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NE WS LE TT ER of the CENTER for JE WI SH STUD IES at the UNIVE RS ITY of FLOR ID ANo. 20 & 21, Sp ri ng /Fall 20 10

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Whats new at the Center? A lot, actually. Like most aca demic units throughout the US we are struggling to make do with diminishing resources. I could go on at length bemoaning the difficulty of managing a program in higher education in the cur rent economic climate and especially the difficulty of acquiring replacement lines for retiring faculty at a time when departments everywhere are shrinking. But the truth is, even without one or two crucial positions and a few more I would love to have, the Center continues to thrive and its activities over the past two years have increased at an almost dizzying pace. So whats new? To begin with, since the last issue of HaTanin, the Center moved upstairs to the second floor of Walker Hall. We are now located in a beautiful suite of offices with our own seminar and conference rooms along with a high-quality AV system for screening films an increasingly important part of the curricu lum. And we can now house faculty which con tributes a great deal to the intellectual synergy within the Center. We also succeeded in hiring two new faculty members the historian Nor man Goda who comes to us from Ohio Univer sity and now holds the Norman and Irma Bra man Chair in Holocaust Studies, and Rebecca Jefferson who was formerly part of the Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Library and is now Head of the Price Judaica Library. The impact of both is becoming increasingly ap parent and I wish them long and successful careers here at UF. Perhaps, there is no better way to gauge the growth of the Center than through its curriculum. Last year alone some six new courses were generated by Center faculty, some thanks in part to a Posen grant. These include new courses on Jewish film, on nar rative, in Israel studies and in Hebrew Bible. I have increasingly come to believe that growth in our program depends on establish ing a series of introductory funnel courses. This year for the first time we now have such courses as Introduction to Jewish Studies and Introduction to Holocaust Studies. The Center continues to organize a good number of faculty seminars, workshops and symposia. In November we had our second advanced workshop on reading Jewish literature with Dan Miron and in March a similar event took place on translat ing the Hebrew Bible, this one with Robert Alter. Both work shops attracted scholars from universities around the country. The Center also organized three symposia including a panel on Ophuls The Sorrow and the Pity a seminar on Walter Benjamin with Samuel Weber and in the spring a one-day session on The Merchant of Venice. Among the many public programs last year was a three-person series on Israel as a multicultural society, a fall concert with Frank Lon don on Jewish holiday music and a spring con cert with Yair Dalal. Finally, let me congratulate Patricia Woods and Robert Kawashima who were promoted to associate professor, and to various faculty members on the completion or publication of their most recent books: Avraham Balaban Ten Mothers: Representations of Motherhood in Modern Hebrew Literature (HaKibbutz HaMeuchad); Mitch Hart, ed. Jewish Blood: Metaphor and Real ity in Religion, History and Culture (Routledge); Todd Hasak Lowy received a contract from the Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Litera ture for Asaf Schurrs novel Motti ; Dragan Ku jundzic, ed. Who or What Jacques Derrida ( Discourse ); Judith Page (with Elise L. Smith) Women, Literature, and the Domesticated Landscape: Englands Disciples of Flora, 1780 1870 (Cambridge); Tamir Sorek for the paper edition of Arab Soccer in a Jewish State (Cambridge) and for winning the Provosts Excel lence Award for Assistant Professors, University of Florida 2010; Kenneth Wald for a new (6th edition) of Religion and Politics in the United States (Rowman & Littlefield); Patricia Woods for organiz ing the mini-symposium published in Political Research Quarterly 62:4 (December 2009). I should also add a congratulation to An drew Gordon who retired as Emeritus Professor of English  in July 2010 after 35 years of teaching at the University of Florida. His performance in the role of Shylock as part of the excerpts that accompanied The Merchant of Venice symposium was one of the highlights of our public events this past year. Jack Kugelmass, Director Melton Legislative Professor 1

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new faculty Rebecca Jeffersonof 1914, the Kroonland passenger ship left Antwerp and head ed across the Atlantic towards New York carrying 997 passen gers. On board was 20 year-old Israel Kleiman whose family had sent him from his home in Russia in the hope of ensuring his future safety and well being. With less than $50 to his name, Israel finally reached Ellis Island on July 1st only to be turned away because of a skin rash. Thankfully he was helped by a friend to reach England where he stayed and earned his living as a tailor; Israel later begat four children, seven grandchildren, and eleven great-grandchildren, including me. Nearly a century later, I have traveled with my family across the same ocean to take up the position of Head of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the Uni versity of Florida. As if history were repeating itself, Israels great-great granddaughter Lily broke out in a rash on arrival but, luckily for us, her chicken pox appeared after entry had already been granted! Before I headed west, however, I spent nearly five years of my life traveling east. An interest in the history of another member of my family, this time an uncle, led me to volunteer on kibbutz Hanita in the Western Galilee one summer after I finished school in 1989. While most of my maternal family had left Russia for England and America, my great, great uncle, Kopel Korin, had headed to Palestine where he became one of the founding members of the labor movement known as the Histadrut. Having fallen in love with the mountain top kibbutz overlooking the sea, I returned several times to Is rael, completing three ulpanim and a one year course in graphic design. In my spare time, I discovered Hebrew poetry and this new interest, combined with other factors, led me to embark on a degree in Hebrew and Jewish Studies at University College London. In my first year of college, I attended an un dergraduate class on medieval Jewish his tory which included a discussion about the Cairo Genizah. The story of its dis covery in a synagogue attic immediately appealed to my romantic sensibilities and I determined myself to combine a love of poetry with this set of more than 200,000 Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts. In my final year, I went to the British Library to look at its Genizah manuscript collection. There I discovered a Hebrew poetry manu script that had been incorrectly identified in the handlist and I set about uncover ing its true identity and provenance. The resulting dissertation won a prize, and I applied and was accepted at the Univer sity of Cambridge to study medieval poetry manuscripts in the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection. My Masters degree was based on a small corpus of Genizah poetry manuscripts that had been vocal ized with Tiberian vowel signs, but in a 2

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way that provided clues about the medieval scribes pronuncia tion patterns. After its completion, and having initially failed to get funding for my doctoral studies, I was given the fantastic op portunity of working in the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit by its director, Professor Stefan Reif. I was hired to work on the second volume of the Bibliography Project which involved re searching and collating every published reference to the Genizah manuscript Collection (by 2010, the entire project had amassed over 90,000 references). This data provides an important tool for Genizah scholars endeavoring to navigate their way through vast numbers of uncatalogued fragments. Library I met one Robert Jefferson, then a conservator of manuscripts, and pursued him with a phoney story about need ing a book repaired. The line was pitched, the book got stitched, and some months later we were hitched. Concurrently, another form of dogged perseverance had paid off and I had managed to move to the top of the reserve list for a scholarship from Trinity College, Cambridge to pursue my Ph.D. studies. With the guidance of my supervisor, Professor Geoffrey Khan, I expanded the number of vocalized poetry manuscripts in my study and was able to make some interesting conclusions about the use of Tiberian vowel signs at a time in the Middle Ages when the Hebrew vocalization systems were still in flux, as well as draw some fresh conclusions about the popular use of Hebrew hymns. With the completion of the Ph.D., I was promoted to fulltime Research Associate at the Genizah Unit and placed in charge of the Bibliography Project. That same year, my daughter Lily was born and the second volume of the Bibliography which I co-authored was published. In addition to the work on the Bibliography, I became more involved in the Units fundraising and outreach activities. To this end, I arranged exhibitions and gave presentations to visitors to the Library and the Genizah collec tions, including four ambassadors, notable individuals like Clau dia Roden, Mimi Gardner Gates and Irwin M. Jacobs, academ ics, students and interested members of the public. I also edited five issues of the Units biannual newsletter, Genizah Fragments, and was responsible for its recent redesign. In 2006, I was involved in a project to compile an inven tory of Cambridge University Librarys Genizah collections. This project and its ramifications sparked in me a renewed inter est in the history of the discovery of the Genizah manuscripts, particularly unanswered questions about how other libraries around the world acquired their manuscripts. Reading through archives of the Jewish Chronicle, I stumbled upon a reference to a Count dHulst who had recovered Genizah manuscripts for the Bodleian Library in Oxford. So determined was I to track down this man of mystery that lack of funds, a shortage of annual leave, and even a heavy pregnancy with my son Isaac could not stop me from searching through underexploited ar chives held in the Egypt Exploration Fund, the British Museum, the National Archives, and the Bodleian Library. This research enabled me to shed new light on the history of the Genizah and the pivotal role played by Oxford University in the race to recover it. I am currently working on a book based on my 3

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discoveries in the archives entitled Collected Papers of the Schol ars and Antiquarians Who Discovered the Cairo Genizah to be pub lished by Brill as part of their new Cambridge Genizah Series. Having worked for nearly twelve years with a great collection of manuscripts, I was keen to manage a collection myself, and the idea of continuing to build such a great library as the Price Library of Judaica held much appeal for me. Furthermore, the opportunity to explore untapped American archives, as well as the gift of living in a country that my husband and I have long admired for its vibrancy and can do attitude, led to my applica tion for the position. Now I am here, my first priority is to meet the research needs of the Center for Jewish Studies and the wider university. In addition to expanding and developing the Librarys core holdings, I believe that it will be important to concentrate upon prevail ing key subject areas such as Hebrew and Yiddish literature, Ho locaust Studies, and Land of Israel Studies, and hot topics like Muslim-Jewish relations and other interfaith issues. Having recog nizable strengths will help bolster the Price Librarys reputation as one of Americas major research libraries for Jewish Studies. I would also like to bring greater attention to some of the Librarys more unusual aspects, including its important sub-collection of memorial books commemorating lost Jewish communities, and its many ephemeral items such as rare pamphlets and cata logs. Of course, such plans will only be realized if I can adapt to driving on the right side of the road . 4

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whisper propaganda by Jewish women in park areas . There are Jews that really do not look all that Jewish. They sit with German mothers who have children and start. . agitating. . I see an especially big danger with this. . They have no busi ness in German parks. Jews were banned from German parks soon after. For fresh air, Jewish parents took their children to Jewish cemeteries. The notion that Jew ish women on park benches remained dangerous even as they sorted through the wreckage of their lives, worked to free their husbands from arrest, and searched desperately for safe haven abroad, illus trates Nazi fears while foreshadowing fu ture policies. After the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939 they aimed to segregate Jews from Poles. NORMAN GODA assumed the Norman and Irma Braman Chair in Holocaust Studies in the Fall of 2009. He had been chair of the Department of History, Ohio University. He is the author of Tomorrow the World (1998), Tales from Spandau (2007) and co-author of US Intelligence and the Nazis (2005). His current book project is tentatively titled The Playground: The Struggle for Humanity in the Warsaw Ghetto.current project examines and contextualizes the construction of chil drens playgrounds in this, the largest Nazi-imposed ghetto in May and June 1942, along with the incongruity that playgrounds represented. On the one hand Jewish leaders in Warsaw fought a losing battle with the desperate day-today conditions that included mass starvation, homelessness and disease. Meanwhile an impending sense of doom enveloped ghetto residents as word reached Warsaw of the deportation of Jews from other ghettos such as Lvov and Lublin. Warsaws turn seemed sure to come. But at the same time Jewish leaders, particularly Jewish Council Chairman Adam Czerniakow, insisted on the construction of childrens playgrounds with festive opening ceremonies including music, speeches, and parades, just weeks before deportations from Warsaw began. Czerniakow hoped for some level of spiritual resilience amidst unfathomable tragedy and fear. My research uses official German records but also hid den records from the Warsaw Ghetto itself including diaries and papers from the famous Oyneg Shabes archive assembled by Emanuel Ringelblum. In part I reinforce recent writing on Nazi anti-Semitism, namely the argument that the Nazis feared mythical Jewish powers of subversion and organization even as they made Jewish life impossible. Two days after the Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany in 1938, Propaganda Minster Joseph Goebbels voiced concerns about Jews in parks and squares. Jews, he said, must not be allowed to sit around in German parks. Take the 5

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tions is worthy of admiration, Czerniakow wrote. Tears, he added, will not help us. The German authorities allowed the construction, surely to hide from Warsaws Jews their impending fate. And on June 7, 1942 the Grzybowska Street playground opened amidst great fanfare. Jewish dignitaries attended and a band played as thousands of schoolchildren marched into the square led by their teachers. These are tragic times, Czerniakow argued in his speech, but we must stand firm. . Whenever we hear children laughing and singing our windows will be let open to let in the sound. This will give us hope and courage to go and fight for the future. As Warsaw Ghetto survivor Mary Berg later noted, The smiling, rosy faces of the children were perhaps the best reward for those who had created this little refuge of free dom for the little prisoners of the ghetto. More playgrounds opened by mid July, but amidst a darker mood, as rumors of deportation became more prevalent. Teacher Michael Zylberberg later remembered, We were supposed to re hearse the children but there was no enthusiasm. Whispers had gone the rounds about the deportation of certain Jews. Czer niakow was determined to maintain a celebratory mood despite his own worries. I visited three playgrounds, he wrote on July 19, 1942. I do not know whether I managed to calm the popula tion but I did my best. . What it cost me they do not see. . I am trying not to let the smile leave my face. The terrible truth arrived on July 22, when SS-Major Hermann Hfle arrived at Czerniakows office and announced that all of Warsaws Jews, regardless of age, would be deported. The following day, after unsuccessful attempts to have the Germans spare the orphans, Czerniakow committed suicide. They demand that I kill chil dren, he wrote. I have nothing to do but die. By September 21, the Ghetto population was reduced from 350,000 to 73,000, and most of Warsaws Jewish children were murdered. the playgrounds a delusion? In his new book on Ringelblum, Samuel Kassow reminds us that every act in the ghetto must be understood against the background of what different Jews understood in that particular moment. In the spring of 1942 even Czerniakows critics entertained hopes amidst fears hopes that now appear just as delusional. I consider it a certainty, dia rist Abraham Lewin wrote in May 1942, that the Anglo-Ameri can invasion of Europe will come to fruition in the near future. . This huge army will hit the continent like an avalanche and strike a death-blow at the enemy of humanity. This avalanche lay in the very distant future. But Lewin persisted. Jews, he wrote, are stubborn optimists. . If you want something, then its no fairy tale. Lewin was murdered in January 1943. Warsaws Jews (who through forced resettlement eventually came to number 450,000 people) were banned from the citys parks, promenades and public benches in July 1940, three months be fore the Warsaw ghetto was delineated and sealed. The ghetto borders set by the Germans excluded all parks, even those adja cent to the ghetto. Warsaw diarist Chaim Kaplan lamented the ghettos stifling nature noting that anywhere. . a tree has been planted, or a bench has been placed, Jewish children are forbid den. . Within the limits of the ghetto there is not a single garden. . A stone wall now hides every treetop from our eyes. We have been robbed of every tree and every flower. Warsaws Jewish children were especially affected. How to explain it to a child, wrote the ghetto poet Wladislaw Szlengel, what does the word mean afar, while he does not know what is a mountain and what we call a river. But the problem of playgrounds in Warsaw also speaks to levels of Jewish resilience as well as Jewish leaders own ambiguous understanding of ultimate Nazi intentions. Before the construc tion of the Warsaw Ghetto walls in November 1940, determined parents removed their Jewish armbands and took their children to Warsaws parks. After the walls were built, the Ghetto had several tiny plots on corners where, for a steep fee, children of the better off could play and adults could relax. An arrow in the Nazis eyes! noted Kaplan. The arteries of life do not stop pulsing. Yet at the same time these were desolate, lonely lots surrounded by high walls, and as Warsaw chronicler Emanuel Ringelblum noted, children of the rich can enjoy them. . The poor children never see a patch of grass. Adam Czerniakow committed to building public playgrounds in the spring of 1942. Partly, Czerniakow felt for the lost child hood of Ghetto children. On speaking with a group of young people in 1942 he confided to his diary, They talked with me like grown-ups those eight-year-old citizens. I am ashamed to admit it but I wept as I have not wept in a long time. At the same time, Czerniakow understood that children were at the center of any future that Jews in Poland might have. Thus even in the spring of 1942, as terrible rumors swirled and as Treblinka was secretly being prepared to exterminate Warsaws Jews, Czerniakow, like many in the Warsaw Ghetto, believed that there was a Jewish future. May Czerniakow hired recently-arrived German Jews to construct the first public playground across from his offices on Grzybowska Street. They graded the lot, laid turf, and built swings and slides. On the wall of an adjacent house, Jewish schoolchildren painted frescoes of animals as well as traditional Jewish scenes. Purposeful work under such condi 6

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Throughout my two years as the Grass Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Florida I had been working on a monograph based on my doctoral dissertation. This book examines the movement for Jewish communal and national self-government in Russia, also known as autonomism. Influenced by a number of contemporary European political theories, Jewish autonomists in the early twentieth century sought to decouple national sovereignty from territory in order to make national demands equivalent to those of other minorities. I explore a number of themes in the book, ranging from the democratization of Jewish political life to the relationship between Russian nationalities policies and Jewish national self-consciousness. The central idea developed throughout the book is that autonomism, or the idea of Jewish autonomy in the diaspora, played a crucial role in the politicization of Russian Jewry and the development of modern Jew ish nationalism. I believe this to be a point that has been missed in the existing histori ography because of the eventual success of competing ideologies Zionist and socialist. The tragic fate of European Jewry has for many compounded the difficulty in under standing that in the early twentieth century many Jews believed their national expectations could be fulfilled in Eastern Europe. In fact, although autonomism emerged in the same context as Zionism, as a Jewish embrace of European nationalism, by proposing that Jews could attain greater national self-consciousness without millions of Jews hav ing to move from Eastern Europe to Palestine (or some other territory where they might achieve a demographic concentration), autonomism was at the time seemingly more attainable. Whether through faculty seminars or workshops with the many scholars invited by the Center for Jewish Studies, I feel my eyes have been opened to a range of new approaches to sources. As an historian, it has been particularly beneficial to me to hear from other faculty about many new ideas in literary analysis and critical theo ry. The analysis in my own work is more creative and sharper because of it. During these two years I have taught directly in my fields of interest Russian Jewish history and Jewish political history. So, teaching at UF has been a wonderful gift to my scholarship, as the undergradu ate and graduate students have pressed After completing a two year Alexander Grass PostDoctoral Fellowship at UF, SIMON RABINO VITCH was appointed assistant professor of history at Boston University. He is currently working on a monograph entitled Homeland Bound: Jewish Autonomism in Revolutionary Russia as well as the anthologies Diasporic Nationalism in Modern Jewish Thought and with David Rechter, Modern Jewish Politics: Ideologies, Identities and the Jewish Question.Simon Rabinovitch 7

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me to synthesize and articulate what is most important in these subjects. For me, the link between teaching and research is also more than merely theoretical. While teaching on Jewish politics and Jewish thought I have at the same time been assembling anthologies on those topics. In fact, it was through teaching a course on modern Jewish politics and political movements in my first semester at UF that I reached the conclusion that students both undergraduate and graduate have far too little material on Jewish politics and nationalist thought available to them in English. In response to this need, I am currently engaged in two projects intended to enlarge the number of sources on Jewish politics and Jewish nationalism available to students. With David Rechter, I am editing a volume of documentary sources entitled Modern Jewish Politics: Ideologies, Identities, and the Jewish Question, to be published with University of Wisconsin Press. This vol ume will cover the full spectrum of Jewish politics from liberal integrationists to socialist Zionists, and everything in between, highlighting the connections between Jewish political culture in Eastern Europe, Israel, and the United States. I am also editing a volume entitled Diasporic Nationalism in Modern Jewish Thought for Brandeis University Presss new Modern Jewish Thought Series. This volume will provide annotated first-time translations from a variety of streams of diasporic-nationalist thought. In assembling this collection, I was amazed that a number of key texts for un derstanding the development and trajectory of Jewish national thought still remained without English translation. Examples from the fifteen or sixteen thinkers represented in the collection include selections from Perez Smolenskins Am Olam, Nathan Birnbaums Jewish Autonomy, and Vladimir Medems Social Democracy and the National Question. The exercise of choos ing what should go in these anthologies, and why, was made all the more fruitful by the input I received from students and col leagues. My postdoctoral experience at UF has been formative for me both professionally and personally. Certainly one could not ask for a more dynamic and intellectually vibrant place to begin a career in Jewish studies. A sheynem dank, toda raba! 8

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Rebecca Jeffersonof Americas great Judaica research libraries, certainly the foremost in the southeastern states, is housed at the University of Florida. Known as the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica, this extraordinary col lection comprises over 90,000 catalogued volumes, incorporates three major private collections, and is notable for its remarkable depth, scope and singularity. Moreover, the history of its acquisition is no less remarkable. The Universitys Center for Jewish Studies was established in 1973 and with its foundation it quickly became apparent that a solid research library (in the range of 25,000 books) was needed to support its teaching program. To this end, the Libraries engaged Harvards Judaica bibliographer, Charles Berlin, to review Rabbi Leonard C. Mishkins book collection in Chicago with a view to purchasing it. Rabbi Mishkin (1906996) was at that time the owner of the largest private library of Judaica and Hebraica in the United States. A professor of Jewish history at the Hebrew Theological College with doctorates in Jewish philosophy, history and educa tion, Mishkin had amassed over 40,000 volumes in a range of languages covering every area of Jewish scholarship, but with a major strength in rabbinics, a large collection of periodicals, an impressive set of limited print festschriften, hundreds of Yiddish titles that had been published in the former Soviet Union, and numerous booklets com memorating German-Jewish communities and synagogues that were destroyed by the Nazis, as well as pamphlets relating to pre-1948 Palestine. Berlin submitted an extensive report in which he noted that Mishkins collection was superb. With its purchase, he foretold, Florida would be catapulted into the ranks of the larger university collections in this field. . surpassing long established programs. Berlin also noted that thou sands of items in the Mishkin Collection although of recent vintage are in fact more rare than incunabula. The acquisi tion of this collection, he advised, would impose certain responsibilities upon Florida including an assurance that the collection would be widely accessible. Thanks to the remarkable efforts of a former Provost, Harold Hanson, the University of Florida acquired the Mish kin collection in 1977. The following year, UF also purchased a collection of books formerly owned by Dr. Shlomo Marenof, a Russian-Jewish migr who had spent time in Palestine before he became a lecturer in Hebrew and Near Eastern Civilization at Brandeis Uni versity and one of the founders of the first strong Hebrew teachers union in the United States. Marenofs personal library of more than 3,000 works includ ed important titles in Hebrew, with con REBECCA JEFFERSON is Head of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica. HaYoyvl-bukh fun Idishn tsenter: tsum akhtsn-yorikn yubileum (Havana, 1943). The book celebrates 80 years of the Jewish Center in Cuba; and it is owned by just 3 other US libraries.9 library

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centrations in biblical studies, Midrash and Modern Hebrew literature. Among Marenofs treasures was a clean copy of the Hebrew anthology Bereshit (In the Beginning): one of the last Hebrew books published in Russia under Communist rule in the 1920s and printed in Germany due to Soviet opposition to Hebrew culture. Worse still, the temporary license issued for its production prevented a proofreading stage which rendered this hard fought for, single edition publication replete with printing errors. large endowment for this fascinating and rapidly grow ing Judaica collection was created in 1977 by two uni versity alumni, local real estate developers, Jack and Samuel Price, in honor of their parents, Isser and Rae Price. Isser and Rae were both instrumental in creating a Jewish Cen ter in Jacksonville in the 1920s and, according to their daughter Eunice (writing in the Jacksonville communitys online Book of Life), had raised their children with a deep commitment to the Jewish community, a love of tzedakah, Jewish philanthropy, and a profound sense of the importance of education. In May 1979, the University hired Robert Singerman from the Klau Library at the Hebrew Union College to serve as the new Judaica Librarys bibliographer. One of Singermans first accomplishments was to secure a third major private collection to complement the Mishkin and Marenof collections. Fresh on the job, Singerman had learnt that Bernard Morgenstern, the owner of a secondhand bookstore on New Yorks Lower East Side, was desperate to sell his entire inventory (around 10,000 imprints mostly from the 19th and 20th centuries, including books, pamphlets and other ephemera of which about 60% was in Yiddish). Singerman visited Morgensterns bookstore in July 1979 where he found books precariously stacked on the floor, in corners, and on shelves along the walls to a height beyond ones reach. Visitors to Morgensterns poorly lit, twenty-five-year-old store were first greeted by a big sign in Yiddish and English: Do Not Touch Anything! Indeed, only old Morgenstern could remove a book from the middle of one of the huge stacks without it toppling (Katz, Times Higher Education, 1996). Yet here among the disordered piles and disarray (even Morgen stern did not know exactly what he owned), Singerman found many treasures, including editions of all the major Yiddish nov elists, poets and dramatists (the sort of book rescue recently made famous in Outwitting History). In addition to a wealth of Yiddish literature, Morgenstern had amassed numerous books in Hebrew and a great number of pamphlets, many of which are now scarce. The 3-M Collection (as these three large acquisitions were dubbed) was officially dedicated as the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica in March 1981. The Librarys collections continued to be supplemented from time to time by smaller gifts and donations, including a substantial portion of books received as a bequest from Theodore H. Gaster (1906992) who had taught at the University of Florida. Gaster (son of Brit ains Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic community, Moses Gaster) was a notable linguist and renowned scholar of comparative re ligion; he had in his lifetime amassed a personal library which included many works on the Dead Sea Scrolls. One of the Price Librarys prize possessions from this collection has to be Theo dore Gasters own copy of his fathers work, Samaritan Oral Law and Ancient Traditions to which he added an ex-libris on the fly leaf together with an undeciphered message in Samari tan script. Throughout the book itself, the younger Gaster has Fun ale na-venadn (Buenos Aires, 1955). This edition of Yiddish poetry is owned by 16 US Libraries; the copy in the Price Library of Judaica is signed by the author.10

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made deletions, annotations, and even corrections to his fa thers text (fortuitous perhaps that the latter was no longer alive by this time!). During his 27-year tenure as its librarian, Robert Singerman took the Price Library of Judaica from strength to strength. An extraordinary bibliophile and bibliographer, Singerman had a rare eye for collecting. Not only did he increase the Librarys holdings in line with other major American Jewish libraries, Singerman daily went hot foot to work in order to beat his peers to scarce titles and ephemeral materials. In addition to these items, Singerman gathered for posterity a huge collection of anti-Semitica. One of the strange items in this category was recently requested by Harpers Magazine for their research into Wycliffe Hill, inventor of the Hollywood movie money spin ner, who in 1945 wrote the dubious work Why the Jew Gets the Money. The Price Library, it turned out, had preserved the only copy in the US of this bizarre booklet which creates a crass stereotype of a money-making Jew for which the author expresses profound admiration. Singerman increased the number of periodicals held by the library, to include important journals, serials, and newspapers from around the Jewish world, most notably from Latin Amer ica. He focused attention on amassing hundreds of the lim ited print, post-war memorial books ( Yizkor books) produced to commemorate the ravaged Jewish communities of Central and Eastern Europe. He also sought out ephemeral booklets in Yiddish and Spanish issued by Jewish communal bodies in Lat in America: titles that would have otherwise been ignored by mainstream scholarship, but which are of increasing interest to day. Singermans unusual collecting activities likewise focused on Jewish community and scholarly newsletters from around the world which he believed were laden with information not readily found elsewhere (Report, 1983). his retirement in 2006, Singerman could proudly announce that the Price Library of Judaica held in excess of 85,000 fully catalogued items covering every aspect of Jewish social, politi cal, and community history, Hebrew and Yiddish linguistics and literature, Palestinography and modern Israel, Judaism and rabbinics. But for this consummate bibliographer, the Price Li brary of Judaica was not a mere book repository, but rather something akin to Noahs Ark where a representative of every type of printed matter in the field of Jewish studies would be saved for future generations of readers and researchers. Subsequent custodians of the Price Library have contin ued this philosophy, recently purchasing such miscellanies as Joseph Ezekiel Rajpurkars sermon A True Aspect of Judaism delivered in the Old Synagogue, Bombay and published in In dia in 1879 (owned by just five other US university libraries), and Solomon Schechters Die Chassidim published in Berlin in 1902 by the famous Jdischer Verlag publishing house which was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938. Our edition (of which there are only 30 copies worldwide) also contains the bookplate of Harry Friedenwald, a renowned historian of Jewish medicine and prolific book collector. Unfortunately, many of the items that have been gathered on our Ark now require a good deal of attention. A number of books are in desperate need of repair, titles like M. Broderzons Tehies Hameysim Lodz, 1920: an edition of just 500 copies, only three of which are held in the American libraries. The number of brittle books a problem with many 19th and 20th-century imprints is large and a solution for preserving their contents Bereshit (Berlin, 1926); illustrated by Joseph Chaikov. 11

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and dealing with the artifact will have to be found; certainly many of these materials will be ideal candidates for digitization and mounting on the Internet Archive or some other digital repository. Librarys latest purchases have been aimed at supporting the Center for Jewish Studies teaching program and, to this end, have includ ed over a hundred titles on the subject of the Holocaust. More than half of these are sought after publications in German from the Hamburg Institute of Social Research. The Price Library has also acquired the substantial online database Post-war Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement, 1945950, which provides access for researchers and students to a huge range of primary materials on post-war Jewish history from the Wiener Library and the British National Archive collections. This database is currently hosted by just nine other US university libraries. Two sets of microfilm reels of primary material dealing with the Holocaust and Nazi history have also been ordered for the Library: The Holocaust and Records of the Concentra tion Camp Trials and The Ukrainian Archives and the Files of the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg Kiev. The first set is an essential source for research into the latter stages of the Holo caust and the second set of reels provide key information about the German cultural plunder in Europe. The Price Library of Judaica is now just one out of ten libraries in the entire country to hold both of these vital resources; their purchase places the University of Florida in the top league of institutions catering for research on the Holocaust and its aftermath. With a field as wide, varied and vibrant as Jewish Stud ies, the Price Library of Judaica continues to compile a healthy list of desiderata. One hope is that it will be able to develop its notable Yiddish collection by acquiring copies of the major Yiddish newspaper Forverts on microfilm. This popular newspa per, first published in New York in 1897, read by over 250,000 people in 1929 and still going today, is a first-rate resource for the social, political and literary outpourings of American Jews. Another hope is to acquire more primary, documentary mate rial, particularly of the sort relating to Land of Israel Studies. Yet whatever path current research trends will take, the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica will endeavor to map them; it will also strive to be a place of refuge for ephemeral Judaica, safe in the knowledge that what may be disregarded today will be considered priceless tomorrow. The Prayers of the Day of Atonement: translated from Hebrew into Marathi by Joseph Ezekiel Rajpurker (Bombay, 1867). Haggadah (Bombay, 1911); translated into Marathi; this page of the Passover song Dayenu is transliterated into the Devangari script. 12

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Edwin Safer of Jacksonville, deposited Reverend Benjamin Safers collection of sermonettes, memorabilia, recorded liturgi cal songs and photos into the Price Library. Included is material from a family trip to his grandfathers birthplace in Birzia, Lithu ania in 1994. Benjamin Safer was born in 1872 and died Sept. 19, 1959 in New York on his way back from Israel where he had settled in 1956. Benjamin Safer was self learned and lacked rabbinical ordina tion. He was hired by Bnai Israel in Jacksonville in 1902 and functioned as its rabbi, shoykhet, cantor and mohel (his surgical tools are now in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Florida). He was reappointed on and off again over the years. In 1923 he was hired as cantor and reverend. His contract stipulated a pay ment of 10% of all dues collected from current members and 15% from new members. Safer wrote in Yiddish, Hebrew and English and made use of his own hand-written dictionary for more complex words. His English sermons were written in Yid dish transliteration. Benjamin Safers son was a kosher butcher in Jacksonville. His grandson Edwin graduated UF and is a retired veterinarian. 13 Student Awards Student Awards Deconstruction, Destabilization, and the Return of the Repressed in Mr. Mani"A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between the State, Religious Interests, and Lesbians Access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in the United States and Israel""Exploring Judaism in Medieval Spain with Particular Focus on Kosher Laws and Anti-Semitism"The Political Socialization of Israeli University StudentsOutstanding Senior Thesis Award, Dept. of Political Science Development of the Roman Catholic and Jewish communities in Memphis between the Civil War and the Second World WarBest Undergraduate Paper Award, Dept. of Political Science Judicial Review and National Security: The Supreme Court of IsraelThe Sacred and the Secular in Modern Jewish Literature: Ginsberg and HoffmannThe Eichmann TrialThe Patriotic Mask: Nationalist Propaganda in the Anti-Semitic Press during the Dreyfus Affair

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question of Jewish literature is as old and com plex as the literature itself. And yet in light of the last decades public and academic attempts to critically examine and redefine the historical, cultural and political aspects of secularism, works of modern Jewish litera ture provide a fascinating medium of inquiry and investigation. Indeed, looking at works of literature can teach us a great deal about processes of self understanding and collective identifica tion as the literary texts written in Jewish languages since the late 18th century convey and testify to tensions between tra dition and innovation, sacralization and secularization, home land and exile, foreign and national cultures, Europe and EretzIsrael. An experimental one-day workshop on Jewish literature with Prof. Dan Miron that took place in October 2008 and No vember 2009 under the auspices of the Center for Jewish Stud ies at the University of Florida demonstrates the productivity of such inquiry. The two workshops brought together junior and senior scholars and professors from different North-American universities including Columbia, Berkeley, George Washing ton, Duke, Vanderbilt, Wisconsin-Madison, Texas at Austin, Brandeis, Emory as well as faculty of UF Jewish Studies to dis cuss the conditions and characteristics of Jewish literature. A close reading of a variety of texts in Yiddish, Hebrew and Ger man opened intriguing discussions on a range of issues includ ing historical and cultural aspects of Jewish life in the European diasporas and in Israel; questions of unity and pluralism; trans lation and bilingualism; the genesis of new genres; the public sphere and literary institutions; reception and the nature of readerships; as well as issues of teaching and pedagogy. The 2008 workshop was devoted to the Yiddish monologues Burned Out, and Advice by Sholem Aleichem (18591916) in the first session; and to the works of two Israeli women writers in the second: the stories Low, Close to the Floor, and A Story with no Address by Yehudit Hendel (1926) and the poems Around Jerusalem, A Dress of Fire, and Clock work Doll by Dalia Ravikovitz (19362005). The workshop ended with an off-campus lecture by Dan Miron titled Who Wants to Listen to Tevye the Dairyman? the Tevye-SholemAleichem Symbiosis and its Ramifications. A year later in a following workshop we returned to a few crossroads by exploring the political implications, the con flicts and tensions around the emergence and formation of a Jewish literature. We read the story The Master of Prayer by Reb Nachman of Bratslav (1772810) along with Revealer of Secrets, which is also known as the first Hebrew novel, by Jo seph Perl (1773839). In the second session we moved on to the poem Jehuda ben Halevy by Heinrich Heine (1797856) that was followed by the poem R. Yehudah Halevi by Micah Joseph Lebensohn (18281852). Mirons public lecture on The Three Impossibilities Franz Kafkas Theory of Jewish Literatures ended the workshop. Prof. Miron, a major literary critic and a most prolific scholar of Yiddish and modern Hebrew literature tells the audience a story about the impossibilities of a Jewish literature. Like a good storyteller and a brilliant presenter Miron invites his audi ence to participate in the worlds of the literary characters and writers he discusses. In interweaving poetic analysis and deep cultural and historical perspectives he offers a moving and even amusing reading of Kafka. And yet his talk goes beyond Kafka since the very impossibility of a Jewish literature the failure of writing or the poetics of failure that is bound to complexities of language, place and identity rather reveals that which a Jewish literature is: A literature that uncompromisingly testifies to its limits and proposes an ongoing and fascinating challenge to readers.The TheReading Jewish Literature: Workshop with Dan MironMichal Ben-Horin Posen MICHAL BEN-HORIN is Assistant Professor of Jewish Studies and Languages, Literatures and Cultures. She does comparative work on modern German and Hebrew literatures. 14

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regarding the precise meaning of a word, the correct grammatical construal of a phrase, and so forth. These decisions are, in effect, so many translations of words, phrases, and sentences. For this reason, Alter encourages his graduate students at the University of California, Berkeley, to translate critical passages of foreignlanguage works as an exercise in literary interpretation. In fact, this principle has led him in the last several years to offer a graduate seminar on literary translation, in order to work through the practical and theoretical issues involved in the act of translation-interpretation precisely what we did in our seminar at the University of Florida. Looking back recently at The Art of Biblical Narrative, published nearly thirty years ago, I was struck by the fact that translation has always played a crucial role within Alters literary ap proach to the Bible. To borrow the lan guage of philosophers, if his interpretive his March, the Center for Jewish Studies, thanks to a grant from the Posen Foundation, invited renowned literary critic, Robert Alter, to the Univer sity of Florida to lead a one-day seminar for faculty and graduate students. The Center hosted additional scholars with specializations ranging from Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism to Modern Jewish Thought: Mara Benjamin, Dexter Callender, Matthew Goff, Rachel Havrelock, Eric Larson, Stephen Russell, and Seth Sanders. The seminar was devoted to Biblical translation, and consisted of a morning session Translating Biblical Prose and an afternoon session Translating Biblical Poetry.  Par ticipants read: prose selections from Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy, 2 Samuel and Qo helet, and selected poems from Exodus, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, in both the Hebrew original and Alters own translations (some as yet unpublished).  The day concluded with a public lecture, Qohelet: Philosophy through Metaphor.   Reading from his forthcom ing translation and commentary, The Wisdom Books: Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes Alter demonstrated how the Book of Ecclesiastes, though lacking the philosophical idiom (specifically the abstract terms) that one finds, e.g., in the contemporary literature of an cient Greece, could exploit the concreteness of biblical Hebrew, refracted through meta phor, in order to construct its strikingly philosophical vision of life, the sole instance of such a discourse within the biblical canon.  The entire event was designed to take ad vantage of his ongoing and highly celebrated series of translations of the Hebrew Bible. Why biblical translation? We have long heard the cliche that: Every translation is an interpretation. The converse is equally true: Every interpretation entails translation. That is, the interpreter bases his or her reading on philological and linguistic decisions Robert KawashimaROBERT KAWASHIMA is Associate Professor, Department of Religion and Center for Jewish Studies. He is the author of Biblical Narrative and the Death of the Rhapsode and is currently working on The Archaeology of Ancient Israelite Knowledge, an analysis of Israels religious traditions informed by Foucaults investigations into the history of systems of thought. 15 Ref lections Ref R R R Re Re Ref ef ef f f Ref R R R R R R e e e e f ef f f lections l l le le lec ec ect ct cti tio tio io on on on ns ns ns s lections l l l le e e e e c c c c t t t t i i o io o o o o n n n n ns ns s s s s on Robert Alter s recent v isit to the Unive rs ity of Florida

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remarks can be seen as attempts to communicate a knowledge by description of the biblical text, his English translations actu ally attempt to transmit to the general reader a direct knowledge by acquaintance of it, by recreating the aesthetic experience of reading the texts in the original. In retrospect, I find it difficult not to see here already the seeds of his current translation proj ect, which now appears to me to be the logical and inevitable culmination of his remarkable career in biblical studies. lso, it is worth noting that the year 2011 will mark the 400th anniversary of the publication of the King James Bible. As has frequently been noted, few English translations since have man aged to be literary works as well as works of phi lology. The ideal translator, then, must not only be philologist and interpreter, but consummate stylist as well. For literary translation finally involves aesthetic choices in the target language, by which one might ultimately hit upon a pre cise semantic equivalent for the original that is a literary stylistic equivalent as well. This would seem to require a rather unlikely combination of skills; as Platos Socrates might have observed, however, true knowledge of literature should enable one to write well, and not just read well.  In the case of major English translations, mostly produced in the second half of the twentieth century, the task of translating the Bible has been further com plicated (arguably impeded, at least in certain respects) by the fact that they were undertaken by committees. (The King James Version, it should be noted, is not so much the collective work of a committee as the distributive work of individuals). As if in response to that trend, various individuals have re cently undertaken translations of parts of the Hebrew Bible: not only Robert Alter, but Everett Fox and Richard Elliott Friedman, to name a few.  Similarly, Richmond Lattimore, famed translator of Homer, produced his own rendering of the New Testament. Be that as it may, the King James Bible endures as a monumental work of English literature, partly for the reason that it simply was and is the Bible for numerous major English authors which Alter in fact partly addresses in his most recent book, Pen of Iron: American Prose and the King James Bible Unfortunately, this most venerable translation, already conceived of and perceived as ar chaic in its own time, is little read these days, at least in American universities. The good news is that Norton is publishing an annotated edition of the Authorized Version, which will make it more accessible to contemporary students of literature and hope fully strengthen its position in the curriculum of the modern university. Apropos of the Bibles place in the modern university, I would finally like to consider its relation to secularism.  It was, after all, a Posen grant that funded Robert Alters recent visit to the Uni versity of Florida. Here, one does well to recall that philology, the modern study of texts, which underlies all the textual disciplines history, literature, philosophy, etc. constitutes the very core of secularism. It was the first philological efforts of early Renais sance scholars that gave birth to modern secularism, precisely by making it possible to analyze texts without consideration for their possibly sacred status one need only call to mind Spinozas Tractatus Theologico-Politicus The literary approach to the Bible, by providing a viable alternative to theologically motivated sectar ian exegesis, thus stands in and, in fact, epitomizes this venerable intellectual tradition. Literary translations of the Bible arguably bring this process to its logical conclusion. While most modern translations were commissioned by one or another ecclesiastical body, translations such as Alters finally make possible a reading of this ancient sacred text that is a secular aesthetic experience. 16

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his course, which I taught this past spring, focused on the influence of Shakespeares Shylock on literature and culture, primarily in Britain in the 19th-century but also in earlier and later periods. In 19th-century Britain, The Merchant of Venice was also a key text in discussions of nationality and emancipation. We considered Shylock as both a literary character and as a negative archetype that develops a life of its own in other works of literature, art, theatre, and film. Shylock influences and infiltrates British literature and culture in the 18th century and continues a vibrant and often disturbing presence in contemporary popular culture, where, for instance, on The Sopranos he is abbreviated to a shy or common loan shark. The course followed a roughly chronological organization from the medieval period when several related stereotypes or myths associated with Jews gain currency (such as the Blood Libel, the Wandering Jew) to the 16th century when the play was written and first performed and then the 18th century when it was revived on stage after an absence of over a century. Students studied the play closely and carefully, and read relevant biblical, historical, and philosophical material, as well as texts on the performance history of the play. This unit of the course culminated with a compari son of Michael Radfords recent film, Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice (a vibrantly colored film set in 16th-century Venice) with Trevor Nunns interpretation of the play (with monochromatic colors and set in Weimar Germany). After considering performances and performance history, we returned to the 19th century to study various fictional texts that re-imagine the character of Shylock or in some way present themselves as interconnected with The Merchant of Venice Even when authors do not explicitly set their texts up in relation to Shylock or Shake speare, Shylock often haunts the story by his absence or in Dickenss Oliver Twist by the similarity of the unnamed Shylock with Fagin. With a controversial revival of the musical version Oliver Twist, of Oliver! now at Drury Lane, we discussed the way that characters like Shylock and Fagin continue to influence debates in the UK and beyond. In the Victorian period, Shylock pervades the political discourse surrounding Benjamin Dis raelis various roles in public life, as well as the continuing debates over emanci pation and nationality. Various cartoons from the period attest to the connection between the converted Jew Disraeli and the persistent Shylock. In addition to exams, student devel oped research projects for the semester, some of which involved work with docu ments such as letters, theatre reviews, and journal articles from the 18th and 19th century that will help provide a context for what Michael Ragussis has called the work of cultural recovery nec essary for understanding Shylock and the Jewish Question more fully. JUDITH W. PAGE is Professor, Department of English and Waldo W. Neikirk Term Professor of Arts and Sciences and Interim Direc tor of the Center for Womens Studies and Gender Research. She is co-author with art historian Elise L. Smith of the soon to be published Disciples of Flora: Women and the Domesticated Landscape of England, 1780870 and author of Imperfect Sympathies: Jews and Judaism in British Romantic Literature and Culture.Judith W. Page17 new course

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IN HER PAPER ON MARCEL OPHLSS The Sor row and the Pity Sylvie Blum (Associate Professor of French, Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), analyzes the role that music, in particular the performances of a very popular chansonniere Maurice Chevalier, has played in ushering in the collaborationist propaganda in the Vichy France. From the very opening of the film, the title sequence scrolls over a non-dated performance of a bubbly Maurice Chevalier Et tout ca a fait dexcellents Franais singing to cheering French troops while the title appears: The Collapse. The lyrics marshal the spirit of French soldiers as excellent Frenchmen, thereby reinforcing the irony of the moment, and solidifying the filmmakers point of view on the material. The Chevalier segment solidifies the implicit message of the film and its tone that is unequivocally ironic, and sarcastic. Yet it leaves room for questioning. Cheva lier (1888972) was one of the few performers (actors and musi cians) who crossed over to Hollywood before World War II, and signed up with MGM in 1935. He had a career in the US mostly in musical films. His hit-song Ca fait dexcellents Franais the first one to play in Le Chagrin et la piti was released in 1939 on the eve of the war. During the war, Chevalier continued to per form in Parisian cabarets, and went to Berlin, a well-known fact that appears also in Chantons sous loccupation Andr Halimis 1976 documentary. Chevalier was subsequently tried for his col laborationist activities, which consisted in going to Germany, and singing in a prisoner-of-war camp. An analysis of the song Ca fait dexcellents Franais or This Makes for Excellent Frenchmen reveals a tongue-in-cheek cri tique of the French army. Based on the lyrics, written by Jean Boyer and Georges Van Parys, a standard film music composer, The Sorrow and the Pity (Le Chagrin et la piti), a documentary film by Marcel Ophls, concerns the French Resistance and collaboration with the Vichy government and Nazi Germany during World War II. Filmed in 1969, this film used interviews of a German officer, collaborators, and resistance fighters from Clermont-Ferrand. They comment on the nature and various reasons for collaboration like anti-Semitism or nationalism. On November 23, 2009, a symposium about this film was held at the Center for Jewish Studies. The four presentations, by Sylvie Blum, Maureen Turim, Brigitte Weltman-Aron and Eric Kligerman, edited by Dragan Kujundzic, are published in their entirety at University of Floridas Center for Jewish Studies website. The following is a synopsis of the presentations.Dragan Kujundzic18 symposia

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the testimony that marks the direct collaboration of the Vichy Government, the police and many other French citizens with the Nazis plan to murder the Jews and eliminate the Left. Lvys testimony naming the concentration camps in France, claims Turim, establishes how massive this physical evidence of the collaboration was. Brigitte Weltman-Aron, Associate Professor of French (De partment of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), points out how the film starts with the recollection of the German victory and invasion of France on the part of different protagonists, and the first mention of the Jews occurs through a German newsreel of 1940 reporting that the civil population flees the German troops toward the south of France because of Jewish warmongers. It proceeds to recall acts of collaboration with the Germans as well as resistance to the Occupation and the Vichy Government. Not only are the answers Ophls and other inter viewers elicit instructive historically, as testimonies about France during the Occupation, they also shed light on France in the for such filmmakers as Ren Clair, Renoir and Max Ophls, French soldiers stand out as an odd make-shift of indigenous people whose heterogeneous civilian occupations and ailments rather downplay the fabric and excellent state of the French army. Ophls and his assistant have relied heavily on a singer, and his songs as the designated icon for a collaborationist artist. This narrow focalization leaves out countless other artists who also performed for Germans, either in Paris or in Germany, dur ing the war on a regular basis. What spectators knew of Che valier and of French history may elude some spectators today, concludes professor Blum, especially in our classrooms unless a detailed analysis is performed, relying on culture, history and film analysis. Maureen Turim, Professor of Film and Media Studies (Eng lish Department), begins her argument with a simple question. What is the relationship of the interviews with Resistance fight ers to those interviews of all others in Le Chagrin et la pitie Nazis, Petainists, other collaborators, and passive observers? In finding answers to this question, she offers a structural analysis of the films discourse, a discourse built gradually and patiently, through a process that encourages the viewers own deductions. Central to the films strategy is the notion that alternatives to collaboration existed, alternatives that while dangerous, were un dertaken by ordinary French citizens. Thus the role of those who chose to resist the Nazis is central to the implied argument of this film. Surrounding each revelation of capitulation and collabora tion, the film consistently presents the testimony of resistance to keep enforcing the idea that choices were always there to be made. In key instances the testimony of resistance specifically rebuts the testimony of the right-wing apologists. Calling the second half of the film The Choice makes explicit how the representatives of the Resistance play this structural role in the film. We should pay particular attention to the dates and circumstances under which the interviewees began resisting, as well as their social economic background, and in two important instances, their Jewishness. Resistance highlights by means of contrast what collaboration really entailed. ONE EMINENT FIGURE OF JEWISH RESISTANCE AND WITNESS IS CLAUDE LVY. Lvys story of the Vel dhiv rafle emphasizes how Jewish children were handed over by zealous French authorities to the German SS in mid 1942. The four thousand children Lvy is referring to were part of the July 16, 1942 Belleville rafle (round-up), when over ten thousand Jews were rounded up to be sent to concentration, and eventu ally death camps. The roundup by July 21 accounted for more than a quarter of the 42,000 Jews sent from France to Auschwitz in 1942, of whom only 811 came home at the end of the war. Lvy lists the concentrations camps located in France; his is Clockwise: Sylvie Blum, Maureen Turim, Eric Kligerman and Brigitte Weltman-Aron 19

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late sixties, and allow the viewer to assess whether, some twentyfive years after the Liberation (the film was shot in 1969), the interpretation of that former period has remained static or has undergone a change. The film was generally well received by the public, but it was controversial from the start, including among those who had undergone persecution in occupied France. For example, in his recently published autobiography, Le Livre de Patagonie, Claude Lanzmann, the director of Shoah (1985), who had, as a young student, been a member of a Resistance network in Clermont-Ferrand, argues that Ophlss The Sorrow and the Pity is not fair to resistance in Auvergne, and accuses the film of unfairly representing Clermont-Ferrand as a symbol of collabo ration. Simone Weil, a stateswoman whose moral authority in France as a survivor of the Holocaust and because of her political activity is considerable, recalls in a recent autobiography called A Life her opposition as a member of the board of the ORTF (then Frances television network) to the purchase of The Sorrow and the Pity on the grounds of its representation of the French during the Occupation. It is true, argues Weltman-Aron, that Ophlss treatment of the Occupation, while it equally brings to the fore acts of col laboration and acts of resistance, has the effect of putting into question not the Resistance itself, but the unidirectional unity of its goals. In fact, Ophlss admiration for the courage of resisters is evident, but the film dwells on individual, at times anarchic motives for entering the Resistance, that do not always coalesce into a single-mindedness of purpose. In addition, far from down playing the differences between the strategies of Gaullist and Communist resistances, the film emphasizes them. Weils point about the depiction of the French in general is also well taken if one considers that the most pervasive and devastating effect of the film may be that it shows a widespread mediocrity and passivity cutting across a large spectrum of the French witnesses and actors of that period interviewed by Harris and Ophls. To the extent that Ophlss documentary shows the witnesses (by definition) selective work of memory, but in the case of difficult years such as those of the Occupation all the more so, to the point of testimonies being distorted, or even mendacious, it also puts into question the mimetic promise of images and contrib utes to an ongoing reflection on the demand for evidence in the face of historical traumatic events and on the conditions that would make it possible to respond to that demand. Eric Kligerman, Associate Professor of Germanic Studies (De partment of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), discusses how Ophlss film serves as a point of departure and intertext for two contemporary American filmmakers, Woody Allen and Quentin Tarentino. In Allens Annie Hall, Alvy Singer (played by Woody Allen) compels repeatedly his gentile girlfriend (Diane Keaton) to watch The Sorrow and the Pity. Alvy, the paranoid Jew who detects antiSemitism in the sound of a sneeze (achoo), turns The Sorrow and the Pity into a tool of revenge. In Allens appropriation of Ophls, the theme of Jewish resistance becomes humorous like in Lubitchs To Be Or Not to Be and Chaplins The Great Dictator. Although by the end of the film Alvy is no longer with her, Annie now takes her new friend to see Ophlss film, thus passing on the guilt. Kligermans interest is not only in how film becomes an object of resistance but also how directors occupy the films of others. While Allen turns to Ophls, Ophls takes possession of Ger man and French film to probe the Occupation. Kligermans use of the term Occupation derives from its German connotations: Besetzung, the word for military occupation, is also Freuds term for cathexis: the process of investing psychic energy in a person, object or idea. The concept is central to the subjects identity construction. Ophlss film exemplifies a counter-cathexis; he at tempts to break French attachment to the one-dimensional his torical narrative of a heroic French resistance to National Social ism. Turning to Alvy Singers legacy, the iconic image of the weak (albeit existentially triumphant) Jew, Kligerman points out that thirty years after Annie Hall there has also been a re-occupation of another narrative archetype, where new representations of Jew ish resistance have arisen, including serious films like Munich or Defiance and comedic ones like Dont Mess with the Zohan In Paul Feigs comedy Knocked Up Seth Rogen tells his Jewish friends at a bar, Every movie with Jews, were the ones getting killed. Most recently, Quentin Tarentinos Inglourious Basterds flips on its ear not simply the narrative of Jewish victimization but history itself. To borrow Alvys words, Boy if life were only like this. While we could place the film next to contemporary depictions of Jew ish resistance, Kligerman is interested in the continuities between Inglourious Basterds and The Sorrow and the Pity including themes of occupation, resistance, anti-Semitism, film within a film structure and the introspective gesture of cinemas power as seen in the function of propaganda. 20

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mmanuel Levinas is one of the greatest figures in Jew ish Philosophy. Born in Lithuania, in 1906, he went on to get his education in Strasbourg, France, and later on in Freiburg, Germany. He was naturalized as a French citizen in 1939, and in 1940, as a soldier in the French army, captured by the Nazis, imprisoned in a labor camp for officers, and thus survived the war. His Lithuanian family was murdered. He spent his academic career as a Professor at the Sorbonne. His colloquia titled Colloque des intellectuels juifs de langue franaise educated generations of French, and not only French intellectu als attending these public seminars held in Paris after World War II. Emmanuel Levinas passed away in 1995, leaving a legacy that consists of lines, as Jacques Derrida once observed, each worthy of years of patient Talmudic reading. Among his books are To tality and Infinity (1961), Nine Talmudic Readings (1968) Otherwise Than Being or Beyond Essence (1974), Of God Who Comes to Mind (1982), God Death and Time (1993). Emmanuel Levinass early career is marked by his work in phenomenology, which resulted in his doctoral dissertation, The Theory of Intuition in Husserls Phenomenology in French, published in 1930. His early years are marked by the transla tion into French and introduction of the work of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, with whom, after Heideggers allegiance to the Nazi party, Levinas parted ways. Emmanuel Levinas was one of the first Jewish European intellectuals to warn of the upcoming threat posed by the rise of National So cialism in Germany, in his work, published in 1934, Reflections on the Philosophy of Hitlerism and his subsequent career may be seen as a relentless criticism of Heideggers notion of Being. n November 18, 2008, a symposium was held at the University of Florida, to celebrate the sixty year an niversary of the publication of two texts by Emman uel Levinas: a short but very important essay titled Being Jewish, and his seminal book Time and the Other. The participants from the University of Florida included the mem bers of the ongoing Posen Seminar in Secular Judaism, organized and conducted by Nina Caputo and Galili Shahar. The symposium guest speaker, Professor Jonathan Judaken from the University of Memphis, opened the discussion by of fering an overview of Levinass intellectual history, as well as his influence on French intellectuals such as Jean Paul Sartre, Benny Lvy, Arnold Mendel, among others. Being Jewish, and Time and the Other are marked by Levinass turn away from phenomenology, towards an ethics, or, as Judaken pointed out, the ethics of ethics. After the experience of the Holocaust, Levinas introduced into philosophy an ethi cal element closely related to his sense of being Jewish. Judaken was particularly attentive to those elements in Levinass thought where Levinas formulates the responsibility that befalls the Jews, and that makes Judaism the source of profound inspiration for the entire philosophical enterprise. Judaken spoke of Levinass call for an authentic Judaism which implies accepting the bur den and privilege of Jewish identity. Levinas wrote in 1986: To be Jewish, not the pride or the vanity of being Jewish. That is worth nothing. But an awareness of the extraordinary privilege of undoing the banality of existence, of belonging to a people who are human before humanity. Levinass Judaism thus entails a profound sense of responsibility. Judaken quoted Levinass com ments recorded at the first Colloque des intellectuels juifs de langue franaise in 1957: Judaism is not a religion the word does not exist in Hebrew it is much more than that, it is a comprehen sion of Being. . the Jew has the feeling that his obligations with respect to the other come before his obligations to God, or more precisely that the other is the voice of high places, even of the sa IN PHILOSOPHY BEING JEWISHE ODRAGAN KUJUNDZIC is Professor of Slavic, film and Jewish studies. His most recent book is the edited volume Who or WhatJacques Derrida.21

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cred. Ethics is an optics vis--vis God. The only voice of respect vis--vis God is that of respect toward ones fellow human being. G alili Shahars reflections on Levinass Being Jewish, and the question of paternity, pointed out that Levinass essay on the Jewish question knows, first and foremost, its own present, Europe and the year, 1947: The aftermath of the Holocaust in which the Nazi enterprise sought a final solution for the Jewish question. The recourse of Hitlerian anti-Semitism, Levinas writes in his essay Being Jewish, reminded the Jew of the ir remissibility of his being. The Jew bears the experience of not to be able to flee ones condition. The Jew, in other words, embodies the origin that cannot be denied. For Levinas, however, this experience should be understood in ontological terms. The Jewish question returns as the question of conditio humana for in this the human soul is perhaps naturally Jewish. The Jewish experience of the origin is the secret of the human being. Levinas addresses thus the question of being as a recall of the victims. It is in the second part of his presentation that Shahar engaged Levinass thought on the figure of the origin and mystery of the father. Many of his insights on Judaism, Shahar claimed, can be read as a long meditation on the experience of paterni ty, as it is told in Genesis 22, in the scene of the Akedah the binding of Isaac. To be a father, in this context, means, to be able to say, hineni, (in Hebrew), here I am the way Abraham answers God and later the call of his son Isaac. Hineni here I am, announces a commitment without precondition, to be here for the absolute other. The experience of Abraham cannot be expressed but in this Hebrew call the call that according to Kierkegaard we cannot understand. For Kierkegaard the biblical scene of the Akedah is silent; it bears no word, no logic and has no meaning. Abrahams deed requires the suspen sion of reason, language and representation and leads there fore to the teleological suspension of the Ethical. Abrahams faith, his absolute duty to God, has, in Kierkegaards view, no moral meaning. His faith is not rational, it does not claim the form of a law and has no universal meaning and thus cannot be justified, nor explained. Abrahams movement of faith that cannot be universalized but remains a riddle that challenges our institutions of interpretation, bears the secret of Jewish Being. brahams movement to Moriah, the movement of faith, is thus a paradox a singular deed that embodies an absurd, awful faith, which is yet, Kierkegaard argues, the greatest, admirable act of man. Levinas rejects Kierkegaards reading, who, in his view, failed to recognize the real ethical essence of Abrahams movement and reduced the movement of faith into hermetic, non-discursive ges ture. Gods voice, the call that forbids Abraham to carry out the human sacrifice, Levinas argues, brings the biblical scene back to its essential ethical realm. n the conclusion, Dragan Kujundzic presented a paper dwelling on the questions of Being Jewish in light of its more recent readings in the work of Franco-Jewish philosophers Jacques Derrida and Helene Cixous. In Being Jewish, Kujundzic pointed out, the question of being is put in relation of heterogeneity to its own Greek origin. What does it mean to be Jewish? What does it mean to be, when there is Jew ish Being, and there are Jewish Beings? What does the attribute jewish, in Being Jewish do to the notion of being after it has gone through this graft, through or by this inscription of the Other? Is it even compatible, appropriate, asked Kujundzic, to think the Jewish being via the notion of Being; is it not already an appropriative assimilation of the Jewish Other for the Greek onto-teleology? But to be Jewish, says Levinas, is not only to seek a refuge in the world but to feel for oneself a place in the economy of being. Kujundzic reminded that Being Jewish was written as a critical response to Sartres Anti-Semite and Jew: An Exploration of the Etiology of Hate The conclusion of Being Jew ish condenses Levinass polemical argument: The thought of Emmanuel Levinas, Kujundzic concluded, thus offers a way to think of identity differently, and opens a possibil ity of existence to be otherwise, and to be otherwise than being. The papers were followed by a lively discussion of all Posen seminar participants, recognizing the profound, shattering ex perience that the work of Emmanuel Levinas presented to the tradition of Western Philosophy. Levinass thought re-oriented the entire tradition of Western thinking towards the ethical and ethics, by re-thinking the Jewish condition in philosophy and in the world.In a new sense, to be created and to be son is to be free. To exist as a creature is not to be crushed beneath adult responsi bility. It is to refer in ones very facticity to someone who bears existence for you, who bears sin, who can forgive. Jewish exis tence is thus the fulfillment of the human condition as fact, personhood and freedom. And its entire originality consists in simply breaking with a word that is without origin and sim ply present. It is situated from the very start in a dimension that Sartre cannot comprehend. It is not situated there for theological reasons, but for reasons of experience. Its theology explicates its facticity. A I22

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senior honors thesis concerned how certain 19th-century novelists were able to shape conceptions of the land that would become Israel. In particular, I discussed George Eliots Daniel Deronda Benjamin Disraelis Tancred, the poems of Emma Lazarus, and Mendeles The Travels of Benjamin III It is true that only some of these writers can accurately be called proto-Zionist, as others took a more cynical or hesitant position; however, all influenced the evolution of early Zionist thought in critical ways. It may seem strange that as a graduating English major, I chose a thesis subject that appears, on the surface at least, to have more in common with my Jewish Studies minor. Indeed, my initial thesis proposal was rejected: This doesnt look like something out of our department, said the English Undergraduate Coordinator. I ended up exclud ing many of the East European authors I had hoped to discuss, those who pioneered Hebrew and Yiddish as literary languages, in order to focus on American and British authors instead. I also agreed to highlight post-colonial theoretical readings, including Orientalist criticism. This particular theoretical lens was ultimately very useful to me, as it allowed me to nuance my discussion by including the contributions of Palestinian theorist Edward Said. It also helped me note how often proto-Zionist discussions of the land of Palestine followed the pattern of depictions of other European colonial spaces, presuming, among other things, a lack of existing inhabitants. My initial motivation for choosing this topic was twofold. First, it dovetailed nicely with what I considered, at the time, to be my academic and career goals. I had applied for a Fulbright grant to Israel to study, through modern Hebrew literature, the role of the land in determining Jewish identity. I was interested in the competi tion between religious and nationalist vi sions of Jewish identity, and how evoca tions of physical landscape contributed to the latter. I intended my thesis to be a sort of historical prelude to my Fulbright study. I had also recently applied to a series of programs in Comparative Literature, and my thesis topic seemed like a good subject to carry into graduate study in that field. Unfortunately, I didnt receive the Fulbright grant, and my plans MIKA TURIM-NYGREN (UF ) is a recent graduate of an interdisciplinary Masters pro gram at the University of Chicago, where she studied Jewish-American literature, focusing on trans-generational cultural trauma and ritualized spaces. She currently teaches English composition at Roosevelt University, and hopes to pursue a doctoral degree. 23 students

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for graduate study at the University of Chicago centered more on English literature. Yet, in a way, these changes offered a certain opportunity. Instead of regarding my thesis as a means to an end, I could delve into my material on its own merits, drawing new and unexpected conclusions. he second reason for choosing my subject relates to the impact Jewish Studies courses at UF have had on me, under professors such as Dr. Leah Hochman, Dr. Ken neth Wald, and Dr. Gwynn Kessler. My classes in Jewish Studies have, without a doubt, been among the most challenging and most rewarding that I have enjoyed in my undergraduate career. Through courses on Midrash, Talmud, Jewish ethics, Jew ish politics, Jewish literature, and more, I became fascinated with the evolution of modern Jewish identity politics, including Juda isms elastic possibilities as both a religious and a non-religious identity, as well as the land of Israels often transformative power to affect this identification. Dr. Hasak-Lowy, from Jewish Stud ies, was an invaluable resource for my research, in addition to Dr. Judith Page and Dr. Stephanie Smith, my readers within the English department. Ultimately, blending the disciplines of Jewish Studies and English allowed me not only to pursue a subject that genuinely interested me, but also to write about literature in a way that emphasizes its political consequences. I discovered that although many have written about the con nections between British proto-Zionist writers, and although a similar number have discussed Hebrew and Yiddish authors from Eastern Europe writing about the land of Palestine, few ef forts have been made to compare the two realms. As the develop ment of early Zionism involved British and European politicians, Jewish intellectual leaders, and early Jewish settlers, I feel that separating authors into camps of East and West is misleading. My approach, while by no means comprehensive, did incorpo rate authors from England, America, and Russia, including two non-Jews and two Jews, two men and two women, to present a variety of voices. The writers I studied from Great Britain and America, wheth er Jewish or non-Jewish (Benjamin Disraeli falls curiously in be tween the two categories), shared one thing in common: none saw immigration to Palestine as even a remote possibility for themselves, only for their characters. Their proto-Zionist tenden cies were often heavily tied to their political goals, but they seem determined to separate Palestine from the realm of personal pos sibility. George Eliots support for proto-Zionism arose late in her career; not until Daniel Deronda, her final novel, does she make an overt case for the immigration of British Jews to Palestine. Although herself a Christian, Eliot took on the rather remarkable task of counteracting through her writing the anti-Semitism she George Eliot Emma Lazarus 24

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witnessed. Daniel Deronda represents a sympathetic portrayal of Jewish characters by a mainstream author, which was nearly un precedented. As might be imagined, the early reception history of the work shows bewilderment and hostility from non-Jewish audiences, and intense gratitude from Jewish ones. However, both groups, to Eliots disappointment, attempted to divorce the British and Jewish halves of the narrative. My examination of Eliot focuses on her veiled class antagonism frequently she seems to imply that the problem among Jews is not Judaism, but working-class status, and to present the land of Palestine as the needed force to ennoble the Jewish community and on her troubling portrayal of the suppression of key female characters, which to me hints at her doubts over the true efficacy of the proto-Zionist scheme. mma Lazarus, an American poet best known for The New Colossus, the poem adorning the Statue of Liberty, actually cited George Eliot as a major influence. An as similated, secular Jew who nevertheless focused on Jewish themes in her most successful poems, Lazarus volunteered to aid incoming masses of poor, Jewish, East European immigrants to America. Her dedication to proto-Zionism is linked to her con viction that such refugees needed a safe haven, be it in America or Palestine. Lazarus helps establish the possibility that wealthy, assimilated Jews can support Jewish nationalism from afar. enjamin Disraeli presents a special case, as a Christian con vert who held onto his Jewish heritage. When he became Prime Minister, he never concealed his Jewishness despite anti-Semitic attacks; however, neither did he disguise his view that Christianity represented perfected Judaism. His in terest in Jews seems overwhelmingly to revert back to self-inter est, whether that means claiming a personal sense of superiority from his Jewish history, or whether that means supporting the creation of a Jewish state for overtly colonial reasons. While his novel Tancred delves deeply into the land of Palestine, portraying a variety of Jewish, Muslim Arab, and other ethnic and religious characters, in the end much of this apparent tolerance gives way to the dominion of the Christian hero. Interestingly, all three of these western authors published, in addition to their fiction, philosophical or political tracts to more clearly outline their position vis--vis the Jewish people and the land of Palestine. George Eliot wrote, in Impressions of Theophras tus Such The Modern Hep! Hep! Hep!, a moderately sarcastic take on the injustice of anti-Semitism and the justifications for Jewish nationalism. Emma Lazarus published a variety of essays defending Jews and Judaism, many of which appear in her col lection Epistle to the Hebrews Disraeli even allegedly wrote a pam phlet called, The Jewish Question in the Oriental Question, although the authorship is disputed. Regardless, what speaks to me about the significance of these authors in terms of the inter Benjamin Disraeli Mendele Mokher Sforim 25

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section of literature and politics is their need to clarify, expound, and promulgate their ideas both inside and outside of their fiction. endele Mokher Sforim, on the other hand, takes a mark edly different route in discussing the land of Palestine. The Travels of Benjamin III shows a mixture of irrever ence, hyperbole, and mockery that at times borders un comfortably on Jewish self-hatred. His main characters, intensely poor victims of Russian anti-Semitic violence, set off on a quest for the Holy Land that amounts to little more than wandering in circles through various shtetls. Many eastern novelists like Mendele showed a deeper cynicism and doubt than their western counterparts when it came to the promises of Jewish nationalism perhaps because they came from the poor populations that other proto-Zionists seemed so determined to uplift, or perhaps because working in the new literary languages of Yiddish and Hebrew allowed them a uniquely insider audience. Mende le, unlike Eliot, Lazarus, and Disraeli, does not have to justify his Judaism to an anti-Semitic culture; his sarcasm is reserved exclusively for other Jews. In any case, Mendele undermines the ebullient idealism of Eliot and Lazarus, as well as the political confidence of Disraeli, to provide what may be a more realistic take on the development of proto-Zionism. became a Political Science major at UF, I was able to have a a dual major.  Some of the Middle East Studies courses counted towards both majors. I received the special Israel Studies Certificate for the courses I took in Judaism and everything relating to Israel. The military has always been an inter est of mine, and I had planned on becom ing an officer in the United States Army, and for almost two years participated in ROTC at the University of Florida. How ever, because of the war in 2006 between Israel and Hezbollah, I thought that I might be of more use to Israel and felt a strong desire to do my part for the Jew ish State. After graduating from UF in the summer of 2008, I moved to Israel to join the Israel Defense Forces and make Aliyah (a Hebrew word that translates to moving up to the Holy Land or Israel).  I live on Kibbutz Shamir, in Northern Israel and was accepted into the Israeli 101st Airborne.  I say accepted because the Airborne is unique in that everyone must pass a two-day try out to test both physi cal and mental character. I am currently a sharpshooter in a platoon responsible for a specialized and very unique anti-tank rocket. My two-year service in the IDF is coming to an end and in October I plan on continuing my education at Tel Aviv University in a Masters Degree Program in Security and Diplomacy Studies. have always had a strong connec tion and love for the land and people of Israel. In 3rd grade I joined Young Judaea, the Zionist youth group sponsored by Ha dassah. I attended Young Judaea summer camps in North Carolina and New York.  The summer after 11th grade I spent in Israel on a six week Young Judaea program and I spent a gap year after high school on Young Judaeas Year Course Program. During Year Course I lived primarily in Jerusalem but also on a kibbutz in the Negev. I received college credits while on Year Course which primarily filled spots in the Jewish Studies curriculum, so when I 26

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27 Paths of Assimilation in Late-Nineteenth-Century Hungaryummer of 2008 was all about sports. The season opened with the European Football Championship, and later, Europeans were chained to their television sets as their teams competed at the Beijing Olympic Games. While flying across the Atlantic Ocean armed with letters of recommendation to exchange for other letters that might allow me to enter Hungarian archives, as usual I skipped the sport section of the paper and thought about my research on Ma rie Freudenberg. By marrying the son of the world-famous Hungarian orientalist Ignaz Goldziher, Freudenberg, a young Hungarian female Egyptologist, entered the competi tive world of male scholars at the age of twenty three. She was warmly received into the Goldziher family, but made Goldziher the elder, who had previously been serving as the secretary of the Neolog Jewish Congregation of Pest for thirty years, rethink his seem ingly solid ideas on Jewish emancipation and assimilation. Goldziher was an advocate of a democratic system based on ethical principles, and he believed that the wealthy Jewish bourgeoisie, and especially the female members blinded by the material might of their class, would threaten these values. Marie died too young to either refute or justify her father-in-laws prejudices. Yet, her friendship with Lili Kronberger, the worldchampion figure skater revealed how subjective Goldzihers sociological categories were, and that the paths of the Jewish assimila tion in Hungary should be studied also outside the academy, culture, economics, and politics. I was soon made to realize that sports were in no way confined to the daily news; they also infiltrated the lives of the Goldzihers, whose documents are carefully guarded in the Budapest City Archives and the National Jewish Muse um and Archives in Budapest. Despite my enthusiasm, as well as the interest that experienced historians demonstrated toward my project, and the assistance I received from various archivists, Marie Freudenbergs mysterious life proved enduringly resistant to research. I could not find any trace of her private KATALIN FRANCISKA RAC is a Ph.D.  student of modern European and Jewish history in the Department of History and recipient of a Gerson Fellowship as well as the Alexander Grass Graduate Fellowship in Jewish History.  She is interested in the cultural products of national, religious, and professional  identity formation  of Hungarian Jewry and plans to write a dissertation on four generations of Hungarian orientalists of Jewish origin.

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28 Hungary continued to train in the Hungarian clubs. They de sired to be equals also in sports and to play and train in common clubs; yet they also wished to demonstrate their Jewish identity, though on a lesser scale than the Maccabi groups members. Al though they did not give names identified with Zionist ideals to the clubs they frequented, nevertheless the first club founded at the end of the nineteenth century with substantial Jewish interest, the Magyar Testgyakorlk Kre (Circle of the Hungarian Body Trainers) did choose blue and white as its colors. The most important Jewish sport club, Vv s Atltikai Club (Hungarian Fencing and Athletic Club), did not use a Jewish name either, yet the membership was Jewish and partici pated in the inter national Maccabi games. As I was listen ing to Szab ex plain how sports became a frequent channel of assimilation for minorities, I also understood that the kind of sport chosen by individual minorities reflected their ideal of assimilation. The Jewish champions developed both physical endurance and technical skills, and most impor tantly chose sports in which they did not come into physical contact with their rivals. They competed in sports that were associated with upper-class social practices and where achieve ment could be measured objectively in points. Figure skating incorporated both the beauty of the no ble bearing of the body and the progressiveness of the engineers precision. Unlike today, at the turn of the twentieth century fig ure skating meant drawing figures on ice. After each contestant completed his or her routine, the judges would go onto the rink and scrutinize the lines the skater had left on the ice. Points were given based on the performance and the precision of the skates traces. Kronbergers story is as much about figure skating as Jew ish assimilation in Hungary, moreover her sport career seems to reflect the ideal of the nobility-emulating assimilated Jew. papers, or a photograph of her. Boxes with documents related to her husbands family were also missing. The only possible lead to Freudenberg appeared to be her friend, Elza Lili Kronberger (1890974), figure skater and Hungarys first world-champion athlete. As we can learn from the editorial Introduction of her posthumus published book, after Freudenbergs death Kronberger collected her friends notes and urged Freudenbergs husband, the younger Goldziher, and his friend Heller (the elder Goldzi hers pupil and eventually the editor) to publish them. Soon I found myself sitting in the office of Lajos Szab, the director of the Hungarian Sportmuseum, taking notes of our conversation in the course of which a fascinating story about Hungarian Jewish athletes, both male and female, un folded. Kronberger was among the Jewish champions of Hungarian firstclass sports whose Jewish background was hardly ever talked about. She and others are re membered as Hungarian athletes ex clusively. And that was probably in accord with their own will. At the turn of the century Hun garian Jews did not follow their native Max Nordaus idea (the same Max Nordau, who was Ignaz Goldzihers classmate, as well) of muskeljudentum (muscle Jews) and the formation of Zionist sports groups. Instead, they allied themselves with the Hungarian sporting nobility who imported sports like football and tennis to Hungary from the West and in tegrated them into the aristocratic lifestyle. Jewish athletes joined those sports dominated by the nobility, and as the bourgeoisies social base grew of which stratum Jews formed a considerable portion they demanded more space for their participation in all spheres of the countrys life, including sports. I learned from Sz ab that in contrast to the practice in the successor states, where the Maccabi clubs, or groups with Hebrew names like Hagibor, Hakoach, or Bar-kochba appeared one after the other, Jews in

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29 An ice rink and the national champion ships were established by the Hungarian Skaters Association, which was founded mostly by Hungarian nobles in one of the Budapest caf houses in 1869. Like ten nis, figure skating was one of those elegant sports practiced by the upper class, which included the growing bourgeoisie and the nobility. Before the ice rink, skaters used tennis courts covered with ice during the winter months. After its establishment in 1870, on Sunday mornings the skating rink was frequented by the wealthy citizens who could afford the relatively high entrance fee and knew the social dances that were performed while wearing skates. An orchestra provided waltz music and other dance tunes for the public. Also the competing skaters performed their routines to music. Kronberger preferred Kodalys music, which incorporated Hun garian and non-Hungarian folk melo dies, over Western salon dance music. Kodaly himself occasionally visited the rink and played his flute for the skaters. ronberger, the daughter of a Jewish wood merchant, was a pupil at the first high school in Budapest that was opened for girls exclusively regardless of their religion and there she met her life-time friend, Marie Freudenberg, the future Egyptolo gist, three days her junior. When she was seven, she was already practicing on the skating rink in Budapest. After fifth grade in high school (at the age of fifteen) she be came a private student, whereas her friend Marie stopped attending that school and did not take the matriculation exam there either. Kronberger, in contrast, a wellknown sport star by then, matriculated in the same high school at the age of eigh teen, just like other students. In the 1906 world championship, at the age of sixteen, Kronberger received the bronze medal. Two years later she be came world champion and she held this title for four consecutive years, until 1911, when she announced her marriage to Imre Szent-Gyorgyi. A distant relative of the Noble-prize winning researcher Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Imre Szent-Gyorgyi was twenty-four years her senior, a nobleman, and from its establishment he served as the vice-president and executive of the Hungarian Skaters Association. Because success in figure skating is based on points awarded by a panel of judges, and Kronbergers husband was involved in the Hungarian Skaters Association, continu ing her career after their marriage could have resulted in a conflict of interest for her husband, and she chose to retire. However, she did continue skating and closely watched the next generations of Hungarian skaters until she reached the age of sixty. She died in 1974, thirty years after her husband; she survived World War II seemingly untouched by the antiJewish laws. Although she is buried next to her husband, her tomb is unmarked. Despite the difference between their ca reers, Freudenberg and Kronberger seem to have pursued the same Hungarian Jew ish noble dream. They became experts in fields that were open only to people of means and provided a quasi-aristocratic lifestyle. Freudenberg visited the great Eu ropean museums to study their Egyptian collections and thus she was trained to become an associate of wealthy collectors. Kronberger danced on ice embodying the aristocratic ideal of beauty and the mod ern spirit of sport. Their stories encapsu late an optimistic period and, according to many, they ignored the real limitations on the possibilities of assimilation into the conservative nobility-dominated Hungary at the beginning of the twentieth century. Freudenberg is remembered for her contribution to the Egyptian collec tion of the Hungarian National Museum. Kronbergers legacy is that of the Hungar ian skater pure and simple, and not the Hungarian Jewish sportswoman.

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30 I am an anomaly. I am not Jewish or Muslim. I am not of Middle Eastern descent. I have no family ties to the region. All these things aside, I have a deep love and passion for the Middle East. I love the people, the languages, the food, and the culture of Middle Eastern nations. I am always the only non-Jew in my Israeli programs and definitely a minority in the Arab states of the Middle East. People always ask me why? Why do you study Arabic and Hebrew? Why do you want to work in a region riddled with conflict? I hope after reading my journal from the last months, things will become clearer. So Kibbutz Naan is a beautiful chunk of landscape located next to the city of Rehovot south of Tel Aviv. Driving up, I had no clue what to expect. I was instantly blown away by the never-ending rows of lush green fields, flowers and lines of houses in this quaint kibbutz. Also noticing industrial equipment, my mind wandered to my eventual job placement here on the kibbutz. Was I to be working in a factory? My taxi dropped me off at the entrance to the ulpan center where I immediately met some nice ulpan kids. There are people here from all over the world: Mexico, Britain, Australia, Hungary, France, the US, Germany, Russia, and more. There are only 30 of us and the guy-to-girl ratio is quite off. I think there are only 10 girls. We hung out, smoked, and talked with each other, regaling our different adventures. Most of us are very well-traveled, and were exchanging trips and stories about where weve been or where we are dying to go. I woke up this morning, after homey ing my room and went for a run. Two other guys were supposed to come run ning with me but they slept through it. The run was nice, and the kibbutz is so big, I ran for 30 minutes and hadnt seen hardly any of it. There are fields upon fields of eggplant, corn and some other unidentifiable vegetable. Gorgeous rows of flowers and even stables with horses, peacocks, pigs and goats surround our ul pan dorm area. The general way of life here is just dras tically different. The communal feeling is evident. People greet everyone as they walk by, the locals are happy to meet us and show us around. Even the dining halls, where everyone eats, felt like one big camp atmosphere everyone here knows and loves each other. Women walk BY SARAH KAISER-CROSS SARAH KAISER-CROSS is a senior at the University of Florida majoring in Political Science with minors in Jewish Studies and Arabic. She recently finished an independent study abroad program on Kibbutz Naan. She hopes to work in Israel or in the Middle East after graduation and teach English while working with a Non-Governmental Organizations to facilitate open communication in the region.

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around with stroller like objects or at least purposefully so, but actually are cribs with wheels with a baby in them. I find it kind of cute, they stroll their babys crib along to the grocery store. When you grow up in a kibbutz, at age 16, you get your own apartment, separate from your family. Also, they have a communal grocery store, swimming pool, playgrounds, gardens, and even 2 pubs. I think I could get used to living this way. Everything is so calm and peaceful. So this morning we had quite an early start to our day. We woke up at 8 a.m. for our testing into classes. We stood outside waiting for our teachers to call us in and test us for the correct Hebrew class. I tested into beginning Hebrew. I got my job as well, what I will be doing for my work part of the work-study pro gram here; I am a gardener. I have to be at work at 6:00 a.m., 6:00 flipping a.m.! I almost died when I found out. I woke up and am working with 3 other boys. Yes, I am the only girl. We met the other kibbutzniks who assigned us our jobs. Two of the boys went and chopped down a tree. This guy from Argentina, named Mat tie, and I were assigned to the gardens. I weeded and tilled the soil for 5 hours this morning. It was 45 degrees this morning and still dark when we woke up. The sun rose about 5 past 6:00 in the morning and was beautiful rose colored, slowly rising over the mountains. The hours went by pretty quickly. Once you get into the work funk, digging, shoveling, turning the soil, it becomes a rhythm, a way of relaxing into your mind. I am very rarely reflec tive, and Ive found this time really requires me to focus on my thoughts. Lunch is good, always decent. The vegetables (hot and cold) are pretty good fresh from the kibbutz. There are always varieties of meat, mousaka, schnitzel (the favorite Israeli chicken dish) and vegan stuff. The families and co-workers all sit together in the dining hall, animatedly talking about the days work, gossip among the families and daily life. I love watching the dynamics between people here the old ladies sitting together, pushing around vegetables, clearly the best of friends. The old men who eat in silence, teeth absent, and reading the newspaper. There is such a communal feeling in this place. For example, this morning, I was working with one of the guys in the garden. I asked him about the rotation schedule on the kibbutz. I was curious whether people switched jobs often. What if you hated cooking and you were stuck in the kitchen? Apparently, the people on the kibbutz pretty much stay permanently in their jobs. They dont switch around unless absolutely necessary. The guy I was speak ing with had been working in the garden for 13 years. But in the last few years, lots of people have been utilizing their specializa tions and are working off of the kibbutz. Naan is the second richest kibbutz in Israel and one of the largest in terms of size. It isnt religious though, very few people attend services regularly, and the only services are on Shabbat and the holy days. ` Last night I ventured out into Jerusalem, in search of WiFi. I ended up at CafCafe while it poured buckets of water on my head. A Palestinian friend came to meet me we learned about each others beliefs: religions, families and jobs, switching constantly between Arabic, English and Hebrew. Im coming to 31

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32 a place where its really exciting for me because I can have a decent conversation in either language. He took me to East Jerusalem, to a hookah caf. Its funny to note the immediate differences you see when you drive three blocks from West to East Jerusalem signs all in Arabic, men and women in kafiyas burqas and hijabs The buildings, plants and streets are not as well kept; crusty paint, crumbled chip bags, fewer lights and an aura of simplicity. Everyone is with families, working, or smok ing nargila. Like Cairo, I was once again the only woman in the entire caf. We smoked and talked politics. I had to mentally change my brain to Arabic. Typical of the Arab cafs all men, a soccer game playing in the background, and men mumbling words back and forth between puffs. He explained his views of Israel to me. The Jews took our land, kill our people. We fight with rocks to defend our homes that the settlers take and then shoot with guns. He also told me the Holocaust didnt happen that the numbers were exaggerated to a ridiculous degree and that Hitler had the right idea. Its sad, but I have gotten used to hearing this from the other side. I obviously do not agree I believe if anything, the Holocaust was covered up way more than we know. He later told me he had Jewish friends but absolutely hated the settlers. Not surprising. It is midday. Everyone is scrambling from one stand to the next. Most women trail behind them metal wheely carts in which to deposit their purchased items. Bargaining is the game. These strawberries? How much? The freshest and the best is what ev eryone is searching for in this madness called the shuk on these bustling Friday afternoons. Eggs, challah, cheese, vegetables are all being sold. All of it must be the very best to serve your fam ily. You can always tell where to go. . the stands with the most Israelis and the least amount of food left. Fresh white cheeses stacked on top of each other, bins full of juicy olives of every color, the fresh vegetables plucked from the surrounding fields; bright purple eggplants, sun yellow, melony-orange and forestgreen peppers all thrown in cardboard boxes displayed for all the customers to see. Today is shabbat. Shabbat shalom. My favorite day of the week. Around 3:00 p.m., the magic of Israel happens. The whole country, simultaneously, slows down. Stores begin to close, people cram on their last bus home, soldiers are in trans port from their base to see their family. Slowly the silence sets in. The sun sets and everyone is home. Soon shabbat begins. I am lucky enough to spend my shabbat with Reuts family who have become my family here in Israel. They always welcome me into their home her mother with lots of hugs and family

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33 time on the couch. We relaxed together, getting formalities of how the week went out of the way. Sitting down to dinner, Reuts father and brother, who is 12 and about to be barmitzvahed recited the prayers from the prayer books. We ate all the usual shabbat salads, breads, and ended with grilled fish. Throughout dinner, Reuts family encouraged me to practice my Hebrew, so I ended up telling her family my little stories. I felt like a 2nd grader writing a mini essay and probably sounded like one, too. Some times it is really frustrating speaking another language. While I can usually communicate what I need, it is another thing entirely to communicate jokes, or a high level of expression. I couldnt talk about philosophy or the current political situation, at least not to the extent I would like to participate. So, I listened and learned a slew of new words. While letting our food settle, we tried on our dresses for her brothers bar mitzvah in April and then got ready to go out to Tel Aviv. Picking up Ali, we proceeded to get embarrassingly lost in Tel Aviv. One thing worth noting, in Israel the road signs are completely unhelpful. Next to the pedestrian crossings and tiny it is impossible to read them while driving. Trying to find parking was interesting in and of itself. Never ever try to find parking in Tel Aviv on the weekend. Throughout this driving disaster, we began talking about Israeli politics and the Israeli view of outsiders, specifically of non-Jews. My friend says to me, When people ask you if you are Jewish, its because they want to know if they can trust you. So immediately I question her: Wait, when people ask me if I am Jewish and I say no, they automatically trust me less? She answers, Well, yes. It sounds bad but thats how it is. Rather off put by that comment, I have to admit, it is what I expected. Kind of unfortunate I am viewed that way. I suppose I understand the mentality. Most people are surprised I am here doing what Im doing, and are even more intrigued when they find out Im not Jewish. An anomaly here, I love what I love and thats it. Generally speaking, the underlying feeling here is that if you arent Jewish, you can not truly understand the draw that brings Jews to Israel. You cannot possibly comprehend the feeling of safety, security and draw to the homeland that people feel when they choose to be here. I obviously am not Jewish and while I may not understand because of my religious upbringing, I like to think I empathize. Monday night I went over to the Zuerkel familys house bear ing a bottle of French Reisling wrapped in lavender wrapping tied with a beautiful purple flower which I purchased from an organic market in Ramat Aviv. It was warmly received, of course. Myself, Reut, her two sisters, brother and parents made our way over to Reuts uncles house on the other side of the city. The roads were packed with cars like sardines in a can all in a hurry so as not to be the last to arrive. Gathering before the whole clan had arrived, we exchanged kisses, hugs and formalities. In Hebrew, I explained to everyone who walked in the door (and there were about 30 people) that I was Reuts friend and we had been roommates in Haifa. All this was in Hebrew. For those of you who know me, you know I am rarely reserved or shy. I felt so out of my element surrounded by Hebrew speakers in an intimate family setting on a Jewish holiday. . all things which I love but at the same time stressed me out a bit. I just sat back and observed more than I usually do. Reuts father led the Pesah seder with every family member reading different sections of the story of Passover. The men sat wearing kipot (yarmulkes) all in a line. Reuts father headed the table, leading the dynamic that set in for the whole evening. Rais ing your voice for your opinion to be heard was the norm. Even the reserved family members had learned throughout their lives in Israel that it is an absolute necessity to speak up, and loudly in order to be heard at all. Politeness is dismissed. If you want to speak, just continue speaking until everyone else gives up. Hands are decoration. No good story is complete without flying hands, exaggerated facial expressions and maybe even an uprising from the table! Meals with Israelis are anything but dull. The dynamics among the family members are amazing to watch. Grandpa and Grandma sit at the end of the table mooshing their food around

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34 with the teeth they have left. The son and his Russian girlfriend hold hands and snuggle while engaging in conversation with the rest of the family. The women of the family are constantly mov ing, refilling the bowls with various salads eggplant and garlic, lettuce, carrots with pecans, liver, radish, every salad you could think of. They check on the children, refill the table with napkins, drinks, and of course more wine. The kids scream in protest of the vegetables and joy when they receive their presents. The men huddled together on one side of the table, mur muring the blessings for the seder. One began and another would follow, finishing his sentence. We leaned to the left to drink the wine with our right hands, sang all the seder songs and ameyned when appropriate. The food was a blend of Turkish and Moroccan cuisine because her family is half from Morocco and half from Turkey. At the end, we sang a special seder song in Hebrew and then again in a dialect of Turkish with Ladino influence. Passover dinner is always quite lengthy so the teenagers became a bit restless. Jokingly, the men reciting the seder began throwing wine corks at the kids who were talking, in a half-serious attempt to make the seder more decorous. By that time, everyone was enjoying the company, the food and the general atmosphere. Huge failure. Giggles ensued every time the men would miss a throw, especially when they landed in various household objects. Throughout the course of Passover dinner, each adult consumes four glasses of wine. Add the wine with the typical conversation style of Israelis and what is produced is an amusing evening. The cousins all got a little tipsy from the wine and then desserts came. Everything is brought to the table: desserts without yeast, coco nut cakes, tea with mint from the garden, even pictures from grandmas fashion show. Thats right lovely ladies and gentlemen, yours truly is now a chef. Not just any chef, a top chef. Okay, maybe not a top chef, but I am a kitchen assistant now at my kibbutz and enjoy it much more than my other job. The days are much longer, harder and messier, but I get to work with my hands (which are now red and sore). Today, for two hours, I rocked out around 200 peppers. Wash, slice and dice! Boo-yah! We do a little of everything from cooking, to cleaning, to preparing food, to getting yelled at; all very real elements of any kitchen setting. Salads are my specialty I handle a lot of vegetables. Then there are the meats that get butchered, cleaned, and then either breaded, fried or baked. Oh, and we get free breakfast and lunch. Not a bad gig if you ask me. I hope I get to start doing more and more actual cooking. When I was working in the kitchen, getting introduced to everyone, one of my old people friends said to me, You know there are Arabs right. In the kitchen, I mean. Only Samea is Jewish. Just so you know to be politically correct when you say things. He knows I speak Arabic so introduced me to them pref acing with my language ability. So while I work in the kitchen, I am yelled at in three languages. I find this interesting because many people here forget I am not Jewish, or assume that I am and make political and social comments thinking as such. At the Western Wall in Jerusalem, on Pesah, I asked a woman if I could borrow the prayer book sitting next to her on the little plastic chairs they provide. Speaking in Hebrew for a while, she readily handed me the book and engaged me in a conversation about what brought me to Jerusalem. The inevitable question came up, are you Jewish? I responded yes, not in the mood to answer questions, merely attempting to say a prayer for peace in my favorite city, Jerusalem. I have this weird habit. I take a lot of language classes and have developed this nerdy habit while in class. I write down awkward/ funny/interesting things people say in the margins of my notes in an effort to remind myself of a. silly experiences and b. the fact that Im not the only one who lets really stupid things spill out every once in a while. For example, my teacher, Khedva, who was raised as an Orthodox Jew always enlightens us with tidbits about Judaism while learning in class. There are 70 names for Jerusalem in the Torah along with 613 mitzvot (commandments), but in modern times interpreted more as good deeds). In addi

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35 tion, we were discussing the differences between Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews and this kid in my class asked, Where does the word Sephardi come from? His friend next to him responded quickly, Safari. . duh (like Africa). One of the funniest things about Israel is the bluntness that reigns. In Israel, anyone with red hair gets a new name. My friend Dave, a redhead, on the first day of class was immediately labeled gingi by the teacher. In America, it is obviously quite rude to call someone that, especially someone you dont know. Here, its endearing, and quite common. In Jerusalem, Dave and I walked through the markets and the vendors would yell things like Hey gingi! Gingi, your wife is nice! It always makes me laugh. Israelis are notoriously blunt. The language barrier probably doesnt help with being politically correct either. Introverts, extroverts, old and young when an Israeli has an opinion, you will know it. Right now we are doing skits in class. Can I tell you how awkward they are? The two Argentineans stand at the front of the room, speaking in Hebrew the dialogue they just wrote. Full of mistakes (like all of ours are) they are explaining the meaning of what they are saying every minute. Giggling, embarrassed and staring at the paper, confused with what they wrote, they finish the dialogue. Next group. Our topics are things you say to your husband, what a mother-in-law says to her daughter-in-law and what Arsim (Israeli equivalent of Guidos) say to a girl they are trying to pick up. My group was what a mother-in-law says to her daughter-in-law: we made the mother hate her daughter-in-law, and teach her how to make her husband happy. All trying to hold back laughter, we sit painfully through the skits that are both awkward and awful. The great part is that we are all awful. Learning a language is never easy. Some people are better at it than others. While I love learning these languages, at times I want to pull my hair out. For about a year now, I have been convers ing with people in English whose first language is not English, or speaking in Arabic, Hebrew or Italian. The frustrating part is not looking like an idiot, which I have hopelessly resigned myself to. The most frustrating part is the lack of intellectual commu nication. All you can use are the words you know accompanied with dramatic hand gestures to get your point across. I can speak about my life, what I like, where I come from, what I want to do and contribute to general conversation topics. But, when it comes to actually conversing about what is going on in the world, politics, religion, or any topic with vocabulary way beyond my skill, I am forced to listen and attempt to understand the new words as they pour out of peoples mouths. Generally what I am thinking is this: Okay, she just said that word which has the same root as this other verb I know, so which verb grouping can I put that in? I suppose I would conjugate that in the past tense, first person as this and think of other words I know with the same basic root. Then maybe, I may have some general meaning as to what the verb she just used was. Then after thinking all of these things, I join back in the conversation which probably has just taken a turn to something completely different. And then the process repeats itself. Welcome to my life. Haifa program ad

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36 have had an exciting first two weeks in Haifa and have already seen so much. The university campus is on the mountain and overlooks all of Haifa. On a clear day, it is possible to see Lebanon. Considering there are only about 12,000 students enrolled at the university, the campus is significantly smaller than UFs. (I can actually walk to class from my dorm in less than five minutes). The campus has a Mediterra nean look to it and the buildings are built of a pretty light yellow stone. The first couple days of my stay were quite hectic because I arrived the night before the Winter Ulpan entry level exam. There are six levels and I tested into the highest! Although I am one of the strongest in the class in grammar and reading, I feel like Im the worst when it comes to speaking. Just about everyone has at least one Israeli parent and grew up speaking Hebrew at home or in Jewish day school. Fortunately, my professor under stands my situation and helps me when Im lost. The 17 students in the class come from very different backgrounds. Most are from the US, one is from Denmark and one from Austria. Two other students made aliyah, which means they moved to Israel. About 12 of them are undergraduate students like me. There are several students, some in their twenties and two in their late forties, who are here just for ulpan in order to perfect their Hebrew. Ulpan classes take place Sunday through Thursday from 8:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.. We read stories by authors such as Amos Oz and Yosl Bernstein. I specifically remember one of Ozs short stories that we read, titled Jerusalem of Above and Jerusalem of Below. It focused on the many opposites evident in Jerusa lem pertaining to religion, culture, and socioeconomic status. Oz portrays the city struggling between materialistic and spiritual values. He denounces the political struggle and violence that stems from fanatic nationalism. I have an especially difficult time reading Ozs work on account of his use of sophisticated Hebrew and figurative language. Many times I may understand the literal translation but it may either make no sense to me or the underly DANIELLE FEINSTEIN is 21 years old and was born and raised in Plantation, Florida. When she was 11, her family moved to Daytona Beach and has been living there since. She is double majoring in Political Science and Jewish Studies along with pursuing a minor in Hebrew and a certificate in International Relations. Danielle was determined to study in Israel in order to improve her Hebrew, experience Israeli culture first hand, and to conduct research on her senior thesis regarding political attitudes of Israeli university students towards the Arab-Israeli peace process.

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37 ing themes may go right over my head. When we read these texts in class, my professor has us discuss what we think the author is trying to say and we eventually either figure it out ourselves or she explains it to us. Besides reading we also discuss current events, such as the outcome of the recent Israeli election and our views of the peace process and human rights. For at least an hour everyday, we review grammar, which I enjoy because this is my strong point while everyone else has to struggle. I am already familiar with all the grammar, including the difference between active and passive, and the present participle. When going over grammar, my professor would usually explain it to us and write some conjugations on the board and have us write sentences using the particular conjugation discussed. Other times she would ask us to identify which tense and conjugation is in the sentence. One thing I did not really learn at UF were milot sibah (words of cause) and milot totzahah (words of consequence), which are words like Englishs because and therefore. In Hebrew, there are at least 15 words for because. However, some can only be used when preceding a sentence and the others can only be used when they precede a noun. For example, there would be a different word for because in the sentences I missed my flight because of the bad weather here because is bglal and I missed my flight because I lost my passport because in this case is mpney she Once a week, a guest speaker comes. The first was a professor from Haifa University who lectured on gender inequalities in Israel and the barriers and limitations restricting women from equal opportunities with men. I am almost positive everyone in my class thought the lecture was too one-sided and didnt men tion social reform and improvements that have helped women throughout the past decade. Nevertheless, I was just happy I was able to understand the lecture since it was completely in Hebrew. We also have language lab once a week where we listen to Israeli news broadcasts and then are tested on comprehension. I never noticed how fast news broadcasters speak until the first language lab! Our professor gives us part of the broadcast in print with words missing and we have to fill in the blanks. I think I have to listen to the recording at least fifteen times to complete each section. Even then, I am not completely sure about the correct answers. The other sections can be even harder, asking true or false questions pertaining to the broadcast. y professor teaches completely in Hebrew, therefore, I dont understand half of what she says. I dont know what I would do in class without two friends who sit next to me and help me out. Although the class is difficult and sometimes frustrating, I can al ready tell my speaking and comprehension skills have improved. Overall, I am glad I stayed in the highest level rather than going down to the next level as students often do during the first week. I am never really bored from the class and it is broken up with two breaks. These are the times when we socialize with friends in the other class levels. Some of the international students have already been here for a semester and have been extremely helpful in showing us around the campus and the city, and by taking us to several parts of town to shop, eat, and socialize. They have been especially helpful showing us how to use public transportation. Israel has a great and inexpensive public transportation system. One of the students I became friends with knows that I like to run, so she showed me a trail that starts on campus and goes up the moun tain and ends up at an amazing lookout on the city. The trail is called Derekh Dor, which means Generational Trail. Throughout the trail there are rock formations and granaries from an cient times and the route is supposed to symbolize the different generations of Israel. here are also a number of students who studied abroad in places other than Israel including India, England, Brazil, and France. The international students have al ready become a close-knit group and we tend to travel in packs. It is quite a scene when at least twenty of us get on a bus or sit down at a restaurant or pub! Last Friday we had a huge potluck Shabbat dinner at my friends dorm. Although I was never really religious at home, it is nice to participate in events like these with a large group of my Jewish friends. (There are also some non-Jewish students who came to our Shabbat din ner and they, too, had a good time). I have been craving falafel and shwarma since I got here and I finally had some in Nazareth. My first meal out on the town with my new friends in Haifa was a very kosher cheeseburger and fries. One night, my classmates and I met our professor at the Haifa theatre in Hadar to see the play, Sipur pashut ( A Simple Story). The day before the performance, our professor briefly summarized the play for us so we would be able to follow along during the presentation. The setting of the play took place in Europe and focused on a young man named Hershel who got married to a young woman named Mina. He realized he was still in love with his very distant relative, Bluma, who moved in to his house when he was younger because both of her parents died. The play por trays his struggles and his emotions during this time. He seems to be going crazy over his situation. However, some interpret this as pretending to be crazy to avoid serving in the army. I prob ably wouldnt have understood much of the play if my professor hadnt summarized it before we arrived. I havent been to many restaurants in Haifa because I am try ing to save money and we often just cook in the dorms. Before the play, we met for dinner in Hadar. The only place that seemed

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38 open was a restaurant on the side of a hotel. They would only serve us breakfast, eggs or toast. One thing Ive learned about food here is that toast is not American toast. Toast in Israel ac tually refers to a panini-type sandwich, usually filled with various vegetables, meats and cheeses. After class, the popular hang out is the cafeteria on campus which we call 20 Shekel Plate. This is because they charge only $5 to stuff as much food on your plate as you can. It is buffet style and includes various meats, mostly grilled chicken, schnitzel, and beef, pastas, vegetables, breads, and more. We love 20 Shekel Plate and go there at least twice a week. Coming from a university that has three Starbucks, I was surprised that there are more coffee shops and cafeterias on this proportionally smaller campus than on UF. The food on campus is much cheaper than food on campus in Florida. Also, they sell 12-inch subs with meat and vegetables for 8 shekels, which is about $2. My mothers friend, whom I stayed with when I first arrived lives about five minutes away from campus and I never realized how comforting it would be to have a sense of family so close by. She has two daughters, whom I hadnt seen since I was four years old. I spent a Shabbat and many other nights with her fam ily and have had interesting conversations with them about life in Israel and their opinions about the recent election. She has shown me around and took me to the market in Hadar, where the British Mandate headquarters was located. She showed me what used to be the dividing line between the Jewish and Arab sectors of the city during that period. The Hadar market is really something. I have never seen so many fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, and meat all in one area. The market was crowded with all sorts of people, old and young, religious and secular, Ar abs and Jews. The workers were all yelling over each other trying to win over customers with the best bargains, several shouting: Ekhad bshekel! Ekhad bshekel! which means one head of lettuce, parsley, or other leafy vegetable for one shekel (about $0.25). I have noticed the stark contrast between American food grocer ies and Israeli food stores and markets. Nearly all the produce and breads in Israel are laid out in the open air, allowing you to touch and smell them before you purchase. In America people are so worried about germs and disease that almost everything is pre-packaged.

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39 The madrikhim (counselors) have been great helping us get accustomed and tak ing us on trips. The first was to the Ghetto Fighters Museum at Kibbutz Lokhamei HaGetaot. This was the first Holocaust mu seum anywhere. The exhibit explains the Holocaust in a way that children can relate to without showing pictures and images that would frighten them. ast week, we went on a hike to the Siakh (Bush) Creek, which is a lovely green spot in the middle of the city and the trail led us to the special mosque of the neighborhood of Kabbabir. One of the heads of the mosque showed us around and told us about their sect of Islam which believes that nothing should be solved with violence. Last weekend we visited the archaeological site of Tzippori, which has a rich and diverse historical and architectural legacy, including a Roman theatre, Crusader fortress and impressive mosaics. After Tzippori, we went to Nazareth, which was once a small hidden village in the Galilee and is now one of the most renowned cities in the western world. We learned about the importance of Tzippori to the Jewish people and the life and journey of Jesus. Unlike most Jews at the time, the inhabitants of Tzippori did not join the resistance against Roman rule in the First Jewish Revolt of 66 C.E. They signed a pact with the Roman army not to rebel. Consequently, they were rewarded by being spared the destruction suffered by many other Jewish cities, including Jerusalem. Several decades later, Rabbi Hanasi, one of the compilers of the Mishnah, moved to Tzippori and documented the history of the Jewish people and the story of Tzippori. At Tzippori someone took a picture of me and my friend Neri Stein, also from UF, doing the Gator chomp.

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40 A.B. Yehoshuas novel Mr. Mani is a sprawling, densely lay ered historical text. Structured as a series of five incomplete conversations which are encountered in reverse chronological order, it is a novel which is concerned not only with the story be ing told, but more importantly, the process of the telling itself. Yehoshuas text requires the reader to examine history not as objective fact, but as a narrative which is consciously shaped and formed; it asks us to regard history not as a series of linear and connected movements along a timeline, but rather as a series of events which are unearthed, layered one upon the other, with out a set, determined connection. The definitive act of history, then, is the fabrication of that connection. Throughout, Yehoshua examines the construction of identity and ideology through these conscious and unconscious layer ings and revisions, and in doing so brings to light the constitu tive process of constructing official narratives of self and coun try, and of individual and collective memory. The purpose of my essay, Deconstruction, Destabilization, and the Return of the Repressed in Mr. Mani, is to examine the myriad layerings and revisions in Yehoshuas text, both in the individual con versations of the characters and in the historical periods they represent, an emphasis which posits the creation of historical narratives as a palimpsest, a continual process of revision and over-inscription which appropriates and disavows events in the historical past in the creation of individual and, more impor tantly, nationalist ideologies. From the first conversation, set during the controversial 1982 Lebanon War, to the novels conclusion and its allusion to the Biblical story of the akedah (the binding of Isaac), Mr. Mani ex amines the act and effect of constructing national narratives in Israel from its conception to the modern era, a strikingly dense examination of Israeli culture throughout history. In my analy sis, I argue that the Yehoshuas critique of this act of historical construction follows the psychoanalytic pattern of repression and neurosis, in that each repression/revision inevitably leaves behind a residue of its existence, a lingering trace which cannot be completely overwritten, and which provokes neurosis from its place of historical inaccessibility, exemplified in Yehoshuas text through the dysfunctional behavior of the eponymous, Israelbound Mani family. 2009 winner of the Alexander Grass Award for best undergraduate essay written by a University of Florida student on a subject in Jewish studies. by David Byron

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41 Secularization, Judaism and the Political: PosenFaculty Seminar at the Center for Jewish Studies, (Faculty Seminar) Tuesday, April 15, 2008 FERZINA BANAJI (US Holocaust Memorial Mu seum), Representing the Un-Representable: Film and the Holocaust, Thursday, June 19, 2008 SHIFT 2008: Holocaust Educators Workshop, June 16, 2008 NORA ALTER, Acoustic Bridges: Listening to Eisler, (Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, October 15, 2008 TODD HASAK-LOWY (University of Florida), Todd Hasak-Lowy Reads, Thursday October 16, 2008 Reading Jewish Literature: A Workshop with Dan Miron, Sunday, October 19, 2008 DAVID NIRENBERG (University of Chicago), Sibling Rivalries: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Wednesday, November 12, 2008 An Evening of Yiddish Song: Wolf Krakowski with the Lonesome Brothers and Friends, Satur day, November 15, 2008 JONATHAN JUDAKEN (University of Memphis), Theorizing Anti-Antisemitism, Monday, Novem ber 17, 2008 Being Jewish in Philosophy. Symposium to celebrate sixty years of Being Jewish and Time and the Other by Emmanuel Levinas. Invited guest participants: Professor Jonathan Judaken (Univer sity of Memphis). Organized by Dragan Kujundzic. Tuesday, November 18, 2008 DAVID RUDERMAN (University of Pennsylva nia), The People and the Book: The Invention of Print and the Transformation of Jewish Culture, Monday, December 1, 2008 TODD HASAK-LOWY, Beaufort: Lebanon, Closure, and the Unending State of Emergency, (Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, December 3, 2008 SUSANNAH HESCHEL (Dartmouth College), Scholars and Converts: European Jews Embrace Islam, February 16, 2009 ROBERT KAWASHIMA, You Shall Love the Lord Your God: On the Interpellation of the Ancient Israelite Subject (Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, February 18, 2009 GAIL HAREVEN, Reading from her new novel, March 4, 2009 RICHARD BURT, Secularization, Sacrilege, and Reversing the Renaissance Image and Text (Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, March 18, 2009 JONATHAN JUDAKEN (University of Memphis), Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust Tuesday, March 31, 2009 SHULAMIT VOLKOV (Tel Aviv University), German Jewry and the Invention of Secularism Thursday, April 2, 2009 DIRK RUPNOW (University of Innsbruck), Annihilating Preserving Remembering: The Aryanization of Jewish History and Memory dur ing the Holocaust Monday, April 13, 2009 NORMAN J. W. GODA (Ohio University), Czer niakows Playground: The Struggle for Humanity in the Warsaw Ghetto Thursday, April 16, 2009 Made possible through these endowments and gifts : June Baumgardner Gelbart Foundation Irma & Norman Braman Berman Family Foundation Jack Chester Foundation Futernick Endowment Alexander Grass Eminent Scholar Chair Charlotte A. Gunzburger Endowment Gary R. Gerson Lecture Series Endowment Harry Rich Endowment for Holocaust Studies Jewish Council for North-Central FL Kahn Visiting Scholar Endowment Posen Foundation Robert Russell Memorial Foundation Ronnie and Joan Levin Schram Memorial Fund Shorstein Family Jerome Yavitz Charitable Foundation

PAGE 43

42 Reading Jewish Literature: An Advanced Workshop with Professor Dan Miron (Columbia University), Sunday November 1, 2009 The Animal in the Synagogue: Kafkas Jewish Story Dan Miron (Columbia University), November 1, 2009 Tsuker-zis: Jewish Holiday Music, Frank London, Lorin Sklamberg, and Robert Schwimmer in concert. Wednesday, November 4, 2009 ANTHONY GRAFTON (Princeton University), Jewish Books and Christian Readers in Early Modern Europe Monday, November 9, 2009 No. 4 Street of Our Lady, a screening and discus sion with producer Judy Maltz (Penn State Univer sity), Thursday, November 19, 2009 Marcel Ophls, The Sorrow and the Pity Monday, November 23, 2009 Symposium organized by Dragan Kujundzic with presentations by: Sylvie Blum, Eric Kligerman, Maureen Turim and Brigitte Weltman-Aron.  KEREN WEINSHALL MARGEL (Hebrew University/Harvard), Fighting Terror in the Israeli High Court of Justice: Overt and Covert Aspects Tuesday, January 19, 2010 YOSSI CHAJES (Haifa University), Its Good to See the King: The Nature & Function of Kabbalis tic Divinity Maps, Thursday, February 4, 2010 MERON BENVENISTI, Israel/Palestine: The Meaning of the Geo-Political Status Quo Thurs day, February 11, 2010 MERON BENVENISTI, Processes of Fragmentation and Integration in Israel/Palestine (Faculty Seminar) Friday, February 12, 2010 SAMMY SMOOHA (Haifa University), Is Israel Western? Thursday, February 18, 2010 SAMMY SMOOHA (Haifa University), Israels Ethnic Democracy in a Comparative Perspective (Faculty Seminar), Friday, February 19, 2010 SAMUEL WEBER (Northwestern University), Guilt, Debt and the Turn Toward the Future: Walter Benjamin and Hermann Levin Goldschmidt (A Foray into Economic Theology) Thursday, February 25, 2010 Open public workshop seminar on Walter Benja min with Professor Samuel Weber. (Posen Reading Group) Friday, February 26, 2010 Convergences and Conversions: The Merchant of Venice into the 21st Century a conference. Mon day evening, March 1 & all day March 2, 2010 Arab Labor, a screening and discussion with Sayed Kashua ( Haaretz) Thursday, March 4, 2010 Translating the Hebrew Bible: an Advanced Workshop with Robert Alter (UC-Berkeley), Sunday, March 14, 2010 ROBERT ALTER, Qohelet: Philosophy Through Metaphor Sunday, March 14, 2010 Yair Dalal and Dror Sinai in Concert, Thursday, April 15, 2010. A concert of Iraqi and Iraqi Israeli music. For the latest in events: jst.u.edu/events

PAGE 44

Center for Jewish Studies PO Box 118020 Gainesville, FL 32611-8020


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Full Text























NEWSLETTER OF THE
CENTER FOR JEWISH STUDIES
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
No.20 & 21, Spring/Fall 2010


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Director's Notes


What's new at the Center? A lot, actually. Like most aca-
demic units throughout the US we are struggling to make do with
diminishing resources. I could go on at length bemoaning the
difficulty of managing a program in higher education in the cur-
rent economic climate and especially the difficulty of acquiring
replacement lines for retiring faculty at a time when departments
everywhere are shrinking. But the truth is, even without one or
two crucial positions and a few more I would
love to have, the Center continues to thrive
and its activities over the past two years have
increased at an almost dizzying pace.
So what's new? To begin with, since the last
issue of HaTanin, the Center moved upstairs to
the second floor of Walker Hall. We are now
located in a beautiful suite of offices with our
own seminar and conference rooms along with
a high-quality AV system for screening films -
an increasingly important part of the curricu-
lum. And we can now house faculty which con-
tributes a great deal to the intellectual synergy
within the Center. We also succeeded in hiring
two new faculty members the historian Nor-
man Goda who comes to us from Ohio Univer-
sity and now holds the Norman and Irma Bra-
man Chair in Holocaust Studies, and Rebecca
Jefferson who was formerly part of the Genizah Research Unit
at Cambridge University Library and is now Head of the Price
Judaica Library. The impact of both is becoming increasingly ap-
parent and I wish them long and successful careers here at UF.
Perhaps, there is no better way to gauge the growth of the
Center than through its curriculum. Last year alone some six new
courses were generated by Center faculty, some thanks in part to
a Posen grant. These include new courses on Jewish film, on nar-
rative, in Israel studies and in Hebrew Bible. I have increasingly
come to believe that growth in our program depends on establish-
ing a series of introductory funnel courses. This year for the first
time we now have such courses as Introduction to Jewish Studies
and Introduction to Holocaust Studies.
The Center continues to organize a good number of faculty
seminars, workshops and symposia. In November we had our
second advanced workshop on reading Jewish literature with


Dan Miron and in March a similar event took place on translat-'
ing the Hebrew Bible, this one with Robert Alter. Both work-
shops attracted scholars from universities around the country.
The Center also organized three symposia including a panel on
Ophuls' The Sorrow and the Pity, a seminar on Walter Benjamin
with Samuel Weber and in the spring a one-day session on The
Merchant of Venice.
Among the many public programs last year
was a three-person series on Israel as a multi-
cultural society, a fall concert with Frank Lon-
don on Jewish holiday music and a spring con-
cert with Yair Dalal.
Finally, let me congratulate Patricia Woods
and Robert Kawashima who were promoted
to associate professor, and to various faculty
members on the completion or publication of
their most recent books: Avraham Balaban Ten
Mothers: Representations of Motherhood in Modern
Hebrew Literature (HaKibbutz HaMeuchad);
Mitch Hart, ed. Jewish Blood: Metaphor and Real
ity in Religion, History and Culture (Routledge);
Todd Hasak Lowy received a contract from the
Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Litera-
ture for Asaf Schurr's novel Motti; Dragan Ku-
jundzic, ed. Who or What Jacques Derrida (Dis-
course); Judith Page (with Elise L. Smith) Women, Literature, and
the Domesticated Landscape: England's Disciples of Flora, 1780-1870
(Cambridge); Tamir Sorek for the paper edition of Arab Soccer in
a Jewish State (Cambridge) and for winning the Provost's Excel-
lence Award for Assistant Professors, University of Florida 2010;
Kenneth Wald for a new (6th edition) of Religion and Politics in the
United States (Rowman & Littlefield); Patricia Woods for organiz-
ing the mini-symposium published in Political Research Quarterly
62:4 (December 2009). I should also add a congratulation to An-
drew Gordon who retired as Emeritus Professor of English in July
2010 after 35 years of teaching at the University of Florida. His
performance in the role of Shylock as part of the excerpts that
accompanied The Merchant of Venice symposium was one of the
highlights of our public events this past year.

Jack Kugelmass, Director
Melton Legislative Professor









Rebecca Jefferson


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IJ"T T l'=I "- M of 1914, the Kroonland passenger ship left Antwerp and head-
SU MM ER ed across the Atlantic towards New York carrying 997 passen-
gers. On board was 20 year-old Israel Kleiman whose family
had sent him from his home in Russia in the hope of ensuring his future safety and well
being. With less than $50 to his name, Israel finally reached Ellis Island on July 1st only
to be turned away because of a skin rash. Thankfully he was helped by a friend to reach
England where he stayed and earned his living as a tailor; Israel later begat four children,
seven grandchildren, and eleven great-grandchildren, including me.
Nearly a century later, I have traveled with my family across the same ocean
to take up the position of Head of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the Uni-
versity of Florida. As if history were repeating itself, Israel's great-great granddaughter
Lily broke out in a rash on arrival but, luckily for us, her chicken pox appeared after
entry had already been granted!
Before I headed west, however, I spent nearly five years of my life traveling east. An
interest in the history of another member of my family, this time an uncle, led me to
volunteer on kibbutz Hanita in the Western Galilee one summer after I finished school
in 1989. While most of my maternal family had left Russia for England and America,
my great, great uncle, Kopel Korin, had headed to Palestine where he became one of
the founding members of the labor movement known as the Histadrut. Having fallen in
love with the mountain top kibbutz overlooking the sea, I returned several times to Is-
rael, completing three ulpanim and a one year course in graphic design. In my spare time,
I discovered Hebrew poetry and this new interest, combined with other factors, led me
to embark on a degree in Hebrew and Jewish Studies at University College London. In


my first year of college, I attended an un-
dergraduate class on medieval Jewish his-
tory which included a discussion about
the Cairo Genizah. The story of its dis-
covery in a synagogue attic immediately
appealed to my romantic .. il. .,ilir .. and
I determined myself to combine a love of
poetry with this set of more than 200,000
Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts. In my
final year, I went to the British Library to
look at its Genizah manuscript collection.
There I discovered a Hebrew poetry manu-
script that had been incorrectly identified
in the handlist and I set about uncover-
ing its true identity and provenance. The
resulting dissertation won a prize, and I
applied and was accepted at the Univer-
sity of Cambridge to study medieval po-
etry manuscripts in the Taylor-Schechter
Genizah Collection. My Masters degree
was based on a small corpus of Genizah
poetry manuscripts that had been vocal-
ized with Tiberian vowel signs, but in a








way that provided clues about the medieval scribes' pronuncia-
tion patterns. After its completion, and having initially failed to
get funding for my doctoral studies, I was given the fantastic op-
portunity of working in the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research
Unit by its director, Professor Stefan Reif. I was hired to work on
the second volume of the Bibliography Project which involved re-
searching and collating every published reference to the Genizah
manuscript Collection (by 2010, the entire project had amassed
over 90,000 references). This data provides an important tool for
Genizah scholars endeavoring to navigate their way through vast
numbers of uncatalogued fragments.

T O T r, T JTC. "Library I met one
Robert Jefferson,
AT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY then a conservator
of manuscripts, and pursued him with a phoney story about need-
ing a book repaired. The line was pitched, the book got stitched,
and some months later we were hitched. Concurrently, another
form of dogged perseverance had paid off and I had managed to
move to the top of the reserve list for a scholarship from Trinity


-- -- -r --

The history of collectors and

Collections is now m.y passion,

\ and it was probably with this in

I mind that the Price Library of

Judaica first caught my notice.

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College, Cambridge to pursue my Ph.D. studies. With the guid-
ance of my supervisor, Professor Geoffrey Khan, I expanded the
number of vocalized poetry manuscripts in my study and was
able to make some interesting conclusions about the use of Tibe-
rian vowel signs at a time in the Middle Ages when the Hebrew
vocalization systems were still in flux, as well as draw some fresh
conclusions about the popular use of Hebrew hymns.
With the completion of the Ph.D., I was promoted to full-
time Research Associate at the Genizah Unit and placed in
charge of the Bibliography Project. That same year, my daughter
1ii, -i born and the second volume of the Bibliography which
I co-authored was published. In addition to the work on the Bib-
liography, I became more involved in the Unit's fundraising and
outreach activities. To this end, I arranged exhibitions and gave
presentations to visitors to the Library and the Genizah collec-
tions, including four ambassadors, notable individuals like Clau-
dia Roden, Mimi Gardner Gates and Irwin M. Jacobs, academ-
ics, students and interested members of the public. I also edited
five issues of the Unit's biannual newsletter, Genizah Fragments,
and was 1' -1 ..-,i1.1. for its recent redesign.
In 2006, I was involved in a project to compile an inven-
tory of Cambridge University Library's Genizah collections.
This project and its ramifications sparked in me a renewed inter-
est in the history of the discovery of the Genizah manuscripts,
particularly unanswered questions about how other libraries
around the world acquired their manuscripts. Reading through
archives of the Jewish Chronicle, I stumbled upon a reference
to a Count d'Hulst who had recovered Genizah manuscripts
for the Bodleian Library in Oxford. So determined was I to
track down this man of mystery that lack of funds, a shortage
of annual leave, and even a heavy pregnancy with my son Isaac
could not stop me from searching through underexploited ar-
chives held in the Egypt Exploration Fund, the British Museum,
the National Archives, and the Bodleian Library. This research
enabled me to shed new light on the history of the Genizah
and the pivotal role played by Oxford University in the race
to recover it. I am currently working on a book based on my









discoveries in the archives entitled Collected Papers of the Schol
ars and Antiquarians Who Discovered the Cairo Genizah to be pub-
lished by Brill as part of their new Cambridge Genizah Series.
Having worked for nearly twelve years with a great collection
of manuscripts, I was keen to manage a collection myself, and
the idea of continuing to build such a great library as the Price
Library of Judaica held much appeal for me. Furthermore, the
opportunity to explore untapped American archives, as well as
the gift of living in a country that my husband and I have long
admired for its vibrancy and "can do" attitude, led to my applica-
tion for the position.


ENOMNSESALSE

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CETE FR EIS SUDE


Now I am here, my first priority is to meet the research needs
of the Center for Jewish Studies and the wider university. In ad-
dition to expanding and developing the Library's core holdings,
I believe that it will be important to concentrate upon prevail-
ing key subject areas such as Hebrew and Yiddish literature, Ho-
locaust Studies, and Land of Israel Studies, and hot topics like
Muslim-Jewish relations and other interfaith issues. Having recog-
nizable strengths will help bolster the Price Library's reputation
as one of America's major research libraries for Jewish Studies. I
would also like to bring greater attention to some of the Library's
more unusual aspects, including its important sub-collection
of memorial books commemorating lost Jewish communities,
and its many ephemeral items such as rare pamphlets and cata-
logs. Of course, such plans will only be realized if I can adapt to
driving on the right side of the road .. .4























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iNazis 2(005). His current book project is tentatively titled The Playground: The struggle for Humanity
in the Warsaw Ghetto.


M y current project examines and contextualizes the construction of chil-

S dren's playgrounds in this, the largest Nazi-imposed ghetto in May and
June 1942, along with the incongruity that playgrounds represented. On
the one hand Jewish leaders in Warsaw fought a losing battle with the desperate day-to-
day conditions that included mass starvation, homelessness and disease. '. iii.i an
impending sense of doom enveloped ghetto residents as word reached Warsaw of the
deportation of Jews from other ghettos such as Lvov and Lublin. Warsaw's turn seemed
sure to come. But at the same time Jewish leaders, particularly Jewish Council Chairman
Adam Czerniakow, insisted on the construction of children's playgrounds with festive
opening ceremonies including music, speeches, and parades, just weeks before deporta-
tions from Warsaw began. Czerniakow hoped for some level of spiritual resilience amidst
unfathomable tragedy and fear. My research uses official German records but also hid-
den records from the Warsaw Ghetto itself including diaries and papers from the famous
Oyneg Shabes archive assembled by Emanuel Ringelblum.
In part I reinforce recent writing on Nazi anti-Semitism, namely the argument that
the Nazis feared mythical Jewish powers of subversion and organization even as they
made Jewish life impossible. Two days after the Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany in
1938, Propaganda Minster Joseph Goebbels voiced concerns about Jews in parks and
squares. Jews, he said, must "not be allowed to sit around in German parks. Take the


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whisper propaganda by Jewish women in
park areas . There are Jews that really
do not look all that Jewish. They sit with
German mothers who have children and
start... agitating... I see an especially big
danger with this. . They have no busi-
ness in German parks." Jews were banned
from German parks soon after. For fresh
air, Jewish parents took their children to
Jewish cemeteries. The notion that Jew-
ish women on park benches remained
dangerous even as they sorted through
the wreckage of their lives, worked to free
their husbands from arrest, and searched
desperately for safe haven abroad, illus-
trates Nazi fears while foreshadowing fu-
ture policies.
After the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939
they aimed to segregate Jews from Poles.


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Warsaw's Jews (who through forced resettlement eventually came
to number 450,000 people) were banned from the city's parks,
promenades and public benches in July 1940, three months be-
fore the Warsaw ghetto was delineated and sealed. The ghetto
borders set by the Germans excluded all parks, even those adja-
cent to the ghetto. Warsaw diarist Chaim Kaplan lamented the
ghetto's stifling nature noting that "anywhere. . a tree has been
planted, or a bench has been placed, Jewish children are forbid-
den. .... Within the limits of the ghetto there is not a single
garden .... A stone wall now hides every treetop from our eyes.
We have been robbed of every tree and every flower." Warsaw's
Jewish children were especially affected. "How to explain it to a
child," wrote the ghetto poet Wladislaw Szlengel, "what does the
word mean afar, while he does not know what is a mountain and
what we call a river."
But the problem of playgrounds in Warsaw also speaks to
levels of Jewish resilience as well as Jewish leaders' own ambiguous
understanding of ultimate Nazi intentions. Before the construc-
tion of the Warsaw Ghetto walls in November 1940, determined
parents removed their Jewish armbands and took their children
to Warsaw's parks. After the walls were built, the Ghetto had
several tiny plots on corners where, for a steep fee, children of
the better off could play and adults could relax. "An arrow in
the Nazis' eyes!" noted Kaplan. "The arteries of life do not stop
pulsing." Yet at the same time these were "desolate, lonely lots
surrounded by high walls," and as Warsaw chronicler Emanuel
Ringelblum noted, "children of the rich can enjoy them.... The
poor children never see a patch of grass."
Adam Czerniakow committed to building public playgrounds
in the spring of 1942. Partly, Czerniakow felt for the lost child-
hood of Ghetto children. On speaking with a group of young
people in 1942 he confided to his diary, "They talked with me
like grown-ups those eight-year-old citizens. I am ashamed to
admit it but I wept as I have not wept in a long time." At the same
time, Czerniakow understood that children were at the center
of any future that Jews in Poland might have. Thus even in the
spring of 1942, as terrible rumors swirled and as Treblinka was
secretly being prepared to exterminate Warsaw's Jews, Czernia-
kow, like many in the Warsaw Ghetto, believed that there was a
Jewish future.

I May Czerniakow hired recently-arrived German Jews
to construct the first public playground across from
his offices on Grzybowska Street. They graded the lot,
laid turf, and built swings and slides. On the wall of an adjacent
house, Jewish schoolchildren painted frescoes of animals as well
as traditional Jewish scenes. "Purposeful work under such condi-


tions is worthy of admiration," Czerniakow wrote. "Tears," he
added, "will not help us." The German authorities allowed the
construction, surely to hide from Warsaw's Jews their impending
fate. And on June 7, 1942 the Grzybowska Street playground
opened amidst great fanfare. Jewish dignitaries attended and a
band played as thousands of schoolchildren marched into the
square led by their teachers. "These are tragic times," Czerniakow
argued in his speech, "but we must stand firm .... Whenever we
hear children laughing and singing our windows will be let open
to let in the sound. This will give us hope and courage to go and
fight for the future." As Warsaw Ghetto survivor Mary Berg later
noted, "The smiling, rosy faces of the children were perhaps the
best reward for those who had created this little refuge of free-
dom for the little prisoners of the ghetto."
More playgrounds opened by mid July, but amidst a darker
mood, as rumors of deportation became more prevalent. Teacher
Michael Zylberberg later remembered, "We were supposed to re-
hearse the children but there was no enthusiasm. Whispers had
gone the rounds about the deportation of certain Jews." Czer-
niakow was determined to maintain a celebratory mood despite
his own worries. "I visited three playgrounds," he wrote on July
19, 1942. "I do not know whether I managed to calm the popula-
tion but I did my best . What it cost me they do not see. ...
I am trying not to let the smile leave my face." The terrible truth
arrived on July 22, when SS-Major Hermann Hdfle arrived at
Czerniakow's office and announced that all of Warsaw's Jews,
regardless of age, would be deported. The following day, after
unsuccessful attempts to have the Germans spare the orphans,
Czerniakow committed suicide. "They demand that I kill chil-
dren," he wrote. "I have nothing to do but die." By September
21, the Ghetto population was reduced from 350,000 to 73,000,
and most of Warsaw's Jewish children were murdered.

Sthe playgrounds a delusion? In his new
W ere book on Ringelblum, Samuel Kassow
reminds us that every act in the ghetto
must be understood against the background of what different
Jews understood in that particular moment. In the spring of 1942
even Czerniakow's critics entertained hopes amidst fears hopes
that now appear just as delusional. "I consider it a certainty," dia-
rist Abraham Lewin wrote in May 1942, "that the Anglo-Ameri-
can invasion of Europe will come to fruition in the near future.
... This huge army will hit the continent like an avalanche and
strike a death-blow at the enemy of humanity." Thislalanche lay
in the very distant future. But Lewin persisted. "Jews," he wrote,
"are stubborn optimists. . If you want something, then it's no
fairy tale." Lewin was murdered in January 1943.









Simon Rabinovitch


After completing a two year Alexander Grass Post-Doctoral Fellowship at UF, SIMON RABINO-
VITCH was appointed assistant professor of history at Boston University. He is currently working
on a monograph entitled Homeland Bound: Jewish Autonomism in Revolutionary Russia, as well as the
anthologies Diasporic Nationalism in Modern Jewish Thought, and with David Rechter, Modem Jewish
Politics: Ideologies, Identities and the Jewish Question.

Throughout my two years as the Grass Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of
Florida I had been working on a monograph based on my doctoral dissertation. This
book examines the movement for Jewish communal and national self-government in
Russia, also known as autonomism. Influenced by a number of contemporary European
political theories, Jewish autonomists in the early twentieth century sought to decouple
national sovereignty from territory in order to make national demands equivalent to
those of other minorities. I explore a number of themes in the book, ranging from the
democratization of Jewish political life to the relationship between Russian nationalities
policies and Jewish national self-consciousness. The central idea developed throughout
the book is that autonomism, or the idea of Jewish autonomy in the diaspora, played a
crucial role in the politicization of Russian Jewry and the development of modern Jew-
ish nationalism. I believe this to be a point that has been missed in the existing histori-
ography because of the eventual success of competing ideologies Zionist and socialist.
The tragic fate of European Jewry has for many compounded the difficulty in under-
standing that in the early twentieth century many Jews believed their national expecta-
tions could be fulfilled in Eastern Europe. In fact, although autonomism emerged in the
same context as Zionism, as a Jewish embrace of European nationalism, by proposing
that Jews could attain greater national self-consciousness without millions of Jews hav-
ing to move from Eastern Europe to Palestine (or some other territory where they might


achieve a demographic concentration),
autonomism was at the time seemingly
more attainable.
Whether through faculty seminars or
workshops with the many scholars invited
by the Center for Jewish Studies, I feel my
eyes have been opened to a range of new
approaches to sources. As an historian, it
has been particularly beneficial to me to
hear from other faculty about many new
ideas in literary analysis and critical theo-
ry. The analysis in my own work is more
creative and sharper because of it.
During these two years I have taught
directly in my fields of interest Russian
Jewish history and Jewish political history.
So, teaching at UF has been a wonderful
gift to my scholarship, as the undergradu-
ate and graduate students have pressed













Undergraduate 6s&ay flward

Each academic year the University of Florida's Center for Jewish Studies
presents the Alexander Grass Award for the best undergraduate essay written
by a University of Florida student on a subject in Jewish Studies.
The award carries a cash prize of $500. Up to two runner-up essays will be
awarded prizes of S250.
A committee made up of three members of the faculty in Jewish Studies at UF
meets in the Spring semester to judge submissions. The committee considers
essays written for courses in the past Spring semester and the current Fall
semester (i.e.. Spring and Fall. 2010).
Essays can be submitted by either a faculty member or by the student with the
course Instructor's approval with a cover letter from the faculty member.
Essays must be on a theme related to some aspect of Jewish Studies, though
the essay need not have been written in a Jewish Studies course. Essays
should be approximately 12-15 pages in length double spaced. Essays written
for either the senior thesis requirement or as independent study are ineligible
The essay must include a cover sheet with the author's name, the title of the
essay, student identification number and e-mail address.

THE E LI FOR MUS1 NS 5 MACH 1, 201,
Submiadions houd be dl to:
Professor Mitchell Hart
Department of History
025 Keene-lint Hall
PO Box 117320


me to synthesize and articulate what is most important in these
subjects. For me, the link between teaching and research is also
more than merely theoretical. While teaching on Jewish politics
and Jewish thought I have at the same time been assembling
anthologies on those topics. In fact, it was through teaching a
course on modern Jewish politics and political movements in my
first semester at UF that I reached the conclusion that students
- both undergraduate and graduate have far too little material
on Jewish politics and nationalist thought available to them in
English. In response to this need, I am currently engaged in two
projects intended to enlarge the number of sources on Jewish
politics and Jewish nationalism available to students. With David
Rechter, I am editing a volume of documentary sources entitled
Modern Jewish Politics: Ideologies, Identities, and the Jewish Question,
to be published with University of Wisconsin Press. This vol-
ume will cover the full spectrum of Jewish politics from liberal
integrationists to socialist Zionists, and everything in between,
highlighting the connections between Jewish political culture in
Eastern Europe, Israel, and the United States. I am also editing a


volume entitled Diasporic Nationalism in Modern Jewish Thought for
Brandeis University Press's new Modern Jewish Thought Series.
This volume will provide annotated first-time translations from a
variety of streams of diasporic-nationalist thought. In assembling
this collection, I was amazed that a number of key texts for un-
derstanding the development and trajectory of Jewish national
thought still remained without English translation. Examples
from the fifteen or sixteen thinkers represented in the collection
include selections from Perez Smolenskin's "Am Olam," Nathan
Birnbaum's "Jewish Autonomy," and Vladimir Medem's "Social
Democracy and the National Question." The exercise of choos-
ing what should go in these anthologies, and why, was made all
the more fruitful by the input I received from students and col-
leagues.
My postdoctoral experience at UF has been formative for me
both professionally and personally. Certainly one could not ask
for a more dynamic and intellectually vibrant place to begin a
career in Jewish studies. A sheynem dank, toda raba! 4-


SCHOLARSHIPS AND FELLOWSHIP

N JEWISH STUDIES:




'r.KOLKO MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP

JOERSON SCHOLARS H IP/FE LLOWSH1P .

kSHULEVITZ SCHOLARSHIP FUND

i-RuAFF SCHOLARSHIP ENDOWMENT

PROCTOR FUND

S BARGAD FELLOWSHIP


FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
JACK KUGELMASS, DIRECTOR
CENTER FOR JEWISH STUDIES
JKUGELMAUlIFL.EDU
,~ '. ,i , .#
p..:14 .



































"HaYoyv-bukh fun Idishn tsenter: tsum akhtsn-yorikn yubileum" (Havana, 1943). The book
celebrates 80 years of the Jewish Center in Cuba; and it is owned by just 3 other US libraes.

^ ^of America's great Judaica research libraries, certainly the foremost in
0 1 rj j li the southeastern states, is housed at the University of Florida. Known
as the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica, this extraordinary col-
lection comprises over 90,000 catalogued volumes, incorporates three major private
collections, and is notable for its remarkable depth, scope and singularity. Moreover,
the history of its acquisition is no less remarkable.
The University's Center for Jewish Studies was established in 1973 and with its
foundation it quickly became apparent that a solid research library (in the range of
25,000 books) was needed to support its teaching program. To this end, the Libraries
engaged Harvard's Judaica bibliographer, Charles Berlin, to review Rabbi Leonard C.
Mishkin's book collection in Chicago with a view to purchasing it.
Rabbi Mishkin (1906-1996) was at that time the owner of the largest private library
of Judaica and Hebraica in the United States. A professor of Jewish history at the
Hebrew Theological College with doctorates in Jewish philosophy, history and educa-
tion, Mishkin had amassed over 40,000 volumes in a range of languages covering every
area of Jewish scholarship, but with a major strength in rabbinics, a large collection of
periodicals, an impressive set of limited print ,r' 1,,fr ..... hundreds of Yiddish titles
that had been published in the former Soviet Union, and numerous booklets com-
memorating German-Jewish communities and synagogues that were destroyed by the
Nazis, as well as pamphlets relating to pre-1948 Palestine.
Berlin submitted an extensive report in which he noted that Mishkin's collection
was "superb." With its purchase, he foretold, "Florida would be catapulted into the
ranks of the larger university collections in this field. ." surpassing long established


programs. Berlin also noted that "thou-
sands of items in the Mishkin Collection
- although of recent vintage are in fact
more rare than incunabula." The acquisi-
tion of this collection, he advised, would
impose "certain responsibilities upon
Florida" including an assurance that the
collection would be widely .... 1.i
Thanks to the remarkable efforts of
a former Provost, Harold Hanson, the
University of Florida acquired the Mish-
kin collection in 1977. The following
year, UF also purchased a collection of
books formerly owned by Dr. Shlomo
Marenof, a Russian-Jewish 6migre who
had spent time in Palestine before he
became a lecturer in Hebrew and Near
Eastern Civilization at Brandeis Uni-
versity and one of the founders of the
first strong Hebrew teachers union in
the United States. Marenofs personal
library of more than 3,000 works includ-
ed important titles in Hebrew, with con-









centrations in biblical studies, Midrash and Modern Hebrew
literature. Among Marenofs treasures was a clean copy of the
Hebrew anthology Bereshit (In the Beginning): one of the last
Hebrew books published in Russia under Communist rule in
the 1920s and printed in Germany due to Soviet opposition to
Hebrew culture. Worse still, the temporary license issued for its
production prevented a proofreading stage which rendered this
hard fought for, single edition publication replete with printing
errors.

Large endowment for this fascinating and rapidly grow-
ing Judaica collection was created in 1977 by two uni-
versity alumni, local real estate developers, Jack and
Samuel Price, in honor of their parents, Isser and Rae Price.
Isser and Rae were both instrumental in creating a Jewish Cen-
ter in Jacksonville in the 1920s and, according to their daughter
Eunice (writing in the Jacksonville community's online "Book
of Life"), had raised their children with a deep commitment to
the Jewish community, a love of tzedakah, Jewish philanthropy,
and a profound sense of the importance of education.
In May 1979, the University hired Robert Singerman from
the Klau Library at the Hebrew Union College to serve as the
new Judaica Library's bibliographer. One of Singerman's first
accomplishments was to secure a third major private collection
to complement the Mishkin and Marenof collections. Fresh on
the job, Singerman had learnt that Bernard Morgenstern, the
owner of a secondhand bookstore on New York's Lower East
Side, was desperate to sell his entire inventory (around 10,000
imprints mostly from the 19th and 20th centuries, including
books, pamphlets and other ephemera of which about 60% was
in Yiddish).
Singerman visited Morgenstern's bookstore in July 1979
where he found books "precariously stacked on the floor, in
corners, and on shelves along the walls to a height beyond one's
reach." Visitors to Morgenstern's poorly lit, twenty-five-year-old
store were first greeted by a big sign in Yiddish and English:
"Do Not Touch Anything!" Indeed, only "old Morgenstern
could remove a book from the middle of one of the huge stacks
without it toppling" (Katz, Times Higher Education, 1996). Yet
here among the disordered piles and disarray (even Morgen-
stern did not know exactly what he owned), Singerman found
many treasures, including editions of all the major Yiddish nov-
elists, poets and dramatists (the sort of book rescue recently
made famous in Outwitting History). In addition to a wealth of
Yiddish literature, Morgenstern had amassed numerous books
in Hebrew and a great number of pamphlets, many of which
are now scarce.
The "3-M Collection" (as these three large acquisitions were
dubbed) was officially dedicated as the Isser and Rae Price


"Fun ale na-venadn" (Buenos Aires, 1955). This edition of Yiddish poetry is owned
by 16 US Libranes; the copy in the Prce Library of Judaica is signed by the author.

Library of Judaica in March 1981. The Library's collections
continued to be supplemented from time to time by smaller
gifts and donations, including a substantial portion of books
received as a bequest from Theodore H. Gaster (1906-1992)
who had taught at the University of Florida. Gaster (son of Brit-
ain's Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic community, Moses Gaster)
was a notable linguist and renowned scholar of comparative re-
ligion; he had in his lifetime amassed a personal library which
included many works on the Dead Sea Scrolls. One of the Price
Library's prize possessions from this collection has to be Theo-
dore Gaster's own copy of his father's work, Samaritan Oral
Law and Ancient Traditions to which he added an ex-libris on
the fly leaf together with an undeciphered message in Samari-
tan script. Throughout the book itself, the younger Gaster has












*, |

I .
ii.








.




.















"Bereshit" (Berlin, 1926); illustrated by Joseph Chaikov.

made deletions, annotations, and even corrections to his fa-
ther's text (fortuitous perhaps that the latter was no longer alive
by this time!).
During his 27-year tenure as its librarian, Robert Singerman
took the Price Library of Judaica from strength to strength. An
extraordinary bibliophile and bibliographer, Singerman had a
rare eye for collecting. Not only did he increase the Library's
holdings in line with other major American Jewish libraries,
Singerman daily went hot foot to work in order to beat his
peers to scarce titles and ephemeral materials. In addition to
these items, Singerman gathered for posterity a huge collection
of "anti-Semitica". One of the strange items in this category was
recently requested by Harper's Magazine for their research into
Wycliffe Hill, inventor of the Hollywood movie money spin-


ner, who in 1945 wrote the dubious work "Why the Jew Gets
the Money". The Price Library, it turned out, had preserved
the only copy in the US of this bizarre booklet which creates
a crass stereotype of a money-making Jew for which the author
expresses profound admiration.
Singerman increased the number of periodicals held by the
library, to include important journals, serials, and newspapers
from around the Jewish world, most notably from Latin Amer-
ica. He focused attention on amassing hundreds of the lim-
ited print, post-war memorial books (Yizkor books) produced
to commemorate the ravaged Jewish communities of Central
and Eastern Europe. He also sought out ephemeral booklets in
Yiddish and Spanish issued by Jewish communal bodies in Lat-
in America: titles that would have otherwise been ignored by
mainstream scholarship, but which are of increasing interest to-
day. Singerman's unusual collecting activities 1.. .. focused
on Jewish community and scholarly newsletters from around
the world which he believed were "laden with information not
readily found elsewhere" (Report, 1983).

|gi his retirement in 2006, Singerman could
U p L proudly announce that the Price Library
of Judaica held in excess of 85,000 fully
catalogued items covering every aspect of Jewish social, politi-
cal, and community history, Hebrew and Yiddish linguistics
and literature, Palestinography and modern Israel, Judaism and
rabbinics. But for this consummate bibliographer, the Price Li-
brary of Judaica was not a mere book repository, but rather
something akin to Noah's Ark where a representative of every
type of printed matter in the field of Jewish studies would be
saved for future generations of readers and researchers.
Subsequent custodians of the Price Library have contin-
ued this philosophy, recently purchasing such miscellanies as
Joseph Ezekiel Rajpurkar's sermon "A True Aspect of Judaism"
delivered in the Old Synagogue, Bombay and published in In-
dia in 1879 (owned by just five other US university libraries),
and Solomon Schechter's Die Chassidim published in Berlin in
1902 by the famous JUdischer Verlag publishing house which
was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938. Our edition (of which there
are only 30 copies worldwide) also contains the bookplate of
Harry Friedenwald, a renowned historian of Jewish medicine
and prolific book collector.
Unfortunately, many of the items that have been gathered on
our "Ark" now require a good deal of attention. A number of
books are in desperate need of repair, titles like M. Broderzon's
Tehies Hameysim, Lodz, 1920: an edition of just 500 copies, only
three of which are held in the American libraries. The number
of brittle books a problem with many 19th and 20th-century
imprints is large and a solution for preserving their contents









and dealing with the artifact will have to be found; certainly
many of these materials will be ideal candidates for digitization
and mounting on the Internet Archive or some other digital
repository.

s |(g Library's latest purchases have been aimed
S at supporting the Center for Jewish Studies'
teaching program and, to this end, have includ-
ed over a hundred titles on the subject of the Holocaust. More
than half of these are sought after publications in German from
the Hamburg Institute of Social Research. The Price Library has
also acquired the substantial online database Post-war Europe:
Refugees, Exile and Resettlement, 1945-1950, which provides
access for researchers and students to a huge range of primary
materials on post-war Jewish history from the Wiener Library
and the British National Archive collections. This database is
currently hosted by just nine other US university libraries.
Two sets of microfilm reels of primary material dealing
with the Holocaust and Nazi history have also been ordered
for the Library: The Holocaust and Records of the Concentra-
tion Camp Trials and The Ukrainian Archives and the Files of
the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg Kiev. The first set is an


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"The Prayers of the Day of Atonement: translated from Hebrew into
Marathi by Joseph Ezekiel Raipurker" (Bombay, 1867).


"Haggadah" (Bombay, 1911); translated into Marathi; this page of
the Passover song "Dayenu" is translterated into the Devangan script.

essential source for research into the latter stages of the Holo-
caust and the second set of reels provide key information about
the German cultural plunder in Europe. The Price Library of
Judaica is now just one out of ten libraries in the entire country
to hold both of these vital resources; their purchase places the
University of Florida in the top league of institutions catering
for research on the Holocaust and its aftermath.
With a field as wide, varied and vibrant as Jewish Stud-
ies, the Price Library of Judaica continues to compile a healthy
list of desiderata. One hope is that it will be able to develop
its notable Yiddish collection by acquiring copies of the major
Yiddish newspaper Forverts on microfilm. This popular newspa-
per, first published in New York in 1897, read by over 250,000
people in 1929 and still going today, is a first-rate resource for
the social, political and literary outpourings of American Jews.
Another hope is to acquire more primary, documentary mate-
rial, particularly of the sort relating to Land of Israel Studies.
Yet whatever path current research trends will take, the Isser
and Rae Price Library of Judaica will endeavor to map them;
it will also strive to be a place of refuge for ephemeral Judaica,
safe in the knowledge that what may be disregarded today will
be considered priceless tomorrow. 0




































- (LI A) II iOI1

Edwin Safer of Jacksonville, deposited Reverend Benjamin
Safer's collection of sermonettes, memorabilia, recorded liturgi-
cal songs and photos into the Price Library. Included is material
from a family trip to his grandfather's birthplace in Birzia, Lithu-
ania in 1994. Benjamin Safer was born in 1872 and died Sept.
19, 1959 in New York on his way back from Israel where he had
settled in 1956.
Benjamin Safer was self learned and lacked rabbinical ordina-
tion. He was hired by B'nai Israel in Jacksonville in 1902 and
functioned as its rabbi, shoykhet, cantor and mohel (his surgical
tools are now in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Florida).
He was reappointed on and off again over the years. In 1923 he
was hired as cantor and reverend. His contract stipulated a pay-
ment of 10% of all dues collected from current members and
15% from new members. Safer wrote in Yiddish, Hebrew and
English and made use of his own hand-written dictionary for
more complex words. His English sermons were written in Yid-
dish transliteration.
Benjamin Safer's son was a kosher butcher in Jacksonville. His
grandson Edwin graduated UF and is a retired veterinarian. *










Reading Jewish Literature: Workshop with Dan Miron


Michal Ben-Horin


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MICHAL BEN-HORIN is Assistant Professor of Jewish Studies and
Languages, Literatures and Cultures. She does comparative work on
modern German and Hebrew literatures.


question of Jewish literature is as old and com-
T e plex as the literature itself. And yet in light of
the last decade's public and academic attempts
to critically examine and redefine the historical, cultural and
political aspects of secularism, works of modern Jewish litera-
ture provide a fascinating medium of inquiry and investigation.
Indeed, looking at works of literature can teach us a great deal
about processes of self understanding and collective identifica-
tion as the literary texts written in Jewish languages since the
late 18th century convey and testify to tensions between tra-
dition and innovation, sacralization and secularization, home-
land and exile, foreign and national cultures, Europe and Eretz-
Israel.
An experimental one-day workshop on Jewish literature
with Prof. Dan Miron that took place in October 2008 and No-
vember 2009 under the auspices of the Center for Jewish Stud-
ies at the University of Florida demonstrates the productivity of
such inquiry. The two workshops brought together junior and
senior scholars and professors from different North-American
universities including Columbia, Berkeley, George Washing-


ton, Duke, Vanderbilt, Wisconsin-Madison, Texas at Austin,
Brandeis, Emory as well as faculty of UF Jewish Studies to dis-
cuss the conditions and characteristics of Jewish literature. A
close reading of a variety of texts in Yiddish, Hebrew and Ger-
man opened intriguing discussions on a range of issues includ-
ing historical and cultural aspects of Jewish life in the European
diasporas and in Israel; questions of unity and pluralism; trans-
lation and bilingualism; the genesis of new genres; the public
sphere and literary institutions; reception and the nature of
readerships; as well as issues of teaching and pedagogy.
The 2008 workshop was devoted to the Yiddish monologues
"Burned Out," and "Advice" by Sholem Aleichem (1859-1916)
- in the first session; and to the works of two Israeli women
writers in the second: the stories "Low, Close to the Floor,"
and "A Story with no Address" by Yehudit Hendel (1926) and
the poems "Around Jerusalem," "A Dress of Fire," and "Clock-
work Doll" by Dalia Ravikovitz (1936-2005). The workshop
ended with an off-campus lecture by Dan Miron titled "Who
Wants to Listen to Tevye the Dairyman? the Tevye-Sholem-
Aleichem Symbiosis and its Ramifications."
A year later in a following workshop we returned to a few
"crossroads" by exploring the political implications, the con-
flicts and tensions around the emergence and formation of a
Jewish literature. We read the story "The Master of Prayer" by
Reb Nachman of Bratslav (1772-1810) along with "Revealer of
Secrets," which is also known as the first Hebrew novel, by Jo-
seph Perl (1773-1839). In the second session we moved on to
the poem "Jehuda ben Halevy" by Heinrich Heine (1797-1856)
that was followed by the poem "R. Yehudah Halevi" by Micah
Joseph Lebensohn (1828-1852). Miron's public lecture on
"The Three Impossibilities Franz Kafka's 'Theory' of Jewish
Literatures" ended the workshop.
Prof. Miron, a major literary critic and a most prolific schol-
ar of Yiddish and modern Hebrew literature tells the audience
a story about the "impossibilities" of a Jewish literature. Like a
good storyteller and a brilliant presenter Miron invites his audi-
ence to participate in the worlds of the literary characters and
writers he discusses. In interweaving poetic analysis and deep
cultural and historical perspectives he offers a moving and even
amusing reading of Kafka. And yet his talk goes beyond Kafka
since the very impossibility of a Jewish literature the failure
of writing or the poetics of failure that is bound to complexities
of language, place and identity rather reveals that which a
Jewish literature is: A literature that uncompromisingly testifies
to its limits and proposes an ongoing and fascinating challenge
to readers. 0








Robert Kawashima




-- '- :"- .. --.. --"- S- --- ---
-- ---4W;r





Reflections
=_-='7 -:::'=


on RobertAlter's recent visit
to the University ofFlorida


ROBERT KAWASHIMA is Associate Professor, Department of Religion and Center for Jewish
Studies. He is the author of Biblical Narrative and the Death of the Rhapsode and is currently working
on The Archaeology of Ancient Israelite Knowledge, an analysis of Israel's religious traditions informed
by Foucault's investigations into the history of systems of thought.


i his March, the Center for Jewish Studies, thanks to a grant from the Posen
Foundation, invited renowned literary critic, Robert Alter, to the Univer-
sity of Florida to lead a one-day seminar for faculty and graduate students.
SThe Center hosted additional scholars with specializations ranging from
Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism to Modern Jewish Thought:
S Mara Benjamin, Dexter Callender, Matthew Goff, Rachel Havrelock, Eric
Larson, Stephen Russell, and Seth Sanders.
The seminar was devoted to Biblical translation, and consisted of a morning session
"Translating Biblical Prose" and an afternoon session "Translating Biblical Poetry." Par-
ticipants read: prose selections from Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy, 2 Samuel and Qo-
helet, and selected poems from Exodus, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, in both the Hebrew
original and Alter's own translations (some as yet unpublished). The day concluded with
a public lecture, "Qohelet: Philosophy through Metaphor." Reading from his forthcom-
ing translation and commentary, The Wisdom Books: Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, Alter
demonstrated how the Book of Ecclesiastes, though lacking the philosophical idiom
(specifically the abstract terms) that one finds, e.g., in the contemporary literature of an-
cient Greece, could exploit the concreteness of biblical Hebrew, refracted through meta-
phor, in order to construct its strikingly philosophical vision of life, the sole instance
of such a discourse within the biblical canon. The entire event was designed to take ad-
vantage of his ongoing and highly celebrated series of translations of the Hebrew Bible.
Why biblical translation? We have long heard the cliche that: Every translation is
an interpretation. The converse is equally true: Every interpretation entails translation.
That is, the interpreter bases his or her reading on philological and linguistic decisions


regarding the precise meaning of a word,
the correct grammatical construal of a
phrase, and so forth. These decisions are,
in effect, so many translations of words,
phrases, and sentences. For this reason,
Alter encourages his graduate students
at the University of California, Berkeley,
to translate critical passages of foreign-
language works as an exercise in literary
interpretation. In fact, this principle has
led him in the last several years to offer a
graduate seminar on literary translation,
in order to work through the practical
and theoretical issues involved in the act
of translation-interpretation precisely
what we did in our seminar at the Uni-
versity of Florida. Looking back recently
at The Art of Biblical Narrative, published
nearly thirty years ago, I was struck by the
fact that translation has always played a
crucial role within Alter's literary ap-
proach to the Bible. To borrow the lan-
guage of philosophers, if his interpretive









remarks can be seen as attempts to communicate a "knowledge
by description" of the biblical text, his English translations actu-
ally attempt to transmit to the general reader a direct "knowledge
by acquaintance" of it, by recreating the aesthetic experience of
reading the texts in the original. In retrospect, I find it difficult
not to see here already the seeds of his current translation proj-
ect, which now appears to me to be the logical and inevitable
culmination of his remarkable career in biblical studies.

Iso, it is worth noting that the year 2011 will
mark the 400th anniversary of the publication
of the King James Bible. As has frequently been
noted, few English translations since have man-
,I aged to be literary works as well as works of phi-
lology. The ideal translator, then, must not only
be philologist and interpreter, but consummate stylist as well.
For literary translation finally involves aesthetic choices in the
target language, by which one might ultimately hit upon a pre-
cise semantic equivalent for the original that is a literary stylistic
equivalent as well. This would seem to require a rather unlikely
combination of skills; as Plato's Socrates might have observed,
however, true "knowledge" of literature should enable one to
write well, and not just read well. In the case of major English
translations, mostly produced in the second half of the twentieth
century, the task of translating the Bible has been further com-
plicated (arguably impeded, at least in certain respects) by the
fact that they were undertaken by committees. (The King James
Version, it should be noted, is not so much the collective work of
a committee as the .1.n r, .1.r.'. work of individuals).
As if in response to that trend, various individuals have re-
cently undertaken translations of parts of the Hebrew Bible: not
only Robert Alter, but Everett Fox and Richard Elliott Friedman,
to name a few. Similarly, Richmond Lattimore, famed translator
of Homer, produced his own rendering of the New Testament.
Be that as it may, the King James Bible endures as a monumental
work of English literature, partly for the reason that it simply was
and is the Bible for numerous major English authors which
Alter in fact partly addresses in his most recent book, Pen of Iron:
American Prose and the King James Bible. Unfortunately, this most
venerable translation, already conceived of and perceived as ar-
chaic in its own time, is little read these days, at least in American
universities. The good news is that Norton is publishing an an-
notated edition of the Authorized Version, which will make it
more .. - 1.i to contemporary students of literature and hope-
fully strengthen its position in the curriculum of the modern
university.
Apropos of the Bible's place in the modern university, I would
finally like to consider its relation to secularism. It was, after all,
a Posen grant that funded Robert Alter's recent visit to the Uni-


versity of Florida. Here, one does well to recall that philology, the
modern study of texts, which underlies all the textual disciplines
- history, literature, philosophy, etc. constitutes the very core
of secularism. It was the first philological efforts of early Renais-
sance scholars that gave birth to modern secularism, precisely by
making it possible to analyze texts without consideration for their
possibly sacred status one need only call to mind Spinoza's
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. The literary approach to the Bible,
by providing a viable alternative to theologically motivated sectar-
ian exegesis, thus stands in and, in fact, epitomizes this venerable
intellectual tradition. Literary translations of the Bible arguably
bring this process to its logical conclusion. While most modern
translations were commissioned by one or another ecclesiastical
body, translations such as Alter's finally make possible a reading
of this ancient sacred text that is a secular aesthetic experience..


0>~E


The Friends of Jewuh Sudies recognizes the exraordmnary
generosity or alumni, friends, faculty, and staff who pledge S ,000
annually for 7 years Your u nesmenm will help the Center meei the
educational needs four students; take advantage of extraordinary
opportunities for 'sting lecturers and musical performances; and
respond to ne, challenges in leaching, research, and service. The
flexibihty thai this fund prides allows the Center to iniuae new
programs while strengthening educational and outreach efforts
L'pon receipt orf our pledge of S 1,000/year for 7 ears, yonl il re-
ceive the Tree of Life pitured here and each year when your gift is
made you will be able to add another pomegranate to your tree.
Contacr Zoe Seale at zseale@uf.ufl.edu or L352, 392-7758








Judith W. Page


AM ar
JUDITH W. PAGE is Professor, Department of English and Waldo W. Neikirk Term Professor of Arts and Sciences and Interim Direc-
tor of the Center for Women's Studies and Gender Research. She is co-author with art historian Elise L. Smith of the soon to be published
Disciples of Flora: Women and the Domesticated Landscape of England, 1780-1870 and author of Imperfect Sympathies: Jews and Judaism in British
Romantic Literature and Culture.


Shakespeare's "Shylock" on literature and culture, primarily in Britain
in the 19th-century but also in earlier and later periods. In 19th-century
Britain, The Merchant of Venice was also a key text in discussions of nation-
ality and emancipation. We considered Shylock as both a literary character and as
a negative archetype that develops a life of its own in other works of literature, art,
theatre, and film.
Shylock influences and infiltrates British literature and culture in the 18th cen-
tury and continues a vibrant and often disturbing presence in contemporary popular
culture, where, for instance, on The Sopranos he is abbreviated to a "shy" or common
loan shark.
The course followed a roughly chronological organization from the medieval
period when several related stereotypes or myths associated with Jews gain currency
(such as the Blood Libel, the Wandering Jew) to the 16th century when the play was
written and first performed and then the 18th century when it was revived on stage
after an absence of over a century. Students studied the play closely and carefully, and
read relevant biblical, historical, and philosophical material, as well as texts on the
performance history of the play. This unit of the course culminated with a compari-
son of Michael Radford's recent film, Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice (a vibrantly
colored film set in 16th-century Venice) with Trevor Nunn's interpretation of the play
(with monochromatic colors and set in Weimar Germany).
After considering performances and performance history, we returned to the 19th
century to study various fictional texts that re-imagine the character of Shylock or
in some way present themselves as interconnected with The Merchant of Venice. Even
when authors do not explicitly set their texts up in relation to Shylock or Shake-
speare, Shylock often haunts the story by his absence or in Dickens's Oliver Twist by


the similarity of the unnamed Shylock
with Fagin. With a controversial revival
of the musical version Oliver Twist, of
Oliver! now at Drury Lane, we discussed
the way that characters like Shylock and
Fagin continue to influence debates in
the UK and beyond. In the Victorian
period, Shylock pervades the political
discourse surrounding Benjamin Dis-
raeli's various roles in public life, as well
as the continuing debates over emanci-
pation and nationality. Various cartoons
from the period attest to the connection
between the converted Jew Disraeli and
the persistent Shylock.
In addition to exams, student devel-
oped research projects for the semester,
some of which involved work with docu-
ments such as letters, theatre reviews,
and journal articles from the 18th and
19th century that will help provide a
context for what Michael Ragussis has
called "the work of cultural recovery" nec-
essary for understanding Shylock and the
"Jewish Question" more fully. -











THE SORROW AND TIE P'


Dragan Kujundzic


The Sorrow and the Pity (Le Chagrin et la pitie), a documentary film by Marcel Ophils, concerns
the French Resistance and collaboration with the Vichy government and Nazi Germany during World
War II. Filmed in 1969, this film used interviews of a German ii.... collaborators, and resistance
fighters from Clermont-Ferrand. They comment on the nature and various reasons for collaboration like
anti-Semitism or nationalism.

On November 23, 2009, a symposium about this film was held at the Center for Jewish Studies. The
four presentations, by Sylvie Blum, Maureen Turim, Brigitte Weltman-Aron and Eric Kligerman,
edited by Dragan Kujundzic, are published in their entirety at University of Florida's Center for Jewish
Studies website. The I ,.I, ,. a synopsis of the presentations.


IN HER PAPER ON MARCEL OPHULS'S The Sor-
row and the Pity, Sylvie Blum (Associate Professor of French, De-
partment of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), analyzes the
role that music, in particular the performances of a very popular
chansonniere, Maurice Chevalier, has played in ushering in the
collaborationist propaganda in the Vichy France. From the very
opening of the film, the title sequence scrolls over a non-dated
performance of a bubbly Maurice Chevalier "Et tout ca qa fait
d'excellents Franqais" singing to cheering French troops while
the title appears: The Collapse. The lyrics marshal the spirit
of French soldiers as "excellent Frenchmen," thereby reinforcing
the irony of the moment, and solidifying the filmmaker's point
of view on the material. The Chevalier segment solidifies the
implicit message of the film and its tone that is unequivocally
ironic, and sarcastic. Yet it leaves room for questioning. Cheva-


lier (1888-1972) was one of the few performers (actors and musi-
cians) who crossed over to Hollywood before World War II, and
signed up with MGM in 1935. He had a career in the US mostly
in musical films. His hit-song "Ca fait d'excellents Franqais" the
first one to play in Le Chagrin et la pitie -was released in 1939 on
the eve of the war. During the war, Chevalier continued to per-
form in Parisian cabarets, and went to Berlin, a well-known fact
that appears also in Chantons sous I'occupation, Andr6 Halimi's
1976 documentary. Chevalier was subsequently tried for his col-
laborationist activities, which consisted in going to Germany,
and singing in a prisoner-of-war camp.
An analysis of the song "Ca fait d'excellents Francais" or "This
Makes for Excellent Frenchmen" reveals a tongue-in-cheek cri-
tique of the French army. Based on the lyrics, written by Jean
Boyer and Georges Van Parys, a standard film music composer,









for such film:- .., I. I. i:. 1,. l,, i: ...ii. II ax O phUls,
French soldie. *-r ii.I ....r ,. 1,.. 1.1 l,,, -. .!! .r ..! indigenous
people whose Ii. r. .. .. ... i,. iil ..... ir.. in. ,i .nd ailments
rather downpl,, ri, i .1.. Inl, \, II, ir .r .r. . rl.. I rench army.
OphAls an. 1 .....i r ,Ir III.. i. Ih. .1 Ii. I., i.. singer, and
his songs as -I .I..' .r.. ..I .. ., I..! . ..11 ...! r.nonist artist.
This narrow f. I.: in. ..1 .. .nr ...i. i l- ..ri. rl artists who
also performed I i.. I i.ii,. rl, i ii I' ii. ..i it, I manyn, dur-
ing the war o0 I. .! 1- I,. i I r *.... r .r... .'iew of Che-
valier and of i, ii. i! !-r.. i I i I.. I. .I... I-... rators today,
concludes prc.I. .. i.l! .... .I... i -.. .In I .. ooms unless
a detailed anal,. 1.. 1i.. .... I i, I, i.. i.... Ilrii. history and
film analysis.
Maureen '1i. i'i.1... .! i Il., .I i. .I,. Studies (Eng-
lish Departm r er I,, .. i_ I i t .. i i,, i r l% Ir! i 1.' !' le question.
W hat is the rd I.r.. iI.!l,,..! rI1r. in i u. %- rl i:. -.stance fight-
ers to those i rii .. i I . I .r I I. ., i ,,. et la pitie -
N azis, Petainir. ..rl., ...II i!.., 1 .. i. I i .. ... ..Iservers? In
finding answe! r.. rl .. .. rli .r I I.... !! i i.r!. rural analysis
of the film 's d ....... .. i. .. ii. l. .ir ..i ,.l III, ad patiently,
through a pro.. ri ,r ...ii. .I i,. rli .1 i .. deductions.
Central to th !I.i... .! ir. i. rl. i..r,.. rl!. r lIrernatives to
collaboration. r. I .r r. ', rl..r li.. I.... 'us, wereun-
dertakenby o.liii i, I i. il ri :, i: I I.. ..)I .f thosewho
chose to resist rl. i. Pi : r ,i ri. !i.,..I, I. i m entof this
film Surroun. ii, I i i". I ,ri. I,! 1 I r Il. r..1., ,nid collabora-
tion, the film .- -I- .r. iirl, !,1. . r ri. ri r1. ,r ... ..I resistance to
keepenforcing r .. I rlr. Ii .i ..... i, ,I ,l. i. tobemade.
In key instance rl!. r. .-r, ,..i, -..! I, i..r .... ... -.I lly rebuts the
testimonyoft.,. i.ri.r \ ii,..r. ......r rl .i. cond half of
the film The I...... I, l - l. r I .. \ rl., !, '. . entatives of
the Resistance I.I ,, rli. .ri,, rF! ,i !..I, i! rl!. !i.i.. \.-e should pay
particular atteirI.. -. r.. rl,. .I ir ii,. I. 11. i ,ir ..... inder which
the interview. I, ..~, ...i *-rii._ II rrl. .. .. 'al economy ic
background, .i..I I[, r'i ,. !ni .. .t r.,i r i,-,r. .. i r I! Jewishness.
Resistance li _!,la ir. I., I..I. ..I . .I1 -il.r collaboration
really ,ir I., I

ONE EMINENT FIGURE OF JEWISH RESISTANCE
AND WITNESS IS CLAUDE LEVY i, .r, ..i rl,. \I
d 'h iv .,l.. 1.1 ,1 -I:, Ih .., i, ., !, .!I,,h i, , !, ,l ,. .I .... i I,,
zealo ti i ,. I i iirli..i rn .. r.. rl, i ri ..i i. , 1, 1 '.I !" 4 2 I ,.
fo u r t I I. ,I l 1. .! , ii. i . i, I i i i ,.. r.. !, I r ..I r.i i i ,
16 1" 4 ., I.. I I i 1. 1 1.... 1 |. i ,, l. !, , .. ., I r, I r l,.... . .I
Jew s t, % . I I. I I, I r I, .. . r r.. ..... rt ,ri .. I I '., ,,ri
ally I. ,rl! .. 1. !-!I' I ii, l ,..,h1 I l', i -,, 1 .II .. ,,r..I I,.1 ..
th an i. !i, i .r. i ,d r .. 4 )i 1i, %. r 1... i ., r.. A . ir:
in 1" 4 ..I l]... .. !l, S" ll Ai 1n I -1. . r F l Fi 1.1 ..I rl. i. ,i t
L v y .lists r i . ir .,r ,. i. .i '. I... .r. I IL I .I ,., I- .. .


the testimony that marks the direct collaboration of the Vichy
Government, the police and many other French citizens with the
Nazi's plan to murder the Jews and eliminate the Left. Lvy's
testimony naming the concentration camps in France, claims
Turim, establishes how massive this physical evidence of the
collaboration was.
Brigitte Weltman-Aron, Associate Professor of French (De-
partment of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), points out
how the film starts with the recollection of the German victory
and invasion of France on the part of different protagonists,
and the first mention of the Jews occurs through a German
newsreel of 1940 reporting that the civil population flees the
German troops toward the south of France "because of Jewish
warmongers." It proceeds to recall acts of collaboration with the
Germans as well as resistance to the Occupation and the Vichy
Government. Not only are the answers Ophuls and other inter-
viewers elicit instructive historically, as testimonies about France
during the Occupation, they also shed light on France in the


Clockwise:
Syvie Blum, Maureen Tunm, Enc Kligerman and Bngitte WeltmanAron



a- tAnr-














late sixties, and allow the viewer to assess whether, some twenty-
five years after the Liberation (the film was shot in 1969), the
interpretation of that former period has remained static or has
undergone a change. The film was generally well received by the
public, but it was controversial from the start, including among
those who had undergone persecution in occupied France. For
example, in his recently published autobiography, Le Lievre de
Patagonie, Claude Lanzmann, the director of Shoah (1985), who
had, as a young student, been a member of a Resistance network
in Clermont-Ferrand, argues that Ophils's The Sorrow and the
Pity is not fair to resistance in Auvergne, and accuses the film of
unfairly representing Clermont-Ferrand as a symbol of collabo-
ration. Simone Weil, a stateswoman whose moral authority in
France as a survivor of the Holocaust and because of her political
activity is considerable, recalls in a recent autobiography called
A Life, her opposition as a member of the board of the ORTF
(then France's television network) to the purchase of The Sorrow
and the Pity on the grounds of its representation of the French
during the Occupation.
It is true, argues Weltman-Aron, that Ophuls's treatment of
the Occupation, while it equally brings to the fore acts of col-
laboration and acts of resistance, has the effect of putting into
question not the Resistance itself, but the unidirectional unity of
its goals. In fact, Ophuls's admiration for the courage of resisters
is evident, but the film dwells on individual, at times anarchic
motives for entering the Resistance, that do not always coalesce
into a single-mindedness of purpose. In addition, far from down-
playing the differences between the strategies of Gaullist and
Communist resistances, the film emphasizes them. Weil's point
about the depiction of the French in general is also well taken
if one considers that the most pervasive and devastating effect
of the film may be that it shows a "widespread mediocrity and
passivity" cutting across a large spectrum of the French witnesses
and actors of that period interviewed by Harris and OphUls. To
the extent that Ophuls's documentary shows the witnesses' (by
definition) selective work of memory, but in the case of difficult
years such as those of the Occupation all the more so, to the
point of testimonies being distorted, or even mendacious, it also
puts into question the "mimetic promise" of images and contrib-
utes to an ongoing reflection on the "demand for evidence" in
the face of historical traumatic events and on the conditions that
would make it possible to respond to that demand.


Eric Kligerman, Associate Professor of Germanic Studies (De-
partment of Languages, Literatures and Cultures), discusses how
Ophuls's film serves as a point of departure and intertext for two
contemporary American filmmakers, Woody Allen and Quentin
Tarentino.
In Allen's Annie Hall, Alvy Singer (played by Woody Allen)
compels repeatedly his gentile girlfriend (Diane Keaton) to watch
The Sorrow and the Pity. Alvy, the paranoid Jew who detects anti-
Semitism in the sound of a sneeze (achoo), turns The Sorrow and the
Pity into a tool of revenge. In Allen's appropriation of Ophuls, the
theme of Jewish resistance becomes humorous like in Lubitch's
To Be Or Not to Be and Chaplin's The Great Dictator. Although by
the end of the film Alvy is no longer with her, Annie now takes
her new friend to see Ophuls's film, thus passing on the guilt.
Kligerman's interest is not only in how film becomes an object
of resistance but also how directors occupy the films of others.
While Allen turns to Ophuls, Ophuls takes possession of Ger-
man and French film to probe the Occupation. Kligerman's use
of the term Occupation derives from its German connotations:
Besetzung, the word for military occupation, is also Freud's term
for cathexis: the process of investing psychic energy in a person,
object or idea. The concept is central to the -l'1i.. r's identity
construction. Ophuls's film exemplifies a countercathexis; he at-
tempts to break French attachment to the one-dimensional his-
torical narrative of a heroic French resistance to National Social-
ism. Turning to Alvy Singer's legacy, the iconic image of the weak
(albeit existentially triumphant) Jew, Kligerman points out that
thirty years after Annie Hall there has also been a re-occupation
of another narrative archetype, where new representations of Jew-
ish resistance have arisen, including serious films like Munich or
Defiance, and comedic ones like Don't Mess with the Zohan. In Paul
Feig's comedy Knocked Up Seth Rogen tells his Jewish friends at a
bar, "Every movie with Jews, we're the ones getting killed." Most
recently, Quentin Tarentino's Inglourious Basterds, "flips on its ear"
not simply the narrative of Jewish victimization but history itself.
To borrow Alvy's words, "Boy if life were only like this." While
we could place the film next to contemporary depictions of Jew-
ish resistance, Kligerman is interested in the continuities between
Inglourious Basterds and The Sorrow and the Pity including themes of
occupation, resistance, anti-Semitism, film within a film structure
and the introspective gesture of cinema's power as seen in the
function of propaganda. -






































DRAGAN KUJUNDZIC is Professor of Slavic, film and Jewish
studies. His most recent book is the edited volume Who or
What-Jacques Derrida.

mmanuel Levinas is one of the greatest figures in Jew-
ish Philosophy. Born in Lithuania, in 1906, he went on
to get his education in Strasbourg, France, and later on
in Freiburg, Germany. He was naturalized as a French
citizen in 1939, and in 1940, as a soldier in the French army,
captured by the Nazis, imprisoned in a labor camp for officers,
and thus survived the war. His Lithuanian f iil, murdered.
He spent his academic career as a Professor at the Sorbonne.
His colloquia titled Colloque des intellectuals juifs de langue franqaise
educated generations of French, and not only French intellectu-
als attending these public seminars held in Paris after World War
II. Emmanuel Levinas passed away in 1995, leaving a legacy that
consists of lines, as Jacques Derrida once observed, each worthy
of years of patient Talmudic reading. Among his books are To-
tality and Infinity (1961), Nine Talmudic Readings (1968) Otherwise
Than Being or Beyond Essence, (1974), Of God Who Comes to Mind
(1982), God Death and Time (1993).
Emmanuel Levinas's early career is marked by his work in


phenomenology, which resulted in his doctoral dissertation,
The Theory of Intuition in Husserl's Phenomenology, in French,
published in 1930. His early years are marked by the transla-
tion into French and introduction of the work of the German
philosopher Martin Heidegger, with whom, after Heidegger's
allegiance to the Nazi party, Levinas parted ways. Emmanuel
Levinas was one of the first Jewish European intellectuals to
warn of the upcoming threat posed by the rise of National So-
cialism in Germany, in his work, published in 1934, tt.r.....A
on the Philosophy of Hitlerism, and his subsequent career may be
seen as a relentless criticism of Heidegger's notion of Being.

O n November 18, 2008, a symposium was held at the
University of Florida, to celebrate the sixty year an-
niversary of the publication of two texts by Emman-
uel Levinas: a short but very important essay titled
"Being Jewish," and his seminal book Time and the Other. The
participants from the University of Florida included the mem-
bers of the ongoing Posen Seminar in Secular Judaism, organized
and conducted by Nina Caputo and Galili Shahar.
The symposium guest speaker, Professor Jonathan Judaken
from the University of Memphis, opened the discussion by of-
fering an overview of Levinas's intellectual history, as well as his
influence on French intellectuals such as Jean Paul Sartre, Benny
L6vy, Arnold Mendel, among others.
"Being Jewish," and Time and the Other are marked by Levi-
nas's turn away from phenomenology, towards an ethics, or, as
Judaken pointed out, "the ethics of ethics." After the experience
of the Holocaust, Levinas introduced into philosophy an ethi-
cal element closely related to his sense of being Jewish. Judaken
was particularly attentive to those elements in Levinas's thought
where Levinas formulates the responsibility that befalls the Jews,
and that makes Judaism the source of profound inspiration for
the entire philosophical enterprise. Judaken spoke of Levinas's
call for an authentic Judaism which implies "accepting the bur-
den and privilege of Jewish identity." Levinas wrote in 1986: "To
be Jewish, not the pride or the vanity of being Jewish. That is
worth nothing. But an awareness of the extraordinary privilege of
undoing the banality of existence, of belonging to a people who
are human before humanity." Levinas's Judaism thus entails a
profound sense of responsibility. Judaken quoted Levinas's com-
ments recorded at the first Colloque des intellectuals juifs de langue
franqaise in 1957: "Judaism is not a religion the word does not
exist in Hebrew it is much more than that, it is a comprehen-
sion of Being. .. the Jew has the feeling that his obligations with
respect to the other come before his obligations to God, or more
precisely that the other is the voice of high places, even of the sa-









cred. Ethics is an optics vis-a-vis God. The only voice of respect
vis-a-vis God is that of respect toward one's fellow human being."
Galili Shahar's reflections on Levinas's "Being Jewish," and
the question of paternity, pointed out that Levinas's essay on
the "Jewish question" knows, first and foremost, its own present,
Europe and the year, 1947: The aftermath of the Holocaust in
which the Nazi enterprise sought a final solution for the "Jewish
question." "The recourse of Hitlerian anti-Semitism," Levinas
writes in his essay "Being Jewish," "reminded the Jew of the ir-
remissibility of his being." The Jew bears the experience of "not
to be able to flee one's condition." The Jew, in other words, em-
bodies the origin that cannot be denied. For Levinas, however,
this experience should be understood in ontological terms. The
"Jewish question" returns as the question of condition humana, "for
in this the human soul is perhaps naturally Jewish." The Jewish
experience of the origin is the secret of the human being. Levinas
addresses thus the question of being as a recall of the victims.
It is in the second part of his presentation that Shahar en-
gaged Levinas's thought on the figure of the origin and mystery
of the father. Many of his insights on Judaism, Shahar claimed,
can be read as a long meditation on the experience of paterni-
ty, as it is told in Genesis 22, in the scene of the Akedah, the
binding of Isaac. To be a father, in this context, means, to be
able to say, hineni, (in Hebrew), "here I am" the way Abraham
answers God and later the call of his son Isaac. Hineni, "here
I am," announces a commitment without precondition, to be
here for the absolute other. The experience of Abraham cannot
be expressed but in this Hebrew call the call that according to
Kierkegaard we cannot understand. For Kierkegaard the bibli-
cal scene of the Akedah is "silent"; it bears no word, no logic
and has no "meaning." Abraham's deed requires the suspen-
sion of reason, language and representation and leads there-
fore to the teleologicall suspension of the Ethical." Abraham's
faith, his absolute duty to God, has, in Kierkegaard's view, no
moral meaning. His faith is not rational, it does not claim the
form of a law and has no universal meaning and thus cannot
be justified, nor explained. Abraham's movement of faith that
cannot be universalized but remains a riddle that challenges our
institutions of interpretation, bears the secret of Jewish Being.

A braham's movement to Moriah, "the movement
of faith," is thus a paradox a singular deed that
embodies an absurd, awful faith, which is yet, Ki-
erkegaard argues, the greatest, admirable act of man.
Levinas rejects Kierkegaard's reading, who, in his view, failed to
recognize the real ethical essence of Abraham's movement and
reduced the movement of faith into hermetic, non-discursive ges-
ture. God's voice, the call that forbids Abraham to carry out the


human sacrifice, Levinas argues, brings the biblical scene back to
its essential ethical realm.

In the conclusion, Dragan Kujundzic presented a paper
i. II!" on the questions of "Being Jewish" in light of
its more recent readings in the work of Franco-Jewish phi-
losophers Jacques Derrida and Helene Cixous. In "Being
Jewish," Kujundzic pointed out, the question of being is put in
relation of heterogeneity to its own Greek origin. What does it
mean to be Jewish? What does it mean to be, when there is Jew-
ish Being, and there are Jewish Beings? What does the attribute
"jewish," in "Being Jewish" do to the notion of being after it has
gone through this graft, through or by this inscription of the
Other? Is it even compatible, appropriate, asked Kujundzic, to
think the Jewish being via the notion of Being; is it not already
an appropriative assimilation of the Jewish Other for the Greek
onto-teleology? "But to be Jewish," says Levinas, "is not only to
seek a refuge in the world but to feel for oneself a place in the
economy of being." Kujundzic reminded that "Being Jewish" was
written as a critical response to Sartre's Anti-Semite and Jew: An
Exploration of the Etiology of Hate. The conclusion of "Being Jew-
ish" condenses Levinas's polemical argument:


In a new sense, to be created and to be son is to be free. To
exist as a creature is not to be crushed beneath adult responsi-
bility. It is to refer in one's very facticity to someone who bears
existence for you, who bears sin, who can forgive. Jewish exis-
tence is thus the fulfillment of the human condition as fact,
personhood and freedom. And its entire originality consists
in simply breaking with a word that is without origin and sim-
ply present. It is situated from the very start in a dimension
that Sartre cannot comprehend. It is not situated there for
theological reasons, but for reasons of experience. Its theology
explicates its facticity.


The thought of Emmanuel Levinas, Kujundzic concluded, thus
offers a way to think of identity differently, and opens a possibil-
ity of existence to be otherwise, and to be otherwise than being.
The papers were followed by a lively discussion of all Posen
seminar participants, recognizing the profound, shattering ex-
perience that the work of Emmanuel Levinas presented to the
tradition of Western Philosophy. Levinas's thought re-oriented
the entire tradition of Western thinking towards the ethical
and ethics, by re-thinking the Jewish condition in philosophy
and in the world. 0











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r. 1 I .. IrI I i [ r I i .I I r I r. .. ,, r .. ,, .. I r I . .. l r r. r r.





senior honors thesis concerned how certain 19th-century novelists were
able to shape conceptions of the land that would become Israel. In particu-
lar, I discussed George Eliot's Daniel Deronda, Benjamin Disraeli's Tancred,
Sthe poems of Emma Lazarus, and Mendele's The Travels of Benjamin III. It is
true that only some of these writers can accurately be called proto-Zionist,
as others took a more cynical or hesitant position; however, all influenced the evolution
of early Zionist thought in critical ways.
It may seem strange that as a graduating English major, I chose a thesis subject that
appears, on the surface at least, to have more in common with my Jewish Studies minor.
Indeed, my initial thesis proposal was rejected: "This doesn't look like something out
of our department," said the English Undergraduate Coordinator. I ended up exclud-
ing many of the East European authors I had hoped to discuss, those who pioneered
Hebrew and Yiddish as literary languages, in order to focus on American and British
authors instead. I also agreed to highlight post-colonial theoretical readings, including
Orientalist criticism. This particular theoretical lens was ultimately very useful to me,
as it allowed me to nuance my discussion by including the contributions of Palestinian
theorist Edward Said. It also helped me note how often proto-Zionist discussions of the
land of Palestine followed the pattern of depictions of other European colonial spaces,
presuming, among other things, a lack of existing inhabitants.


My initial motivation for choosing
this topic was twofold. First, it dovetailed
nicely with what I considered, at the time,
to be my academic and career goals. I had
applied for a Fulbright grant to Israel to
study, through modern Hebrew literature,
the role of the land in determining Jewish
identity. I was interested in the competi-
tion between religious and nationalist vi-
sions of Jewish identity, and how evoca-
tions of physical landscape contributed
to the latter. I intended my thesis to be
a sort of historical prelude to my Ful-
bright study. I had also recently applied
to a series of programs in Comparative
Literature, and my thesis topic seemed
like a good subject to carry into graduate
study in that field. Unfortunately, I didn't
receive the Fulbright grant, and my plans
































I


George Ehot

for graduate study at the University of Chicago centered more on
English literature. Yet, in a way, these changes offered a certain
opportunity. Instead of regarding my thesis as a means to an end,
I could delve into my material on its own merits, drawing new
and unexpected conclusions.


impact Jewish Studies courses at UF have had on me,
under professors such as Dr. Leah Hochman, Dr. Ken-
neth Wald, and Dr. Gwynn Kessler. My classes in Jewish
Studies have, without a doubt, been among the most challenging
and most rewarding that I have enjoyed in my undergraduate
career. Through courses on Midrash, Talmud, Jewish ethics, Jew-
ish politics, Jewish literature, and more, I became fascinated with
the evolution of modern Jewish identity politics, including Juda-
ism's elastic possibilities as both a religious and a non-religious
identity, as well as the land of Israel's often transformative power
to affect this identification. Dr. Hasak-Lowy, from Jewish Stud-
ies, was an invaluable resource for my research, in addition to
Dr. Judith Page and Dr. Stephanie Smith, my readers within the
English department.
Ultimately, blending the disciplines of Jewish Studies and
English allowed me not only to pursue a subject that genuinely
interested me, but also to write about literature in a way that
emphasizes its political consequences.


.1 L


I]


Emma Lazarus


I discovered that although many have written about the con-
nections between British proto-Zionist writers, and although
a similar number have discussed Hebrew and Yiddish authors
from Eastern Europe writing about the land of Palestine, few ef-
forts have been made to compare the two realms. As the develop-
ment of early Zionism involved British and European politicians,
Jewish intellectual leaders, and early Jewish settlers, I feel that
separating authors into camps of East and West is misleading.
My approach, while by no means comprehensive, did incorpo-
rate authors from England, America, and Russia, including two
non-Jews and two Jews, two men and two women, to present a
variety of voices.
The writers I studied from Great Britain and America, wheth-
er Jewish or non-Jewish (Benjamin Disraeli falls curiously in be-
tween the two categories), shared one thing in common: none
saw immigration to Palestine as even a remote possibility for
themselves, only for their characters. Their proto-Zionist tenden-
cies were often heavily tied to their political goals, but they seem
determined to separate Palestine from the realm of personal pos-
sibility.
George Eliot's support for proto-Zionism arose late in her
career; not until Daniel Deronda, her final novel, does she make
an overt case for the immigration of British Jews to Palestine. Al-
though herself a Christian, Eliot took on the rather remarkable
task of counteracting through her writing the anti-Semitism she































Benjamin Dasraeh


witnessed. Daniel Deronda represents a sympathetic portrayal of
Jewish characters by a mainstream author, which was nearly un-
precedented. As might be imagined, the early reception history
of the work shows ~ -ill. i i... ir and hostility from non-Jewish
audiences, and intense gratitude from Jewish ones. However,
both groups, to Eliot's disappointment, attempted to divorce
the British and Jewish "halves" of the narrative. My examination
of Eliot focuses on her veiled class antagonism frequently she
seems to imply that the problem among Jews is not Judaism, but
working-class status, and to present the land of Palestine as the
needed force to ennoble the Jewish community and on her
troubling portrayal of the suppression of key female characters,
which to me hints at her doubts over the true efficacy of the
proto-Zionist scheme.


E


B benjamin Disraeli presents a special case, as a Christian con-
vert who held onto his Jewish heritage. When he became
Prime Minister, he never concealed his Jewishness despite
anti-Semitic attacks; however, neither did he disguise his
view that Christianity represented "perfected" Judaism. His in-
terest in Jews seems overwhelmingly to revert back to self-inter-
est, whether that means claiming a personal sense of superiority
from his Jewish history, or whether that means supporting the
creation of a Jewish state for overtly colonial reasons. While his
novel Tancred delves deeply into the land of Palestine, portraying
a variety of Jewish, Muslim Arab, and other ethnic and religious
characters, in the end much of this apparent tolerance gives way
to the dominion of the Christian hero.
Interestingly, all three of these western authors published, in
addition to their fiction, philosophical or political tracts to more
clearly outline their position vis-a-vis the Jewish people and the
land of Palestine. George Eliot wrote, in Impressions of Theophras-
tus Such, "The Modern Hep! Hep! Hep!", a moderately sarcastic
take on the injustice of anti-Semitism and the justifications for
Jewish nationalism. Emma Lazarus published a variety of essays
defending Jews and Judaism, many of which appear in her col-
lection Epistle to the Hebrews. Disraeli even allegedly wrote a pam-
phlet called, "The Jewish Question in the Oriental Question,"
although the authorship is disputed. Regardless, what speaks to
me about the significance of these authors in terms of the inter-


mma Lazarus, an American poet best known for "The
New Colossus," the poem adorning the Statue of Liberty,
actually cited George Eliot as a major influence. An as-
similated, secular Jew who nevertheless focused on Jewish


themes in her most successful poems, Lazarus volunteered to aid
incoming masses of poor, Jewish, East European immigrants to
America. Her dedication to proto-Zionism is linked to her con-
viction that such refugees needed a safe haven, be it in America
or Palestine. Lazarus helps establish the possibility that wealthy,
assimilated Jews can support Jewish nationalism from afar.


Mendele Mokher Sfonm








section of literature and politics is their need to clarify, expound,
and promulgate their ideas both inside and outside of their fic-
tion.

endele Mokher Sforim, on the other hand, takes a mark-
edly different route in discussing the land of Palestine.
The Travels of Benjamin III shows a mixture of irrever-
ence, hyperbole, and mockery that at times borders un-
comfortably on Jewish self-hatred. His main characters,
intensely poor victims of Russian anti-Semitic violence, set off
on a quest for the Holy Land that amounts to little more than
wandering in circles through various shtetls. Many eastern novel-


ists like Mendele showed a deeper cynicism and doubt than their
western counterparts when it came to the promises of Jewish
nationalism perhaps because they came from the poor popula-
tions that other proto-Zionists seemed so determined to uplift, or
perhaps because working in the new literary languages of Yiddish
and Hebrew allowed them a uniquely insider audience. Mende-
le, unlike Eliot, Lazarus, and Disraeli, does not have to justify
his Judaism to an anti-Semitic culture; his sarcasm is reserved
exclusively for other Jews. In any case, Mendele undermines the
ebullient idealism of Eliot and Lazarus, as well as the political
confidence of Disraeli, to provide what may be a more realistic
take on the development of proto-Zionism. #


have always had a strong connec-
tion and love for the land and
people of Israel. In 3rd grade I
Joined Young Judaea, the Zionist
youth group sponsored by Ha-
dassah. I attended Young Judaea summer
camps in North Carolina and New York.
The summer after llth grade I spent in Is-
rael on a six week Young Judaea program
and I spent a gap year after high school
on Young Judaea's Year Course Program.
During Year Course I lived primarily in
Jerusalem but also on a kibbutz in the
Negev.
I received college credits while on Year
Course which primarily filled spots in
the Jewish Studies curriculum, so when I


became a Political Science major at UF, I
was able to have a a dual major. Some of
the Middle East Studies courses counted
towards both majors. I received the special
Israel Studies Certificate for the courses I
took in Judaism and everything relating
to Israel.
The military has always been an inter-
est of mine, and I had planned on becom-
ing an officer in the United States Army,
and for almost two years participated in
ROTC at the University of Florida. How-
ever, because of the war in 2006 between
Israel and Hezbollah, I thought that I
might be of more use to Israel and felt
a strong desire to do my part for the Jew-
ish State. After graduating from UF in


the summer of 2008, I moved to Israel to
join the Israel Defense Forces and make
Aliyah (a Hebrew word that translates to
moving up to the Holy Land or Israel).
I live on Kibbutz Shamir, in Northern
Israel and was accepted into the Israeli
101st Airborne. I say accepted because the
Airborne is unique in that everyone must
pass a two-day try out to test both physi-
cal and mental character. I am currently a
sharpshooter in a platoon 1. 1."1 .i.. for
a specialized and very unique anti-tank
rocket. My two-year service in the IDF is
coming to an end and in October I plan
on continuing my education at Tel Aviv
University in a Masters Degree Program
in Security and Diplomacy Studies. S


-4
































/ L 7 I.
I. I I I
\~i ,1 ^ 1 -L- I ^-L^> ,-L^ \


Paths of Assimilation in Late-Nineteenth-Century Hungary

KATALIN FRANCISKA RAC is a Ph.D. student of modem European and Jewish history in the Department of History and recipient of a Gerson
Fellowship as well as the Alexander Grass Graduate Fellowship in Jewish History. She is interested in the cultural products of national, religious, and
professional identity formation of Hungarian Jewry and plans to write a dissertation on four generations of Hungarian orientalists of Jewish origin.


J summer of 2008 was all about sports. The season opened with the Euro-
pean Football Championship, and later, Europeans were chained to their
television sets as their teams competed at the Beijing Olympic Games.
While flying across the Atlantic Ocean armed with letters of recommenda-
tion to exchange for other letters that might allow me to enter Hungarian archives, as
usual I skipped the sport section of the paper and thought about my research on Ma-
rie Freudenberg. By marrying the son of the world-famous Hungarian orientalist Ignaz
Goldziher, Freudenberg, a young Hungarian female Egyptologist, entered the competi-
tive world of male scholars at the age of twenty three. She was warmly received into the
Goldziher family, but made Goldziher the elder, who had previously been serving as the
secretary of the Neolog Jewish Congregation of Pest for thirty years, rethink his seem-
ingly solid ideas on Jewish emancipation and assimilation. Goldziher was an advocate
of a democratic system based on ethical principles, and he believed that the wealthy
Jewish bourgeoisie, and especially the female members blinded by the material might
of their class, would threaten these values. Marie died too young to either refute or
justify her father-in-law's prejudices. Yet, her friendship with Lili Kronberger, the world-
champion figure skater revealed how subjective Goldziher's sociological categories were,


and that the paths of the Jewish assimila-
tion in Hungary should be studied also
outside the academy, culture, economics,
and politics. I was soon made to realize
that sports were in no way confined to the
daily news; they also infiltrated the lives
of the Goldzihers, whose documents are
carefully guarded in the Budapest City
Archives and the National Jewish Muse-
um and Archives in Budapest.
Despite my enthusiasm, as well as
the interest that experienced historians
demonstrated toward my project, and the
assistance I received from various archi-
vists, Marie Freudenberg's mysterious life
proved enduringly resistant to research.
I could not find any trace of her private


i


.









papers, or a photograph of her. Boxes with documents related to
her husband's family were also missing. The only possible lead
to Freudenberg appeared to be her friend, Elza Lili Kronberger
(1890-1974), figure skater and Hungary's first world-champion
athlete. As we can learn from the editorial Introduction of her
posthumous published book, after Freudenberg's death Kronberg-
er collected her friend's notes and urged Freudenberg's husband,
the younger Goldziher, and his friend Heller (the elder Goldzi-
her's pupil and eventually the editor) to publish them. Soon I
found myself sitting in the office of Lajos Szab6,
the director of the Hungarian Sportmuseum,
taking notes of our conversation in the course of
which a fascinating story about Hungarian Jewish
athletes, both male
and female, un-
folded. Kronberger
was among the
Jewish champions ,
of Hungarian first- '
class sports whose
Jewish background
was hardly ever
talked about. She
and others are re- .
membered as Hun-
garian athletes ex-
clusively. And that
was probably in
accord with their
own will.
At the turn of
the century Hun-
garian Jews did not
follow their native M' ..1.I ....
idea (the same Max N.. ..I i..
was Ignaz Goldziher'.. .1,...,r.
as well) of muskeljudentum (muscle _.
Jews) and the formation of Zionist
sports groups. Instead, they allied
themselves with the Hungarian sporting nobility who imported
sports like football and tennis to Hungary from the West and in-
tegrated them into the aristocratic lifestyle. Jewish athletes joined
those sports dominated by the nobility, and as the bourgeoisie's
social base grew of which stratum Jews formed a considerable
portion they demanded more space for their participation in all
spheres of the country's life, including sports. I learned from Sz-
ab6 that in contrast to the practice in the successor states, where
the Maccabi clubs, or groups with Hebrew names like Hagibor,
Hakoach, or Bar-kochba appeared one after the other, Jews in


Hungary continued to train in the Hungarian clubs. They de-
sired to be equals also in sports and to play and train in common
clubs; yet they also wished to demonstrate their Jewish identity,
though on a lesser scale than the Maccabi groups' members. Al-
though they did not give names identified with Zionist ideals to
the clubs they frequented, nevertheless the first club founded
at the end of the nineteenth century with substantial Jewish in-
terest, the Magyar Testgyakorl6k Kdre (Circle of the Hungarian
Body Trainers) did choose blue and white as its colors. The most
important Jewish sport club, Viv6 as Atletikai
Club (Hungarian Fencing and Athletic Club),
did not use a Jewish
name either, yet the
n membership was
Jewish and partici-
Sr pated in the inter-
national Maccabi
games.
As I was listen-
S| ing to Szab6 ex-
plain how sports
became a frequent
channel of assimila-
tion for minorities,
I also understood
v that the kind of
i sport chosen by in-
e t dividual minorities
reflected their ideal
t r Y of assimilation. The
Jewish champions
.I. .. I. 'I" .I I...rh physical endurance

r i!rl, .... orts in which they did
S...r ...! '.. .. physical contact with
r!,, . I. I. .1 " r, I % "1 ".. r.
Sr r ,i, I. ...... .r, ,I ', rl , I% 1'.

h, r . ...1 .1 1.. m 11 .I .I. r '. .. !,
in points. Figure skating ii. -I i... ir .I I...rl r I .. ...r-, .1 rl! ...
ble bearing of the' .... I, and the progressiveness of the engineers'
precision. Unlike t...1 ,, ir the turn of the twentieth century fig-
ure skating meant drawing figures on ice. After each contestant
completed his or her routine, the judges would go onto the rink
and scrutinize the lines the skater had left on the ice. Points were
given based on the performance and the precision of the skates'
traces. Kronberger's story is as much about figure skating as Jew-
ish I r....I,, r,..11 ii Hungary, moreover her sport career seems to
reflect the ideal of the nobility-emulating assimilated Jew.









An ice rink and the national champion-
ships were established by the Hungarian
Skaters' Association, which was founded
mostly by Hungarian nobles in one of the
Budapest caf6 houses in 1869. Like ten-
nis, figure skating was one of those elegant
sports practiced by the upper class, which
included the growing bourgeoisie and the
nobility. Before the ice rink, skaters used
tennis courts covered with ice during the
winter months. After its establishment in
1870, on Sunday mornings the skating
rink was frequented by the wealthy citi-
zens who could afford the relatively high
entrance fee and knew the social dances
that were performed while wearing skates.
An orchestra provided waltz music and
other dance tunes for the public. Also
the competing skaters performed their
routines to music. Kronberger preferred
Kodaly's music, which incorporated Hun-
garian and non-Hungarian folk melo-
dies, over Western salon dance music.
Kodaly himself occasionally visited the
rink and played his flute for the skaters.

9 ronberger, the daughter of
a Jewish wood merchant,
was a pupil at the first
high school in Budapest
that was opened for girls
exclusively regardless of their religion
- and there she met her life-time friend,
Marie Freudenberg, the future Egyptolo-
gist, three days her junior. When she was
seven, she was already practicing on the
skating rink in Budapest. After fifth grade
in high school (at the age of fifteen) she be-
came a private student, whereas her friend
Marie stopped attending that school and
did not take the matriculation exam there
either. Kronberger, in contrast, a well-
known sport star by then, matriculated in
the same high school at the age of eigh-
teen, just like other students.
In the 1906 world championship, at
the age of sixteen, Kronberger received
the bronze medal. Two years later she be-
came world champion and she held this


IFRL. LILLY KRONBER(;ER,
lIU D)AI'lST.
Winner WirlI's ( 'lUIm)ill'llip for
Ladies, u908. 19,9, i9lu, 1911.


title for four consecutive years, until 1911,
when she announced her marriage to
Imre Szent-Gyorgyi. A distant relative of
the Noble-prize winning researcher Albert
Szent-Gyorgyi, Imre Szent-Gyorgyi was
twenty-four years her senior, a nobleman,
and from its establishment he served as
the vice-president and executive of the
Hungarian Skaters' Association. Because
success in figure skating is based on
points awarded by a panel of judges, and
Kronberger's husband was involved in the
Hungarian Skaters' Association, continu-
ing her career after their marriage could
have resulted in a conflict of interest for
her husband, and she chose to retire.
However, she did continue skating and
closely watched the next generations of
Hungarian skaters until she reached the
age of sixty. She died in 1974, thirty years
after her husband; she survived World
War II seemingly untouched by the anti-
Jewish laws. Although she is buried next
to her husband, her tomb is unmarked.
Despite the difference between their ca-
reers, Freudenberg and Kronberger seem
to have pursued the same Hungarian Jew-
ish "noble dream." They became experts
in fields that were open only to people of
means and provided a quasi-aristocratic
lifestyle. Freudenberg visited the great Eu-
ropean museums to study their Egyptian
collections and thus she was trained to
become an associate of wealthy collectors.
Kronberger danced on ice embodying the
aristocratic ideal of beauty and the mod-
ern spirit of sport. Their stories encapsu-
late an optimistic period and, according
to many, they ignored the real limitations
on the possibilities of assimilation into
the conservative nobility-dominated Hun-
gary at the beginning of the twentieth
century. Freudenberg is remembered for
her contribution to the Egyptian collec-
tion of the Hungarian National Museum.
Kronberger's legacy is that of the Hungar-
ian skater pure and simple, and not the
Hungarian Jewish sportswoman. 0
































SARAH KAISER-CROSS is a senior at the University of Florida majoring in Political Science with minors in Jewish Studies and Arabic. She
recently finished an independent study abroad program on Kibbutz Na'an. She hopes to work in Israel or in the Middle East after graduation
and teach English while working with a Non-Governmental Organizations to facilitate open communication in the region.


I am an anomaly. I am not Jewish or Muslim. I am not of Middle Eastern descent. I have no
family ties to the region. All these things aside, I have a deep love and passion for the Middle
East. I love the people, the languages, the food, and the culture of Middle Eastern nations. I
am always the only non-Jew in my Israeli programs and definitely a minority in the Arab states
of the Middle East. People always ask me why? Why do you study Arabic and Hebrew? Why
do you want to work in a region riddled with i... r' I hope after reading my journal from the
last months, things will become clearer.





KiBButi NAN
--- ^ -- --


So Kibbutz Na'an is a beautiful chunk of landscape located next to the city of Rehovot
south of Tel Aviv. Driving up, I had no clue what to expect. I was instantly blown away
by the never-ending rows of lush green fields, flowers and lines of houses in this quaint
kibbutz. Also noticing industrial equipment, my mind wandered to my eventual job
placement here on the kibbutz. Was I to be working in a factory?
My taxi dropped me off at the entrance to the ulpan center where I immediately met
some nice ulpan kids. There are people here from all over the world: Mexico, Britain,
Australia, Hungary, France, the US, Germany, Russia, and more. There are only 30
of us and the guy-to-girl ratio is quite off. I think there are only 10 girls. We hung out,
smoked, and talked with each other, regaling our different adventures. Most of us are


very well-traveled, and were exchanging
trips and stories about where we've been
or where we are dying to go.
I woke up this morning, after "homey-
ing" my room and went for a run. Two
other guys were supposed to come run-
ning with me but they slept through it.
The run was nice, and the kibbutz is so
big, I ran for 30 minutes and hadn't seen
hardly any of it. There are fields upon
fields of eggplant, corn and some other
unidentifiable vegetable. Gorgeous rows
of flowers and even stables with horses,
peacocks, pigs and goats surround our ul-
pan dorm area.
The general way of life here is just dras-
tically different. The communal feeling
is evident. People greet everyone as they
walk by, the locals are happy to meet us
and show us around. Even the dining
halls, where everyone eats, felt like one
big camp atmosphere everyone here
knows and loves each other. Women walk








around with stroller like objects or at least purposefully so, but
actually are cribs with wheels with a baby in them. I find it kind of
cute, they stroll their baby's crib along to the grocery store. When
you grow up in a kibbutz, at age 16, you get your own apartment,
separate from your family. Also, they have a communal grocery
store, swimming pool, playgrounds, gardens, and even 2 pubs. I
think I could get used to living this way. Everything is so calm
and peaceful.





t.- -- 'W
So this morning we had quite an early start to our day. We
woke up at 8 a.m. for our testing into classes. We stood outside
waiting for our teachers to call us in and test us for the correct
Hebrew class. I tested into beginning Hebrew. I got my job as
well, what I will be doing for my work part of the work-study pro-
gram here; I am a gardener. I have to be at work at 6:00 a.m., 6:00
flipping a.m.! I almost died when I found out. I woke up and am
working with 3 other boys. Yes, I am the only girl. We met the
other kibbutzniks who assigned us our jobs. Two of the boys went
and chopped down a tree. This guy from Argentina, named Mat-
tie, and I were assigned to the gardens. I weeded and tilled the
soil for 5 hours this morning. It was 45 degrees this morning and
still dark when we woke up. The sun rose about 5 past 6:00 in the
morning and was beautiful rose colored, slowly rising over the
mountains. The hours went by pretty quickly. Once you get into
the work funk, digging, shoveling, turning the soil, it becomes a
rhythm, a way of relaxing into your mind. I am very rarely reflec-
tive, and I've found this time really requires me to focus on my
thoughts. Lunch is good, always decent. The vegetables (hot


and cold) are pretty good fresh from the kibbutz. There are
always varieties of meat, mousaka, schnitzel (the favorite Israeli
chicken dish) and vegan stuff.
The families and co-workers all sit together in the dining
hall, animatedly talking about the day's work, gossip among the
families and daily life. I love watching the dynamics between
people here the old ladies sitting together, pushing around
vegetables, clearly the best of friends. The old men who eat in
silence, teeth absent, and reading the newspaper. There is such
a communal feeling in this place. For example, this morning,
I was working with one of the guys in the garden. I asked him
about the rotation schedule on the kibbutz. I was curious wheth-
er people switched jobs often. What if you hated cooking and
you were stuck in the kitchen? Apparently, the people on the
kibbutz pretty much stay permanently in their jobs. They don't
switch around unless absolutely necessary. The guy I was speak-
ing with had been working in the garden for 13 years. But in the
last few years, lots of people have been utilizing their specializa-
tions and are working off of the kibbutz. Na'an is the second
richest kibbutz in Israel and one of the largest in terms of size. It
isn't religious though, very few people attend services regularly,
and the only services are on Shabbat and the holy days.




I E-RUSA LEM-

Last night I ventured out into Jerusalem, in search of WiFi.
I ended up at Caf6Cafe while it poured buckets of water on
my head. A Palestinian friend came to meet me we learned
about each other's beliefs: religions, families and jobs, switching
constantly between Arabic, English and Hebrew. I'm coming to


fliL 71


6:00Ad W!4l)eA LI




^I
.._--...--, J ---. &





































a place where it's really exciting for me because I can have a
decent conversation in either language. He took me to East
Jerusalem, to a hookah cafe. It's funny to note the immediate
differences you see when you drive three blocks from West to
East Jerusalem signs all in Arabic, men and women in kafiyas,
burqas and hijabs. The buildings, plants and streets are not as
well kept; crusty paint, crumbled chip bags, fewer lights and an
aura of simplicity. Everyone is with families, working, or smok-
ing nargila. Like Cairo, I was once again the only woman in the
entire caf6. We smoked and talked politics. I had to mentally
change my brain to Arabic. Typical of the Arab cafes all men,
a soccer game playing in the background, and men mumbling
words back and forth between puffs. He explained his views
of Israel to me. "The Jews took our land, kill our people. We
fight with rocks to defend our homes that the settlers take and
then shoot with guns." He also told me the Holocaust didn't
happen that the numbers were exaggerated to a ridiculous
degree and that Hitler had the right idea. It's sad, but I have
gotten used to hearing this from the other side. I obviously do
not agree I believe if anything, the Holocaust was covered up
way more than we know. He later told me he had Jewish friends
but absolutely hated the settlers. Not surprising.


SHABBAT

It is midday. Everyone is scrambling from one stand to the
next. Most women trail behind them metal wheely carts in which
to deposit their purchased items. Bargaining is the game. These
strawberries? How much? The freshest and the best is what ev-
eryone is searching for in this madness called the shuk on these
bustling Friday afternoons. Eggs, challah, cheese, vegetables are
all being sold. All of it must be the very best to serve your fam-
ily. You can always tell where to go. . the stands with the most
Israelis and the least amount of food left. Fresh white cheeses
stacked on top of each other, bins full of juicy olives of every
color, the fresh vegetables plucked from the surrounding fields;
bright purple eggplants, sun yellow, melony-orange and forest-
green peppers all thrown in cardboard boxes displayed for all the
customers to see. Today is shabbat. Shabbat shalom. My favorite
day of the week. Around 3:00 p.m., the magic of Israel happens.
The whole country, simultaneously, slows down. Stores begin to
close, people cram on their last bus home, soldiers are in trans-
port from their base to see their family. Slowly the silence sets in.
The sun sets and everyone is home. Soon shabbat begins.
I am lucky enough to spend my shabbat with Reut's family
who have become my family here in Israel. They always welcome
me into their home her mother with lots of hugs and family








time on the couch. We relaxed together, getting formalities (
how the week went out of the way. Sitting down to dinner, Reut
father and brother, who is 12 1V and about to be barmitzvahe
recited the prayers from the prayer books. We ate all the usu
shabbat salads, breads, and ended with grilled fish. Throughout
dinner, Reut's family encouraged me to practice my Hebrew, so
ended up telling her family my little stories. I felt like a 2nd grade
writing a mini essay and probably sounded like one, too. Som
times it is really frustrating speaking another language. While
can usually communicate what I need, it is another thing entire
to communicate jokes, or a high level of expression. I could
talk about philosophy or the current political situation, at lea
not to the extent I would like to participate. So, I listened an
learned a slew of new words.
While letting our food settle, we tried on our dresses for he
brother's bar mitzvah in April and then got ready to go out t
Tel Aviv. Picking up Ali, we proceeded to get embarrassing
lost in Tel Aviv. One thing worth noting, in Israel the roa
signs are completely unhelpful. Next to the pedestrian crossing
and tiny it is imp ...... 1i, to read them while driving. Tryin
to find parking was interesting in and of itself. Never ever tr
to find parking in Tel Aviv on the weekend. Throughout th
driving disaster, we began talking about Israeli politics and th
Israeli view of outsiders, specifically of non-Jews. My friend say
to me, "When people ask you if you are Jewish, it's because the
want to know if they can trust you." So immediately I question
her: "Wait, when people ask me if I am Jewish and I say no, the
automatically trust me less?" She answers, "Well, yes. It sound
bad but that's how it is." Rather off put by that comment, I hav





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to admit, it is what I expected. Kind of unfortunate I am viewed
that way. I suppose I understand the mentality. Most people
are surprised I am here doing what I'm doing, and are even
more intrigued when they find out I'm not Jewish. An anomaly
here, I love what I love and that's it. Generally speaking, the
underlying feeling here is that if you aren't Jewish, you can-
not truly understand the draw that brings Jews to Israel.
You cannot possibly comprehend the feeling of safety, security
and draw to the homeland that people feel when they
choose to be here. I obviously am not Jewish and while I may
not understand because of my religious upbringing, I like to
think I empathize.


SPASSOVER
d -- -
gs Monday night I went over to the Zuerkel family's house bear-
g ing a bottle of French Reisling wrapped in lavender wrapping
y tied with a beautiful purple flower which I purchased from an
is organic market in Ramat Aviv. It was warmly received, of course.
ie Myself, Reut, her two sisters, brother and parents made our way
Is over to Reut's uncle's house on the other side of the city. The
;y roads were packed with cars like sardines in a can all in a hurry
n so as not to be the last to arrive.
;y Gathering before the whole clan had arrived, we exchanged
Is kisses, hugs and formalities. In Hebrew, I explained to everyone
Te who walked in the door (and there were about 30 people) that I
was Reut's friend and we had been roommates in Haifa. All this
was in Hebrew. For those of you who know me, you know I am
rarely reserved or shy. I felt so out of my element surrounded by
Hebrew speakers in an intimate family setting on a Jewish holi-
day. . all things which I love but at the same time stressed me
out a bit. I just sat back and observed more than I usually do.
Reut's father led the Pesah seder with every family member
reading different sections of the story of Passover. The men sat
wearing kipot (yarmulkes) all in a line. Reut's father headed the
table, leading the dynamic that set in for the whole evening. Rais-
ing your voice for your opinion to be heard was the norm. Even
the reserved family members had learned throughout their lives
in Israel that it is an absolute necessity to speak up, and loudly
in order to be heard at all. Politeness is dismissed. If you want to
speak, just continue speaking until everyone else gives up. Hands
are decoration. No good story is complete without flying hands,
exaggerated facial expressions and maybe even an uprising from
the table! Meals with Israelis are anything but dull. The dynamics
among the family members are amazing to watch. Grandpa and
Grandma sit at the end of the table mooshing their food around








with the teeth they have left. The son and his Russian girlfriend
hold hands and snuggle while engaging in conversation with the
rest of the family. The women of the family are constantly mov-
ing, refilling the bowls with various salads eggplant and garlic,
lettuce, carrots with pecans, liver, radish, every salad you could
think of. They check on the children, refill the table with nap-
kins, drinks, and of course more wine. The kids scream in protest
of the vegetables and joy when they receive their presents.
The men huddled together on one side of the table, mur-
muring the blessings for the seder. One began and another
would follow, finishing his sentence. We leaned to the left to
drink the wine with our right hands, sang all the seder songs and
"ameyned" when appropriate. The food was a blend of Turkish
and Moroccan cuisine because her family is half from Morocco
and half from Turkey. At the end, we sang a special seder song
in Hebrew and then again in a dialect of Turkish with Ladino in-
fluence. Passover dinner is always quite lengthy so the teenagers
became a bit restless. Jokingly, the men reciting the seder began
throwing wine corks at the kids who were talking, in a half-serious
attempt to make the seder more decorous. By that time, everyone
was enjoying the company, the food and the general atmosphere.
Huge failure. Giggles ensued every time the men would miss a
throw, especially when they landed in various household objects.
Throughout the course of Passover dinner, each adult consumes
four glasses of wine. Add the wine with the typical conversation
style of Israelis and what is produced is an amusing evening. The
cousins all got a little tipsy from the wine and then desserts came.
Everything is brought to the table: desserts without yeast, coco-
nut cakes, tea with mint from the garden, even pictures from
grandma's fashion show.



S ... .- -. ."

LA CHE!I, HAT?1
That's right lovely ladies and gentlemen, yours truly is now a
chef. Not just any chef, a top chef. Okay, maybe not a top chef,
but I am a kitchen assistant now at my kibbutz and enjoy it much
more than my other job. The days are much longer, harder and
messier, but I get to work with my hands (which are now red and
sore). Today, for two hours, I rocked out around 200 peppers.
Wash, slice and dice! Boo-yah! We do a little of everything -
from cooking, to cleaning, to preparing food, to getting yelled at;
all very real elements of any kitchen setting. Salads are my spe-
cialty I handle a lot of vegetables. Then there are the meats that
get butchered, cleaned, and then either breaded, fried or baked.
Oh, and we get free breakfast and lunch. Not a bad gig if you ask
me. I hope I get to start doing more and more actual cooking.


When I was working in the kitchen, getting introduced to
everyone, one of my old people friends said to me, "You know
there are Arabs right. In the kitchen, I mean. Only Samea is
Jewish. Just so you know to be politically correct when you say
things." He knows I speak Arabic so introduced me to them pref-
acing with my language ability. So while I work in the kitchen,
I am yelled at in three languages. I find this interesting because
many people here forget I am not Jewish, or assume that I am
and make political and social comments thinking as such.



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At the Western Wall in Jerusalem, on Pesah, I asked a woman
if I could borrow the prayer book sitting next to her on the little
plastic chairs they provide. Speaking in Hebrew for a while, she
readily handed me the book and engaged me in a conversation
about what brought me to Jerusalem. The inevitable question
came up, "are you Jewish?" I responded yes, not in the mood to
answer questions, merely attempting to say a prayer for peace in
my favorite city, Jerusalem.




AILLY NOTHIINGS

I have this weird habit. I take a lot of language classes and have
developed this nerdy habit while in class. I write down awkward/
funny/interesting things people say in the margins of my notes
in an effort to remind myself of a. silly experiences and b. the
fact that I'm not the only one who lets really stupid things spill
out every once in a while. For example, my teacher, Khedva, who
was raised as an Orthodox Jew always enlightens us with tidbits
about Judaism while learning in class. There are 70 names for
Jerusalem in the Torah along with 613 mitzvot (commandments),
but in modern times interpreted more as good deeds). In addi-









tion, we were discussing the differences between Ashkenazi and
Sephardi Jews and this kid in my class asked, "Where does the
word Sephardi come from?" His friend next to him responded
quickly, "Safari. .. duh (like Africa)."
One of the funniest things about Israel is the bluntness that
reigns. In Israel, anyone with red hair gets a new name. My friend
Dave, a redhead, on the first day of class was immediately labeled
"gingi" by the teacher. In America, it is obviously quite rude to
call someone that, especially someone you don't know. Here, it's
endearing, and quite common. In Jerusalem, Dave and I walked
through the markets and the vendors would yell things like
"Hey gingi! Gingi, your wife is nice!" It always makes me laugh.
Israeli's are notoriously blunt. The language barrier probably
doesn't help with being politically correct either. Introverts,
extroverts, old and young when an Israeli has an opinion, you
will know it.
Right now we are doing skits in class. Can I tell you how
awkward they are? The two Argentineans stand at the front of
the room, speaking in Hebrew the dialogue they just wrote. Full
of mistakes (like all of ours are) they are explaining the meaning
of what they are saying every minute. Giggling, embarrassed and
staring at the paper, confused with what they wrote, they finish
the dialogue. Next group. Our topics are things you say to your
husband, what a mother-in-law says to her daughter-in-law and
what Arsim (Israeli equivalent of Guidos) say to a girl they are
trying to pick up. My group was what a mother-in-law says to her
daughter-in-law: we made the mother hate her daughter-in-law,


and teach her how to make her husband happy. All trying to
hold back laughter, we sit painfully through the skits that are
both awkward and awful. The great part is that we are all awful.
Learning a language is never easy. Some people are better at it
than others. While I love learning these languages, at times I want
to pull my hair out. For about a year now, I have been convers-
ing with people in English whose first language is not English,
or speaking in Arabic, Hebrew or Italian. The frustrating part is
not looking like an idiot, which I have hopelessly resigned myself
to. The most frustrating part is the lack of intellectual commu-
nication. All you can use are the words you know accompanied
with dramatic hand gestures to get your point across. I can speak
about my life, what I like, where I come from, what I want to
do and contribute to general conversation topics. But, when it
comes to actually conversing about what is going on in the world,
politics, religion, or any topic with vocabulary way beyond my
skill, I am forced to listen and attempt to understand the new
words as they pour out of peoples' mouths. Generally what I am
thinking is this: "Okay, she just said that word which has the
same root as this other verb I know, so which verb grouping can
I put that in? I suppose I would conjugate that in the past tense,
first person as this and think of other words I know with the
same basic root." Then maybe, I may have some general meaning
as to what the verb she just used was. Then after thinking all of
these things, I join back in the conversation which probably has
just taken a turn to something completely different. And then
the process repeats itself. Welcome to my life. -


UF Program in Haifa

Semester abroad program designed for UF students
- Interdisciplinary program open to students of all subject matters
- Core course taught by a UF faculty member
- Hebrew and Arabio language Immersion and internship opportunities
- Courses in Peace and Conflict Studies, Israel and Middle East Studies.
Psychology, Economics, Communications, Literature and more
- Field trips and cultural events
- For more information contact the Florida International Center: SHill@uflq.ufl.edu
and the Center for Jewish Btudies: Jkugelma(a ufl.edu
Classes begin October 3rd, 2


I




011


-- -- UFIL -


- ------









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Rf LETTER FROM iHflIFfl


DANIELLE FEINSTEIN is 21 years old and was born and raised in Plantation, Florida. When she was 11, her family moved to Daytona Beach and
has been living there since. She is double majoring in Political Science and Jewish Studies along with pursuing a minor in Hebrew and a certificate in
International Relations. Danielle was determined to study in Israel in order to improve her Hebrew, experience Israeli culture first hand, and to conduct
research on her senior thesis regarding political attitudes of Israeli university students towards the Arab-Israeli peace process.


I have had an exciting first two weeks in Haifa and have
already seen so much. The university campus is on the
mountain and overlooks all of Haifa. On a clear day, it is
possible to see Lebanon. Considering there are only about
12,000 students enrolled at the university, the campus is
significantly smaller than UF's. (I can actually walk to class from
my dorm in less than five minutes). The campus has a Mediterra-
nean look to it and the buildings are built of a pretty light yellow
stone. The first couple days of my stay were quite hectic because
I arrived the night before the Winter Ulpan entry level exam.
There are six levels and I tested into the highest! Although I am
one of the strongest in the class in grammar and reading, I feel
like I'm the worst when it comes to speaking. Just about everyone
has at least one Israeli parent and grew up speaking Hebrew at
home or in Jewish day school. Fortunately, my professor under-
stands my situation and helps me when I'm lost. The 17 students
in the class come from very different backgrounds. Most are from


the US, one is from Denmark and one from Austria. Two other
students made aliyah, which means they moved to Israel. About
12 of them are undergraduate students like me. There are several
students, some in their twenties and two in their late forties, who
are here just for ulpan in order to perfect their Hebrew.
Ulpan classes take place Sunday through Thursday from 8:30
a.m. to 1:00 p.m.. We read stories by authors such as Amos Oz
and Yosl Bernstein. I specifically remember one of Oz's short
stories that we read, titled "Jerusalem of Above and Jerusalem
of Below." It focused on the many opposites evident in Jerusa-
lem pertaining to religion, culture, and socioeconomic status.
Oz portrays the city struggling between materialistic and spiri-
tual values. He denounces the political struggle and violence that
stems from fanatic nationalism. I have an especially difficult time
reading Oz's work on account of his use of sophisticated Hebrew
and figurative language. Many times I may understand the literal
translation but it may either make no sense to me or the underly-








ing themes may go right over my head. When we read these texts
in class, my professor has us discuss what we think the author
is trying to say and we eventually either figure it out ourselves
or she explains it to us. Besides reading we also discuss current
events, such as the outcome of the recent Israeli election and our
views of the peace process and human rights.
For at least an hour everyday, we review grammar, which I
enjoy because this is my strong point while everyone else has to
struggle. I am already familiar with all the grammar, including the
difference between active and passive, and the present participle.
When going over grammar, my professor would usually explain
it to us and write some conjugations on the board and have us
write sentences using the particular conjugation discussed. Other
times she would ask us to identify which tense and conjugation is
in the sentence. One thing I did not really learn at UF were milot
sibah (words of cause) and milot totzahah (words of consequence),
which are words like English's "because" and "therefore." In He-
brew, there are at least 15 words for because. However, some can
only be used when preceding a sentence and the others can only
be used when they precede a noun. For example, there would
be a different word for because in the sentences "I missed my
flight because of the bad weather"- here because is bglal and
"I missed my flight because I lost my passport" because in this
case is mpney she.
Once a week, a guest speaker comes. The first was a professor
from Haifa University who lectured on gender inequalities in
Israel and the barriers and limitations restricting women from
equal opportunities with men. I am almost positive everyone in
my class thought the lecture was too one-sided and didn't men-
tion social reform and improvements that have helped women
throughout the past decade. Nevertheless, I was just happy I was
able to understand the lecture since it was completely in Hebrew.
We also have language lab once a week where we listen to Israeli
news broadcasts and then are tested on comprehension. I never
noticed how fast news broadcasters speak until the first language
lab! Our professor gives us part of the broadcast in print with
words missing and we have to fill in the blanks. I think I have
to listen to the recording at least fifteen times to complete each
section. Even then, I am not completely sure about the correct
answers. The other sections can be even harder, asking true or
false questions pertaining to the broadcast.

M y professor teaches completely in Hebrew, therefore,
I don't understand half of what she says. I don't
I.now what I would do in class without two friends
vho sit next to me and help me out. Although the
lass is difficult and sometimes frustrating, I can al-
r, r. II il, speaking and comprehension skills have improved.
. I 11 i I -1,.1 rI i .1 1. rl!. l;-1.l. .r level rather than going


down to the next level as students often do during the first week.
I am never really bored from the class and it is broken up with
two breaks. These are the times when we socialize with friends in
the other class levels.
Some of the international students have already been here
for a semester and have been extremely helpful in showing us
around the campus and the city, and by taking us to several parts
of town to shop, eat, and socialize. They have been especially
helpful showing us how to use public transportation. Israel has a
great and inexpensive public transportation system. One of the
students I became friends with knows that I like to run, so she
showed me a trail that starts on campus and goes up the moun-
tain and ends up at an amazing lookout on the city. The trail is
called Derekh Dor, which means Generational Trail. Through-
out the trail there are rock formations and granaries from an-
cient times and the route is supposed to symbolize the different
generations of Israel.


in places other than Israel including India, England,
Brazil, and France. The international students have al-
ready become a close-knit group and we tend to travel in
packs. It is quite a scene when at least twenty of us get
on a bus or sit down at a restaurant or pub! Last Friday we had
a huge potluck Shabbat dinner at my friend's dorm. Although
I was never really religious at home, it is nice to participate in
events like these with a large group of my Jewish friends. (There
are also some non-Jewish students who came to our Shabbat din-
ner and they, too, had a good time). I have been craving falafel
and shwarma since I got here and I finally had some in Nazareth.
My first meal out on the town with my new friends in Haifa was
a very kosher cheeseburger and fries.
One night, my classmates and I met our professor at the Haifa
theatre in Hadar to see the play, Si.. pashut (A Simple Story). The
day before the performance, our professor briefly summarized
the play for us so we would be able to follow along during the
presentation. The setting of the play took place in Europe and
focused on a young man named Hershel who got married to a
young woman named Mina. He realized he was still in love with
his very distant relative, Bluma, who moved in to his house when
he was younger because both of her parents died. The play por-
trays his struggles and his emotions during this time. He seems
to be going crazy over his situation. However, some interpret this
as pretending to be crazy to avoid serving in the army: I prob-
ably wouldn't have understood ".... !.. r i.. i ii I., i.. ..I. -
hadn't summarized it before we i.,.. I
I haven't been to many l. *r ,, r I i i . 1 .. 4I. i ,ii. rr.,
ing to save m oney and we .lr. i. I ir .....I I rl. i .l..Ii 1.. I.. ,
theplay, wemet f :!.1 i ,I i .1 1i I Ii ... .1.' rl ,r. .1 ..


































--- ---2-
ur professor briefly summarized the play for us so
Follow along during the presentation. The setting
ce in Europe and focused on a young man named


open was a restaurant on the side of a hotel. They would only
serve us breakfast, eggs or toast. One thing I've learned about
food here is that "toast" is not American toast. Toast in Israel ac-
tually refers to a panini-type sandwich, usually filled with various
vegetables, meats and cheeses. After class, the popular hang out
is the cafeteria on campus which we call 20 Shekel Plate. This is
because they charge only $5 to stuff as much food on your plate
as you can. It is buffet style and includes various meats, mostly
grilled chicken, schnitzel, and beef, pastas, vegetables, breads,
and more. We love 20 Shekel Plate and go there at least twice a
week. Coming from a university that has three Starbucks, I was
surprised that there are more coffee shops and cafeterias on this
proportionally smaller campus than on UF. The food on campus
is much cheaper than food on campus in Florida. Also, they sell
12-inch subs with meat and vegetables for 8 shekels, which is
about $2.
My mother's friend, whom I stayed with when I first arrived
lives about five minutes away from campus and I never realized
how comforting it would be to have a sense of family so close
by. She has two daughters, whom I hadn't seen since I was four


years old. I spent a Shabbat and many other nights with her fam-
ily and have had interesting conversations with them about life
in Israel and their opinions about the recent election. She has
shown me around and took me to the market in Hadar, where
the British Mandate headquarters was located. She showed me
what used to be the dividing line between the Jewish and Arab
sectors of the city during that period. The Hadar market is really
something. I have never seen so many fresh fruits, vegetables,
nuts, fish, and meat all in one area. The market was crowded
with all sorts of people, old and young, religious and secular, Ar-
abs and Jews. The workers were all yelling over each other trying
to win over customers with the best bargains, several shouting:
"Ekhad b'shekel! Ekhad b'shekel!" which means one head of lettuce,
parsley, or other leafy vegetable for one shekel (about $0.25). I
have noticed the stark contrast between American food grocer-
ies and Israeli food stores and markets. Nearly all the produce
and breads in Israel are laid out in the open air, allowing you to
touch and smell them before you purchase. In America people
are so worried about germs and disease that almost everything is
pre-packaged.




































Last week, we went on a hike to the Siakh (Bush) Creek,

which is a lovely green spot in the middle of the city and the

trail led us to the special mosque of the neighborhood of
it IILLhc tIl tLUUllbtclulb) IldSt btel
great helping us get accustomed and tak- Kabbabir. One of the heads of the mosque showed us around
ing us on trips. The first was to the Ghetto and told us about their sect of Islam which believes that
Fighters' Museum at Kibbutz Lokhamei
HaGetaot. This was the first Holocaust mu- nothing should be solved with violence.
seum anywhere. The exhibit explains the
Holocaust in a way that children can relate
to without showing pictures and images
that would frighten them.



their sect of Islam which believes that nothing should be solved with violence. Last weekend we visited the archaeological site
of Tzippori, which has a rich and diverse historical and architectural legacy, including a Roman theatre, Crusader fortress and
impressive mosaics. After Tzippori, we went to Nazareth, which was once a small hidden village in the Galilee and is now one
of the most renowned cities in the western world. We learned about the importance of Tzippori to the Jewish people and the life and
journey of Jesus. Unlike most Jews at the time, the inhabitants of Tzippori did not join the resistance against Roman rule in the First
Jewish Revolt of 66-70 C.E. They signed a pact with the Roman army not to rebel. Consequently, they were rewarded by being spared
the destruction suffered by many other Jewish cities, including Jerusalem. Several decades later, Rabbi Hanasi, one of the compilers
of the Mishnah, moved to Tzippori and documented the history of the Jewish people and the story of Tzippori. At Tzippori someone
took a picture of me and my friend Neri Stein, also from UF, doing the Gator chomp. 0














t.1**

DECONSTRUCTION,




DEIS'ABI UaTII NI



REPRESSED IN MR. MANI

I by David Byron


A.B. Yehoshua's novel Mr. Mani is a sprawling, densely lay-
ered historical text. Structured as a series of five incomplete
conversations which are encountered in reverse chronological
order, it is a novel which is concerned not only with the story be-
ing told, but more importantly, the process of the telling itself.
Yehoshua's text requires the reader to examine history not as
objective fact, but as a narrative which is consciously shaped and
formed; it asks us to regard history not as a series of linear and
connected movements along a timeline, but rather as a series of
events which are "unearthed," layered one upon the other, with-
out a set, determined connection. The definitive act of history,
then, is the fabrication of that connection.
Throughout, Yehoshua examines the construction of identity
and ideology through these conscious and unconscious layer-
ings and revisions, and in doing so brings to light the constitu-
tive process of constructing official narratives of self and coun-
try, and of individual and collective memory. The purpose of
my essay, "Deconstruction, Destabilization, and the Return of
the Repressed in Mr. Mani," is to examine the myriad layerings
and revisions in Yehoshua's text, both in the individual con-


versations of the characters and in the historical periods they
represent, an emphasis which posits the creation of historical
narratives as a palimpsest, a continual process of revision and
over-inscription which appropriates and disavows events in the
historical past in the creation of individual and, more impor-
tantly, nationalist ideologies.
From the first conversation, set during the controversial 1982
Lebanon War, to the novel's conclusion and its allusion to the
Biblical story of the akedah (the binding of Isaac), Mr. Mani ex-
amines the act and effect of constructing national narratives in
Israel from its conception to the modern era, a strikingly dense
examination of Israeli culture throughout history. In my analy-
sis, I argue that the Yehoshua's critique of this act of historical
construction follows the psychoanalytic pattern of repression
and neurosis, in that each repression/revision inevitably leaves
behind a residue of its existence, a lingering trace which cannot
be completely overwritten, and which provokes neurosis from its
place of historical inaccessibility, exemplified in Yehoshua's text
through the dysfunctional behavior of the eponymous, Israel-
bound Mani family.




















Made possible through these endowments and gifts:
a June ..... I... Gelbart Foundation
o Irma & Norman Braman
o Berman Family Foundation
o Jack Chester Foundation
o Futernick Endowment
o Alexander Grass Eminent Scholar Chair
o Charlotte A. Gunzburger Endowment
o Gary R. Gerson Lecture Series Endowment
o Harry Rich Endowment for Holocaust
Studies
o Jewish Council for North-Central FL
o Kahn Visiting Scholar Endowment
o Posen Foundation
o Robert Russell Memorial Foundation
o Ronnie and Joan Levin
o Schram Memorial Fund
o Shorstein Family
o Jerome Yavitz Charitable Foundation



"Secularization, Judaism and the Political: Posen-
Faculty Seminar at the Center for Jewish Studies,"
(Faculty Seminar) Tuesday, April 15, 2008

FERZINA BANAJI (US Holocaust Memorial Mu-
seum), I i ...... the 'Un-Representable': Film
and the Holocaust," Thursday, June 19, 2008

SHIFT 2008: Holocaust Educators Workshop,
Tune 16-20. 2008


08-09









NORA ALTER, "Acoustic Bridges: Listening to
Eisler," (Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, October 15,
2008

TODD HASAK-LOWY (University of Florida),
"Todd Hasak-Lowy Reads," Thursday October 16,
2008

I I.... [ewish Literature: A Workshop with Dan
Miron," Sunday, October 19, 2008

DAVID NIRENBERG (University of Chicago),
"Sibling Rivalries: Judaism, Christianity, Islam,"
Wednesday, November 12, 2008

"An Evening of Yiddish Song: Wolf Krakowski
with the Lonesome Brothers and Friends," Satur-
day, November 15, 2008

JONATHAN JUDAKEN (University of Memphis),
"Theorizing Anti-Antisemitism," Monday, Novem-
ber 17, 2008

"Being Jewish in Philosophy." Symposium to
celebrate sixty years of "Being Jewish" and Time
and the Other by Emmanuel Levinas. Invited guest
participants: Professor Jonathan Judaken (Univer-
sity of Memphis). Organized by Dragan Kujundzic.
Tuesday, November 18, 2008

DAVID RUDERMAN (University of Pennsylva-
nia), "The People and the Book: The Invention of
Print and the Transformation of Jewish Culture,"
Monday, December 1, 2008















i^ y i^
^ *a'. mS^


TODD HASAK-LOWY, "Beaufort: Lebanon,
Closure, and the Unending State of Emergency,"
(Faculty Seminar) Wednesday, December 3, 2008

SUSANNAH HESCHEL (Dartmouth C II .
"Scholars and Converts: European Jews Embrace
Islam," February 16, 2009

ROBERT KAWASHIMA, "'You Shall Love the
Lord Your God': On the Interpellation of the
Ancient Israelite Subject" (Faculty Seminar)
Wednesday, February 18, 2009

GAIL HAREVEN, I I.... from her new novel,"
March 4, 2009

RICHARD BURT, "Secularization, Sacrilege, and
Reversing the Renaissance Image and Text" (Fac-
ulty Seminar) Wednesday, March 18, 2009

JONATHAN JUDAKEN (University of Memphis),
"Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust" Tuesday,
March 31, 2009

SHULAMIT VOLKOV (Tel Aviv University),
"German Jewry and the Invention of Secularism"
Thursday, April 2, 2009

DIRK RUPNOW (University of Innsbruck),
..... I I., ... Preserving Remembering: The
'Aryanization' of Jewish History and Memory dur-
ing the Holocaust" Monday, April 13, 2009

NORMAN J. W. GODA (Ohio University), "Czer-
niakow's Playground: The Struggle for Humanity
in the Warsaw Ghetto" Thursday, April 16, 2009





















I i.... [ewish Literature: An Advanced
Workshop with Professor Dan Miron (Columbia
University)," Sunday November 1, 2009

"The Animal in the Synagogue: Kafka's Jewish
Story" Dan Miron (Columbia University),
November 1, 2009

"Tsuker-zis: Jewish Holiday Music," Frank London,
Lorin Sklamberg, and Robert Schwimmer in
concert. Wednesday, November 4, 2009

ANTHONY GRAFTON (Princeton University),
"Jewish Books and Christian Readers in Early
Modern Europe" Monday, November 9, 2009

"No. 4 Street of Our Lady," a screening and discus-
sion with producer Judy Maltz (Penn State Univer-
sity), Thursday, November 19, 2009

Marcel Ophuls, "The Sorrow and the Pity" Monday,
November 23, 2009
Symposium organized by Dragan Kujundzic with
presentations by: Sylvie Blum, Eric Kligerman,
Maureen Turim and Brigitte Weltman-Aron.


09-10









KEREN WEINSHALL MARGEL (Hebrew
University/Harvard), "Fighting Terror in the Israeli
High Court of Justice: Overt and Covert Aspects"
Tuesday, January 19, 2010

YOSSI CHAJES (Haifa University), "It's Good to
See the King: The Nature & Function of Kabbalis-
tic Divinity Maps," Thursday, February 4, 2010

MERON BENVENISTI, "Israel/Palestine: The
Meaning of the Geo-Political 'Status Quo'" Thurs-
day, February 11, 2010

MERON BENVENISTI, "Processes of Fragmenta-
tion and Integration in Israel/Palestine" (Faculty
Seminar) Friday, February 12, 2010

SAMMY SMOOHA (Haifa University), "Is Israel
Western?" Thursday, February 18, 2010

SAMMY SMOOHA (Haifa University), "Israel's
Ethnic Democracy in a Comparative Perspective"
(Faculty Seminar), Friday, February 19, 2010

SAMUEL WEBER (Northwestern University),
"Guilt, Debt and the Turn Toward the Future: Wal-
ter Benjamin and Hermann Levin Goldschmidt
(A Foray into Economic Theology)" Thursday,
February 25, 2010


Open public workshop seminar on Walter Benja-
min with Professor Samuel Weber.
SI .. I I ... Group) Friday, February 26, 2010

"Convergences and Conversions: The Merchant of
Venice into the 21st Century" a conference. Mon-
day evening, March 1 & all day March 2, 2010

"Arab Labor," a screening and discussion with Sayed
Kashua (Haaretz) Thursday, March 4, 2010

1 ... I ...... the Hebrew Bible: an Advanced
Workshop with Robert Alter" (UCBerkeley),
Sunday, March 14, 2010

ROBERT ALTER, "Qohelet: Philosophy Through
Metaphor" Sunday, March 14, 2010

Yair Dalal and Dror Sinai in Concert, Thursday,
April 15, 2010. A concert of Iraqi and Iraqi Israeli
music.


For the latest in events:

jst.ufl.edu/events











READING JEWISH

LITERATURE:

:AN ADVANCED WORKSHOP SUNDAY
WITH DAN MIRON April 10, 2011


The Two Phases of Yiddish/Hebrew Modernism

10:00-12:00: U.ri. Gnessin. Manl Leyb. Dovid Bergelson

2:00-4:00: The Hebrew and Yiddish of U Z Greenberg
al the 1920s

5:30: Public Lecture: "Hebrew and Yiddish Modermsms
-Some Comparative Notes"

Thl morning and afternoon workshops are bv invitation only


For more infrrmntion contact'
Jack Kugelmass. Director
Center lor Jewish Studies
11(ugelma cufl.edu


the Center for Jeii-h uli ud'l- will fnelr-ime Profe-,or
Saul Friedlander of the I nt,-r'-ii of California at
Li'. Angele- for a Iine-,l; -\ .mliium followed Ib a
imhlic lecture.

Profess.or Friedlander i.. the amutlnor of oier a dozen
hook. on the Holoraii-L and niie of the iorld"'
leading authorities on the -llubject. His nimot recent
work is hi' Itw volume \azi (lermany and the Jews.
which has garnered .ew eral ai.ards including the
2008 Pulilzer Prize for non-fictiin.


The sympo-uilnl filr invited faculty.
For more ilnlr.lalii... please contact
Prof,--m.r irminan CGoda.
Enmail: (.-llal ufl.edu


..: !;.r . .


*UF UNIVERSITY of
UFFLORIDA
Center for Jewish Studies
PO Box 118020
Gainesville, FL 32611-8020


;" CENTER FOR JEWISH STUDIES
. .. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
s.- y ,.


__-.ii~-l II




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