Table of Contents


Florida geology educational video project : educator's guide for Florida's Geology Unearthed
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093706/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida geology educational video project : educator's guide for Florida's Geology Unearthed
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Arthur, Jon ( Project manager )
Lane, Ed
Rupert, Frank
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey / Florida Department of Environmental Protection and Diane Wilkins Productions
Place of Publication: Tallahasse, Fla.
Publication Date: 1996
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
System ID: UF00093706:00001


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GeologyUnearthedEducatorsGuideVS1 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
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Full Text

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1. Photomicrograph of an igneous rock
magnified roughly 30 times. These rocks make
up parts of the Florida basement and are found
thousands of feet beneath land surface. The
rock is cut down to a thickness less than paper
and is mounted on a glass slide for viewing
through a microscope that uses crossed-
polarized light. Photo taken by Jon Arthur,
Florida Geological Survey.

2. A clay mine in Gadsden County. Photo
taken by Steve Spencer, Florida Geological

3. A calcite crystal found in a limestone
quarry. The image is about one-half actual
size. Photo taken by Tom Scott, Florida
Geological Survey.

4. Image of the Florida peninsula taken from
Space Shuttle flight STS052 (October, 1992)
from an altitude of 158 nautical miles. Photo
credit: NASA.

5. View of Suwannee Limestone exposed
along the west bank of the Suwannee River in
Hamilton County. Photo taken by Jon Arthur,
Florida Geological Survey.

6. Tre Winter Park sinkhole, showing
destruction of municipal swimming pool and
other property. The sinkhole formed during
May 8th and 9th, 1981. Photo credit: Florida
Geological Survey files.

This material was developed by the Florida Geological Survey, a bureau within the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. Financial assistance was provided through a grant from the Florida Advisory Council on Environmental
Education with proceeds from the sale of manatee and panther license plates. This material is the sole property of the State of
Florida. Information concerning this material, including the Educator's Guide and supplemental written materials, may be
obtained by contacting: Florida Geological Survey, Publications, 903 W. Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL 32304 7708.
voice: 904.488.9380 fax: 904.488.8086 e-mail: mekeel_d@depstate.fl.us

Printed on recycled paper.




Ed Lane
Frank Rupert

in conjunction with the

Tallahassee, Florida

". of






Florida Geology.........


Rocks and Minerals....
Fossils and Fossilizatio


Visualizing Geological
Rocks, Minerals, and C
Fossils and Fossilizatio

.T kEE. ..i-ij E



Geological Hazards.....


JID E ......................................................................


3 ACTIVITIES Video Break no. 1


n Processes ... ......................... .................. .........

G ACTIVITIES Video Break no. 2

Time................ ........................ ................. ...

n Processes ............................................................

ING ACTIVITIES Video Break no. 3




Solid Earth Materials and Mining .................................... .............
Aquifers and Ground W ater...............................................................



Environmental Concei


Environmental Protec
Geology as a Career.


No. 1 Definitions of
No. 2 Quizzes: pre-
Nno. Ontinnal Art[h

No. 4 Lists of clubs and museum
Fossil clubs ................
Fossil collecting permit...
Rocks and Minerals .......
No. 5 Additional sources for lite
Florida Department of En'
Florida Limerock and Agg
Florida Phosphate Counci
Florida Petroleum Council
American Geological Insti
Geological Society of Am
American Association of
U. S. Geological Survey .
Florida Water Managemei



'S -- End of Video

logical terms ....................................................
D viewing, with answers......................................

photographs, and satellite images ...........................
strata ........................... ......................... ...
;in Florida ............................................ .... ...

ture and materials..................................................
onmental Protection............................. .......
gate Institute ............. .......... ............. ..

te...r ....................................
ica. .......onmental Protection.................................

gtroeum Geologists ............................................
.................................................................. .......

D istricts................................................................

!0 CREDITS ....................................... ............

a n n .

An understanding of Rorida's
ecological education program

essential part of an effective en
w-hundred feet of the earth's
. and they are the most affe

crust, such as surface and ground water anc
and nature of environments; and people, plant
Dynamic geological processes constantly mod

The geology of the solid earth and the geological processes that act on it are the reasons
why environments and ecosystems are what they are, as well as where they are.

Florida's Geology Unearthed is more than just an entertaining video. It is a program which
tells how geology affects our lives here in Florida. It explores such topics as Florida's
geological history, its rocks, minerals, and fossils, and its water resources. It gives students

The Florida Geology El
Guide are designed to
related to earth science

i, "Florida's Geology Un,
inform and stimulate st
urces. environments and

,d" and the Educator's
s in a variety of topics
stems. These teaching

creates a foundation for mc
biology, chemistry, and pt
economics, resource manage
history. This material should
rIt;r7nre en that, -n.fll rt nnrtr'

ialized studies in such scientific fields
other specialized fields could include
rban planning, land-use planning, public
te a sense of stewardship in future de(
+tart -r-n-a O n- rAnarl r-- nn.--

The purpose of the materials provided in the kit with the video is to pr
grades 8 and 9 with program information, suggested activities and other r
which will supplement the information in the video.

The suggested activities in the Learning Activities will help students
knowledge and orovide onnortunities to develnn skills which will enhance


he Florida Geology Education Video, titled "FLORIDA'S GEOLOGY UNEARTHED," has four
jilt-in "breaks." Based on these "breaks," the Educator's Guide is divided into five PARTS,

me coucaror's ouure pertains to the PAl
sak 1. PART TWO of the Educator's Guide
the video. The video's "breaks" also car
-tivities, and Special Publication 35. Lists i
title against solid waste?," are included in

e text portions of PARTS ONE through
cause the topics pertinent to each sector
d Special Publication 35. For some PA
ucator's Guide to expand on the main topic
B video provide sufficient information, tht

i PAThas t1heI folowIng omr oentsI

: of the video, which ends with Video
s Video Break 1, and so on until the end
ordinated with material in the Learning
deo, such as "How can we help win the
IVE of the Educator's Guide for use as

: the Educator's Guide differ in length
)vered to differing extents in the video
additional material is presented in the
either PARTS, Special Publication 35 and
~ . I I .

Mcrfl fl0l cI

NOTICE: Copies of this Educai
Survey, by requesting: Special I
materials supplied with the origin

Information Circular A7 "liMt nf f

be obtained from the Florida Gec
This does NOT include the video oi

lic, educators, stud(


Florida Geological Surve,
903 West Tennessee St.
Tallahassee, FL 32304-'

The FGS World Wide Web (WV
is currently under construction
Environmental Protection WWW
page is to provide a cost-effecti
information for research and edL

Summaries of Florida's geologic

Tel. 904.488.9380

led to the existing Florida Departn
v.dep.state.fl.us). The purpose of t
for the dissemination of geologic d;

mic minerals industry, common roc

Re nanD

will also be accessible. The page will also include an overview of the FGS, including
organizational history, current projects and an overview of each section within the Florida
Geological Survey.

P A R T 0NE Florida Geology, Ecosystems and You


SCIENCE: Processes that shape the earth

Standard 1. The student recognizes that
the processes in the lithosphere,
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
interact to shape the earth.

SOCIAL STUDIES: People, places and
environments (geography)

Standard 1. The student understands the
world in spatial terms.

Standard 2. The student understands the
interaction of people and the physical


Standard 2. The student writes to
communicate ideas and information


1. How does geology affect your life?

2. What is an ecosystem?

3. How did Florida get its shape?

OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the
student will:

1. Develop an awareness of geology and
geomorphology and how they affect our

2. Expand their understanding of
ecosystems to include geology and
geological processes.

3. Demonstrate the relationship among
geological processes, geomorphology, and

4. Become aware of the concept of how
geological history and processes have
controlled the shape of Florida's

Part 1 Learning Activities.
SpecialPublication 35, pages 1-28, 47-50, 58-60.

Flrida's Hydrogeologic Environment, by Paulette Bond: Florida Geological
Survey, color poster showing the hydrogeology of karst terrain.
Earth Systems: The Foundation of Florida's Ecosystems, by Ed Lane and
Frank Rupert: Florida Geological Survey, full-color poster illustrating
the relationships among Florida's ecosystems and geology (in

Ita czed words in the text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 1 GEO-FACT: No rocks ... No water ... NO ECOSYSTEM !

ECOLOGY is the study of the relationship
between organisms and their
environment, including the study of
communities, patterns of life, natural
cycles, relationships to each other,
biogeography, and population changes.

An ECOSYSTEM is any area where the
Earth's living and non-living systems
interact; including the air that surrounds
our planet, the water bodies above and
below the Earth's surface, the soils and
solid surfaces of the Earth's outer layer,
and all the organisms that live on the
Earth, including humans.

VARIETY, and on many scales, from the
microscopic to planet-wide. Therefore, an
ecosystem's boundaries depend on the
scope of your point of view. Most
ecosystems have a diversity of animals
and plants, each of which includes a
range of environmental factors in its living
requirements. Because of this, there is
overlap among adjacent ecosystems. The
Everglades is an example of a large-scale
ecosystem; a smaller-scale ecosystem
could be a local park, or the land and air
encompassed by a school's property

change in time and space, due to both
natural and human influences. Shallow
lakes, for example, tend to fill in over time
with sediment and plant material; human
activities around the lake can accelerate
the process. Plant and animal
communities also change as part of the
life cycle of an ecosystem.

A knowledge of EARTH SYSTEMS is
necessary to understand how biological
and non-biological components interact to
create and sustain ecosystems. The solid
earth aspects of earth systems are
included in the science of geology; the
atmospheric components reside with
meteorology; and hydrogeology and
hydrology cover the aqueous parts of our
physical earth system.

Stratigraphy refers to the composition,
sequence, and correlation of the layered
rock-sequences that make up the Earth's
crust. The stratigraphic relationships of an
area's rock formations are a major factor
in determining the landforms, or
geomorphology, of that area. An area's
stratigraphy controls surface and ground-
water conditions, such as flow, recharge
and discharge areas, location and depth of
aquifers, and water quality. Some
geomorphic features can create very
localized microclimates and restricted
ecosystems; the Devil's Millhopper
sinkhole, in Gainesville, is a good example
of this phenomenon.

The physical characteristics of rocks and
geologic processes have direct relevance
to ecosystems. Weathering processes
break down rocks into their constituent
minerals and chemical components,
forming soils and nutrients. Erosion and
sediment transport processes then make
them available to the biosphere. Most
nutrients are recycled many times through
an ecosystem before losing their
usefulness to the system.

Write down the name of an ecosystem. List for this ecosystem all plants,
geologic materials that you think are important to make it healthy and
member: No rocks ... No water ... NO ECOSYSTEMS !

Draw and label an ecosystem ... be sure to include the four major

Nrite a creative story about a water drop's journey through an ecosystem. In
ake sure the water drop encounters the atmosphere, the biosphere, the
and the lithosphere ... and stress the drop's interaction with each of the


Think about one entire day in your life. Starting with the time you get up,
the things, objects, or products you use that come from the Earth? How
probably needed the expertise of a geologist to find, remove, manufacture, or
lu. Save this list; it will be used again in Part 4 Learning Activity.

Draw an example of how erosion helps shape the land. Remember that
either physical (as ocean waves cutting a beach face), or chemical (as rocks
frite a paragraph that describes the geological process that you have drawn.
>h, mention how this process might become a geological hazard.

'he student uses the historical chronology and the historical
esses and habits of mind to perspective.
Standard 2. The student understands the
"he student understands world from its beginning to the time of
iral events occur in the Renaissance.
le, consistent patterns.

"he student understands KEY QUESTIONS
technology and society are
d interdependent. 1. How do geologists study the earth
"beneath our feet?"
w living things interact with
lent 2. What is geological time?

Ihe student understands the 3. What is important about limestone,
iterdependent, cyclic nature dolostone, fossils, and tectonics?
s in the environment.
4. Why are rocks and minerals important
:S: Measurement to ecosystems?

. The student measures 5. What is geological history?
re real world and uses the
Ive problems. 6. Why are some geological hazards that
occur in other parts of the country not of
. The student compares, major concern to us in Florida?
converts within systems of
(both standard/non-standard
stomary). OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the

.The student estimates student wal:
> in real-world problem
in real-world problem 1. Develop an understanding of why
geologists study the Earth.
.S: Number, sense, 2. Understand the concept of geological
operations time.
. The student understands
The student undersea Explain the relationships of limestone,
vays numbers are
ways numbers are dolostone, fossils, and tectonics to
id used in the real worldorida's geological story.
Florida's geological history.


Learning Activities.
i Publication 35, pages 1-25, 50-55.
series 125
dix 3 Creating sedimentary rock strata.
dix 4 List of fossil clubs in Florida.
dix 4 List of rock and mineral clubs in Florida.

SRock Kit, available from Florida Geological Survey.
SMinerals: Florida Geological Survey, full-color poster showing
on minerals.

and Minerals A Guide to Field Identification, Golden Press; available in.most
its' personal rock, mineral, and fossil collections.

Is in the text are defined in Appendix 1.

-FACT: Most of Florida's beach sands have come from the erosion of the
Appalachian Mountains, over a period of millions of years.

CS AND MINERALS Ocean. When this debris reaches the
Gulf, or any quiet body of water, the
! sedinentary rocks now particles settle out of the water and stack
a earth's surface, as well as up on the bottom of the body of water or
he surface, were either laid Gulf. In this way layers of sediments can
water or were precipitated build up. They can become Ethified into
In Florida such rocks sedimentary rocks through various
istics, such as gravel, sand, processes. One such process is
nd the precipitates, like cementation, where individual particles
dolostone. Florida's plastic are bound together by minerals, which
Ivels, sands, and clays, are precipitate out of ground water.
the weathering and erosion
lachian Mountains to the A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical
\ppalachians were once as element or compound formed as a product
d as the Rocky Mountains of inorganic processes. Minerals are
ver eons of geological time, crystalline solids; thus, all mechanical
products have been, and mixtures, no matter how homogeneous in
j, carried by streams and texture, are excluded. Although certain
3ulf of Mexico and Atlantic things may be thought of logically as

j plysiulca pr peril S oU all quI diLL UULUr s sdia LIIUUynI Ullu
id their occurrence as good crystals are found in cavities in
eral deposits. limestone in quarries. Amorphous forms
of quartz occur frequently as chert
mineral having a solid form, nodules which are, again, usually found in
sing a three-dimensional limestone rocks. Prehistoric inhabitants of
of its atoms and molecules. Florida worked the chert nodules to create
'y is the scientific study of their stone implements and weapons,
dies. such as arrow and spear heads, or knives.
Some sites along streams, where the
lie conditions some minerals limestone outcrops contained abundant
dies with regular geometric chert nodules, became favorite places for
ig smooth, planar surfaces, the primitive craftsmen to set up their
ils. For example, table salt "stone-age factories" to produce large
in the shape of cubes. This quantities of implements.
m chloride (NaCI), is called
imination of table salt with a A good example of a crystalline substance
lass will reveal its cubic is quartz, one of the most common
minerals on earth. Because it is so
plentiful, good quality specimens of quartz
plants and animals produce crystals usually can be bought from rock
Ibstances. By definition, and mineral merchants for reasonable
are not minerals. Sugar, cost. Glass, though mainly quartz, is an
nany plants, is probably the amorphous material having no regular
place such substance, and internal crystalline structure. Colored
shape can be seen by glass is made by adding small amounts of
lie sugar. Many organisms other minerals to the quartz during
the sea, both plants and manufacturing. Quartz is harder than
'act the mineral calcium steel, and can scratch a knife blade.
iCO3) from the water and Paradoxically, quartz crystals are very
rt of their life-processes, brittle, and can be easily shattered with a
crystalline, calcite shells or sharp blow, just like glass.
rly, some marine plants and

Florida's marine sedimentary rocks.
Complete skeletons are rare because
predators and scavenging organisms
quickly tear apart and scatter the skeletal
remains. Shark teeth, whale and fish
vertebrae, and dugong ribs are common
finds in many areas of Florida.

Florida also contains numerous land
animal fossils. As sea level began a
gradual fall about 30 million years ago,
significant areas of dry land began to
emerge. This land was inhabited by a
variety of mammals, many of which are
now extinct or no longer live in the state.
The land animal populations changed
through time, resulting in the rich and
diverse vertebrate fossil remains found in
Florida today. During the Pleistocene
Epoch, Florida's land animal diversity and
abundance probably resembled the
modern plains of Africa. Mastodons,
mammoths, horses, camels, giant sloths,
dire wolves, bears, capybaras,
glyptodonts, and saber-toothed cats,
among others, roamed the woods and
grasslands of ice Age Florida. Today their
remains are found as individual bones and
rarely as complete skeletons in rivers,
mines, and other excavations.

Fossil hunting in Florida where to look:
Florida offers the student collector a
variety of opportunities to find fossils.
The best locations are mines, quarries,
and other excavations, which expose the
buried fossiliferous rock units. Spoil piles
in the phosphate mines of the famous
Bone Valley district, in Polk and
Hillsborough Counties, offer some of the
best vertebrate fossil collecting in the
state. In recent years most mining
companies have stopped allowing
collectors into their mines for liability and
insurance reasons.

Rivers and streams, from the panhandle to
southern Florida, offer good potential for
finding fossils. Deeply incised streams

may have fossiliferous strata exposed in
the stream banks. Fossils, particularly
more durable bones and teeth, may be
concentrated on bars or in depressions on
the stream floor. The Peace River, near
Arcadia in Polk County, is accessible by
canoe or wading, and contains abundant
fossils in the streambed. Other streams
may require snorkeling for best results.

Canals and other man-made excavations
will commonly expose fossiliferous strata.
The spoil material removed from such
excavations may contain abundant fossils,
as well. This material may have been
trucked some distance from its origin to
serve as construction fill or road base;
thus, fossils may sometimes be collected
far from their original site and without the
need to enter a quarry or other off-limits

Vertebrate fossils wash ashore on the
beaches along Florida's west and
northeast coasts. Walking the beaches at
low tide is the best method for spotting
the brown to dark gray to black fossils in
the sand. Venice Beach, in southwest
Florida, is famous for its abundant shark
teeth. Beach renourishment projects
occur statewide; these dredged spoils
may also yield fossils that have been
pumped from offshore fossil beds.

Practical uses- of fossils: Some fossils
have significant economic value; they are
used to help locate oil and gas deposits,
and other mineral deposits. Some fossils
are good for correlating strata and in
determining relative geologic age. Fossils
record past forms of life, which indicate
changing environments and geographic
patterns during geological history.

Florida Fossil Clubs: There are several
fossil clubs in Florida. They have a
variety of activities, such as regular
meetings, field trips, and specimen sales.
A listing is given in Appendix 4.

- r n i t LEMiArniUiiumJ lI IVI Il O -



HELPFUL ITEMS: calculator
geological t

1. Assemble class on 100-yard-I
represents 5-billion-years, the appr
2. Divide class into 7 or 8 groups.
3. Each group is assigned a signifi
of the first photosynthetic, one-ce
of humans. The groups then consi
time into yards distance on the phl
the beginning of Earth history, a i
from that end zone to a position or
4. When all students have assun
occurrence in Earth history that th<
5. The spacing dramatically reveal
humans' existence.
6. At the "recent" end of the field,
represent various events in Florida'
7. Sample conversions: 100


1. Draw a large, round clock fac(
added as part of the demonstration
ALTERNATIVE: Use an actual cloc
2. Divide the class into 7 or 8 group
3. Assign each group a significa
represent the appearance of humar
date and converts the time into api
of the clock's hands are set at 1
history. Starting with earliest gec
clock's hands to the approximate e
4. As the clock is set, each team a
5. This demonstrates the relatively
20 seconds before 12 o'clock noor
6. Sample conversions:


ie scale (see Special Publication 35

ng football or athletic field. The
ximate age of the Earth.

ant occurrence in Earth history, suc
ed life. The last group should repre
t the geological time scale for that c
ing field. Having designated one er
ember of each group moves the ;
the field.
-d their proper positions, they sho
: position represents.
:he history of the Earth and the shor

i similar exercise could be performed
geological history.
rards = 5,000,000,000 years
lard = 50,000,000 years


with hours labelled. Do not draw

, the bigger the better, with a sweep
:occurrence in Earth history. Thi
SEach group consults the geologic
oximate hours, minutes, or seconds,
o'clock midnight, to represent the
>gical event, a member of each tea
ipsed time for that-event.
ounces the occurrence that this tim
brief period of time of humans' exi

12 hours = 5,000,000,000 years (
1 hour = 400,000,000 years
1 minute = 7,000,000 years
second = 117,000 years


page 5).

length of the field

as the appearance
ent the appearance
te and convert the
I zone to represent
>propriate distance

: out, in turn, the

period of time of

by having students




ii i i i! ii iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

Supplies needed:

Rock and mineral specimens.
Quartz sand and crystals, calcite crystals.
Small quantity of table salt.
Magnifying glasses or microscope.

1. Examine the specimens with the naked eye, then with the magnifying glass.
Study the shapes of each variety of crystals. Draw a picture of each one.

2. Separately, put the quartz sand and calcite crystal in a glass of plain water. Separately,
put some of the salt in a glass of water.

1. How are all of the specimens different? What similar characteristics do
they have?

2. What happened to the specimens when put into water? Why? What
physical or chemical properties could account for their behavior?

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Attend a meeting of your local rock, gem, and mineral club (see
Appendix 4).

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Visit a museum with rock and mineral collections (see Appendix
4 and MS 125).

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Create a classroom rock and mineral exhibit. Ask a geologist to
visit the class and help to identify the specimens. As a class, write the Florida Geological
Survey and request a rock and mineral kit for your class.




Special Publication 35, pages 8 25.
Map Series 125, A Guide Map to Geologic and Paleontologic Sites in Florida, by
Frank Rupert, Florida Geological Survey.

student's personal fossil collections
museum visits
field trips
Florida's FossH Mammals, FGS poster.
Common Cenozoic Echinoids From Florida, FGS poster.
A Guide to Identifying Florida Fossil Shells and Other Invertebrates, by Lelia
and William Brayfield, Florida Paleontological Society, University of Florida,
Gainesville, 113 p.
Florida's Fossils, Guide to Location, Identification and Enjoyment, by Robin
Brown, Pineapple Press, Sarasota, 208 p.
Fossils -A Guide to Prehistoric Life, A Golden Nature Guide, Golden Press, available
at most local book stores.

1. Arrange a field trip to a mine, beach, or other collecting site to look for Florida fossils.
Map Series 125 gives locations of many prospective sites. Permission must be obtained
before entering any property, anywhere. Two phosphate companies in the Mulberry, Polk
County, area which still permit group collecting at the time of this publication are: IMC
Agrico (contact Larry Peace or Larry Issac, 813-428-2500), and Cargill Corporation (Joyce
Bode, 813-285-8125).

TIP: Make a sieve for separating and washing fossils. It can be easily made by nailing
together a square frame, about 12" x 12" x 2.5" high, then tacking onto one side some
heavy wire (hardware cloth) with about 1/4" mesh.

2. Create a classroom fossil exhibit. With student finds, label each fossil by name, age,
geological formation in which it was found, and the location. Consult the suggested
reference materials and museum experts for help in identifying the fossils.

3. Visit a museum housing representative fossils and fossil displays; consult telephone
directory. Map Series 125 lists several Florida museums with fossil collections. Others are
listed in Appendix 4.

4. Contact the Florida Geological Survey or the Geology departments at local universities to
request speakers or guided tours.

5. Contact local fossil clubs for information on their activities. See Appendix 4 for listing of
Forida fossil clubs.

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SCIENCE: The nature of science

Standard 2. The student understands
that most natural events occur in
comprehensible, consistent patterns.

Standard 3. The student understands
that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent.

SCIENCE: Processes that shape the Earth

Standard 1. The student recognizes that
processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to
shape the Earth.

SCIENCE: Force and motion

Standard 1. The student understands
that types of motion may be described,
measured, and predicted.

Standard 2. The student understands
that the types of force that act on an
object and the effect of that force can be
described, measured, and predicted.


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.


1. What are glaciers?

2. Why does the sea level rise and fall?

3. What causes Florida's coastlines to be
a battleground between geological forces?

4. Why doesn't Florida have earthquakes?

5. What is karst?

6. What is radon?

OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the
student will:

1. Understand how glaciers function.

2. Understand the role of climate in
shaping Florida's landforms.

3. Understand how wind, waves, and
plate movements can affect shorelines.

Part 3 Learning Activities.
Special Publication 35, p.15-29; 47-57.

OTHER RESOURCES: (see Appendix 5).

Italicized words in text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 3 GEO-FACT 1: Paleoindian people lived in areas of Florida that are now

PART 3 GEO-FACT 2: Eighty percent of Florida's 14 million residents live within 30 miles
of the coast.

PART 3 GEO-FACT 3: We cannot stop geological processes, but understanding the
processes helps us to live more safely with them.


Flooding of urban areas causes serious
problems in Florida, such as destruction of
property, loss of life, the threat of
disease, and huge losses of money.
Many times, the damage from flooding is
magnified by society's actions.
Conversely, by understanding how natural
drainage systems work, people can plan
their developments or construction to
avoid flooding problems.

Under natural conditions it is normal for
all streams or rivers, of any size, to
occasionally overflow their channel
embankments and flood the surrounding
land. The land adjacent to a -stream that is
subject to flooding is called a floodplain.
Such flooding usually is caused by larger
than normal amounts of rainfall.

Historically, floodplains have always been
prime real estate. Their soils usually are
thick, rich in nutrients, and well watered;
ideal for growing crops and animals.
Consequendy, people have always farmed
them and built on them or near them.
Communities grew up at important stream
junctions or bridge crossings and, with
continued growth, tended to encroach
upon the floodplains. Each farming
operation, bridge or other building within
the limits of a stream's floodplain will
incrementally obstruct the flow of water,

resulting in the lowering of the stream's
ability to carry the runoff from rainfall. If
there are enough obstructions, and higher
than normal rainfall, the chances are good
that there will be a flood, to some local
degree. In Florida, not just "higher than
normal rainfall," but torrential rainfall
events are common, both from tropical
storms, as well as from hurricanes.
Another critical factor to be considered is
the effect of urban growth, even that
which is not directly on a floodplain.
Florida's explosive population growth has
resulted in ever-increasing demands for
housing, roads, and other urban
infrastructure to support it. Every square
meter of new roof, new road, or new
parking lot represents another square
meter of impervious surface that will shed
rainfall, creating and increasing runoff of
rainwater. Some of this runoff will -be
absorbed by soil. However, once the
capacity of the soil to absorb rain is
surpassed, the excess water will add to
local streamflow. At some point, the
stream will fill, reach floodstage, then
overflow its channel.

These facts, then, lead to an important
conclusion: each new impervious surface
on a floodplain or near a stream will
increase both the frequency and
magnitude of a flood; the stream will
flood more often and the flood waters will
rise higher.




HELPFUL ITEMS: Magazines and newspapers in libraries or from newsstands: Reports
of flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes, landslides, radon, or sinkhole

ACTIVITY 1. Based on a newspaper article about a natural disaster anywhere in the world,
write a brief explanation of why you think the publisher thought this would be of interest to

ACTIVITY 2. Do you think the citizens of Florida should be concerned about this type of
geological natural disaster happening to them? List the historical, climatological, and
geological factors that you think support your answer.

ACTIVITY 3. Examine the land use in the area or region where the natural disaster
occurred, paying particular attention to population and building density in urban areas,
roads, water resources and uses, coastal zone or floodplain uses, and farming practices.
Write a summary list of those activities of humans that you think may have contributed to
increasing the damage or financial losses from the disaster. Alongside each contributing
factor, briefly list the reason for its significance. Also, comment on policies or practices that
society could have done differently to lessen the damages.

ACTIVITY 4. Plan a field trip to a sinkhole. Note the character of the surrounding
landscape does it slope into the sinkhole; are there cracks in the soil; does it look very old
or relatively younger? If it has water, does its level appear to go up and down with rain;
does surface water appear to run directly into it? Critical observations of these
characteristics of the sinkhole will give clues to its hydraulic connection to the underlying
aquifer, and the potential for water-borne, surface contaminants to enter the aquifer directly
through the sinkhole. After studying the sinkhole, discuss reasons why it is dangerous to
swim and scuba dive in sinkholes.

PART F UR -- Economic Minerals, Water Resources, and
Waste Disposal


SCIENCE: The nature of matter

Standard 1. The student understands
that all matter has observable, measurable


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.

MATHEMATICS: Measurement

Standard 1. The student measures
quantities in the real world and uses the
measures to solve problems.

Standard 2. The student compares,
contrasts, and converts within systems of
measurement (both standard/non-standard
and metric/customary).

Standard 3. The student estimates
measurements in real world problem

Standard 4. The student selects and
uses appropriate units and instruments for
measurement to achieve the degree of
precision and accuracy required in real
world situations.

MATHEMATICS: Albebraic thinking

Standard 1. The student describes,
analyzes and generalizes a wide variety of
patterns, relations and functions

MATHEMATICS: Number sense,
concepts, and operations.

Standard 1. The student understands
the different ways numbers are
represented and used in the real world.

Standard 2. The student understands
number systems.

Standard 3. The student understands
the effects of operations on numbers and
the relationships among these operations,
selects appropriate operations, and
computes for problem solving.


1. What resources do we get from the

2. What is reclamation?

3. Why is the hydrologic cycle important
to Florida?

4. What are, permeability, transmissivity
and porosity?

5. How do our activities affect the quality
of our drinking water?

6. How can we reduce the amount of
solid waste which goes into our landfills?

---- ---

II: ground water flows through rocks.

the uses of materials we get 5. Discover the relationships between
earth. human activity and the quality of our
drinking water.
ow mining disrupts ecosystems
in how reclamation recycles 6. List 5 things that will help in reducing
the amount of solid waste going into

3EO-FACT 3. The amount of watei
found in Lake Okeecl

Almost all of the fresh
I in Florida comes from ground-
nuifer systems. They are,
natural resources of incalculable
understanding of the geological
hat control these aquifers'

8- 60.


om Florida Geological Survey.



h of minerals are mined annually, rai
in value of minerals produced.

19 million tons of solid waste each
football stadium once a day.

ised in Florida each year (approximal
llons) is almost twice the amount ol

of Florida's aquifers are in sed
rocks, either sand, gravel, limes
dolostone, or some combination
rocks. The pores in Florida's sed
rocks result from the
arrangement among the irregular
Florida's limestones or dolosto
thought of as being "solid" ro
they often have granular textu
considerable porosity. Quite of
pores of these rocks are interco
making the rocks permeable, and
of allowing water to flow through

5 for




me, or
f these
as are
:s, but

figuration of the sedimentary flow from one aquifer to another. The
create the aquifers in Florida. usual breaches in confining beds are
lorida is mantled with classic natural, caused by sinkholes, or man-
Sof varying combinations of made, by drilling wells through them.
minds, silts, or clays. Underlying Any breach, however, can create an easy
tics are carbonate rocks, such route for contaminants to enter the
nes or dolostones. In some aquifers, polluting their water. This
cks having relatively low polluted water can be the source of
ty, called confining beds, contamination to private or public water

Ground water, with any ei
pollutants, that flows through c;
cavernous conduit systems can
several miles in a few hours. In c
ground water flowing through
permeable rocks could take days,
or even years to travel the same di

Wes or

runoff with contaminants






.tI JC-k







Simplified diagram showing features common to aquifers in Florida. The ultimate source of
recharge to the aquifers is rain. This water can reach the underlying aquifers by several
routes: (1) by infiltrating downward through the sandy soils or where limestone crops out at
the surface; (2) through sinkholes that breach the confining beds; or (3) through wells or
natural fractures that cut through the confining beds. Contaminants can enter the aquifers
through these breaches and be carried long distances by the natural flow patterns of the
ground water. Discharge from the aquifers is by pumpage from wells or at springs, such as
Silver Springs or Wakulla Springs.



A- xzz=t~





After watching Part 4 of the video:

ACTIVITY 1. Think about one da.
list of how many things, objects or
of these probably needed the ex
transport to you? Compare this li,
for PART ONE Learning Activity.

ACTIVITY 2. Indicate on your list


in your life. Starting with the time
Products you use that come from the
artise of a geologist to find, mini
with the one you made at the begi

lose materials that are mined closest

>u get up, make a
Earth. How many
manufacture, or
ling of the video,

o your home.


Special Publicaton 35, pages 43 50.

Florida's Hydrogeologic Environment, by Paulette Bond: Florida Geological
Survey, color poster showing the hydrogeology of karst terrain.

recharge, and storage.

This simplified example shows how a hydrogeologist would approach an investigation or an
analysis of the physical characteristics of an aquifer.

Supplies needed:
1. Transparent plastic container, such as a clear, two-liter, plastic
soda bottle, with the top cut off neatly.
2. A piece of transparent plastic tubing, about 2-feet long, 1/2" diameter.
3. Food dye, Kool-Aid, or colored mouthwash.
4. Clean sand or aquarium gravel, enough to fill the container in step 1, above.
Beach sand can be used, but it should be washed thoroughly with tap water to
remove the salt.
5. Any other source of sand will probably contain significant amounts of
silt, clay, or organic matter, which should be washed out. This can be done
by putting the sand in a container, with a small amount of dish detergent,
shaking or stirring to thoroughly mix the sand and soap, then pouring off the
water. Repeat until the sand is relatively free of the clay and soap.
6. Let the sand dry before beginning the demonstration, preferably air dry.
CAUTION: Do not microwave the sand to dry it.
7. A graduated container to hold enough water to fill the container in step 1,
above. Any container will do, such as a clean, gallon milk-jug. A graduated
scale can be made from a piece of paper marked off in centimeters, and
taped to the side of the jug.

1. Put the tubing in the container, but hold it a short way off the bottom.
2. Fill the container almost to the top with the sand. It does not need to be
tamped down.
3. Fill the milk-jug with tap water, to the level of the top of the graduated
scale; and add enough food dye, Kool-Aid, or mouthwash solution to color the
4. RECORD the reading of the level of the water in the milk-jug.
5. SLOWLY pour the water from the jug into the container of sand, trying
not to disturb the surface very much, and allowing the water to percolate
down through the sand. Continue pouring until the water just reaches the
top of the sand. You have just filled a container with water that supposedly
was already full of sand !
6. RECORD the reading of the level of the water in the milk-jug. Subtract the
second reading from the first reading.
7. SLOWLY siphon some of the water up into the tubing; it can be held up by
pinching the tube closed. Observe what happens to the water in the sand.

1. The sand-filled container represents an aquifer, a body of rock that holds
water, and which can supply water to a well or spring.
2. The tubing represents a pumping water well drilled into the aquifer.
3. POROSITY is a measure of the amount of open spaces, or pores, in a
4. PERMEABILITY is the measure of how easily a fluid or gas can move
through the pores of a material. Although this demonstration does not
actually measure the sand aquifer's permeability, it does show that the water
travels through the pores to supply the "pumping well."
5. RECHARGE is water that replenishes an aquifer, usually supplied by rain
failing on the Earth's surface. In this demonstration, the aquifer was
"recharged" by "rainwater" poured from the milk-jug, which then percolated
downward through the aquifer's pores.
6. The "pumping well" withdrew water from the aquifer's pores. This water
could have been used for drinking, irrigation, a manufacturing process, or
any other use by society. As the well pulled in water from the surrounding
sand, the water level in the aquifer fell. If the well was pumped for a long
enough time, it could "de-water" the aquifer. Not all the water could be
extracted, however, since some would remain stuck to the sand grains so
tightly that it could not be pumped by the well.

Exercise: Calculate the porosity of this simulated aquifer. (The numbers used here are to
show examples of calculations, only; every type of sand will produce different values. The
letters used in the formulas are shown on the diagrams.)

1. The porosity of an aquifer is expressed as a percentage of voids relative
to the total volume of rock being studied:

Porosity (%) = v- X 100.

2. The amount of water poured into the sand-filled container is a good
approximation of the volume of the voids of the sand aquifer, because the
water just filled the voids. Calculate the volume of water poured into the
aquifer from the milk-jug; this represents the volume of voids:

voids (cubic centimeters) = side a X side b X height of water (x y).
3. Calculate the volume of the sand "aquifer" in the container:

volume (cubic centimeters) = in2h. (i = 3.14)

4. Solve equation 1, for porosity:

a. Calculate: voids = side a X side b X height of water (x y)

voids = 14 cms X 14 cms X 1.25 cms = 245 cubic centimeters.

b. Calculate: volume = ar2h = 3.14 X (5 cms)2 X 10.5 cms =
824.25 cubic centimeters.

c. Calculate: Porosity (%) = X 100 = 29.7 %.

5. This percentage of porosity means that approximately one-third of the volume of
the sand "aquifer" is open space, or voids. In this case, the porosity also
approximates the amount of storage the aquifer has; in other words, it can "store"
this quantity of water or gas. This is an important aquifer property, since it
indicates to hydrogeologists the potential quantity of water that an aquifer could
supply to a well.

radius of tubing
bottle= r /,pumping well)

S71e I--- reading x
scale, T (volume of

reading y




P A R T F I V E -- Environmental Concerns and Geological


SCIENCE: Processes that shape the Earth

Standard 2. The student understands the
need for protection of the natural systems
on Earth.

SCIENCE: The nature of science

Standard 3. The student understands
that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent.

LANGUAGE ARTS: Listening, viewing
and speaking

Standard 1. The student uses listening
strategies effectively.

SOCIAL STUDIES: People, places, and
environments (geography)

Standard 2. The student understands the
interactions of people and the physical


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.


1. What professional careers in the
geological/sciences are available?

2. How do human activities impact the

3. Why do we need to protect the
environment and ecosystems?

4. How can waste be disposed of safely?

5. What is the role of government in
protecting the environment?

6. What can individuals do to protect
Florida's ground water?

OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the
student will:

1. Explore different careers in geology.

2. List human activities which impact the

3. Suggest ways that will contribute to
the protection of the environment and

4. Suggest and analyze the safe disposal
of wastes using geological knowledge.

5. Understand the different roles
governmental agencies play in protecting
the environment.

6. Discover how individuals can protect
Florida's ground water.

- ---- -------

Part 5 Learning Activities.
Special Publication 35: pages 43 50, 58 60.

Eco Ventures Learning i
education program for mid
Environmental Protection.

PART 5 GEO-FACT: Florida gair


The video presents several w;
people can change their attitul

List 1: How can we help consent
1. Use water-saving shov
2. Do full loads of wash.
3. Fix leaks in plumbing.
4. Water lawn in early mc
5. Use native plants that I
6. Use shut-off nozzles o0
7. Turn water off while bi

List 2: How can we help win the
1. Don't litter.
2. Buy products with redt
3. Use energy efficient lig
4. Use rechargeable battle
5. Buy recycled materials.

List 3: What can we do to protect
1. Follow directions when
2. Don't pour it down the
3. Don't dump it on the g
4. Take household hazard
5. Keep septic systems m
6. Buy biodegradeable prc




ACTIVITY. What can I do to proi

"How can we help conser
"How can we help win the
"How can we protect our

Discuss with the students the difi
goals. Encourage them to start r
with ideas regarding how each sti
the environment. Discuss how
community program or participatE
goals. Now that they understand
license plate or a poster that sti


ACTIVITY 1. Resource People

Invite local geologists to visit the (
equipment they use, crystals, foss
local engineering consulting firms,

ACTIVITY 2. Where are the geoli

Discuss with the class the different
team of students look in the phoni
sand and gravel, stone crushed,
to think of different governmental
geologists. Local and regional age
authorities, water management dis
environmental or planning offices.
Florida Geological Survey, Rorida I
Department of Health and Rehabili
Consumer Services, U.S. Geologic
National Oceanographic and Atmo:

classroom discussions) and mention or describe the related geological profession. For
example, a student interested in beach erosion or the effects that Hurricane Andrew had on
the coastline could be informed that this is primarily the job of a coastal geologist.

Instructors with more interested students could also discuss how the science of geology is
unique because it integrates biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. For example, a
geologist who studies ancient life needs to understand biological processes and anatomy; a
geologist who studies earthquakes and how energy moves through the Earth's crust needs
to understand principles of physics and know how to solve math problems. Nearly all of the
geological professions make use of computers for creating models (such as the flow of
ground water through limestone aquifers), storing and analyzing data, generating maps or
cross sections, and for writing scientific reports.

Classroom discussion with interested students can be taken a step further. Some of the
professions listed, such as paleontologist or petrologist, can be divided into more specialized
areas of study. Recall the rock cycle and the different types of rocks ... there is a
petrologist (who studies the origins of rocks) for every major type of rock: igneous
petrology, metamorphic petrology, and sedimentary petrology. Sub-disciplines of
paleontology include: paleobotany, paleoecology, invertebrate paleontology, and vertebrate
paleontology. These examples may help the students understand the vast areas of
specialization in the field of geology, as well as the composite nature of the science of

volcanoes volcanologist crystals and minerals mineralogist
explore caves, springs karst geologist explore the ocean floor marine geologist
protect the environment environmental geologist mining for gold economic geologist
protect the environment geologist with degree in dinosaurs, fossils, paleontologist
environmental law ancient life
earthquakes seismologist rocks and how they petrologist
high-tech laboratories geochemist water resources hydrogeologist
huge sheets of ice, glaciologist hidden stories in stratigrapher
glaciers ancient rocks
sunny beaches coastal geologist the Moon, life on Mars planetary geologist
oldest rocks on Earth geochronologist tectonic plates, faults structural geologist
deep realms of Earth geophysicist make computer maps geologist, cartographer
explore historic sites, geoarcheologist
study artifacts

OIllvllll .AP N DliP E1N11NIX ONE


amorphous having no definite shape or boundaries; a term applied to rocks and minerals
that have no definite crystalline structure.

Archaic Period 8,000 BC 500 BC, the period after which paleoindian people settled into
permanent residence in Florida.

aquifer a water-saturated zone of rock below the Earth's surface capable of producing
water in useful quantities, as from a well.

artifacts objects made by humans, such as stone tools; studied by geoarcheologists.

basalt a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock formed from molten rock that flowed onto
the Earth's surface.

basement rocks or basement refers to very deep, ancient rocks that underlie the
continents and oceans.

basin a large area of lower elevation than surrounding areas.

brachiopods marine invertebrate animals in which the soft parts are enclosed by two
shells, called valves.

bryozoa tiny marine animals that build colonies with their shells.

calcareous containing or primarily made of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03).

Cenozoic Era the latest of the four eras into which geologic time, as recorded by the
stratified rocks of the Earth's crust, is divided; it extends from the end of the Mesozoic Era
to and including the present, or Recent.

plastics consisting of fragments of rocks or organic structures: gravels, sands, silts, and

confined aquifer a zone of subsurface water-bearing rocks that contain water under
pressure due to zones above and below it having low permeability, which restrict the flow of
water into and out of it. An artesian aquifer is a type of confined aquifer.

coquina soft, porous limestone composed of broken shells, corals, and other organic

coral small, colonial, bottom-dwelling, marine animals that secrete external skeletons of
calcium carbonate (calcite). The colonies they create with their skeletons can make
enormous reef-complexes, such as the Florida Keys, the Australian Great Barrier Reef, and
many coral islands in the Pacific Ocean, and other oceans.

crinoid a marine animal consisting of a cup or "head" containing the vital organs,
numerous radiating arms, an elongate, jointed stem, and a root-like attachment to the sea
bottom while the body, stem and arms float.

desalinization the process of removing salt and other impurities from sea water in order to
produce drinking water.

dolomite CaMg(C03)2, a rock-forming, carbonate mineral, very common in Florida.

dolostone a term for a sedimentary rock composed of fragmental, concretionary, or
precipitated dolomite of organic or inorganic origin.

echinoid one of a group of invertebrate marine animals, many of which have spines;
popularly called "sand dollars, sea biscuits, or sea urchins."

ecosystem a community of organisms, including humans, interacting with one another and
the environment in which they live.

environment all of the external factors that may act on an organism, either plant or animal,
or on a natural community. For example: gravity, air, wind, sunlight, moisture, temperature,
soil, and other organisms are some of the environmental factors that may affect the life
processes of an organism.

era a large division of geological time consisting of two or more geological periods.

erosion the natural processes of weathering, disintegration, dissolving, and removal and
transportation of rock and earth material, mainly by water and wind, as well as by ice.

exotic terrain a terrain that has undergone significant motion or travel with respect to the
stable continent to which it is accreted. Florida could be considered an exotic terrain with
respect to the North American continent, because it is thought to have once been part of
northwestern Africa.

fault a break in the Earth's rocks along which there has been displacement of the rocks.
Displacement may vary from inches to miles.

floodplain land next to a stream or river that is flooded during high-water flow.

foraminifera small, one-celled, mostly marine animals which secrete shells of calcium
carbonate or build them of cemented sand grains. They range in size from microscopic to a
few centimeters across. They occur in such quantities that their fossil shells make up almost
all of certain limestone rocks in Florida and other places in the world.

formation a rock unit possessing distinctive characteristics, such as mineral content,
fossils, or color, that allows it to be distinguished from adjacent rock units.

fossi remains or traces of prehistoric animals or plants. The most common types consist
of bones, carbon films, shells, molds, casts, and petrified wood.

fuller's earth a type of clay that is commercially valuable and widely used as cat litter and
as a dispersant in insecticides.

geology the study of the planet Earth, the materials of which it is made, processes that
affect these materials, the changes that the Earth has undergone in the past and the
changes it is currently undergoing.


. --' *- 6

of a sedimentary rock or sediment.,
ommon heavy minerals found in Flo
yanite, sillimanite, tourmaline, spinel

ioles, caves, disappearing streams,
systems. Such terrain is created by

erals of the kaolinite group, most co
I are valuable for making quality

materials are buried. Present enviro
istructed with impermeable barriers,
vastes or pollutants from escaping

om a volcano or fissure.

consisting chiefly of calcium cai
ited carbonate rock; it is the cons
I fragments.

processes can operate to consolidal
sequences of overlying sediments ca
:o sandstone. Chemical changes cai
lard rocks; for example, loose sea shl

,mically combined with calcium cai

sited in sea water, or to animals tha

nent, the only metal that is liquid .
)oison, dangerous to handle and world

da are:



.uch as
to the


! loose
1 cause
sed by
llts and


live in

t room

-on of its surface, and the changes that take place in land forms over time.

large body of ice with definite lateral limits, which moves in a downslope direction
great mass, as in Alaska.

liaht-colored, coarse-grained, ianeous rock formed from mama that cooled below

- a heavy, silver-white, metallic el
re; also called quicksilver. A virulen


hnr~-nrrrr~E+;nn f+rllc+llra +kl+ nm:cl~.

mollusks invertebrate animals, including a variety of marine, fresh water and terrestrial
snails; clams, oysters, mussels, scallops; squids, octopus, pearly nautilus, as well as the
many extinct varieties.

paleoindians archeological term referring to native American cultures prior to 8,000 BC;
prehistoric inhabitants of Florida.

paleontology the science that deals with the life of past geological ages, based on the
study of fossils.

peat a dark brown or black, organic residuum produced by the partial decomposition and
disintegration of mosses, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes or other wet places.
Peat deposits form when the rate of accumulation of plant matter exceeds the rate of
destruction by weathering or organisms. One of the largest peat deposits in the world is in
the Everglades.

percolation movement of water through the pores or voids in rock or soil.

period one unit of geological time into which Earth history is divided. A period is a
subdivision of an era.

permeability a measure of a porous material's ability to allow fluids or gases to flow
through its pores. An important property of rocks that determines how much and how
rapidly fluids or gases can move through them; for example, how much water can be
pumped from an aquifer (see: porosity).

phosphate rock a sedimentary rock containing calcium phosphate. Florida has some of the
most extensive deposits of phosphate rocks in the world. Very important in the
manufacturing of fertilizer.

plate tectonics a theory that large "plates" of the Earth's colder, upper crustal rocks are
capable of moving slowly (like rafts) on top of deeper, hotter, and more fluid rocks in the
mantle. Geologists have identified seven large plates and 11 or more smaller ones on the
Earth's surface.

Pleistocene Epoch the earlier of the two epochs comprising the Quaternary period.

porosity a measure of the amount of voids (pores) in a material. An important property of
rocks that determines the quantities of fluids or gases they can store; for example, the
amount of water an aquifer can store (see: permeability).

potable water water that can be consumed by humans without ill effects. Government
agencies have adopted standards of quality that specify limits of chemical constituents in
water sources.

potentiometric surface an imaginary surface defined by the level to which water in an
aquifer would rise in a well due to the natural pressure in the rocks.

precipitate(s) 1. the process whereby solids are left behind when liquids evaporate; for
example, vast deposits of salt were created when ancient seas evaporated. 2. precipitates:
the solid materials, themselves. (see: precipitation)

snow, sleet, or hail. 2. chemistry: the process of separating different minerals from a
solution by evaporation; for example, salt from sea water.

decays. It can accumulate in buildii

reclamation the act or process c
industry devoted to the recovery oi

rift or rifting refers to the breakii

saline salty; sea water or water n

salt-water intrusion the phenome
greater density, invades a body of
ground-water. It is a common pn
over-pump the fresh water aquifers

sandstone a type of sedimentary

scarp an escarpment, cliff, or steE

seismic pertaining to vibrations
methods used to create Earth vibra

shale a type of sedimentary roc
usually can be made to split into th

shoal an underwater area covered

silicilastic pertaining to plastic,
bearing, either as forms of quartz
quartz sands, silts, or clays.

siltstone a sedimentary rock made

sinkhole a depression in the lane
with a subterranean passage creal
water. Sinkholes may also form by

slate a type of metamorphic rock

solution feature a topographic or
result of water dissolving rocks, u.
disappearing .streams, springs, and

spreading center a fissure separ

stratigraphy the branch of geolog
correlation of the layered rock-sequ

onsumed in the Earth's interior.

line or mark of splitting open or of joining together, such as where parts of two
I masses collide and merge.

shallow depression in the land's surface which may be filled with water. In karst
lay indicate an incipient sinkhole forming.

)ertaining to the rock structures and external forms resulting from the deformation

some invertebrate animals; a shell.

h defines the rate at which water

by which water vapor escapes fror

er skeleton, and which became extil

as a condition whereby water-bearir

positionn that separates younger straw
- from the rock record.


of the zone of saturation under unc



at over

1 rocks

a from




See following two pages for the PF

for the video
"Florida's Geology Unearthed"

Geology is all around us. Whether we know it or not, we see examples of its processes in action every
day. The purpose of this video is to make viewers more aware of geology, how we are affected by
geology, and how we affect environments and ecosystems. Before viewing the video, take this GEO-
QUIZ. Don't be afraid if you don't know all the answers. There's lots to learn about geology I

Circle True or False.

1. Geology is the study of the
planet Earth, the materials of
which it is made, and the
processes that affect these

2. Within the Earth's shallow
layers are rocks, minerals, and

3. An ecosystem is any area
where only living systems are

4. The shape of the Earth's
surface is determined by geologic

5. Sinkholes and coastal erosion
are geological processes that
affect Florida.

6. Early humans appeared on
Earth about two million years

7. The Earth's surface is divided
into approximately 21 plates.

8. The Atlantic Ocean is not

9. Pangea was an ancient

10. The Florida Platform is wide
and relatively flat.











11. The peninsula of Florida
formed as sediments from the
Rocky Mountains eroded.

12. Fossils can date back to a
time before humans existed.

13. Ocean levels have basically
remained the same for millions of

14. Coal and gold are mined in

15. Winds, waves, and plate
movement can affect coastlines.

16. Most of Florida's residents
live near the coasts.

17. Sinkholes form when sand
and clay dissolve.

18. Floodplains are low-lying
areas around rivers and streams.

19. Florida does not produce oil or
natural gas.

20. Less than 1 % of the Earth's
water is drinkable.

Now that you've completed the GEO-QUIZ, sit back and enjoy the video! Lsten for the
answers to the questions you just completed. You might know more about geology than
you realized I











for the video
"Florida's Geology Unearthed"

Sur raie.

r is the study of the T F
h, the materials of
made, and the
+k#+ ^fr +-Ia I

the Earth's shallow T F
rocks, minerals, and

system is any area T F
living systems are

ipe of the Earth's T F
determined by aeoloaic


Rocy M ou ntaU
Rocky Mounta

12. Fossils can date back to a
time before humans existed.

13. Ocean levels have basically
remained the same for millions of

14. Coal and gold are mined in

15. Winds, waves, and plate
movement can affect coastlines.

16. Most of Florida's residents
live near the coasts.

17. Sinkholes form when sand
and clay dissolve.

18. Floodplains are low-lying
areas around rivers and streams.

19. Florida does not produce oil o'
natural gas.

20. Less than 1 % of the Earth's
water is drinkable.

to the

pre- and post-viewin

Geology incorporates the sciences of

An ecosytem is any area where livi

Tectonic plate movement and vole

These are only two examples of i
Jon gas, unstable soils and clays, ai

Humans appeared on Earth long aft

Dooiogy, pnysics

' and non-living systems are found.

ic activity are two processes that s

logic processes that affect Florida.
river flooding.

fishes, reptiles, and birds.

nt directions, causing earthquakes

ate of less than five centimeters a y(

J of what is now North and South
and masses.

Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mex

palachian Mountains eroded.

o million years ago !

s 300 feet during the Ice Age.


Hurricane Andrew drastically affe

1 30 miles of the coast

dissolves, not clay and sand.

Plains are subject to flooding during

_ _ __ I




Geological !
County soil
Service, avi
university li
from U.S. C
local stores

A map is a representation of the 1
forms. Perhaps the most commor
as a sheet of paper. However
photographs taken from aircraft an
makers are called cartographers.

Maps are vital tools in studying ge,
geologists to depict a variety of th
of the earth's surface, the types
distribution of mineral resources, a
the earth. The entire list of map:
scope of this introduction. Some c

Soil maps: A soil map shows
geographic region. The common 1
by the United States Department
They are constructed to show the

Figure 1. Perspective view and topog
of a section of hily coastline.

looking straight down at a yardstic
uniformly at 1 inch apart. Now s
slope face while still looking dowr
together as you increase the slope

2) The land slope, or the ratio of
topographic maps. Slope is usual
percent). The slope between poini
dividing the elevation increase (ve
between the points. In this case ti
the elevation at A (about 50 feet,
In- fI \ ..A,*.1k Mnl f -+ 'ift 1,

section of hilly coastline bisected by a flat stream valley, and featuring a flat, sandy spit
enclosing a small bay. If we were to go to this site and actually paint horizontal lines of
equal elevation on the hills and valley

5) The contour interval is constant on any map. Every fourth or fifth contour line is labeled
with their elevation for reference; on actual topographic maps, the contour lines representing
every 50 feet of elevation are commonly labeled, while those in between are not. Spot
elevations are sometimes shown for specific points on the map. All elevations are relative
to mean sea level, which is taken to be "0" foot elevation.

6) Wide rivers and streams are defined by parallel lines approximating their mean width;
narrow streams and creeks are shown with single blue lines; coastlines and lake shores are
shown with a single unlabeled line.

7) Local man-made structures, including buildings, roads, and bridges are commonly

On actual topographic maps, many of the different features are delineated in color; contours
lines are brown, water is blue, roads are printed in red or black, and structures are printed in
black. Cities and other large areas of manmade disturbance are usually printed in either
purple or gray shading. Areas of vegetation are shaded green.

Topographic maps are prepared today largely from composite aerial photographs, with field
checking where needed, and provide some of the most accurate local detail available.
Therefore they are a useful tool for locating possible new sites, planning fossil-hunting
expeditions, and as references in accurately documenting the location of known fossil sites.
Topographic maps can be especially useful in locating areas where fossiliferous strata may
be exposed, either naturally by stream erosion and karst activity, or by man's excavations.

Topographic maps in Florida: The entire state of Florida has been mapped by the U.S.
Geological Survey in 7.5 minute topographic quadrangles. These maps are termed seven-
and-a-half minute quadrangles because each map covers a rectangular area of land surface
equal to 7.5 minutes of longitude in width (about 7.5 miles) and 7.5 minutes of latitude in
height (8.5 miles). Latitude and longitude tick marks are provided along the margins of
topographic maps. One thousand and thirty-seven 7.5 minute quadrangles are required to
cover the entire state. The actual paper quadrangle maps are about 23-inches wide by 27-
inches high. This size allows a standard scale for the map of 1:24,000 (one unit of map
distance, in inches, feet, or millimeters, etc., equals 24,000 of the same units on the
surface of the earth). The fractional scale and a bar scale of distance is part of the
information printed at the bottom of the map. The direction of true north is always towards
the top of the map. Magnetic north, which may be a few degrees east or west of true
north, is also indicated on the map.

Earlier topographic maps, generally dating from prior to 1940, were based on 15 minute
quadrangles. These covered an area equivalent to four of the 7.5 minute maps, and had a
scale of 1:62,500. The larger, modern 7.5 minute maps generally provide better detail,
although the older maps can often be used to document historical changes in land features
or urban sprawl.

Today, each topographic quadrangle map is given a specific name, usually based on some
local geographic feature (i.e., Tallahassee Quadrangle, Okeechobee NW Quadrangle, etc.).
Certain of the maps, especially those in highly-populated areas, are updated every several
years to show the expansion of civilization. Others in more remote locations may not have
been updated since the original mapping in the 1940s. A handy index showing the
locations and names of all 1,037 quadrangle maps covering the state is printed by the
United States Geological Survey.

earth's surface in a specific geographic area. Geologic maps may also show fault lines and
other geologic features in an area. The various rock units occurring in an area are generally
shown on the man with different colors or patterns. In an area of comoletelv horizontal rock

rarely flat, and in many cases natt
strata so that, once planed flat b
exposed at the surface.

Geologic maps are useful in illus
surface. Geologic maps are typical
water-bearing rocks, or for location
by the construction industry to fin
may also be used to locate areas
waste dumps, land fills, or other er

Aerial Photographs and Satellite Ir
scanner image of the earth's surf
taken by high-flying aircraft, ani
Adjacent Individual aerial photogra
the one single photo could show.

Image maps show the true configu
lakes, coastlines, and mountains.
taken simultaneously by twin cami
even show the earth's surface in
Image maps are very useful in co
used extensively in the construction
Image maps are also viewed direct
image maps are produced using s
vegetation, wet areas, areas distul
readily observable in natural-colo
formations, faults, study the con
mineral deposits from space.

The United States Geological Survi
image map of Florida. Many inter
The varying vegetation types of
discernible. Also apparent are the
the peninsula. Florida's numerous
as cultural urban sprawl, particular

al forces have tilted, folded, or domi
erosional forces, two or more diff4

rating the occurrence of different r
y used in searching for economic mir
fossiliferous strata, to name a few.
suitable materials for building found
f low-permeability strata for siting pi
vironmentally-hazardous operations.

ages: An image map is any photos
ce. Image maps commonly include
satellite images, taken from eartl
hs may be spliced together to show
;uch a collage of photos is called a mi

ation of features on the earth's surfa
Certain types of aerial photographs,
*as angled at slightly different angles
three-dimensions when viewed thro
structing other types of maps. The
i of the topographic quadrangle mai
r in studying natural features on the i
iecial color-filters which alter the tri
>ed by man, and soils, commonly re
images. Geologists use image n
iguration of rivers and coasts, and

y has produced several versions of a
4ting geomorphic features are readily
crops, marshes, swamps, and scrn
ancient coast-parallel beach ridges sp,
akes and larger sinkholes may also t
y in metropolitan areas such as Jack

i up the local rock
'ent rock units are

cks at the earth's
eral deposits, fresh
They may be used
Itions. Such maps
tentially dangerous

aphic or electronic
aerial photographs,
-orbiting satellites.
broader area than

e, including rivers,
calledd stereo pairs,
:o the surface, can


A. Supplies needed:
1. a transparent plastic container, about 6-inches square by 9-inches high;
2. a small amount of clean, light-colored sand ... enough to fill the container about
two-inches deep;
3. a small amount of darker-colored sand ... enough to fill the plastic pan about
one-inch deep.

NOTE: the quantities of sand, water, and size of the container can be changed to
enhance the final outcome of the experiment.

B. Demonstration:
1. Fill the container about half-full of water.
2. Gently dump into the water about half of the light-colored sand and let it settle.
3. Gently dump the darker sand into the water and let it settle ... this should have
created two separate strata of sediments, roughly parallel to the bottom of
the container.
4. Gently dump the rest of the light-colored sand into the water ... this should
create a third strata, roughly parallel to the other two.

C. Discussion:
1. Which size particles settle out first?
2. If you saw this type of "layer cake geology" in a quarry, dirt pit or road-cut,
what would you think was the mechanism that created the sedimentary rock strata?

ij.,, ',Z (rock strata)

ANSWERS: The instructor may wish to delete these before copying for students' use.
C 1. The larger, heavier particles settle out of the water first.
C 2. The sediments were probably deposited by the action of water, either by streams or
by waves along a shoreline.



Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Jacksonvile Museum of Science and History, Jacksonville.
Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach.
Museum of Florida History, Tallahassee.
Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa.
South Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton.
The Conservancy Nature Center, Naples.
Siver River Museum, Ocala.

FLORIDA FOSSIL CLUBS: There are several fossil clubs throughout Florida. They have a
variety of activities, such as regular meetings, newsletters, field trips, and specimen sales.

Bone Valley Fossil Society: 2704 Dixie Road, Lakeland, FL 32746. Contact: Ed Holman.
Florida FossilHunters: P.O. Box 533736, Orlando, FL 32853. Contact: Dean Sligh.
Florida Paleontological Society- Florida Museum of Natural History, Museum Road,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Contact: Eric Taylor.
Fossi Club of Miami: 12540 SW 37th St., Miami, FL 33175. Contact: Dr. Gordon Hubbell.
Paleontological Society of Lee County P.O. Box 151651, Cape Coral, FL 33915. Contact:
David Cale 941.656.6111..
Southwest Florida Fossi Club: 2265 Gulf Drive, 240E, Sanibel, FL 33957. Contact: Al
Space Coast Foss7i Club: 6252 Weston Lane, Orlando, FL 32810. Contact: Dean Sligh.
Suncoast Archeological and Paleontological Society. 1529 30th Avenue N, St. Petersburg,
FL 33704. Contact: Ray Robinson 813.821.0805.
Tampa Bay Fossil Club: P.O. Box 290561, Tampa, FL 33687. Contact: Frank Kocsis, Jr.


A permit is required to collect vertebrate fossils in Florida. Information regarding this
requirement can be obtained from: Russ McCarty
Program of Vertebrate Paleontology
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel: 352.392.1721
E-mail: cormac@flmnh.ufl.edu

Copies of the pertinent Florida statutes and permit application can be found on the Internet:


Exclusions: Fossil shark teeth are specifically excluded from these regulations, as are fossil
plants and invertebrates, including shells, so no permit is required to collect these

11|| 1 llll :||li|||l||:::K||:::||ii|]|i^:

Anclote Earth Science Club
P.O. Box 36
Port Richey, FL 34673

Central Brevard Rock & Gem Club
3985 Seville Ave.
Cocoa, FL 32926

Gem & Mineral Club of DeLand
P.O. Box 265
DeLand, FL 32721

Gulf Coast Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 1885
Panama City, FL 32409

Imperial Polk County Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 2054
Auburndale, FL 33823

Lake City Gem & Mineral Society
Route 2, Box 479-L
Lake Butler, FL 32054

Miami Mineral & Gem Society
P.O. Box 558172
Miami, FL 33135

Orlando Gem & Mineral Club
1604 Tanager Drive
Orlando, FL 32803

St. Lucie County Rock & Gem Club
P.O. Box 354
Ft. Pierce, FL 334954

Treasure Coast Rock & Gem Society
P.O. Box 531
Vero Beach, FL 32961

Tomoka Gem & Mineral Society
140 Warwick Avenue
Ormond Beach, FL 33174

Canaveral Mineral & Gem Society
2526 Watkins Drive
Melbourne, FL 32901

Florida Gold Coast Gem & Mineral Society
13511 S.W. 16th Court
Davie, FL 33325

Gem & Mineral Society of the Palm Beaches
P.O. Box 3041
West Palm Beach, FL 33402

Highlands Gem & Mineral Club
2115 Van Pelt Road
Sebring, FL 33870

Jacksonville Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 7084
Jacksonville, FL 32073

Manasota Rock & Gem Club
P.O. Box 5872
Sarasota, FL 34277-5872

Mid-Florida Gem & Mineral Society
14958 S.W. 35 Circle
Ocala, FL 34473

Pinellas Geological Society
P.O. Box 6263
Clearwater, FL 34618-6263

Suncoast Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 13254
St. Petersburg, FL 33733

Tropical Mineral & Gem Society
P.O. Box 560893
Miami, FL 33256-0893

Withlacoochee Rockhounds
4215 Orchard Drive
Hernando Beach, FL 34607




EcoVenturesT : The Florida Department of Environmental Protection also has produced a
multimedia environmental education program for middle schools. EcoVenturesT helps
middle school students learn about Florida's aquatic environment and its relationship to
other Florida ecosystems and ecosystems management problems that affect us. Information
about this program is available from:

Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Marine Resources
Office of Marine Fisheries Management and Assistance Services
MS 240
3900 Commonwealth Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000 Tel. 904.922.4340

Various divisions of DEP have produced hundreds of publications, brochures, pamphlets,
and handouts that are environmentally and ecologically oriented. A complete list of these
materials, Environmental Education Publications of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, can be obtained from:

Department of Environmental Protection
Office of Environmental Education
3900 Commonwealth Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000

Tel. 904.488.7326

The following list is of selected publications from: Environmental Education Publications of
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.


Division of Air Resource Management 904.488.0114

Questions and Answers
About Ozone

Explains difference between Stratospheric &
Tropospheric ozone. Also the ground level ozone
problems in Florida.

Protecting the Ozone Layer-EPA A checklist for citizen action.

Clearing the Air About Ozone

Help Prevent Further Destruct-
ion of our Ozone Layer

Pamphlet on ground-level ozone problems in the
southern United States.

Pamphlet on recycling your vehicle air conditioning

Environmental Benefits of
Acid Rain-EPA

Emergency Planning and

Division of Environmental Resource F

Bureau of Aquatic Plant Man

How to Create A Lake
Management Plan

Non-native Plants: Unwanted
Biological Invaders of Florida's

"Florida's Native Underwater

Aquatic Plants: Underwater
Forests of Lakes and Rivers

"Florida's Spring-fed River

"Rules of Green-Thumb at the

Bureau of Mine Reclamation 909

Ongoing Projects & Programs
Which are Interrelated With the
implementation of the Integrated
Habitat Network Coordinated
Development Area

A Regional Conceptional
Reclamation Plan for the
So. Phosphate District of

'amphlet answers the most common
questions about Reducing Acid Rain.

booklet on hazardous materials, aj
Vhat on Response.

rmitting 904.488.0130

gement 904.487.2600

3ooklet outlines a successful mi
develop lake management plans.

booklet outlines activities for student
Ip) to learn how to conduct ar
;urvey and compare plant species di%

'oster with underwater photograph!
aquatic plants of Florida.

Student activity book, describes th(
native aquatic plant species and the F
causedd by invasive non-native plants

'amphlet describes unique ecolog)
ivers and gives tips on how to prese;
communitiess found in them.

'amphlet describes three basic rules
sensitive habitats of coastal areas.

The Acid Rain Program Pamphlet explains a new approach to environmental
I+'e lanrlrinn_-PDA mUar onrn-men+ LI n .rt a n re- It- anrl .hA+ utill


Bureau of Submerged Lands & Environmental Resources 904.488.0130

Florida State of the
Environment: Wetlands
Resource Permitting

Describes wetlands types and why we should
protect our wetlands, and the rules and
regulations for permitting.

Division of Law Enforcement 904.488.5757 ext 74

Bureau of Emergency Response

Pamphlet describes the Bureau of Emergency
Response programs and contacts.

Division of Marine Resources 904.488.6058

Office of Fisheries Management 904.922.4340

Quarterly Newsletter- Provides artificial reef
information to the recreational fisherman.

Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) 813.896.8626

Estuaries: The Cradle of
the Ocean

Florida's Mangroves:
Walking Trees

Florida Salt Marshes

The Underwater World
Florida's Seagrasses

Pamphlet describing estuaries and their importance
to marine and fisheries resources.

Pamphlet describing the species of mangroves that
live in Florida, their importance and where they are

Pamphlet describes plants that make up salt
marshes, roles they play in the coastal environment
and various threats to the marshes.

Pamphlet describing types and kinds of seagrasses
in Florida, their roles as marine nurseries, threat to
seagrass beds throughout Florida.

Bureau of Coastal & Aquatic Managed Areas (CAMAl 904.488.3456

Aquatic Preserves

General fold-out describing Florida's aquatic preserve
system and the habitats that are protected in the

Coastal & Aquatic Managed Areas Brochure describing programs of the bureau
including map sites.

Specific Aquatic Preserves

Brochures describing the following preserves:
Apalachicola Aquatic Preserve (AP), St. Martins
Marsh, Tampa Bay, Southwest Florida,
Pine Island Sound, Banana River, North Fork of the
St. Lucie, Indian River Lagoon, and the Aquatic
Preserves of the Florida Keys.

Reef Report

Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve (ANERR) 904.653.8063

Research Reserve (ANERR)

Shells of the ANERR

Project Estuary

Estuarine Pathways

Aquatic Preserves of
Apalachicola Bay Region

Coastal Connections

Florida Keys National Marine Sanc

Florida Keys National Marine
Sanctuary (NMS)

Looe Key NMS Mooring Buoy

Looe Key NMS

Key Largo NMS

Inside the Florida Keys National
Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)

Inside The New Florida Keys

Florida's Coral Reef Ecosystem

Nat'l Marine Sanctuary Program

Marine Sanctuary Magazine


field checklist and visitors guide.

diddle/High school curriculum, availal
checkout from ANERR library.

Elementary curriculum available for ch
he ANERR library.

formation on Apalachicola Bay Aque

educationall field trip opportunities fro

ary (FKNMS) 305.743.2437

amphlet describing sanctuary and its
geological history and Past-Present-Fu

flooring buoy locations and descril
3und at each buoy.

brochure describing the Keys common
fe/aerial photos of interesting spots.

brochure with map describing the Key
nd interesting sites.

rochure/map describing threats to cc
cosystems, summary objectives of rr
lan and overview of FKNMS Plan.

quarterly newsletter about the NMS,
current events & issues.

;rochure (in several languages) descri
:oral Reefs.

act sheet on the NMS program.

quarterly magazine on all National Ma
anctuaries in U.S.


Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (RBNERR) 941.775.8845

Rookery Bay National Estuarine Pamphlet describing the purpose and activities of
Research Reserve RBNERR) Rookery Bay National Esturarine Research Reserve.

Rookery Bay Reserve: An Leaflet describing educational opportunity at the
Opportunity for Estuarine Reserve.
Research & Education

The "Big Picture" Poster Depicts nine habitats of RBNERR watershed
and describes functions of each.

Marine Science Curriculum Manual includes field, lab and classroom activities
for high school students.

KEEP IT CLEAN A Citizen's Describes actions citizens can do to avoid
Guide to Protecting Our Estuary contributing to non-point pollution.

Division of Recreation and Parks 904.488.9872

Rorida State Parks Guide Booklet describing each park and facilities offered.

Know the Facts Pamphlet on Florida Boating Improvement Program,
Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program,
Land and Water Conservation Fund Program.

Help Our State Parks Gift Catalog with listing ways business, industry or
the public can help support the Park System.

Become a Volunteer Pamphlet showing how volunteers can help at State

Florida Leisure Resource Directory of leisure services provided and
Directory support groups in Florida.

Individual Park Brochures Describing individual State Parks.

Open Lands Florida Brochure listing Parks not listed in Park Guide that
allow public access.

Management of Florida's State Brochure describing the land management of the
Park Lands State Park Service.

Division of Technical Services 904.488.2790

Bureau of Geology Florida Geological Survey 904.488.4191

Map series 125 A Guide Map to Geologic & Paleontologic sites in



Open File Report 34

Open File Report 50

Open File Report 63

Open File Report 65

Open File Report 66

Open File Report 67

Leaflets (various)

Biennial Reports

Special Publication 35

Special Publication 41

Information Circular 87

Open File Maps Series

Map Series 112

Florida Geology Forum

Geology Posters :

Florida's Hydrogeology

Common Cenozoic Echinoids

Florida's Fossil Mammals

Earth Systems: The Foundation of
Florida's Ecosystems


The Geology and Geomorphology of Florida's
Coastal Marshes.

A Geological Overview of Florida.

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to the Florida Panhandle.

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to The Northern Florida

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to Southern Florida.

Topographic Maps: Useful tools for the Florida Fossil

Geologic guides to various Florida State Parks.

Activities and research at the Florida Geological

Florida's Geological History.and Geological

Educator's Guide for the video "Florida's Geology

List of Publications.

Geologic maps of the State, by county.

Geology and Waste Disposal in Florida.

Newsletter of the Florida Geological Survey.

Illustrates the Hydrogeology of karst terrain with

Illustrates 22 fossil echinoid species.

Illustrates reconstructed skeletons of large Miocene-
Pleistocene mammals.

Illustrates the role of geology toward the understanding
of Florida's various ecosystems.


Division of Water Facilities 904.487.1855

Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water Resources 904.488.3601

Florida Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Network Newsletter

Drinking Water News

Division of Waste Management

Bureau of Solid Waste

Directory of Solid Waste

Solid Waste Management in

Used Oil: various posters, etc.

Pollution Prevention Program

Florida State of the
Environment: Solid Waste
Management, Hazardous Waste
Site Cleanup

Newsletter designed to improve communication
between those who maintain the state Ground Water
Quality Monitoring Network.

Newsletter generated from Drinking Water Section.



List all of the solid waste management facilities--
landfills, incinerators, etc., in the state, 153 pages.

Legislative report on status of solid waste
management and recycling in Florida, 310 pages.

Order form for posters, displays, PSAs decals,
handouts, rubber coin mats, etc.,
available upon request.

Fact sheets to assist businesses in: cutting cost,
reducing waste, protecting the environment.

Two brochures describing Florida's programs for
solid waste management and hazardous waste site

Ecosystem Management Office of Water Policy/SWIM Program 904.488.0784

SWIM: Environmental Progress
Through Partnership

The Florida Coastal Sediment
Contamination Atlas

A Guide to the Interpretation
of Metals Concentrations in
Estuarine Sediments

Development of an Approach
to Assessment of Sediment
Quality of Florida Coastal

Booklet provides information on the progress and
success of the SWIM program.

Document contains maps illustrating the spatial
extent of chemical contamination in Florida's Coastal

Document explains variable metal backgrounds, and
how to quantitatively measure levels of metal
contamination in estuarine sediments.

Document provides numerical guideline for over 30
common contaminants found in sediments. Four


Magnitude and Extent of Sedi-
ment Toxicity in Tampa Bay

Report on the sediment toxicity in Tampa Bay area.

Office of Greenways and Trails 904.487.4784

Greenways and Trails

FL Recreational Trails System

HIKE-The Florida Trail

FL State Parks Bicycle Tours

Information Guide For Bicycle

Fact Sheets: Hiking and Back-
packing, Horseback riding, and
Bicycling Opportunities in Florida

Directory-Canoe Liveries &

Canoe Information Resource

Describing the Office of Greenway and Trails.

Brochure describes 36 canoe trails with order form
for maps of each.

Pamphlet describes the Florida Trail.

Pamphlet has three tours charted, maps, tips for

Packet lists information on bicycling in Florida, the
laws, best trails, on/off road and mountain
biking, climate, tours, restriction and maps.

Fact sheets listing these opportunities in Florida
State Parks.

Directory of organizations with canoe-livery and
rental service.

Guide to organizations with canoe activities.

Office of Environmental Education 904.488.9334

Guide to the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection

Publications List

Rorida-State of the
Environment Series

Asbestos Removal-What You
Should Know

Classroom and Field Experiments
for Florida's Environmental

Brief descriptions of the programs of the Department
divisions and offices, including phone numbers.

Environmental education publications distributed by

8 booklet series describing the regulatory programs:
Solid Waste Management, Wastewater Management,
Hazardous Waste Site Cleanup, Ground Water,
Reuse of Reclaimed Water, Air Quality,
Stormwater Management, and Wetlands.

Fold-out pamphlet describing the danger of asbestos,
how to handle it, and where to get more

Booklet describing 14 laboratory and field
experiments for middle and high school
environmental and science classes.



Your Environment Booklet aimed at upper elementary/middle school
children with information and activities describing
Florida's environment and how you can help to
protect it.

Environmental Education Two-page environmental education series of
materials punched for 3-hole binders,describing in
#1 Wetlands in Florida some detail various environmental problems and
#2 Ground Water in Florida issues in Florida and the nation.
#3 The Auto and the Environment
#4 Solid Waste and Recycling
#5 The Water You Drink
#6 Mercury in Florida's Environment
#7 Invading Exotic Species in Florida

Estuarine Habitats- Elementary A set of seven Supplemental Teaching Activities for
Teaching Activities Series estuarine habitats.

EPA-Earth Trek...Explore your Activities booklet for 6-12 grade students
Environment and teachers.

EPA-Science Demonstration Pamphlet has brief selections of science
Drinking Water (K-1 2) demonstrations relating to projects in Drinking

Minerals Activity Booklet For teachers and elementary students exploring the
role of minerals in our society.

Living In Florida's Environment Tabloid-size publication with basic information one
needs to know to appreciate Florida and its
environmental assets. Covers from pre-history
through modern times.

EPA "Wetlands-Reading List" Reading list for pre-kindergarten through grades
Pre-K to 12th K-12 on Wetlands.

Educational Resources Additional listing of educational resources.

Career Profiles Special publication from the Association for Women

Implementing Ecosystem Booklet is a summary of how the department is
Ecosystem Management implementing Ecosystem Management.

Career Fact Sheets: Brief overview of Environmental careers, what they
do, where they work, education requirements,
Geology, Toxicology, employment and salaries.
Engineering, Botany, Ecology,
Biological Science, Park Ranger,
Forestry, and Chemistry


Towards Environmental A preliminary guide to what it takes to be an
Ct+itncl-dn an',. ran nant+, I ,4ttran n CIndrr

Ecosystem Management News

Ground Water-How You Can


Storage Tank Systems...
Responsibilities for Owners and
Operators in Florida.

An Environmental State of the
State of Florida

American Association of Petroleum
P.O. Box 979
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101


A series of general-interest public
of the U.S. Geological Survey. T
USGS, its publications, maps, and

Public Inouiries Office

America Geological Institute Geological Society of America
4 39f Kinn 4Zt 0Inn Penrnma Plana

The five water management districts that encompass all of Florida publish educational and
technical materials that are pertinent to ecosystems and environmental issues. For your
area of the state, inquire at that water management district's information office.

Water Management District
81 Water Management Drive
Havana, FL 32333

Water Management District
P.O. Box 1429
Palatka, FL 32178-1429
(904) 3294103 or 1-800-226-4181 (FL only)

Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680
(561) 686-8800 or 1-800-432-2045 (FL only)

Water Management District
9225 County Road 49
Live Oak, FL 32060
(904) 362-1001 or 1-800-226-1066 (FL only)

Water Management District
2379 Broad St..
Brooksville, FL 34609
(352) 796-7211 or 1-800-423-1476 (FL only)



Jon Arthur


Associate Producers:


Director (South Florida):




Production Assistants:


Computer graphics and Art

Diane Wilkins, Nathan Hipps

Diane Wilkins

Nathan Hipps

Nathan Hipps

Diane Wilkins and Robert Seidler

Diane Wilkins

Beatrice Queral, Amy Seidler

Scott Reese

Diane Wilkins
Scott Reese
Michael Hulver

Rick Green
Ed Lane
Charles Knight

Additional animation:



U.S. Geological Survey, NASA, Run Time Software,
Southwest Florida Water Management District, TASA Graphic Arts, Inc.

Jon Arthur, Russell Dorsey, Tom Scott, Brian Moore, NASA


Bill Knmble

Will Stith

Kristen Wilson


Interviews: J


Special Appearanres:

Also Appearing:

Heather Brown

on Arthur, Ph.D., P.G.
ion Hargrove
im Ladner, P.G.
lonnie MoClaugherty, P.G.
ill Parker, Ph.D.
.oger Ponel
udy Richtar, P.G.
om Scott, Ph.D., P.G.
alter Schmidt, Ph.D., P.G.
ene Shinn
am Upchurch, Ph.D., P.G.
ill Wilson, P.G.

Carmen CummingsTamara Gant

Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Department of Geology, Florida State University
Fl. Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Florida
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
U.S. Geological survey
ERM-South, Inc.
Subsurface Evaluations, Inc.

Billy L Cypress, Executive Director, Ah Tha Thi Tild Museum
Dave DeWitt, Southwest Florida Water Management District
Andrea Kerlinger, Yesterday Today

Hale Quarry Stephanie Nagy, Justin Pooser, April Hayes
FGS Drill Rig: Jim Trindell, Alex Howell
Laboratoy Frank Rupert
Geo-questions: Katie Kimble, Kellan Lawing, Salleeta Lloyd and Crystal Franklin
Geo-lists: Mary Aaron, Allison Carver, Asha Dhanarajan, Ivey Johnson
Southwest Florida WMD Rig: Dave DeWitt, ROMP Geophysical Logging Unit

John Schultz, Ann Daugherty, Diane Wilkins


Additional footage:

Florida Public Television, Florida Crossroads
Ron Compton
Tom Scott
Russell Dorsey
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Ann Tihansky and Dan Duer
Gene Shinn
U.S. Geological Survey
In Motion Productions. Mark Barrett
Karst Productions. Inc., Wesley Skiles

Northwest Florida Water Management District
"WaterWays" Program
Richard Harder
Jim Leonard
WESH -TV, Channel 2
Steve Wessells
Richard Horodner The Hurricane Photographer
Jim Cassel
Cathy Veatch



Anastasia State Recreation Area
Black Diamond Ranch
Bok Tower Gardens
Brooks Sink Container Corporation
C & C Peat Co., Inc.
Calumet Florida, Inc.
Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Cherry Lake Farms
Devil's Milhopper State Park
Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve
Falling Waters State Recreation Area
Florida Caverns State Park
Florida Museum of Natural History
Floridin Company
Haile Quarry

Independent Aggregates
Leon Sinks Special Interest Area,
Apalachicola National Forest
Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach
Museum of Florida History
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Quality Aggregates, Inc.
RGC Minerals, Inc.
Sarasota County Utilities
St. Joseph State Park
Suwannee River State Park
Suwannee River Water Management District
The Nature Conservancy
VuicanltCA Distribution Company


American Geological Institute, Portrait_USACD-ROM
American Museum of Natural History
Christopher M. Keane and Robert W. Ridkey Joint Education initiative, University of Maryland
City of Tallahassee
Denver Museum of Natural History
Department of Geology, Florida State University
Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago
Faculty and students from Leon High School, Leon County
National Geographic Society
South Florida Water Management District
Suwannee River Water Management District


Educator's Guide Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge input and review by members of the FGEV advisory committees. Dodie Zeiler was helpful
in document formatting and cross referencing between the video, the Guide and Sunshine State Standards. Nathan Hipps
developed the video pre- and post-tests and Jon Arthur contributed portions of the text

The Florida Geology Education Video Project (FGEV) includes:

"Florida's Geology Unearthed"
Educator's Guide
Supplemental written materials

Project Manager Jon Arthur, Ph.D., P.G.

Educators Guide Authors: Ed Lane and Frank Rupert

FGEV Project Distribution: Deborah Mekeel

FGEV Communications:

FGEV Package Design:

Cindy Collier and La Marr Mitchell

Chameleon Graphics and Design, Tallahassee, FL

FGEV Environmental Education Advisory Committee:

Dr. Jon Arthur
Ms Cindy Cosper
Ms Joan Crow
Dr. Robin Denson
Ms Penny Kisiah
Mr. Ed Lane
Mr. Jim Lewis
Dr. Larry Olsen
Ms Janice Ouimet
Ms Georgann Penson
Mr. Frank Rupert
Mr. Richard Stevens
Ms Koren Taylor
Ms Diane Wilkins
Ms Dodie Zeiler

Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Academic Resource Center, Leon County
Gulf Archeology Research institute
Fairview Middle School, Leon County
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Panhandle Regional Environmental Education Center
Leon High School, Leon County
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Florida Geological Survey
Lincoln High School, Leon County
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Diane Wilkins Productions
Florida Department of Environrmental Protection

FGEV Geology Technical Advisory Committee (GTAC):

Dr. Jim Cowart
Mr. Dave DeWitt
Mr. Russell Dorsey
Mr. Jim Frazee
Mr. Joe May
Ms Katherine Milla
Dr. Paul Ragland
Ms Ann Tihansky

Department of Geology, Florida State University
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Gulf Archeology Research Institute
St. Johns River Water Management District
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Department of Geology, Florida State University
U.S. Geological Survey

Florida Geological Survey GTAC members:

Dr. Jon Arthur
Mr. Jim Balsillie
Mr. Ken Campbell

Mr. Rick Green
Mr. Jim Ladner
Ms Jackie Uoyd

Dr. Walt Schmidt
Dr. Tom Scott
Mr. Steve Spence