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Title: Walt Dineen Society Conference
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Language: English
Creator: Walt Dineen Society
Publisher: Florida International University
Place of Publication: Miami, FL
Publication Date: 1997
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
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        Front page 1
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Full Text



First Annual Conference


of the


The Walt Dineen Society
A forum for communicating about South Florida Ecosystems


May 22-24, 1997
The Roz Er Cal Kovens Conference Center
Florida International University
North Miami, Florida

Dineen Web site:
http://everglades.fiu.edu/dineen/






This program was produced through a grant from the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Taskforce
Walt Dineen Society 1997













Special thanks
to the following organizations
for their support of this conference:

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Taskforce

South Florida Water Management District

Southeast Environmental Research Program (SERP)

Everglades Information Network & Digital Library,
Florida International University Libraries







The Walt Dineen Society
A forum for communicating about South Florida Ecosystems


First Annual Conference
May 22-24, 1997


PROGRAM


Thursday, May 22, 1997

9:00 10:30

10:30 11:00

11:00 12:00

12:00 13:00

13:00 14:30

14:30 15:00

15:00 16:15

17:00 19:30


Friday, May 23, 1997

9:00 10:15

10:15 10:45

10:45 11:45

11:45 12:45


Welcome and Plenary Session

Coffee Break

Online Demonstrations

Lunch

Session I: Upland Plants

Coffee Break

Session II: Environmental Management

Session III: Posters




Session IV: Wetlands

Coffee Break

Session IV: Wetlands, cont'd

Lunch


... continued...







Friday, May 23, 1997, cont'd

12:45 14:15

14:15 14:30

15:00 16:30

17:00 19:30


Saturday, May 24, 1997

9:00 10:15

10:15 10:45

10:45 12:00

12:00 13:00

13:00 17:00


Session V: Bird Studies

Coffee Break

Session VI: Bird E Other Animal Studies

Social Hour




Session VII: Marine Ecology

Coffee Break

Session VII: Marine Ecology, cont'd.

Lunch

Roundtable discussion


Adjourn


The Internet Booth (located in the Lobby) is open to all registrants
from 8:30 to 19:00 each day of the conference.

Come by to get assistance in preparing your presentation for the Web;
check e-mail or see a demo; or just schmooze with our friendly,
helpful, and knowledgeable staff!

The Internet Booth is sponsored by:

The Everglades Information Network & Digital Library
A collaborative project of FIU Libraries and Everglades National Park
and
The Southeast Environmental Research Program (SERP)
Florida International University








Walt Dieen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS iii



S Daily Schedule of Sessions Thursday May 22


OPENING SESSION


TIME PRESENTER(S)


Dan Childers
SERP


COL. Terry Rice
District Engineer, USACE -Jacksonville
Gail Clement and Kass Evans
EIN & DL, FIU Libraries


TITLE

Welcome And Introductory Remarks


Perspectives On Everglades Restoration


The Universe of Everglades Information -from your desktop,laptop,
anytime you want it!


SESSION I: UPLAND PLANTS


TIME AUTHORS)


Doren et al.


Whelan et al.



Surdick and Frederick


Carrington and
Mullahey
Lee


Cox and Roberts


ABSTRACT


97101


97102



97103


97104


97105


97106


TITLE


Effects of Hurricane Andrew and fire season on mortality of
South Florida slash pines in Miami Rock Ridge savannas:
Implications for long-term viability and management of
natural reserves

Short term response of two cypress communities (Taxodium
Distichum var. Imbricarium (Nuttall) Croom) in Everglades
National Park to the effects of Hurricane Andrew

Environmental variables affecting wading bird foraging
success in the Everglades

Effects of time since burning on saw palmetto (Serenoa
repens) flowering and fruiting
Red coloration in leaves of Everglades plants


Flowering and fruiting response of Asminina tetramera Small
following resource management of mature sand pine scrub in
southeast Florida


continued


MAY 22 24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


9:00
9:30


9:30
10:30
11:00
12:00


13:00
13:15



13:15
13:30


13:30
13:45

13:45
14:00
14:00
14:15
14:15
14:30








WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS iv


SESSION II: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


AUTHORS)


Owen et al.


Bennett et al.


Abbott and Nath


Laha et al.


Meeder et al.


SESSION III: POSTERS


ABSTRACT TITLE


97201


97202


97203


97204


97205


Spatially explicit environmental databases: an integrated tool
for protection of natural areas

A scientific framework for private development of an
ecotourism program

Southern Golden Gate Estates hydrologic restoration plan


Feasibility of discharging treated municipal wastewater into
the Florida Everglades

The L-31E Freshwater rediversion pilot project


17:00 19:30


AUTHORS)

Hicklin


ABSTRACT #

97301


Brashear and Stoddard

Mazzotti et al.



Gongora and Jaffe


Hernandez and Jaffe



Anderson et al.


Reyes et al.


Coronado-Molina et al.


Sutula et al.


Park



Kieckbusch


97302

97303



97304


97305



97306


97307


97308


97309


97310



97311


TITLE

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) (bartr.) Small: an
economically important plant of Florida

Autumn raptor migration through the Florida Keys

Populations, habitats and landscapes: multi-scale
applied ecological studies for restoration of south
Florida ecosystems

Characterization and speciation of organic
pollutants in the Miami River

Molecular characterization of organic matter in
sediments and biomass from the Florida Everglades
and the Florida shelf

Horizontal surface and soil water salinity
gradients across the mangrove/marsh ecotone

Water budget and nutrient exchange at the
Everglades' salinity transition zone

Structure and litterfall of a dwarf R. Mangle
forest in Taylor River Slough

Material exchange between a major mangrove
tidal creek and northeastern Florida Bay

Mapping of pre-drainage (ca. 1850) Everglades
landscapes and hydrology;
comparison with the natural system model

A synopsis of foraging behaviors of herons and
egrets


DAILY SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS


TIME


15:00
15:15

15:15
15:30

15:30
15:45

15:45
16:00

16:00
16:15








WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS v



S Daily Schedule of Sessions Friday May 23


SESSION IV: WETLANDS


TIME AUTHORS)


9:00
9:15


9:15
9:30

9:30
9:45

9:45
10:00


10:00
10:15


10:45
11:00

11:00
11:45

11:45
12:00


ABSTRACT #


Wu et al.


Sklar and Newman


Fitz et al.


Daoust et al.


97401


97402


97403


97404



97405



97406


97407


97408


Brandt and Kitchens


McVoy


Dong et al.


Bern et al.


TITLE

Sawcat probability model and the effects of a delayed
Everglades restoration program on the distribution of sawgras:

A conceptual model for soil phosphorus availability in
hydrologically altered wetlands of the Everglades

Evaluating Everglades ecosystem dynamics with spatial
simulation models

Evaluating the role of phosphorus as a mechanism to induce
ecosystem state change in freshwater wetlands of Everglades
National Park: short-term results after one year of enrichmen

Are tree islands in Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
small and circular or large and elongated and oriented in the
direction of flow?

Soil-based estimation of pre drainage (ca. 1850) Everglades
landscapes and their hydrology

Modeling periphyton and phosphorus linkages in the
Everglades

The contribution of carnivory to the nitrogen and phosphoru
growth needs of the bladderwort, Utricularia foliosa


SESSION V: BIRD STUDIES


TIME AUTHORS)


13:00
13:15

13:15
13:30


13:45
14:00


14:00
14:15


14:15
14:30


ABSTRACT #


Mealey et al.


Gawlik



Frederick


Bouton et al.


Salatas and Frederick


97501


97502



97503



97504



97505


TITLE

Serum chemistry analysis of bald eagle and osprey nestlings
in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park

A test of environmental factors constraining the use of
foraging sites by wading birds (Ciconiiformes) in the
Everglades

Measuring avian reproduction on an ecosystem scale:
reproductive success measures are poor predictors of annual
productivity of Everglades wading birds

Effects of chronic, low concentrations of dietary
methylmercury on appetite and hunting behavior ofjuvenile
great egrets

Energetic requirements of nestling wading birds


continued


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22 24, 1997







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS vi


SESSION VI: BIRD & ANIMAL STUDIES


TIME AUTHORS) ABSTRACT # TITLE
15:00 Dreitz et al. 97601 Sources of variation in annual count data used to estimate thi
15:15 number of snail kites in Florida

15:15 Browder et al. 97602 Water bird usage of Florida Bay
15:30
15:30 Eklund et al. 97603 Population biology of the riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonete
15:45 paludosus and its response to water level change in Everglade:
marshes

15:45 Mumford and Fry 97604 Food web structure in Lake Okeechobee
16:00

16:00 Morrison and Bean 97605 Benthic macrophyte seasonality in the Everglades Florida
16:15 Bay ecotone: Influence of
freshwater inflow

16:15 Comiskey et al. 97606 SIMPDEL: A spatially explicit individual-based simulation
16:30 model for Florida panther and white-tailed deer in the
Everglades and Big Cypress landscapes


DAILY SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS












I


WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS


Daily Schedule of Sessions Saturda


SESSION VII: MARINE ECOLOGY


TIME AUTHORS) ABSTRACT # TITLE
9:00 Maloney and Bigger 97701 Analysis of sponge mor
9:15
9:15 Byrne and Meeder 97702 Ground water delivery t
9:30
9:30 Halley et al. 97703 Seagrass faces and phas
9:45 Bay
9:45- Oehm et al. 97704 The effects of nutrient e
10:00 in mangroves
10:00 Ross et al. 97705 The southeast saline Eve
10:15 changes during the last c
10:15 Coffee Break
10:30
10:45 Smith et al. 97706 Patterns of growth and r
11:00 following catastrophic d
nutrients
11:00 Davis and Childers 97707 Salinity and organic mat
11:15 wetland water column i
mangrove
11:15 Willsie et al. 97708 Seagrass monitoring in t
11:30 Sanctuary
11:30 Telesnicki et al. 97709 Water use in mangrove
11:45 Park, FL
11:45 Rose and Fourqurean 97710 Spatiotemporal patterns
12:00 the Florida Keys Nation.


MAY 22 24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


y May 24 1


tality in Florida Bay

o Biscayne Bay

es recorded in the sediments of Florid.

enrichment on soil microbial process

!rglades revisited: vegetation and soil
century



recruitment in mangrove forests
disturbance in relation to soil

tter transformations as controls on
nteractions in a south Florida

he Florida keys National Marine

communities of Biscayne National

of the seagrass Thalassia testudinm in
al Marine Sanctuary






Walt/Dineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS viii


NOTES


DAILY SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS


I Index to Authors


AUTHOR


SESSION /ABSTRACT #


Abbott, G.
Anderson, G.
Bass, O.
Bean, D.
Bennett, K.J.
Bennetts, R.E.
Bern, A.
Bigger, C.H.
Bossart, G.
Bouton, S.N.
Brandt, L.A.
Brashear, C.B.
Browder, J.
Byrne, M.
Campbell, M.
Carrington, M.E.
Cherkiss, M.
Childers, D.L.
Cleaves, S.
Comiskey, E.J.
Coronado-Molina, C.
Cox, A.C.
Daoust, R.J.
Davis, S.E.
Day, J.
Dehring, F.
Dong, Q.
Doren, R.
Dreitz, V.J.
Durako, M.D.
Ecklund, A.
Fitz, H.C.
Fontaine, T.
Fourqurean, J.W.
Frederick, P.
Fry, B.
Gawlik, D.E.
Gebelein, J.
Gongora, A.
Gross, L.J.
Halley, R.B.
Hicklin, J.


Env. Mgmt. 97203
Posters 97306
B&A Studies 97602
B&A Studies 97605
Env. Mgmt. 97202
B&A Studies 97601
Wetlands 97408
Marine Ecology97701
Bird Studies 97501
Bird Studies 97504
Wetlands 97405
Posters 97302
B&A Studies 97602
Marine Ecology97702
Posters 97302
Upland Plants 97104
Posters 97302
Posters 97309; Wetlands 97404; Marine Ecology 97704, 97707
Posters 97306
B&A Studies 97606
Posters 97308, 97309
Upland Plants 97106
Wetlands 97404
Marine Ecology97704, 97707
Posters 97307; 97308; Marine Ecology 97704
Posters 97302
Wetlands 97407
Upland Plants 97101
B&A Studies 97601
Marine Ecology97708
B&A Studies 97603
Wetlands 97403
Wetlands 97401
Marine Ecology97708, 97710
Upland Plants 97103; Bird Studies 97503, 97504, 97505
Wetlands 97408; B&A Studies 97601
Bird Studies 97502
B&A Studies 97602
Posters 97304
B&A Studies 97606
Marine Ecology97703
Posters 97301


MAY 22 24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS


Index to Authors, continued


AUTHOR


SESSION /ABSTRACT #


Hernandez, M.
Hodgens, M.
Holmes, C.W.
Huang, Haolon
Huston, M.A.
Jaffe, R.
Kelley, M.H.
Kieckbusch, D.K.
Kitchens, W.
Koptur, S.
Laha, S.
Lee, D.W.
Loftus, W.
Lynch, H.
Makemson, J.
Maloney, B.A.
Mazzotti, F.J.
McCormick, P.
McVoy, C.
Mealey, B.K.
Meeder, J.
Merickel, J.A.
Miller, J.
Morgenstern, C.
Morrison, D.
Mullahey, J.J.
Mumford, P.L.
Nath, A.
Newman, S.
Oberbauer, S.F.
Oehm, N.J.
Owen, D.
Pages, C.
Park, W.
Parks, G.M.
Perez, B.C.
Platt, W. J.
Prager, E.J.
Prieto, L.
Reyes, E.
Richards, J.
Roberts, R.E.
Rodriguez, D.L.
Rose, C.D.
Ross, M.


Posters 97305
Env. Mgmt. 97204
Marine Ecology97703
B&A Studies 97602
B&A Studies 97606
Posters 97304, 97305
Env. Mgmt. 97202
Posters 97311
Wetlands 97405, B&A Studies 97601
Upland Plants 97102
Env. Mgmt. 97204
Upland Plants 97105
B&A Studies 97603
Bird Studies 97504
Env. Mgmt. 97201
Marine Ecology97701
Env. Mgmt. 97201, 97202; Posters 97302
Wetlands 97407
Wetlands 97406
Bird Studies 97501
Env. Mgmt. 97205; Marine Ecology97702, 97705, 97709
Marine Ecology97706
Posters 97302
Env. Mgmt. 97201
B&A Studies 97605
Upland Plants 97104
B&A Studies 97604
Env. Mgmt. 97203
Wetlands 97402
Upland Plants 97102, Marine Ecology 97709
Marine Ecology97704
Env. Mgmt. 97201
Bird Studies 97501
Posters 97310
Bird Studies 97501
Posters 97309; Marine Ecology 97704
Upland Plants 97101
Marine Ecology97703
Env. Mgmt. 97204
Posters 97307, 97308 ; Marine Ecology 97704
Wetlands 97408
Upland Plants 97106
Wetlands 97404
Marine Ecology 97710
Env. Mgmt. 97205; Marine Ecology97705, 97709


DAILY SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS


Index to Authors, continued


AUTHOR

Rudnick, D.
Ruiz, P.
Rutchey, K.
Sah, J.P.
Salatas, J.
Shinn, E.A.
Sklar, F.
Slater, H.H.
Smith, T.J. III
Sorrentino, D.
Spalding, M.
Stoddard, P.K.
Surdick, J., Jr.
Sutula, M.
Tansel, B.
Telesnicki, G.
Vilches, M.T.
Whelan, K.R.T.
Wiebe, W.J.
Willsie, A.A.
Wise, M.
Wu, Y.
Zieman, J.C.


SESSION /ABSTRACT #


Marine Ecology97704
Env. Mgmt. 97205; Marine Ecology97705, 97709
Wetlands 97401
Marine Ecology97705
Bird Studies 97505
Marine Ecology97703
Wetlands 97401, 97402, 97403, 97407; Marine Ecology97704
Upland Plants 97101
Posters 97306 ; Marine Ecology 97706
B&A Studies 97605
Bird Studies 97504
Posters 97302
Upland Plants 97103
Posters 97307, 97309; Marine Ecology97704
Env. Mgmt. 97204
Env. Mgmt. 97205; Marine Ecology97705, 97709
Env. Mgmt. 97204
Upland Plants 97102
Marine Ecology97706
Marine Ecology97708
B&A Studies 97605
Wetlands 97401, 97403
Marine Ecology97708


MAY 22 24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






Walt/Dineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS xii


NOTES


DAILY SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 1



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97101

EFFECTS OF HURRICANE ANDREW AND FIRE SEASON ON MORTALITY OF SOUTH
FLORIDA SLASH PINES IN MIAMI ROCK RIDGE SAVANNAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR
LONG-TERM VIABILITY AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESERVES
Robert F. Doren', William J. Platt2, and Harold H. Slater3
1 South Florida Natural Resources Center, Everglades National Park, 40001 SR 9336, Homestead, FL 33034
2 Louisiana State University, Department of Plant Biology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-1705
3 Caribe Research Institute, 1034 Gibraltar Road, Key Largo, FL 33037
ABSTRACT
While natural disturbances have influenced the biota of the Everglades for centuries, anthropogenic
disturbances are much more recent phenomena. This de novo combination of natural and anthropogenic
disturbances constitutes a new environmental stress affecting ecosystems. In this study, we explore these
interactions as they apply to reserve management using savannas dominated by south Florida slash pine
(Pinus elliotti var. densa) as our model system. We also explore the interactions and relationships between
Hurricane Andrew (the natural disturbance) and pre-hurricane fire regimes (potential anthropogenic
disturbance) and their interactive effects on south Florida slash pine stands. We evaluated the effects of
distance from the coast, size of the pine area, hydrology (as average depth to water by wet- and dry-season),
time since last fire, size-class, and season of fire, on the mortality of pine. We sampled 15 sites within
Everglades National Park (ENP) and southern Metropolitan Dade County (MDC) within the eyewall path of
Hurricane Andrew, which crossed the tip of southern Florida on August 24, 1992. We assessed two types of
mortality in each plot. Direct mortality included trees killed during the hurricane. Extended mortality
resulted from deaths over the subsequent 24-30 months of trees still alive immediately after the hurricane
(i.e., those not included as direct mortality). Results of our study indicate strong interactive effects on the
pinelands, resulting from the combination of anthropogenic fire regimes and natural large-scale
disturbances such as hurricanes. Both direct and extended mortality of pines were significantly higher in
sites burned during the dry season than in sites burned during the wet season or unburned. Our analyses
support the hypothesis that fire season (of the major environmental variables that could be accounted for)
explains over 80% of the variability. These results indicate that anthropogenic alterations of fire regimes
resulted in trees damaged by the hurricane becoming more susceptible to death from post hurricane
stressors, possibly indicating that fire manipulation far outside normal regimes shifts environmental
conditions away from those that occurred during the evolution of the species. The consequence of
management of fire outside the natural season may mean the loss of significant portions of south Florida's
slash pine savannas and has serious implications for management of natural reserves elsewhere.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 2



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97102

SHORT TERM RESPONSE OF TWO CYPRESS COMMUNITIES ( TAXODIUM DISTICHUM VAR.
IMBRICARIUM (NUTTALL) CROOM) IN EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK TO THE EFFECTS
OF HURRICANE ANDREW
Whelan, K.R.T., Oberbauer, S.F., and Koptur, S.
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida International University, College of Arts and Sciences, University Park
ABSTRACT
Hurricane Andrew passed over Southern Florida on August 24, 1992, with sustained winds of 230 kph
causing massive damage to the natural areas. We investigated the damage sustained as well as the short term
recovery response of Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium (Nuttall) Croom within two cypress
communities in Everglades National Park to the effects of Hurricane Andrew. In the cypress dome
communities damage as well as recovery were size dependent. Basal area increment was significantly
different depending on recovery response and site. Mortality was size dependent. Mortality findings were
greater than previously reported with 3.1% mortality in the initial survey and 7.4% mortality after a three
year period. Within the dwarf cypress forest communities findings were similar except basal area increment
was not dependent on recovery response. Mortality was not size dependent. For both communities it was
found that the damage sustained interacted with recovery response. The ability to predict mortality using
diameter at breast height using logistic regression produced a significant model. However, the practical
application of the model has some short comings. This work found that the forest structure of cypress
domes and dwarf cypress forest communities differs in response to hurricane damage.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 3



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97103


ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES AFFECTING WADING BIRD FORAGING SUCCESS IN THE
EVERGLADES
James Surdick Jr. and Dr. Peter Frederick
University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031
ABSTRACT
Large populations of breeding wading birds have been suggested as key indicators of Everglades
restoration, and breeding success has been linked directly with availability of food. However, factors driving
food availability are poorly understood, and knowledge of these factors may have direct implications for
water and vegetation management strategies. Through direct observation of foraging success and foraging
conditions, we are attempting to identify the combinations of environmental conditions (primarily water
depth, vegetation density and prey density) which influence foraging success of wading birds in freshwater
Everglades marshes. We are measuring foraging success of birds feeding at 17 sites throughout the Water
Conservation Areas and Everglades National Park, where bimonthly prey density measurements are already
underway by collaborators Joel Trexler and Frank Jordan. Measurements of vegetation, water depth,
temperature and clarity, weather, substrate and social context are also made at the time of observation.

During winter and spring of 1996 and 1997, we conducted over 1,500 observations of Wood Storks, White
Ibis, Great Egrets and Snowy Egrets at a variety of sites throughout the Everglades. Several significant
univariate correlations were found between capture rate and various environmental variables: Snowy Egrets
(periphyton coverage, emergent vegetation, water depth and wind speed); Great Egrets (flock size,
periphyton coverage, emergent vegetation, water depth and water temperature); and Wood Storks (time of
day, water depth, water temperature and wind speed). Along with daily foraging observations, monthly
aerial surveys are conducted at each site to measure their relative attractiveness to wading birds. If the
impacts of various environmental variables on wading bird foraging success can be identified, this study
may help us become better stewards of the Everglades and increase our knowledge of wading bird ecology.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 4



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97104

EFFECTS OF TIME SINCE BURNING ON SAW PALMETTO (SERENOA REPENS) FLOWERING
AND FRUITING

Mary E. Carrington and J. Jeff Mullahey
University of Florida- Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL 34143

ABSTRACT
Previously virtually ignored, saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) now enjoys a "spot in the limelight," thanks to
recent market demand for its berries. In response to continued interest in harvesting saw palmetto berries,
research on saw palmetto began at the University of Florida in 1996. One of the research objectives is to
quantify effects of burning on saw palmetto flowering and fruiting. In September 1996 we began a study
on the effects of time since burning on saw palmetto flowering and fruiting. We quantified fruiting in 18
flatwoods and dry prairie sites that burned during the growing season either in 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993,
1992, or before 1991. Saw palmettos in sites burned in 1996 generally were not fruiting by September to
October. In sites burned in all other previous years, fruit yield per site ranged from 19 kg/ha to 2700 kg/ha.
Although we expected that sites burned one year previously and over three years previously would have
higher fruit yields, we saw no consistent pattern in fruit yields with time since burning. Our results
suggested, however, that past burning frequency may influence saw palmetto fruiting. Lowest fruit yields
occurred in sites that historically burned every two to three years, while the highest yields occurred at sites
that have burned every eight to ten years. We plan to quantify flowering and fruiting in the study sites for
two more years. In the next two years, we will determine both if patterns of fruiting are consistent with the
pattern (or lack of pattern) seen in the first year, and if fruiting levels are consistent with flowering levels
within years.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 5



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97105



RED COLORATION IN LEAVES OF EVERGLADES PLANTS
David W. Lee
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University,
University Park, Miami, Florida 33199

ABSTRACT
Leaves frequently develop red coloration during development, at maturity, and during senescence.
Most plants produce anthocyanins (usually cyanidin glucosides) as the basis of this color, but members
of the Caryophyllales (as Pisonia, in the Nyctaginaceae) produce nitrogenous pigments, betacyanins.
Hypotheses about the function of this coloration have been hampered by the lack of experimental data
as well as poor knowledge of the taxonomic and tissue distribution of these pigments in leaves. I have
initiated a broad comparative survey and here report on results from 98 species native to the Everglades.
44 species (41.8 % of the total) produced anthocyanins, and one species, Pisonia aculeata, produced
betacyanin. 24 taxa produced anthocyanins early in development, 5 taxa during senescence, and 9 taxa
produced anthocyanins at both stages. Three taxa, all aquatic, produced anthocyanins in the lower
epidermis of mature leaves. Most taxa produced pigmentation in the mesophyll tissue (usually in the
palisade), inconsistent with the traditional hypothesis of protection against UV-B. Of those taxa
producing anthocyanins in development and senescence, most retain a single tissue location (usually the
palisade), but some taxa are developmentally plastic. A broader survey will facilitate a phylogenetically
weighted analysis, and more direct studies will benefit from species that are polymorphic for such
coloration, as Chrysobalanus icaco.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 6



Session: Upland Plants Abstract #: 97106


FLOWERING AND FRUITING RESPONSE OF ASIMINA TETRAMERA SMALL FOLLOWING
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF MATURE SAND PINE SCRUB IN SOUTHEAST FLORIDA
Anne C. Cox' and Richard E. Roberts2
'Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences, University Park, Miami, FL 33199
2Department of Environmental Protection, District 5 Administration, 13798 SE Federal Highway, Hobe
Sound, FL 33475
ABSTRACT
Fire management techniques and mechanical manipulations were applied to a mature sand pine scrub
community in Jonathan Dickinson State Park in southeast Florida. The research was conducted in 4.05
hectares of scrub on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge for the management of listed species in scrub habitat. The
primary focus was Asimina tetramera Small (four-petal pawpaw), a federally endangered species that
showed reduced flowering and fruiting under the closed canopy of Pinus clausa (sand pine). Following
management applications in May 1996, more Asimina tetramera plants flowered in the bum treatments
(>53%) compared to plants in the non-bum treatments (<34%). The chi-square value of 16.55 was
significant at the .05 level. In addition, more flowers per plant were produced following treatments than
were produced in 1995 or 1996 (ANOVA, p<.0001). Monitoring will continue to determine whether
flowering response changes over time. Land managers with small parcels of scrub habitat with listed
species will benefit from the results of this study.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 7



Session: Environmental Management Abstract #: 97201


SPATIALLY EXPLICIT ENVIRONMENTAL DATABASES: AN INTEGRATED TOOL FOR
PROTECTION OF NATURAL AREAS
Dianne Owen', Frank J. Mazzotti', Carol Morgenstern2, and Jack Makemson3
'Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, 3245 College Avenue, Davie, FL,
33314
2 Broward County Parks and Recreation Division, 100 NW 38th Street, Oakland Park, FL, 33309
3 Imtech, 11751 NW 12th Street, Pembroke Pines, FL, 33026
ABSTRACT
Readily accessible information about the location and spatial relationship of resources in urban natural areas
is vital to the successful management of these fragmented, isolated and frequently disturbed habitat patches.
Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) have
allowed for the development of methods to collect, manage, manipulate and display spatially referenced
geographic data. For natural area managers the significance of knowing where resources are located, or
where activities (e.g. management or recreational) are taking place is apparent. The challenges are: how to
simplify a complicated technology so that it is easily applied and how to structure the diverse information
gathered into an appropriate relational database.
To meet these challenges a spatially explicit environmental database (SEED) has been created in Broward
County, Florida, as part of an Environmentally Sensitive Lands (ESL) Program. A GIS/GPS platform was
developed using PC-based SPANS GIS software, PCI EASI/PACE image analysis software and a Trimble Pro
XL GPS with Pathfinder software. Traditional GIS coverages including soils, topography, hydrology and
land cover formed the base layers upon which features such as archaeological resources, historical land
cover, listed species management areas and monitoring stations were mapped. Monitoring stations
included photo plots and integrated vegetation (species composition and horizontal and vertical structure)
and faunal (birds, butterflies and their habitat relations) sampling. The Flamingo Road ESL site SEED was
used as a tool to minimize the potential impacts of human use on sensitive resources by analyzing the spatial
relationships among plant communities, archaeological sites, soils and wildlife populations.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 8



Session: Environmental Management Abstract #: 97202



A SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK FOR PRIVATE DEVELOPING AN ECOTOURISM PROGRAM
Kimberly J. Bennett, Mary Hudson Kelley, and Frank J. Mazzotti
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Everglades Research and Education Center, University of
Florida, Belle Glade, Florida


ABSTRACT

Many state, regional, and local governments have discovered ecotourism as a way to promote economic
development and attract tourists. Ecotourism in its truest sense, has a broader, multi-faceted purpose, with
concurrent objectives involving sustainable practices such as cultural and natural resource conservation and
preservation, environmental education and appreciation, and economic development. Before an ecotourism
program is implemented, comprehensive planning is needed to ensure both economic and conservation
success.

The recommended planning process is based upon a previously developed scientific framework, which is
applicable to many natural area management issues. This strategy includes an inventory and evaluation of
all resources and development of an ecotourism program contingent upon science-based criteria to ensure
sustainability and conservation of resources. Furthermore, the planning process is an on-going adaptive
management procedure which must be continually evaluated and modified as more information is learned
about the effects of ecotourism and development.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 9



Session: Environmental Management Abstract #: 97203



SOUTHERN GOLDEN GATE ESTATES HYDROLOGIC RESTORATION PLAN
Gall Abbott and Ananta Nath
South Florida Water Management District
ABSTRACT
Southern Golden Gate Estates (SGGE) encompasses approximately 94 square miles of predominately
wetlands in south central Collier County and is part of a failed real estate development. Construction of
road and drainage canals have lead to groundwater drawdown, exotic species invasion, wetland degradation,
intense wildfires and unnatural salinity levels in the downstream estuaries. The State of Florida included the
area in the "Save Our Everglades" Conservation and Recreational Lands program in 1985. Approximately
40 percent of the land has been acquired. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD)
recently completed development of a conceptual hydrologic restoration plan for SGGE. The primary
objective of the study was to reduce overdrainage and restore historic sheetflow while maintaining flood
protection north of the project. A continuous process hydrologic-hydraulic simulation model of the
watershed was developed using the EPA's watershed modeling program Hydrologic Simulation
Program-Fortran to quantify rainfall-runoff patterns and soil storage components under five alternative
restoration plans. An alternative with structural components of spreader channels, canal plugs, pump
stations and partial leveling of roads was recommended. After the plan was submitted to the Governor in
early 1996, the State's Department of Environmental Protection initiated an inter-agency review for gaining
a better understanding of the plan, roles of affected agencies, issues in need of resolution and time line for
the project. Currently, the SFWMD and the Natural Resource Conservation Service are involved in an
cooperative watershed planning agreement to obtain additional topographic, vegetation and soils data for
analyzing the ecological impacts of restored hydrologic regimes. The hydrologic and ecologic restoration
of SGGE is unique in its notable size and flood protection constraints and will require an interdisciplinary
and cooperative approach among many agencies as well as a strong commitment from the public.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 10



Session: Environmental Management Abstract #: 97204


FEASIBILITY OF DISCHARGING TREATED MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER INTO THE
FLORIDA EVERGLADES
S. Laha, M. T. Vilches, M. Hodgens, B. Tansel, L. Prieto
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Florida International University
University Park Miami FL 33199

ABSTRACT
Municipal wastewater in Dade County is currently collected and treated in one of three existing wastewater
treatment plants (WWTPs): the South District, Central District, and North District WWTPs. The Central
District WWTP is located on Virginia Key in Miami and has a capacity of approximately 140 million
gallons per day. Treated effluent is discharged through an ocean outfall pipeline over three miles from the
shoreline. In a region experiencing growing water supply problems, including seawater intrusion, this ocean
discharge of potentially reusable fresh water is considered wasteful.

This year's Senior Design Project in FIU's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering involves the
evaluation and design of a new WWTP located in west Dade that will incorporate advanced wastewater
treatment to render WWTP effluent suitable for discharge into the Everglades system. This paper presents
salient findings from the design project.

The WWTP being designed by the senior design class uses a pure oxygen activated sludge process in order
to reduce the organic concentration (measured as BOD) in the sewage; BOD is converted to biomass which
is subsequently removed in settling tanks. The treated effluent is then subjected to advanced treatment in
order to reduce the nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations. Advanced treatment
again utilizes biological treatment, in this case a constructed wetlands system.

The use of wetlands for advanced treatment of municipal wastewater has been demonstrated in a pilot-scale
in West Palm Beach. This project discusses the feasibility of larger-scale applications of advanced
wastewater treatment including the potential benefits of wastewater reuse.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 11



Session: Environmental Management Abstract #: 97205



THE L-31E FRESHWATER REDIVERSION PILOT PROJECT
Jack Meeder, Mike Ross, Pablo Ruiz and Guy Telesnicki
Southeast Environmental Research Program, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL
33199
ABSTRACT
Freshwater from South Dade presently is discharged directly into Biscayne Bay via the Mowry Canal. In
addition to the adverse impacts of this historic change in quantity, quality, and timing of water delivery to
the Bay, nearly all of the sheet flow and transverse glades flow to the Bay has been curtailed by the
construction of the storm tide levee (L-31E). Loss of the historic sheet flow to the Bay has resulted in
westward expansion of salt marshes to the foot of the L-31E structure and has reduced productivity and
natural organic carbon export to the Bay.

The major objective of this study is to document the effects of the freshwater rediversion on both the coastal
wetlands and adjacent Biscayne Bay benthic communities. Nutrient loading to both the wetlands and
nearshore bay ecosystems is the major concern.

The study employs a BACI design, employing two blocks of 20 ha. Our approach is based upon an
ecosystem process model in which we attempt to quantify the major pathl aN s of nutrient movement in the
system and changes in storage of the different ecosystem components. Vegetation, soils, interstitial soil
waters, surface and groundwater, benthic communities and microbial processes are all addressed. In
addition, hydrologic parameters, climatic factors including evapotranspiration, and flux from natural tidal
channels are also being quantified.

Two major complications have occurred. The project was funded prior to Hurricane Andrew and therefore
the litter load and extreme mortality of trees in the fringing environment was not anticipated. Therefore,
litter decomposition studies have been initiated to address the nutrient release from mangrove wood, as well
as other aspects of perturbation and recovery. In addition, a January 1996 freeze selectively killed most of
the trees in the control scrub site, further complicating the eventual analysis of the control versus treatment
results.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 12



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97301


SAW PALMETTO (SERENOA REPENS) (BARTR.) SMALL: AN ECONOMICALLY
IMPORTANT PLANT OF FLORIDA
Judith R. Hicklin
Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences, University Park, Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT

Saw palmetto is an abundant understory plant of many Florida plant communities. A long history of
medicinal use (against benign prostate swelling) along with renewed interest in herbal medicine makes saw
palmetto a plant of economic interest today. The typical price for dried fruits is $0.10-0.15 per pound.
Saw palmetto quite produces a large number of flowers but sets few fruits. Four factors limiting fruit
production have been identified: 1) absence of fire, 2) availability of pollinators, 3) herbivory, and 4)
disease. Fire stimulates flower production in the first year, but in post-fire years 3-5, flowering and fruiting
are diminished. Availability of pollinators is influenced by site, season, and weather. Direct observation of
flower visitors (most commonly Hymenoptera) also revealed that dense undergrowth can hide
inflorescences from potential pollinators Herbivory by the larvae of Litoprosopus futilis (Lepidoptera) can
severely damage emerging inflorescences, thereby preventing flower and fruit production. A fungal
pathogen, not yet identified, causes abortion of developing fruits.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 13



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97302



AUTUMN RAPTOR MIGRATION THROUGH THE FLORIDA KEYS
Cindy B. Brashear and Philip K. Stoddard
Florida International University, Miami, FL
ABSTRACT

The Florida Keys are a migratory bottleneck for approximately 16 species of raptors en-route to the
Antilles and South America. Project goals for our study include a complete autumn raptor migration
census by species, a study of meteorological conditions affecting flight behavior, and raptor use of stopover
habitat. Our primary overflight census is conducted on Grassy Key, 58 miles NE of Key West. The site is
narrow (allowing observations across the entire key), not immediately before or after a water crossing
(eliminating potential double counts of hesitating raptors), and is not a major forage or roost site
(eliminating double counts of looping raptors). Migrating raptors fly either SW (down) or NE (back up)
through the Keys. Tracking NE-bound raptors provides evidence of which species and how many
individuals turn around, presumably to avoid water crossings. Weather factors affecting the raptor
migration include wind direction, wind speed, cloudcover, and frontal systems. This is the first complete
raptor census performed in the Keys. In 1996 (1 Sep 15 Nov), our count exceeded 15,000 raptors,
including over 1,300 Peregrine Falcons. Our one-day total of 335 Peregrines is the highest seen in North
America. According to satellite telemetry studies, Peregrines from as far west as Alaska migrate through the
Keys. This suggests we are observing a different subset of the Peregrine population than seen at other U. S.
raptor watch-sites. Our results indicate that the Florida Keys are a major migratory flyway; thus, critical
resources should be identified and protected.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 14



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97303


POPULATIONS, HABITATS AND LANDSCAPES: MULTI-SCALE APPLIED ECOLOGICAL
STUDIES FOR RESTORATION OF SOUTH FLORIDA ECOSYSTEMS.
Frank J. Mazzotti, Mark Campbell, Michael Cherkiss, Faith Dehring and Jason Miller
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Everglades Research and Education Center,
University of Florida, Belle Glade, Florida.

ABSTRACT

Successful restoration of damaged ecosystems requires understanding ecological phenomena that occur
across large spatial and temporal scales. Another scale of nature is a biological hierarchy encompassing
levels of complexity from molecules to the biosphere. Hierarchical levels of interest to ecosystem
restoration include genes, individuals, populations, species, guilds, communities (habitats), ecosystems, and
landscapes. Our approach to applying ecological studies to ecosystem restoration efforts considers
biological as well as spatial and temporal scales. Population studies focus on evaluating the effects of
hydrological restoration alternatives on the endangered American crocodile. An endangered species
success story in progress, more crocodiles are nesting in more places today than 20 years ago. In 1989
Broward County passed a 75 million dollar bond issue to buy environmentally sensitive lands (ESL's). To
date 17 sites have been acquired. The University of Florida and Broward County Parks and Recreation
Division are working cooperatively to develop management and monitoring programs for 16 sites. An
important part of this program is an ecological characterization of habitats found on ESL sites. Although
fragmented and disturbed Broward County ESL sites have retained valuable ecological qualities. Alligator
holes, by virtue of their ability to affect plant and animal communities, are considered a critical component
of the Everglades landscape. Early efforts at evaluating the ecological role of alligator holes have focused
on mapping and describing alligator holes. Combining remote sensing, field biology and laser mapping in
a GIS/GPS environment offers a promising technology for this landscape level project.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 15



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97304


CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECIATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN THE MIAMI
RIVER
A. Gongora and R. Jaff6
Department of Chemistry & Southeast Environmental Research Program
Florida International University Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT

A series of surface sediments throughout the Miami River were sampled and analyzed for aliphatic
hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sterols. Contamination was found to be widespread
with a similar distribution ranging from the upper to the lower portion of the river, suggesting uniform
origins of pollutants for all sites. Alkane distributions exhibit maxima at C-17 and C-29, noting a large
input of both terrestrial and algal organic matter into the river. High amounts of branched and cyclic
alkanes comprising a large unresolved complex mixture also denotes the presence of anthropogenic
sources. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.69 mg/g 0.80 mg/g. Total mercury levels were also
determined and were between 5.1 and 82.0 mg/g. Pollutant concentrations by sediment grain size showed
that all compounds demonstrate a bimodal distribution with highest concentrations, however, occurring in
the smallest grain size fraction. This data clearly shows that the Miami River is an important source of
organic pollutants to Biscayne Bay.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 16



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97305

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOMASS
FROM THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES AND THE FLORIDA SHELF

M. Hernandez and R. Jaff6
Department of Chemistry & Southeast Environmental Research Program
Florida International University Miami, Fl. 33199
ABSTRACT

Nine sediment samples were collected from a transect that extends from the central section of the Everglades
National Park, through the Harmey River out to the Florida Shelf, to determine sources and fate and
transport characteristics of the organic matter in this aquatic environment. Samples representative of the area
plant communities such as mangroves, periphyton, sawgrass, and seagrass were also collected studied. All
samples were analyzed for their lipid composition and a variety of biomarkers for the different sources of
organic matter were identified. Preliminary results show that the molecular marker approach can
differentiate between mangrove, periphyton and seagrass organic matter imputs. In addition a C-25 bicyclic
diene (C25:2:2) commonly thought to be a marine biomarker was identified in the samples with
predominantly marine influence, while the ketone fraction was found very useful in the assessment of
seagrass imputs. Clear trends of organic matter source changes were observed throughout the sampling
transect.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 17



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97306


HORIZONTAL SURFACE AND SOIL WATER SALINITY GRADIENTS ACROSS THE
MANGROVE/MARSH ECOTONE
Gordon Anderson, Stephanie Cleaves and Thomas J. Smith III
BRD/USGS Everglades Field Station, Everglades National Park, 40001 S.R. 9336,
Homestead, FL 33034
ABSTRACT

The hydrodynamics of tidal exchange and freshwater inflow are the principal physical forces that determine
the mangrove/marsh ecotone in the coastal region of Everglades National Park. The effects of these
hydrodynamics can be characterized by observing the soil and surface water gradients that exist between the
coastal mangrove fringe and inland marshes. Near the Harney river, two surface/ground water wells were
established to continuously monitor water levels and salinity. One well is located in the mangrove fringe, 30
meters from the river bank, the other well is 300 meters inland, within the coastal prairie. An elevated
boardwalk spans the distance between the two wells and was used to collect intermittent grab samples of soil
and surface water along the transect. Preliminary data from the two wells shows salinity differences, thus
suggesting a horizontal salinity gradient due to tide and freshwater fluctuations. The mangrove fringe well is
primarily influenced by the semi-diurnal tides with salinity values ranging from 35 mS in April 1996 to 10
mS in June 1996. The interior prairie well indicates dampened tidal influence with salinity ranging from 25
mS in April 1996 to 5 mS in June 1996. Intermediate soil and surface water observations have been used to
quantify the horizontal salinity gradient along our transect. Small changes in the horizontal salinity gradient
are suggestive of future vegetation changes of the mangrove/marsh ecotone. This study provides
preliminary data in which future salinity fluctuations can be quantitatively monitored and changes in the
mangrove/marsh ecotone can be evaluated.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 18



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97307


WATER BUDGET AND NUTRIENT EXCHANGE AT THE EVERGLADES' SALINITY
TRANSITION ZONE
Enrique Reyes, Martha Sutula, and John W. Day
Coastal Ecology Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this project is to simulate the exchange of water and nutrient between Florida Bay and the
adjacent mangrove wetlands and understand the processes that influence this exchange. Understanding the
link between biological and chemical dynamics, and hydropatterns is a necessary precursor to effectively
restoring Florida Bay ecological system. A dynamic process model can help to predict the effect of
changing freshwater inflow to Florida Bay on the status of mangroves and nutrient availability. The
transition zone ecosystem is connected both to land and sea. It is likely that the ecology of the transition
zone is highly sensitive to the quantity and quality of water in the Everglades watershed and thus, sensitive to
water management practices. Seaward connection is provided by the inflow of saline water driven by tides
and wind events. To integrate all the ecological processes with hydraulics, a predictive model of flux of
materials between mangroves and Florida bay was developed. We plan to further use this model to analyze
nutrient behavior under several water management regimes.

The objectives are: (a) Quantify the exchange of water and nutrients between Florida Bay and fringing
mangroves. (b) Compare patterns of water and nutrient exchange, as measured in mangrove creeks, to these
patterns within the adjacent mangrove wetland. (c) Simulate nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the water
column for three representative zones of Taylor River. The model is spatially articulated to account for
nutrient kinetics in three areas or 'cells': a fringe mangrove zone, an open water area, and a dwarf
mangrove. Given the hydraulic dynamics the time step is 3 hrs and length of the simulation is one year.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Socievt CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 19



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97308


STRUCTURE AND LITTERFALL OF A DWARF R. MANGLE FOREST IN TAYLOR RIVER
SLOUGH
Carlos Coronado-Molina, John W Day Jr, and Enrique Reyes
Coastal Ecology Institute, Center for Coastal, Energy and Environmental Resources
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
ABSTRACT
A study was carried out in a dwarf mangrove forest, dominated by Rhizophora mangle located in the
northern section of the Lower Taylor Slough in the Everglades National Park. The objective of this study is
to describe the structure of the forest and both spatial and temporal variations in litterfall. Two distinctive
climatic seasons occur in the region: dry season (November -April) and rainy season (May-October).
Average total litter fall was 183 g/m2/yr during the rainy season and 284 g/m2/yr during the dry season.
There were significant differences (p<0.05) in litterfall between the two climatic seasons.
The forest has a high density (7060 trees/ha), an average basal area (m2/ha) of 2.53, an average height of
1.2 m and a complexity index (CI) of 0.61. R. mangle accounts for 97.6% of the relative dominance
and 96.7% of the relative density. The structural characteristics of this site are similar to that of Turkey
Point, Florida, also a site dominated by dwarf red mangrove species (Pool et al. 1977), except that in the site
in Taylor River the tree density is higher.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 20



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97309


MATERIAL EXCHANGE BETWEEN A MAJOR MANGROVE TIDAL CREEK AND
NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA BAY
Sutula Martha A.1, Perez Brian C.', Reyes Enrique', Coronada-Molina
Carlos', Day John W., Jr.', and Childers Dan L.2
1 Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
2 Southeast Environmental Research Program, Florida International University, Miami, Florida
ABSTRACT

The exchange of nutrients, organic matter, and suspended sediment between Taylor River and northeastern
Florida Bay was measured to determine the potential impacts of increased freshwater flow to Florida Bay.
Measurements were taken 8 times per day for a 10-day period during the months of January, May, August
and November 1996. Water exchange was influenced to a greater extent by freshwater flow and
climatological events such as cold fronts and tropical systems than by tidal forcing. Exports of TOC to the
Bay occurred during August, January and November while TSS and POM import peaked in May. Organic
forms of nitrogen and phosphorus dominated nutrient flux during the four sampling periods. Mean values
of TN and TOC and N&N peaked in August, and were correlated with freshwater flow. TP, TSS, and NH4
mean concentrations peaked during May and were associated with wind-driven resuspension of sediments in
Florida Bay.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 21



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97310

MAPPING OF PRE-DRAINAGE (CA. 1850) EVERGLADES LANDSCAPES AND HYDROLOGY:
COMPARISON WITH THE NATURAL SYSTEM MODEL

Winifred A. Park
South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL 33406

ABSTRACT

As part of an effort to support ecological restoration of the remaining Everglades wetlands, 1940's soil and
vegetation surveys, in combination with historical observations and topographic survey reports from
1820-1920, were used to define the spatial extents and classifications of Everglades landscapes prior to
canal drainage (c. 1850).

Average annual high and low water depths were estimated for each landscape. Data sources for water depth
estimates included direct observations, narrative accounts, histosol and marl soil accretion requirements,
vegetation requirements and tolerances, and fire behavior. These estimates represent long term averages;
high interannual rainfall variability present in South Florida would introduce variability around these
averages.

Hydroperiod for each landscape was estimated from the average annual low and high water depths with the
additional assumption that these annual extrema occurred, on average, in May and October.

The results are spatial descriptions of the pre-drainage hydrology of the Everglades. In grid format, this
spatial data is comparable with output from hydrologic simulation models.

Patterns of average annual high and low water from this study were compared with simulations of the South
Florida Natural System Model, version 4.4. Spatial patterns were generally similar, but areas of deeper water
for both high and low water conditions were more extensive in the estimates from this study.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 22



Session: Posters Abstract #: 97311



A SYNOPSIS OF FORAGING BEHAVIORS OF HERONS AND EGRETS
Kieckbusch, David K.
Everglades Systems Research Division, South Florida Water Management District,
3301 Gun Club Road, West Palm Beach, FL 33406 USA
ABSTRACT

Demand for quantified animal behaviors in ecology is increasing due to the rise of individual-based models
such as the Across-Trophic-Level System Simulation which requires large amounts of behavioral data. Also
the need to know how different species react to the similar conditions is important because it can show how
individuals adjust their foraging tactics to conform to present conditions. I observed and quantified
individual foraging behaviors of wading birds during an experiment at 15 0.2-hectare ponds adjacent to
Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. The experiment consisted of videotaping behaviors of birds in
response to treatments of water level and fish density. Prior to the experiment, I conducted a literature
search to compile a list of published behavioral categories for foraging wading birds. I observed 4 species
utilizing 7 behaviors previously unattributed to those species. The majority of new behaviors were exhibited
by short-legged species adjusting their feeding strategies to deeper water treatments. Differences in the
range of behaviors exhibited by wading birds affected their response to environmental factors such was
water depth and prey density which fluctuate seasonally in the Everglades.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 23



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97401


SAWCAT PROBABILITY MODEL AND THE EFFECTS OF A DELAYED EVERGLADES
RESTORATION PROGRAM ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SAWGRASS
Wu, Yegang, Fred Sklar, Ken Rutchey, Tom Fontaine
Everglades Systems Research Division, South Florida Water Management District,
West Palm Beach, FL 33414
ABSTRACT
In the last two decades sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) communities of Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA
2A) in the northern Everglades have been invaded by cattail (Typha spp.) communities. A spatially explicit
Markov chain probability model (SAWCAT) was developed to simulate the fragmentation processes of
cattail invasion (Wu et al. 1997). The model combines the effects of agricultural phosphorus (P) runoff and
water depth (D) into a probability function for cattail invasion where: Prob_pw 1 / (1 + a exp(-b P)) +
c D / P; sawgrass cells are 20 x 20 m; invasion is based on the number of 1-8 adjacent cattail cells; and
probabilities are expressed as, Prob a = [0.049, 0.052, 0.061, 0.065, 0.069, 0.072, 0.076, 0.094]. We used
Jensen et al.'s 1973 vegetation map and a cattail coverage of 4.7% (2,054 ha) as the initial condition. A
spatial distribution of soil total phosphorus was simulated in the SAWCAT. Rutchey and Vilchek's 1991
and 1995 cattail distribution maps were used to calibrate the model. The simulated cattail distributions for
1991 and 1995 (15.7% and 21.0%, respectively), were very similar to actual cattail maps (13.02% and
22.17%, respectively). The model assumes that Stormwater Treatment Area-2 (STA-2) built in 1999 will
reduce TP runoff to 50 ppb. However, STA construction could be delayed by two years. What could be the
impacts of such a delay? SAWCAT predicted that by the year 2006 cattail will occupy about 34.8% (mean
= 15,074 ha, standard deviation = 9.1 ha) of WCA-2A if STA-2 is finished by 1999. If STA-2 is finished
by 2001, the model predicts a total cattail expansion of 15,387 ha by the year 2006. The delay would cause
a net increase of 55 ha of cattail, 133 ha of cattail mix, and 125 ha of mixed cattail. The model also
predicted that water depth might have an impact on cattail invasion but not significantly.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 24



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97402


A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR SOIL PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY IN HYDROLOGICALLY
ALTERED WETLANDS OF THE EVERGLADES
Fred H. Sklar and Sue Newman
ESRD, SFWMD, West Palm Beach, FL

ABSTRACT
A number of ecological models are being developed to evaluate the impacts associated with Everglades
restoration. However, current ecological and water quality models for the Everglades do not include detailed
soil physics associated with repeated wetting and drying of hydric soils. As part of the Everglades
Landscape Model (ELM), designed to evaluate plant and nutrient structure and function, we hypothesize
that the relationship between hydrology and cattail invasions in the Everglades can, at times, be explained by
changes in soil nutrient content as a function of bulk density. Low water tables and the concurrent oxidation
of Everglades peat, due to fire, water diversions, drought, and flood control, are thought to concentrate
nutrients in the upper root zones of sedges and grasses. A STELLATM program was developed to evaluate
this hypothesis and to establish the merits of a bulk density algorithm for the ELM. The goal was to create a
bulk density response parameter that was sensitive to the cumulative impacts of successive dry downs. This
was accomplished by calibrating the model against soil and plant data from the Holey Land Wildlife
management Area. Observations in the Holey Land suggest a spatial distribution of cattail that has been
controlled by a combination of water depth and fire. We duplicated this relationship by developing a
cumulative cattail suitability function that was sensitive to water depth, biologically available phosphorus,
and the proportion of slough within a region. The Holey Land was divided into five regions according to
depth. Each region was initialized with the proportion of sawgrass, cattail, and slough known to exist in
1990. Weekly water depths and inputs of nutrients from agriculture from 1990 to 1995 were the forcing
functions. Results are not yet conclusive. However, it is clear that fire has the potential to create both the
space (i.e., slough) and soil nutrient conditions required by cattail. Computer experiments continue as we
refine the cumulative impact functions. We suspect that these functions, once calibrated, will have significant
utility in Water Conservation Area 3A where water tables have been low and therefore, the potential for
cattail invasion may be high


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 25



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97403


EVALUATING EVERGLADES ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS WITH SPATIAL SIMULATION
MODELS
Fitz, H. Carl, F.H. Sklar, Y. Wu
South Florida Water Management District
ABSTRACT

Whereas Everglades restoration efforts are being initiated, the complex interactions of physical, chemical
and biological processes in this heterogeneous landscape are incompletely understood. Stormwater
Treatment Areas (STAs) and modifications to the water control system will alter water and nutrients across
space and time within the region. Our simulation models incorporate hydrologic, nutrient, and plant
dynamics in order to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns of landscape change associated with management
alternatives. In our Everglades Landscape Modeling Program, we developed a general model with scaleable
code and applied it to 1) WCA2A (the CALModel) and to 2) the combined area of the WCAs, part of Big
Cypress, and Everglades National Park (the ELModel). In the current model development phase, we used
CALM to analyze ecological dynamics of the wetlands of WCA2A, where data for parameterizing and
calibrating the model are of the highest quality. In some examples of the model interactions and
feedbacks, we saw that drydown and rewetting the soils modified bio- available nutrients which in turn
affected the plant growth; altered macrophyte biomass in regions near nutrient inflows substantially
affected water levels through differences in transpiration and overland flow. Under various scenarios of
water and nutrient load changes associated with potential loads from the STAs, the distribution of water and
soil nutrients, periphyton, and marsh graminoids were significantly different compared to the base case of
no STA construction. Calibration and uncertainty analyses are underway, and the lessons learned from the
CALM will be applied to the full ELM as another tool for preliminary evaluation of the C&SF Project
Restudy in the next year.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 26



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97404
EVALUATING THE ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS AS A MECHANISM TO INDUCE ECOSYSTEM
STATE CHANGE IN FRESHWATER WETLANDS OF EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK:
SHORT-TERM RESULTS AFTER ONE YEAR OF ENRICHMENT

Daoust, Robert J., Childers, Daniel L., and Diana L. Rodriguez
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University,
University Park, Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT
The Florida Everglades not only constitute one of North America's largest expanses of contiguous wetlands,
but are also among one of its most imperiled ecosystems. Specifically, they have been divided up into three
distinct regions: the Everglades Agricultural Area, a drained region used primarily for sugarcane
production; the Water Conservation Areas, a large region managed by the State of Florida for water control
purposes; and, Everglades National Park (ENP), the only region where conservation and protection of this
unique ecosystem is given top priority. Anthropogenic activity in south Florida has altered both the natural
hydrologic regime and the nutritional status of these wetlands. Past research has indicated that these
changes affect natural Everglades wetlands, but are unclear as to whether one factor plays a greater causal
role than the other. Since March 1996, we have been performing a nutrient enrichment experiment, using
in situ mesocosms and two enrichment levels, in ENP to further evaluate the causal role that phosphorus
enrichment plays in altering community structure and inducing ecosystem state change. Locating our
experiment in ENP allowed us to eliminate the confounding effect of altered hydrologic regime since this
area has been less impacted than others. Our analysis suggests that emergent macrophyte community
composition remains unaffected. Those ecosystem components which cycle phosphorus more rapidly, such
as soil and algal microbial processes, have, however, begun to be affected by our enrichment experiment.
This suggests to us that phosphorus does play a role in causing the observed ecosystem state changes
occurring in freshwater Everglades wetlands.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 27



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97405


ARE TREE ISLANDS IN LOXAHATCHEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SMALL AND
CIRCULAR OR LARGE AND ELONGATED AND ORIENTED IN THE DIRECTION OF FLOW?
Laura A. Brandt and Wiley M. Kitchens
University of Florida, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and USGS-BRD, Florida
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Gainesville, Florida
ABSTRACT

Historic descriptions of tree islands in the Everglades have characterized them as being small and circular or
large and elongated and oriented in the direction of historic water flow. In this study we examine that
notion for one area of the Everglades, Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. Size, shape, and orientation
were determined for 2144 tree islands identified from 1987 satellite imagery. Tree islands ranged in size
from 0.05 ha to 62 ha and represented a continuum of sizes. All circular tree islands were < 0.6 ha while
elliptical tree islands ranged in size from 0.05 ha to 62 ha. Orientation of elliptical tree islands was bimodal
with most oriented between 0 and 20 degrees or 150 and 180 degrees (180 = north to south). Larger tree
islands showed less variance in orientation than smaller tree islands. Orientation was not correlated with flow
direction predicted from elevation data alone, but appears to be more related to the large scale north to
south gradient and historic patterns of sheet flow.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 28



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97406


SOIL-BASED ESTIMATION OF PRE-DRAINAGE (CA. 1850) EVERGLADES LANDSCAPES
AND THEIR HYDROLOGY
Christopher McVoy
Environmental Defense Fund/South Florida Water Management District
Hydrologic Systems Modeling Div., SFWMD West Palm Beach, FL 33416

ABSTRACT
Intensive synoptic studies from the 1940s provide the best available picture of the Everglades as a whole.
Accurately portraying the system as it was then, these studies also reflect any alterations caused by thirty
years of canal drainage.

In the present research we developed a picture of the landscapes -- the soils, hydrology, topography and
vegetation -- present prior to drainage. Development of this picture included two aspects: characterization of
the landscapes and determination of their spatial extents. Soil was assumed to be the most stable aspect of
each landscape. A comprehensive soil map of the Everglades published in 1948 therefore formed the basis
for estimating spatial extents.

Hindcasting of the 1948 soil map and characterization of each pre-drainage landscape was based on
synthesis of numerous sources: a 1915 soil survey; published studies of soil change after drainage; federal
and state township surveys; historical observations of water levels and vegetation; and reports from
expeditions, etc.

Results of the synthesis suggested that a large portion of the Everglades had been altered substantially by
the 1940s. The ridge and slough landscape -- containing the deepest water -- originally extended
continuously from the present Loxahatchee Wildlife Refuge to Shark River Slough. The sawgrass plains of
the northern Everglades occupied less area than when mapped in the 1940s. Areas along the edge of the
Everglades mapped as wet prairie on sandy soils were likely originally sawgrass on peat soil. Average annual
variation in water depth throughout the Everglades was likely about two feet. Water depths in the sloughs of
the ridge and slough landscape, on average, varied between 12 inches in May to 30 inches in October; a
hydroperiod of 365 days. The sawgrass plains ranged between six inches below ground in May to 18 inches
above in October.

Comparison of this study with results from the South Florida Natural System Model are presented
graphically in an associated poster.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 29



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97407


MODELING PERIPHYTON AND PHOSPHORUS LINKAGES IN THE EVERGLADES

Quan Dong, Paul McCormick, Fred Sklar
Everglades Systems Research Division, South Florida Water Management District

ABSTRACT
Native periphyton is a key ecosystem component in the Everglades. They have been identified as extremely
sensitive to phosphorus supply. Periphyton are also being considered as the basis for
ecological-engineering design of periphyton storm-water Treatment areas to reduce phosphorus in
agricultural runoff. We are developing a periphyton model to study the relationship between periphyton
community structure, production, phosphorus and other environmental conditions. This model serves as a
quantitative framework that can (a) describe the system, (b) synthesize the current ecological information
from empirical studies, (c) evaluate importance of various ecological processes and parameters, (d) identify
critical links and missing links in current ecological understanding, and (e) generate hypotheses and
projections. The design of the model allows users to perform different analyses with a minimum effort of
modification. The structural complexity of the model can be controlled in different analyses depending
upon the objectives and scales of each study. The model is applicable to characterizing the
phosphorus-threshold and the retention capacity of phosphorus of the periphyton storm-water treatment
areas. For example, our model analyses suggest that small gradual changes in phosphorus supply n a
certain range may lead to a dramatic change (bifurcation) in the community structure and biomass of
periphyton. Such a range is a parameter of the phosphorus-threshold.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 30



Session: Wetlands Abstract #: 97408


THE CONTRIBUTION OF CARNIVORY TO THE NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS GROWTH
NEEDS OF THE BLADDERWORT, UTRICULARIA FOLIOSA
Amanda Bern, Jennifer Richards and Brian Fry
Department of Biological Sciences, University Park, Florida International University, Miami FL, 33199

ABSTRACT

Utricularia foliosa is a free-floating aquatic carnivorous plant found throughout south Florida's freshwater
wetlands. Although there is no question that these plants are capable of capturing and digesting small
invertebrate prey, the extent to which camivory supplies nitrogen and phosphorus for growth of U. foliosa
is unknown. In order to determine the relative contribution of camivory to U. foliosa, we estimated
carnivory supply of nitrogen and phosphorus versus the plant growth demand. Estimates from the
published literature for other Utricularia species suggest that the maximum contribution from carnivory for
nitrogen and phosphorus needs of these plants are 26% and 15% respectively. However our observations
for U. foliosa show that maximal values for carnivory are closer to 8% nitrogen and 5% phosphorus.
Overall, our findings show that these putatively carnivorous plants in fact obtain most of their nitrogen and
phosphorus via foliar uptake. This raises the question of why these plants invest such a large percentage of
their biomass in making bladders. In fact, U. foliosa investment in carnivorous organs (bladders) is highly
variable. Trap allocation usually varies from 18.8% to 52% of the plants total biomass, but at one field site,
the entire population of U. foliosa had no bladders. A transplant experiment showed that this plasticity in
bladder production was environmentally induced. We are currently investigating the factors that control
plant investment in bladders.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDneen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 31



Session: Bird Studies Abstract #: 97501


SERUM CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS OF BALD EAGLE AND OSPREY NESTLINGS IN FLORIDA
BAY, EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
Brian K. Mealey, G.M. Parks, C.Pages and G.Bossart
Falcon Batchelor Bird of Prey Center, Miami Museum of Science, 3280 S.Miami Ave., Miami, FL 33129
ABSTRACT
The objective of this cooperative study is to determine selected clinicopathological parameters from
free-ranging naturally raised young eagles and ospreys. Since knowledge of the basic physiology of
wild raptors is limited, this project will contribute towards the establishment of "normal" baseline values
for their blood chemistry. Blood analysis was conducted on 72 bald eagle and 66 osprey nestlings
between 1992 and 1996. Nestlings were sampled between the ages of 35 and 45 days old. Five eaglets
resulted in depressed levels, <0.9 p/ml, of cholinesterase suggesting exposure to an organophosphate
toxin. Total protein values, related to prey consumption, were 2.96 g/dl for the ospreys and 3.24 g/dl
for the eaglets. Mercury values for 1993 were 0.29 ppm (eagles) and 0.81 ppm (ospreys) and for 1995
were 0.32 ppm (eagles) and 0.19 ppm (ospreys). Serum values when used in conjunction with other
good ecological data offer wildlife agencies an alternative way of assessing the health of an ecosystem.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 32



Session: Bird Studies Abstract #: 97502


A TEST OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS CONSTRAINING THE USE OF FORAGING SITES
BY WADING BIRDS (CICONIIFORMES) IN THE EVERGLADES
Gawlik, Dale E.
Everglades Systems Research Division, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL
ABSTRACT

It is reported that food availability (i.e., abundance and vulnerability to capture) is the single most important
factor limiting populations of wading birds in the Everglades. Constraints on the acquisition of food by
wading birds are therefore the primary barriers to restoring sustainable populations to this degraded
ecosystem. I manipulated two potential constraints (prey abundance and water depth) on the use of
foraging sites to test the hypotheses that each component limits foraging-site use by free-ranging wading
birds. I conducted the experiment in 12 0.2-ha ponds using water depth treatments of 10 cm, 19 cm, and
28 cm, and fish (Notemigonus crvsoleucas) density treatments of 3 fish/m2 and 10 fish/m2. The temporal
dynamics of site use by birds indicated species-specific differences in the ability to find food patches as well
as to exploit a wide range of water depths. For example, white ibis (Eudocimus albus) and wood storks
(Mycteria americana) found food patches quickly but did not utilize patches at a wide range of depths. In
contrast, great egrets (Casmerodius albus) increased in abundance more slowly but occupied the entire
range of depth treatments. Water depth affected the use of sites by 6 of the 8 species examined whereas fish
density affected only the white-plumage social-feeding species. The degree to which a species was limited
by either prey abundance or water depth was a function of both their morphological characteristics and
behavioral plasticity. These results suggest that foraging opportunities in the Everglades are most limiting
for white ibis, wood storks, snowy egrets (Egretta tricolor) and tricolored herons.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 33



Session: Bird Studies Abstract #: 97503

MEASURING AVIAN REPRODUCTION ON AN ECOSYSTEM SCALE: REPRODUCTIVE
SUCCESS MEASURES ARE POOR PREDICTORS OF ANNUAL PRODUCTIVITY OF
EVERGLADES WADING BIRDS
Peter C. Frederick
Dept. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-1 '4 1
ABSTRACT

Avian nesting success measures are often assumed to accurately reflect local breeding conditions, but the
scale dynamics of such linkages are poorly understood. Between 1986 and 1995, I measured numbers of
nest starts, clutch size, nest survival, hatching success, and brood size of Great Egrets, White Ibises,
Tricolored Herons and Snowy Egrets throughout the central Everglades, and estimated the annual
ecosystem-wide productivity of these species. The only significant correlation among these annual
measures was between numbers of nest starts and total production of young and otherwise all
combinations of annual measures were uncorrelated. This suggests that years of high recruitment within the
ecosystem are inadequately predicted on a landscape scale by even ecosystem-wide measurement of
reproductive success measures. The lack of concordance among variables also suggests that the
predictability of reproductive success is quite low at any given point during the breeding season, due to both
naturally-occurring and anthropogenic disturbance events. Wading bird restoration and monitoring efforts
in the Everglades should concentrate on the features that attract large numbers of birds to nest, rather than
attempting to maximize nest success parameters.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 34



Session: Bird Studies Abstract #: 97504


EFFECTS OF CHRONIC, LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF DIETARY METHYLMERCURY ON
APPETITE AND HUNTING BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE GREAT EGRETS
Shannon N. Bouton, Peter Frederick, Marilyn Spalding and Heather Lynch
Dept. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-1 14 1 I

ABSTRACT

Wading birds (Ciconiiformes) in the Everglades are known to chronically encounter methylmercury in their
diets. Based on concentrations of mercury in prey animals and measurements of food intake in wild
nestlings, we estimate that Great Egrets typically encounter a minimum of 0.65 ppm in their diet. We dosed
6 captive juvenile Great Egrets with 0.5 ppm methylmercury, and 6 with placebos in their diets between 12
and 105 days of age in order to estimate the effects of this toxin during the critical growth and
independence period. We tested each bird repeatedly for their ability to capture live fish in pools with
contrasting and camouflage backgrounds. Placebo birds were significantly more likely to finish foraging
bouts (5 fish presented sequentially) than were mercury-dosed birds. For birds which completed foraging
bouts, there was no difference in time to capture fish.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 35



Session: Bird Studies Abstract #: 97505


ENERGETIC REQUIREMENTS OF NESTLING WADING BIRDS

Johanna Salatas and Peter Frederick
University of Florida, Department of Wildlife Ecology&Conservation
Gainesville, FL 32611-0430

ABSTRACT
Due to extensive modifications of Everglades hydrology, the number of nesting attempts of all species of
wading birds has declined by over 90%. Food availability may be the single most important factor that
limits the distribution and nesting success of wading birds. Modeling projects designed to guide efforts to
restore productive wading bird populations in the Everglades require accurate estimations of nestling food
requirements. To date, the energetic of nestling wading birds remains poorly documented, simply because
the logistics of measuring food intake have been difficult to obtain in the field. We have employed the
labeled water technique in order to determine food intake in free-ranging Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)
nestlings. After injecting nestlings with tritiated water and extracting blood samples in 5-d intervals, the
labeled water technique, which is efficient and 95% accurate, allows us to calculate the water turnover rate.
Because the water content of wading bird prey items in the Everglades is well known, the water turnover rate
can be used to estimate prey consumption in nestlings. During the 1996 breeding season, we collected data
from three sites in Water Conservation Areas 3A and 3B. Our results show that food intake can be measured
in Snowy Egret chicks and the data imply that geographic differences do not seem to account for
differences in the food amount delivered to chicks. Food amount strongly influences chick mass,
independent of chick age and hatch order. Our results indicate that food amount is critical to the residual
mass and possibly the fledgling condition of ciconiiform chicks which could influence post-fledging
survival. We anticipate that these relationships will become better developed and more robustly tested
during the 1997 breeding season.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 36



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97601


SOURCES OF VARIATION IN ANNUAL COUNT DATA USED TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF
SNAIL KITES IN FLORIDA
Victoria J. Dreitz,
Dept. Biol., Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
Robert E. Bennetts
Coop. Fish and Wild. Res. Unit, Gainesville, FL
Wiley M. Kitchens
U.S. Geological Service, Coop. Fish and Wild. Res. Unit, Gainesville, FL

ABSTRACT

Since 1969 the number of Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida has been monitored via a
quasi-systematic annual count. Numerous biological interpretations have been derived from these counts
assuming that the counts represent complete censuses. Often the interpretations have little or no regard for
the inherent sources of variation in these data that could influence the validity of subsequent interpretations.
Here we examine several sources of variation inherent in the annual count and present data showing how
several systematic sources of variation can greatly influence the probability of detecting individuals on any
given count. We suggest that capture-recapture (mark-resighting) techniques offer a reasonable alternative
for estimating populations size. This approach enables explicit estimation of the probability of detecting
individuals. We present preliminary results using this technique to estimate population size of Snail Kites in
Florida.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 37



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97602



WATER BIRD USAGE OF FLORIDA BAY
Joan Browder, Oron Bass, Jennifer Gebelein, and Haolon Huang
NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, Miami, & NPS/Everglades National Park, Homestead
ABSTRACT
An aerial census of Florida Bay conducted from an HH65 Dolphin helicopter (courtesy U.S. Coast Guard,
Miami Air Station) provides the first comprehensive multi-species, baywide view of wading bird abundance,
spatial distribution, and habitat use. More than two complete years' of monthly observations reveal seasonal
patterns.

Objectives are to (1) determine usage of various types of bay habitat, (2) determine overall abundances, (3)
compare present to past abundances for a few species that have been counted previously, and (4) compare
abundances and seasonal usage of the bay to that in mangrove and freshwater areas of Everglades National
Park. During the first 9 mo, we flew regularly spaced north-south transects and diverted from the flight path
to circle islands within one-half mile distance. Beginning month 10, we adopted a more efficient strategy
that focused on islands and nearly exposed banks. White Ibis were the most abundant wading bird species
the first winter, followed by Great and Snowy Egrets. The Great White Heron was the wader that most fully
used the Bay. It was consistently the most widely distributed species across Florida Bay in all months. The
Great Blue Heron was less numerous than the Great White Heron, more seasonal in its occurrence, and more
restricted in its distribution (mainly the western and southwestern bay). During the winter, Great and Snowy
Egrets were more numerous than Great White Herons. The spatial distribution of Great Egrets was similar to
that of Great White Herons. One surprise was the large number of small wading bird species using the bay.
Little Blue Herons, Snowy Egrets, and Tri-colored Herons extended deeply into the bay, not just along the
northern fringe .


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 38



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97603


POPULATION BIOLOGY OF THE RIVERINE GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES PALUDOSUS
AND ITS RESPONSE TO WATER-LEVEL CHANGE IN EVERGLADES MARSHES
Anne-Marie Eklund
NMFS, 75 Virginia Beach Dr., Miami, FL 33149

William F. Loftus
USGS-Biological Resources Division, Everglades National Park Field Station,
40001 State Rd. 9336, Homestead, FL 33034

ABSTRACT
Palaemonetes paludosus is abundant in Everglades marshes and serves as an important link in the marsh
food web. Only one other study has investigated the life history and ecology of this species in Everglades
marsh habitats, but the conclusions of that study are questionable because of an inherent bias in the
pull-trap sampling gear used. We used an improved sampling gear, the throw trap, to examine the responses
of riverine grass shrimp to hydrological patterns in the Shark River Slough marshes of Everglades National
Park, during a six year period. We analyzed shrimp density, biomass, fecundity, reproductive seasonality,
and size of maturity in long-hydroperiod marshes and in hydrologically challenged, short-hydroperiod
areas. Prawn density and biomass were significantly lower in areas subjected to frequent dry-downs than
they were in areas with sustained flooding. Although previously published pull-trap data indicated that
shrimp abundance declined during an extended high-water period, data from our study show instead that
the density of P. paludosus increased during a period of prolonged high-water. Based on the results from
the more accurate throw-trap gear, we conclude that frequent dry-downs will produce degraded marshes
with reduced standing stocks of aquatic animals.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 39



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97604


FOOD WEB STRUCTURE IN LAKE OKEECHOBEE

Patricia L. Mumford and Brian Fry
Biology Department, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT
Food web structures in lakes are often complex and poorly understood. We used stable isotopes to describe
the food web linkages and functional similarity of fish communities at 5 sites across Lake Okeechobee.
Stable isotopes provide a natural tag that allowed us to find different feeding patterns of fish subgroups
within the lake. When averages for the entire fish communities were taken, the five sites sampled showed
distinctive patterns of DELTA^13^C and DELTA^15^N isotopic compositions. The marsh site
(MH24,000) had distinctly lower DELTA^13^C and DELTA^15^N values than the other sites, the offshore
site (LZ-40) had high DELTA^13^C and DELTA^15^N values, and the other 3 sites that were close to the
marsh-open water interface had intermediate isotope values. The DELTA^13^C isotope data were most
useful for distinguishing which fish species feed offshore, which species use the marsh, and which species
migrate between the two habitats. All sizes of black crappie were found to have similar DELTA^13^C
values, indicating offshore feeding throughout their lives. In contrast, largemouth bass showed strong
changes in DELTA^13^C with size, consistent with a migration from marsh to offshore areas as fish grow.
The DELTA^15^N values are a trophic level indicator, with N isotope values increasing with increasing
trophic level. The progression of DELTA^15^N across sites generally followed the size of the fish
collected, with smaller fish from the MH site having lower values and larger fish from the other sites with
higher DELTA^15^N values. Underlying these broad patterns, there was evidence for a finer-grained
distribution of isotope labels, beyond the simple marsh vs. offshore contrast. The non-uniform distribution
of isotope labels at the marsh site, indicated that small fish differ strongly in their foraging habits.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 40



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97605


BENTHIC MACROPHYTE SEASONALITY IN THE EVERGLADES-FLORIDA BAY ECOTONE:
INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER INFLOW
Morrison, D., Bean, D., Wise, M., and Sorrentino, D.
National Audubon Society, 115 Indian Mound Trail; Tavernier, FL 33070
ABSTRACT
Water management practices have altered the natural freshwater flow patterns into the mangrove
ecotone zone along the north shore of Florida Bay. This study characterizes seasonal patterns of
submerged macrophytes in the estuarine waterbodies in this zone. We evaluate the influence of
freshwater inflow on macrophyte dynamics. This project provides information for developing and
evaluating management strategies to restore more natural freshwater inflow patterns.
Two sampling regimes were used to assess benthic macrophyte seasonal abundance, distribution, and
community structure: 1) at the end of wet and dry seasons on a waterbody wide scale measuring
percent cover, and 2) on a smaller spatial scale, but with greater frequency (every two months,
measuring biomass. Eight waterbodies, oriented along freshwater flow paths (hence, salinity gradient)
from inland to Florida Bay, were surveyed. Project duration was October 1995 to December 1996 (two
wet and one dry season surveys).
Submerged macrophyte abundance and distribution varied seasonally. Benthic macrophyte
seasonality was related to seasonal patterns in salinity and light penetration or water clarity. However,
these biological and physical patterns differed spatially and temporally. Macrophyte seasonal patterns
differed among waterbodies, and even within some waterbodies. Seasonal patterns differed in the same
waterbody from year (1995 wet season) to year (1996 wet season). These differences in macrophyte
seasonal patterns are likely due to the relative importance of different physicochemical factors,
primarily salinity and light, affecting plant growth over spatial (among waterbodies) and temporal
(interannual) scales. Salinity and benthic light availability are affected by freshwater inflow patterns.
Chara was the dominant species in waterbodies with median salinity <15 ppt. Halodule was abundant in
waterbodies with median salinity >18 ppt.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 41



Session: Birds&Animals Studies Abstract #: 97606

SIMPDEL: A SPATIALLY EXPLICIT INDIVIDUAL-BASED SIMULATION MODEL FOR
FLORIDA PANTHER AND WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE EVERGLADES AND BIG CYPRESS
LANDSCAPES
E. J. Comiskey, L. J. Gross and M. A. Huston
The Institute for Environmental Modeling University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610
ABSTRACT

A model has been constructed with the primary objective of accessing the relative impacts of alternative
hydrologic scenarios over the next several decades on the spatial and temporal distribution of panther and
deer across South Florida. This includes the capability to produce relative comparisons of mortality,
reproduction, individual movement patterns and territory size across the landscape for both species. The
modeling approach is individual-based, in which detailed physiological and behavioral information on deer
and panther are utilized to construct rules which allow the simulation of over 30,000 individual animals
across the landscape, keeping track of individual characteristics such as weight, sex, mating status, and
health. The behavioral rules are coupled to a dynamic spatially-explicit hydrologic model, a vegetation
model, and a variety of GIS-type inputs for roads, landuse, and feral hog density. The model operates on a
daily time step, although within this time step, deer and panther movements are simulated, taking account of
local water conditions, forage and prey availability. Spatially, the model makes use of vegetation data to
calculate forage availability on a 100 m scale, but tracks deer and panther locations on the daily time step at
500 m scale. Validation involves detailed comparisons of deer distributions with historical data, comparison
of aggregated variables such as age-dependent mortality, age-structure, body weight distribution and birth
rates with available data, and comparison of model individual-movement patterns with radio collar data. A
visualization program has been written to allow easy access to the radio collar information available, and
provide a means to readily compare this to model output.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 42



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97701


ANALYSIS OF SPONGE MORTALITY IN FLORIDA BAY

Barbara A. Maloney and Charles H. Bigger
Dept. of Biology, Florida International University, Miami, FL

ABSTRACT

Between January 1991 and 1994 there were a series of algal bloom incidents in Florida Bay that occurred at
the same time as mass mortalities or disappearances of sponges, seagrass beds, juvenile fish and shellfish.
Both the algal bloom and perhaps suspended fine sediments were blamed for the sponge mortalities. The
major hypotheses advanced for the sponge death were physical clogging of the filter feeding mechanism by
the putative bloom cynobacteria and its mucus or toxins produced by the cynobacteria. (Grantham, 1993).
In October 1993, four species of sponges (Aplysina califormis, Ircinia campano, Spheciospongia
vesparium, Appotos sp.) were collected from a normal area east of the Marine Lab in Long Key, Florida and
transplanted into the mortality area where a single species, Cirayhydra alloclada, was still growing.
Accordingly, the sponges in this study were in three areas: 1) offshore, in the bloom area 2) inshore in a
control area at the Marine Lab and 3) in a flow-thru sea water tank at the Marine Lab. Tissue was sampled
daily over a five day period and fixed in Parducz's fixative or gluteraldehyde with osmium tetroxide as a
postfixative and prepared for light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. No physical
clogging, by the dominant bloom species of cynobacteria, Synechoccus elongatus or calcium carbonate
particulates was found.

A special thanks to Florida Marine Research Institute, South Florida Regional Laboratory for assistance in
collecting samples.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 43



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97702


GROUND WATER DELIVERY TO BISCAYNE BAY

Michael Byrne and John Meeder
U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, FL 33156

ABSTRACT

Salinity and specific nutrient concentrations exhibit an offshore profile in the upper Biscayne Bay aquifer
suggestive of groundwater discharge into the nearshore bay. By 400 M the upper groundwater salinity is
usually near normal marine and the benthic communities are dominated by Thallasia testudinum from that
point further offshore. Initial flow measurements indicate groundwater discharge of nutrient rich waters in
the inshore areas which are dominated by Halodule wrightii and Penicillus -Batophora communities and
filamentous algae.

The objectives of this study are: 1) to quantify the groundwater nutrient load to nearshore Biscayne Bay, 2)
identify the source of nutrients and 3) document their effects on the benthic communities. This report
focuses on the groundwater aspects of this National Park and SFWMD funded research.

Fifteen pairs of wells were drilled along five transects perpendicular to The Biscayne Bay shore line from a
distance of 50 to 800 M off shore. Transects are located south of Dinner Key and north of Mowry Canal.
The wells at each station consist of an upper well above a semi-impermeable layer (1-3 M) and a lower well
(5-7 M). Wells and surface water were sampled in June, September, 1996 and January 1997. Samples were
anayzed for salinity (in the field) and the following nutrients; N02, N03, NH4 TP, chlorophyll, TOC, TN,
SRP, and APA. Upper aquifer concentration to TP and ammonia (10 to 20 times surface water
concentrations) levels are high.

Biscayne Bay National Park is conducting a study to return sheet flow to the bay. This research will establish
the impact groundwater has prior to the return of sheet flow.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 44



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97703



SEAGRASS FACIES AND PHASES RECORDED IN THE SEDIMENTS OF FLORIDA BAY
Halley, R.B., Holmes, C.W., Prager, E.J., and Shinn, E.A
US Geological Survey, Coastal Center, St. Petersburg, Fl 33701


ABSTRACT

Widespread seagrass mortality in Florida Bay during the past decade is unique to human memory
and has raised concerns about ecosystem health. However, the sedimentary record of Florida Bay indicates
great variation of seagrass cover in the more distant past. In east-central Florida Bay, sediments clearly
record the presence and absence of sea grass in sediment facies deposited during the last two centuries. Sea
grass and grass-free (mud) facies are defined by the texture, composition, and structure of sediment.
Seagrass facies have a chaotic structure, a significant coarse fraction, and contain fossil species of
carbonate-producing epibionts. In contrast, mud facies (grass-free) are characterized by sediments that
have a laminated structure, less shelly fauna, and are typically finer grained than grassy areas. Seagrass and
mud facies accumulate in mudbanks as deposits of locally allochthonous (transported) and autochthonous
(produced in situ) carbonate sediment originating in the Bay. Mudbanks slowly migrate in response to
wave-induced suspension and traction sediment transport, eroding on exposed margins and accumulating
on protected sides. Mudbanks vary greatly in the amount of seagrass cover but for the past 30 to 50 years
have been dominated by seagrass facies.
Several researchers have applied facies analyses to mudbank cores in order to document changes in
seagrass cover in the past. Newly applied dating techniques and studies of recent erosion and accumulation
indicate that in the early 1800s seagrass cover was much like that of today. However, during the mid-1800s,
the influence of sea grass greatly declined, and a phase of physical sedimentation became prevalent. This
physical phase dominated until the 1920s and 1930s when seagrass facies returned to the area. The phase
change from physical to seagrass-dominated sedimentation during the early part of this century may be
associated with decreased circulation and freshwater inflow during that time. Although the causes of
seagrass loss in the mid 1800s are subject to speculation, it is clear from the sedimentary record that really
extensive changes in seagrass cover have occurred in the past.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997







WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 45



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97704


THE EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT ON SOIL MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN
MANGROVES
N.J.Oehm, D.L. Childers, S.E Davis
FIU, Miami, FL 33199
J. Day, B.Perez, E.Reyes, and M.Sutula
LSU, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
D. Rudnick and F. Sklar
SFWMD, West Palm Beach, FL 33170
ABSTRACT

Mangrove wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and have been the subject of
nutrient cycling studies for their commercial and ecological importance. This study takes place in the
mangroves found in the Taylor Slough area of Everglades National Park, USA. The Everglades is a highly
oligotrophic, carbonate-based system and recent work has demonstrated a phosphorus limitation in both the
southeastern Everglades mangroves and the freshwater microbial community. We examine the effects of
nutrient enrichment on carbon fluxes in the mangrove soils found along the salinity gradient of Taylor
Slough. Triplicate soil cores are collected quarterly from creekside and inland sites at each of three
locations and slurried for nutrient enrichment incubations in a nitrogen-phosphorus factorial treatment.
All fluxes are calculated using carbon dioxide, methane and sulfide production and are normalized for
differences in soil and water chemistry. We present preliminary results from the first year of this study and
discuss the differences in carbon flux between creekside and inland sites.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDinee Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 46



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97705

THE SOUTHEAST SALINE EVERGLADES REVISITED: VEGETATION AND SOIL CHANGES
DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

M. S. Ross, J. F. Meeder, G. Telesnicki, P. L. Ruiz, and J. P. Sah
Southeast Environmental Research Program, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT
Holocene sea level rise has caused salt water encroachment into coastal areas for at least 6000 years, but in
the last century the rate of encroachment has been altered by anthropogenic activities affecting the
availability of upstream water resources. Marsh vegetation and soils, and adjacent tree island vegetation were
examined in 55 sites SE of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge between Turkey Point and Taylor Slough in 1994-95.
Both marsh and tree island vegetation exhibited well-defined compositional and structural gradients with
distance to the coast. Since an earlier study by Egler (1952), the boundary of the mixed
graminoid-mangrove and sawgrass communities shifted inland by as much as 3.3 km, and a
low-productivity band appearing white on B&W and CIR photos moved interiorward by an average of 1.5
km. The shift in this "white zone" was less pronounced in areas receiving fresh water overflow through gaps
in the C-111 Canal than in adjacent areas cut off from upstream water sources by roads or levees.
Sub-basinal differences in response to sea level rise were also documented from changes in the vertical and
horizontal distribution of mollusk assemblages, which include many good indicators of salinity. Subbasinal
time lines for the transition from fresh to brackish-water assemblages were developed based on soil
accretion rates from Pb210 dating methods. The rates of salt water encroachment in Joe Bay, Highway
Creek, and Turkey Point subasins were several times the rate indicated by sea level rise alone, while Taylor
Slough exhibited less encroachment than predicted by sea level rise. The timing of the acceleration of
saltwater encroachment, when present, also appeared to differ among subbasins.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 47



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97706

PATTERNS OF GROWTH AND RECRUITMENT IN MANGROVE FORESTS FOLLOWING
CATASTROPHIC DISTURBANCE IN RELATION TO SOIL NUTRIENTS

Smith III, T.J., Wiebe, W.J. & Merickel, J.A.
Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, FL
and University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

ABSTRACT

Hurricane Andrew passed over the southwest coast of Florida in August 1992 causing a gradient of
disturbance in mangrove forests from minor to catastrophic. We established a series of permanent plots
from Rookery Bay in the north to Flamingo in the south to measure initial patterns of mortality, continuing
storm related mortality, and the growth of survivors and new recruits. Soil porewater nutrients (nitrogen and
phosphorus), sulphide and salinity were measured over time at a subset of plots. Initial mortality was both
size and species dependent. Larger individuals of all species were killed and Rhizophora suffered higher
initial mortality than either Avicennia or Laguncularia. Continuing mortality has also been concentrated in
larger size classes and has been greater for Avicennia and Laguncularia. Recruitment at most, but not all,
plots has been dominated by Laguncularia. Rhizophora dominated recruitment at a single plot and
Avicennia has recruited in very low numbers in all plots. Growth, measured as basal area increase, has been
greatest for all species in plots subjected to intermediate levels of disturbance and least in plots suffering
either catastrophic disturbance or little disturbance at all. Soil nutrient pools appear to have played a
secondary role. Plots with higher levels of phosphorus had slightly higher growth rates and plots with high
sulphide levels had decreased rates of growth. After five years, areas of catastrophic disturbance are not
close to approaching prestorm levels of forest biomass.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Socievt CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 48



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97707


SALINITY AND ORGANIC MATTER TRANSFORMATIONS AS CONTROLS ON
WETLAND-WATER COLUMN INTERACTIONS IN A SOUTH FLORIDA MANGROVE
Stephen Davis and Daniel Childers
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199
ABSTRACT

In August and November 1996, we quantified wetland-water column fluxes and processes in dwarf and
fringe mangroves of Everglades National Park. We hypothesized that key organic matter transformations
are maximal at 0-5 ppt, and that movement of this zone controls nutrient availability and flux. We used
dwarf mangrove enclosures, in-channel mangrove flumes, prop root enclosures, and serial filtration
experiments to hierarchicallyy] test our hypothesis. Island enclosures showed significant uptake of NH4
(15.3 31.2 pM/m2/hr) and significant release of NN (46.4 pM/m2/hr) and TP (4.4 pM/m2/hr). SRP fluxes
varied. Flume data showed a relationship between salinity and nutrient dynamics, particularly with P
exchange. Red mangrove prop roots tended to take up NH4 and SRP while releasing NN and TP; NH4 and
NN fluxes were always greater when prop roots contained epibiont communities. We performed serial
filtrations on water incubated for 2 days in the root bag enclosures; this suggested a conversion of organic P
to SRP in the presence of red mangrove prop roots (with and without epibionts). Data from January 1997,
which also included a time-series serial filtration experiment where fresh and saline waters were mixed to
different salinites, will allow us to more fully address our hypothesis.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Socievt CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 49



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97708



SEAGRASS MONITORING IN THE FLORIDA KEYS NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY
Willsie, A.A.', Fourqurean, J.W.', Durako, M.D.2 and Zieman, J.C.3
1 Southeast Environmental Research Program and Department of Biology,
Florida International University, Miami, Fl, 33199;
2. Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
100 8th Ave. SE, St. Petersburg, Fl 33701;
3 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.
ABSTRACT

The purpose of seagrass monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) is to measure
the status and trends of seagrass communities to evaluate progress toward protecting and restoring the
marine resources of the Sanctuary. Specific objectives are: 1) To provide data needed to make unbiased,
statistically rigorous statements about the status and temporal trends of seagrass communities in the
Sanctuary as a whole and within defined strata; 2) To define reference conditions in order to develop
resource-based water quality standards; and 3) To provide a framework for testing hypothesized pollutant
fate/effect relationships through process-oriented research and monitoring. To reach these goals, four kinds
of data are being collected in seagrass beds in the FKNMS: 1) Distribution and abundance of seagrasses
using rapid assessment Braun-Blanquet surveys; 2) Demographics of the seagrass communities using
leaf-scar counting and population demographics techniques; 3) Seagrass productivity of the dominant
species of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) using the leaf-mark and harvest method; and 4) Seagrass nutrient
availability using tissue concentration assays. We assess both inter-annual and intra-annual trends in
seagrass communities. The mix of site types is intended to monitor trends through quarterly sampling at a
few permanent locations and to annually characterize the broader seagrass population through less intensive,
one-time sampling at more locations. Clear spatial and seasonal patterns in productivity, demographics,
distribution, abundance, and elemental content are present in the data.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 50



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97709



WATER USE IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES OF BISCAYNE NATIONAL PARK, FL
G.J. Telesnicki, M.S. Ross, S. Oberbauer, J.F. Meeder, and P.L. Ruiz
Southeast Environmental Research Program, Florida International University, Miami, Fl 33199.
ABSTRACT

Water use for Rhizophora mangle & Laguncularia racemosa were estimated for scrub and paralic mangrove
communities along a coastal gradient in Biscayne National Park, FL. Flow measurements were based on a
Stem Heat Balance model. In this method, radial and vertical heat conduction are partitioned and separated
from connvective sap transport by measuring differential temperature over short sections of live stem trunk.
Rainfall, barometric pressure, relative humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed data were
collected to assess the relationships between climatic variables and stem flow. Predawn moisture stress and
stomatal conductance were also measured on the same or adjacent trees through a diurnal cycle. Sap flow
and stomatal conductance showed typical diurnal flow patterns. Individual sap transport rates were
expressed on a leaf area basis, which allowed us to scale up observed species and site differences among
individuals to the community and ecosystem levels.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 51



Session: Marine Ecology Abstract #: 97710


SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE SEAGRASS
THALASSIA TESTUDINUM IN THE FLORIDA KEYS NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY
Rose, C.D. and Fourqurean, J.W.
Department of Biology and the Southeast Environmental Research Program,
Florida International University, University Park, Miami, Florida,
33199
ABSTRACT
In this paper we present data from an on-going seagrass monitoring program in the Florida Keys
National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) focusing on patterns and variability of blade productivity of the
seagrass Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass). Data have been collected 4 times from December 1995
through December 1996 from 26 permanently established stations in the FKNMS. Sites were surveyed
using Braun-Blanquet transects, and blade productivity of T. testudinum was measured using a
modification of Zieman's (1974) leaf-marking technique in 6 replicate quadrats at each site. Density,
standing crop, and blade productivity, of T. testudinum is extremely variable and peaks during the
summer. Productivity ranged between 0.18 8.31 mg SS-1 d-1 and increased by -390 % from
December 1995 to August 1996, which corresponded with increases in density (- 40 %), abundance (~
50 %), and standing crop (- 87 %). Due to the large number of variables (22) and significant
correlations within the data set, Principal Components Analysis was utilized to reduce the analysis to 6
independent principal components that described 81 % of the total variation in the data. Temporal
and spatial analysis of these components were used to describe large-scale or regional patterns of
seagrass communities in the FKNMS, including the effects of seasonality, water depth, nutrient
availability, seagrass density, and macrophyte species composition.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL






WaltDnieen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 52



Session: Abstract #: 97xxx


THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE KISSIMMEE RIVER FLOODPLAIN: PRE-RESTORATION
COMMUNITY STRUCTURE
Maureen A. Donnelly, Matthew J. Baber, Christopher J. Farrell,
Florida International University, Dept. Of Biological Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences, North Miami, FL,
33181

J. Lawrence Glenn, and Joseph W. Koebel, Jr.
South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL
ABSTRACT
Historically, the Kissimmee River flowed 166 km from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee across a
1.5--3.0 km floodplain. Between 1962 and 1971, the river was channelized and transformed into a
series of five impounded reservoirs regulated by six water control structures. Restoration of the
Kissimmee River ecosystem is slated to begin in 1999. Our current research efforts characterize
amphibian and reptile communities of the channelized floodplain. We will provide an overview of the
restoration project and describe the monitoring program. Data on amphibians and reptiles have been
collected in three floodplain habitats: broadleaf marsh, woody shrub, and wetland forest. We sample
amphibians and reptiles along three fixed transects monthly in each habitat type using visual encounter
surveys. We have nine transects in broadleaf marsh, six in woody shrub, and six in wetland forest. Our
sampling began in August, 1996 and we have observed eight amphibian and 3 reptile species on
transects. Two orders and four families of amphibians include: Eurvcea quadradigitata Acris gryllus
Gastrophryne carolinensis Hvla cinerea, Hvla femoralis, Pseudacris ocularis, Rana grylio, and Rana
sphenocephala. We have encountered one lizard, Anolis carolinensis, and two snake species
Thamnophis sauritus, and Nerodia fasciata. In addition to describing the herpetofauna of each
floodplain habitat, we will present patterns of abundance for each species in each habitat.


MAY 22-24, 1997 KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL







WaltDineen Society CONFERENCE PROGRAM WITH ABSTRACTS 53



Session: Abstract #: 97xxx


PLANT WATER UPTAKE PATTERNS IN HAMMOCKS AND PINELANDS OF EVERGLADES
NATIONAL PARK
Sharon M.L. Ewel, Leonel da S.L. Sternberg
Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.

David E. Busch
Bureau of Land Management, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
ABSTRACT

This study assesses temporal variability in water uptake of plants between the wet and dry seasons in
hammocks and pinelands. Differences in seasonal and inter-species water uptake can be determined by
natural stable isotope abundance measurements. Plants can utilize water from either upper soil layer
reflecting recent rainfall events, groundwater or a mixture of both sources; each water source has a unique
isotope signature which is reflected by the plants.

Three sites of different elevations were established in Everglades National Park. Each site contained adjacent
communities of pinelands and hammocks. Rainfall data, groundwater and water table depths have been
measured at all sites since summer 1996. We collected pre-dawn water potentials and stem samples, once
each at the end of the wet (October 1996) and dry (April 1997) seasons. Water was extracted from plant
samples for hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis; subsamples of dry stems were ground up and analyzed
for carbon isotopes.

In the wet season, the water table was very shallow at all sites. There was no significant inter-site difference in
pre-dawn water potentials. However, vegetation in both the hammock and pineland of the most elevated site
was using soil water while the lowest site was utilizing groundwater.

Hydrology is important in areas with distinct dry and wet seasons like South Florida. The amount and
timing of water available per annum can determine species survival and composition in an area; knowing the
source of plant water uptake will allow ecosystem managers to better predict and manage vegetation changes
with hydrological manipulations.


KOVENS CONFERENCE CENTER, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY NORTH MIAMI, FL


MAY 22-24, 1997




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Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs