June 2009. E-mail PDF ver-
sion of the article to firstname.lastname@example.org; or
mail three copies to Nadine Weidman, Secretary
of FHHS, 138 Woburn St., Medford MA 02155
Further information: 1.,. 11.1. .
The Science Museum, London, offers two
research internships to students. Applicants may
propose any theme which sheds light on the muse-
um's collections. The bursary is 1,000 per month
for up to three months. Send c.v., cover letter, and
the names and addresses of two academic referees.
Deadline is 23 January 2009. Send to: Peter J.
T. Morris, Head of Research, Science Museum,
London SW7 2DD. Further information, e-mail
Peter Morris at email@example.com.
Request for HSS Prize Nominations
(most deadlines are 1 April)
To nominate books and articles, send name of author, publisher, title, and date
of publication and prize category to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nathan Reingold Prize (formerly known as the Schuman Prize) for the best
graduate-student essay (deadline 1 June).
Margaret W. Rossiter History of Women in Science Prize for the best book
on women in the history of science (Books published from 2005 to 2008 are
Joseph H. Hazen Education Prize for exceptional educational activities in the
history of science.
Watson Davis and Helen Miles Davis Prize for the best book in history of
science intended for a broad audience, published 2006-2008.
Pfizer Prize for the best book aimed at a scholarly audience in history of science,
Sarton Medal for exceptional scholarship over a lifetime. Send c.v. of nominee
and 2 letters of (deadline 1 February).
Irc. t y h J i titu
Head, Department of Humanities and Arts
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) invites applications and nominations for the position of Head of the Humanities and Arts Department.
The university seeks an individual with proven excellence in teaching, scholarship, and leadership in administration, including the ability to
work creatively across departments and disciplines in curricular innovations and resource acquisition. Potential candidates must have an
earned doctorate or equivalent terminal degree in a discipline currently represented in the Humanities and Arts Department and a record
of scholarly and professional achievement appropriate for appointment with tenure at the senior level in one of these areas. WPI is eager
to hear from women and underrepresented minorities concerning this position.
The new head will have opportunities to direct program growth, as WPI intends to expand its curricular offerings in humanities and arts,
particularly in areas where they interact with science, technology, and new media. WPI recently created an innovative major in Interactive
Media and Game Development with Humanities and Arts taking a lead role. The university has also established a new Bachelor of Arts
degree. A major in Liberal Arts and Engineering has been approved, and the department is considering further programs.
The department includes 26 tenured and tenure-track faculty members in the fields of art including digital media and the history of art
and architecture, English including drama/theatre, modern languages (German and Spanish), music, history including history of science/
technology, philosophy/religion, and writing and rhetoric. The duties of the department head include taking a lead role in developing
new programs, hiring and nurturing new faculty, managing personnel matters and departmental budgets, representing the department's
interest to the administration, and overseeing as well as participating in departmental teaching, research, and program development.
WPI, the nation's third-oldest private technological university, currently enrolls 3,150 undergraduates and 1,300 part-time and full-
time graduate students. Its innovative project-based undergraduate program, the WPI Plan, offers students a flexible and academically
challenging alternative to conventional science and engineering curricula. All WPI undergraduates complete a sequence of five courses
in the humanities and arts, followed by a culminating seminar or practicum. In addition, the Humanities and Arts Department offers a
major and minor. Students and faculty have opportunities to participate in twenty off-campus project centers and more than a dozen
international exchanges, including language programs in German and Spanish. Please visit the web site www.wpi.edu/+HUA for
more information about WPI and the department.
Situated in Worcester, the WPI campus is close to many of the city's major cultural attractions, including the American Antiquarian
Society, the Worcester Art Museum, local theaters and poetry venues, and several major music performance halls. Forty miles west of
Boston, Worcester offers access to the diverse cultural resources of New England, and provides opportunities for urban, suburban, or
Applications received before January 15th, 2009 will receive a full reading. Review of applications will continue until the position
Candidates should submit a letter of application and current resume through WPI's Human Resources website (linked to the Humanities
and Arts website at www.wpi.edu/+HUA) and make arrangements for us to receive three letters of reference. These letters of reference
should be sent to Arthur C. Heinricher, Humanities and Arts Head Search Committee, Office of Human Resources 100
Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609-2280. Questions may also be directed to the search committee through Nancy Hickman,
To lnrich education through diversity Wvv l s an affirmative action .equal opportunity employHr and espeiatly encourages n1inolile s and women to apply
.. . . - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The HSS Bibliographer's Fund
Contributors to this fund, through 31 November 2008, are listed here. All donors are recognized in the April Newsletter. The NEH campaign
concluded 31 July 2008.
Sarton Circle ($2,500 and Above)
1, 11, .1 ,11 i . I ... .. 1,i .. .
Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation
The Furumoto Research Foundation
Charles C. Gillispie*
In Honor and Memory of
John C. Greene*
Frances Coulborn Kohler
Robert E. Kohler
John A. Neu
i 1i Osler*
John A. Popplestone
: 1.. i I ,, ,,,.Trust
River Branch Foundation
Laurence S. Rockefeller Fund
Edward G. Ruestow
M. I ...... i .. II W Servos*
Sidney Stern Memorial Trust
Charlene & Michael M. Sokal*+
Council of Friends of the Society ($1,000 $ 2,499)
Michele L. Aldrich
/ ... 1 II Creager
,, ,, 1 II. h ,,,
Stephen G. Brush*
I ..i,, , i ii I I -,
S i, 11, 1 ,,,, ,
Donald deB. Beaver
.I I 1 -
Amy Sue Bix
Kennard B. Bork
Mary Ellen Bowden
Thomas H. Broman
Eve E. Buckley
,, ,1 ,= iiii
Sally i( ... I ohlstedt*
B e ',, ,, i ,_1,1h ,, l ,
. . i i i...... Project
MaryJo & Robert Nye*
Sustaining Members ($500 $999)
Allen G. Debus
Clark A. Elliott+
Bernard S. Finn
Judith & David Goodstein
Sara S. Gronim
John L. Heilbron
Karl & Sally Hufbauer
James E. McClellan III
Ronald L. &
Ill I d In. I I ,I ,
H. Gunther 1.1. ,1,,i .. .
Nancy G. Siraisi
Heinrich & Eve von Staden
I a,, li i ,. .i ;
Mary Peale Schofield
Arnold W. Thackray*
Thomas R. Williams
Joella & William Yoder
Laurence D. Smith
.. I Williams
Contributors (Up to $499)
II, Ih i l ,,, ,,
John C. Burnham
Lino Camprubi o
Toni V Carey
Hasok 1- ,,,i.
Raz Chen Morris
H. Floris Cohen
Matthew Crawford 0
h, h , , ,1 ,,
Jo t ,,,,.,,
Antonio De Andrade
Peter R. Dear
Dennis Des Chene
John H. Eddy
Judith i ..i, ll.. i. I i. ,1
Raymond E. Fancher
AnneFausto I. i..
Robert Marc Friedman
W Bruce Fye
Janet Bell Garber
', ,I I, ..
Mary Louise Gleason*
& Michael Osborne~
Jon M. Harkness
Joseph E. Harmon
Joseph E. Harmon
d ll 1, .
h d, II, II I, ,.
Javier Herrero Fernandez
D .I 1-1, 11. ,_,,
I .. I Hunt
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Bruce V Lewenstein
Albert C. Lewis
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Kenneth M. Ludmerer
Pamela E. Mack*
I.. I I l. .
Stephen C. McCluskey
Victor K. McElhemy
I !- 1 1.1 1 I
Everett I. Mendelsohn
Minakshi Menon 0
i 11..1 .. 1. 1. 11,
Michal Meyer 0
Ronald E. Mickens
I ,, .., , ,,
Joseph A. Moyzis
Sheila Counce Nicklas
Lynn K. Nyhart
I I ..,, I 11 ,
Laura Christine Otis
Diane B. Paul
James A. Pittman
John K. Pribram
Mary Quinlan McGrath
I .''' I ;. .1
I., II. I .., I.
Joan L. Richards
Robin E. Rider
Barbara G. Rosenkrantz
I ,,,i. ,, ,
& Paul Lucier
H. Darrel Rutkin
Morton L. Schagrin
1.1111 1, i .. 1, 1. ... 1
Robert W. Seidel
Jole R. Shackelford
Alan E. Shapiro
Ruth Lewin Sime
I I 1 I ,
Merritt Roe Smith
Pamela H. Smith
, I J.1 ...1. 1..
Darwin H. Stapleton
Peter F. Stevens
James E. Strick *
Kara Swanson o
Edith D. Sylla*
Kenneth L. Taylor
.._., i Turner 0
Klaas Van Berkel
A. Bowdoin Van Riper
I, h . .. II
Joan Warnow Blewett
Marjorie K. Webster
Karin E. Wetmore
L. Pearce &
Sylvia I. Williams
I.. ln,,,. Yamada
+ In honor ofRobert E. Schofield
Please send corrections to email@example.com
*In memory of eraldL. Geison
o Graduate Student Challenge
* Officers'Incentive Fund
in honor ofJohn Neu
SUnversty Chicago, IL 60637
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