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Text to accompany geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, northern Florida ...
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Title: Text to accompany geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, northern Florida ( FGS: Open file report 92 )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Green, R. C.
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008
Copyright Date: 2008
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
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Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Michael W. Sole, Secretary

LAND AND RECREATION
Robert G. Ballard, Deputy Secretary

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Director


OPEN-FILE REPORT 92

Text to accompany geologic map of the western portion of the
USGS Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, northern Florida

By

Richard C. Green, David T. Paul and Thomas M. Scott


2008
ISSN (1058-1391)

This geologic map was funded in part by the USGS National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program









TABLE OF CONTENTS

A b stra c t ................... ................... ............................................................. 1
In tro d u ctio n ................... ................... .......................................................... .. 1
M methods ...................................................................... 3
P rev iou s W ork .......................................................... ........ ...... 3
G eologic Sum m ary ................................................................................. 4
S tru c tu re ................... ................... ...................4..........
G eom orphology ................................................................................. 7
O cala K arst D district ....................... ...... ............ ............................................................. 8
Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay ........................................ 8
W oodville K arst P lain ....................................................................... 9
Tifton U plan D istrict....................................... .............. 9
M adison H ills.................................................................... 9
Tallahassee Hills ....................................................................... ........ 10
Cody Scarp ...................................... ................... 10
L ithostratigraphic U nits ................................................................... 11
T ertiary Sy stem ..................................................................... 1 1
E o c en e S e rie s ................................................................................................... .............. ..... 1 1
A von Park Form action ........................................................................................... ........ 11
O c ala L im e sto n e .............................................................. .................................... 1 1
O lig o cen e S series ................................................................... 12
Suw annee L im stone ............................................................................................... ........ 12
M io c en e S erie s ............... ................................................................................. ............. ...... 12
St. M arks Form action .......................................... .............. 12
H aw thorn G group ................................................................... 13
Torreya Formation ................. ................... 13
T ertiary-Q uaternary System s ....................................................................... 14
P lio c e n e S e rie s .............. ..... ............ ................. ..................................................... 14
M iccosukee Form ation............................. ................... 14
Pleistocene Series.............................. ............. ...... 14
Undifferentiated Quaternary .............. .. ........ ................. 14
Quaternary B each Ridges and D unes ........................................ ..... .............. 15
H ydrogeology ........... .................................... 15
Derivative Products........................................................ 15
Field H hazards ............ .................................. 15
P la n ts ......... .......... ..................... .. ..............6
Reptiles .. ....................................................................... 17
Mammals ............................................ ..... .............. 19
Insects .......................... ............................ ........ 20
S elected B ib lio g rap h y ............. ......... .. .............. .. ....................................................... 2 3
A ck n ow led g em en ts ............. ......... .. .............. .. ......................................................... 2 9









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Areas mapped under the FGS STATEMAP Program................................................... 2
Figure 2. Location of selected river basins, springs, swallets, and other water bodies ................ 5
Figure 3. Principal subsurface structures of north Florida (modified from Puri and Vernon, 1964,
and Schm idt, 1984). ..................................... ............ ........ ........... 6
Figure 4. Terraces in Florida (after Healy, 1975). ............................... ......................... 7

LIST OF APPENDICES

A appendix A : W ells utilized for study .......................................................................................... 30






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Text to accompany geologic map of the western portion of the
USGS Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, northern Florida

Richard C. Green, P.G. #1776, David T. Paul, P.G. and Thomas M. Scott, P.G.


ABSTRACT

The accompanying 1:100,000 scale geologic map (Open-File Map Series 99-01) shows
the areal distribution of bedrock and surficial geologic units for the western half of the Perry,
Florida 30 x 60 minute quadrangle. The map was constructed using a combination of field
mapping at 1:24,000 scale, compilation of data from existing maps (various scales), core and
cuttings analyses and descriptions, and analyses of various Geographic Information System
(GIS) data sources. The resulting data was compiled in ESRI's ArcGIS ArcMap 9.2 for
publication as part of the Florida Geological Survey Open-File Map Series (OFMS). Mapped
units in the area range in age from the Eocene Avon Park Formation to undifferentiated
Quaternary sediments. Important resources in the area include groundwater, springs, sand,
limestone, and dolostone. Numerous springs, sinking streams (swallets), and other karst features
are present in the study area. Understanding of geologic units, karst, springs and their
interactions within the map area aids land planners, environmental professionals, and citizens in
making land-use decisions such as designing new construction projects, siting new water supply
wells, locating sources of mineable resources for aggregate supply, and protection of springs and
water quality.

Keywords: Florida, geologic map, Miccosukee Formation, Hawthorn Group, Torreya
Formation, St. Marks Formation, Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, Avon Park Formation,
environmental geology, geomorphology, springs, swallets, sinkholes, Floridan aquifer system,
Taylor County, Madison County, Jefferson County, Cody scarp.

INTRODUCTION

This report accompanies Open-File Map Series (OFMS) 99. OFMS 99-01 depicts the
near-surface geology of the western half of the Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle. OFMS 99-02
depicts seven geologic cross sections and a correlative stratigraphic chart for the lithologic units
in the study area. OFMS 99-03 shows a geomorphology map, a digital elevation model (DEM),
locations of known springs, sinkholes, swallets and photographs of selected outcrops within the
study area.
The study area lies west of Madison, Florida and includes portions of Madison, Jefferson,
and Taylor Counties (Figure 1). It lies west of the Lake City 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, part of
which was mapped under a grant from the USGS STATEMAP program (Green et al., 2006), and
is adjacent to the eastern portion of the USGS Perry 30 x 60 minute quadrangle which was
mapped under the STATEMAP program (Green et al., 2007). Four regionally important rivers,
the Econfina River, the Fenholloway River, the Aucilla River, and the Wacissa River, occur in
the map area. Much of the area serves as recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, the primary
source of drinking water in the region.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


One objective for this report is to provide basic geologic information for the
accompanying geologic map, cross sections, and geomorphology. Information provided by this
report and these maps is intended for a diverse audience comprising professionals in geology,
hydrology, engineering, environmental and urban planning, and laypersons, all of whom have
varying levels of geologic knowledge. The map can help users identify and interpret geologic
features which impact activities related to groundwater quality and quantity, location of mineral
resources, land-use planning, and designing construction projects. Applied uses of the maps and
data in this report include: 1) identifying potential new mineral resources, 2) characterizing zones
of potential aquifer recharge and confinement, 3) aiding in water-management decisions on
groundwater flow and usage, 4) providing information on aquifer vulnerability to potential
pollution, 5) ecosystem, wetlands, and environmental characterization, and 6) recreational uses.


0 10 20 30 40 50 Miles
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0I Kiloneters


SO.F.M.S.83-01-07 1995
O.M.S.83-08-12. 1996
- OF.M.S.86. 1997
SO.FM.S.87. 1998
SI O.FM.S. 88. 1999
SO.FM.S. 89. 2000
I O.F.M.S. 90. 2001


w
w

w
w


LEGEND
O.FM.S. 91. 2002
O.FM.S. 92. 2003
O.EM.S. 93. 2004
O.EM.S. 94. 2005
O.FM.S. 97. 2006
O.EM.S. 98.2007
O.EM.S. 99. 2008
(Current STATEMAP
Study Area)


O City
- - County Boundary


]

w


1:24,0(1K Quadrangle

1:1 O( .(000 Quadrangle


Figure 1. Areas mapped under the FGS STATEMAP Program.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Methods

The study consisted of 1) reviewing and compiling existing geologic literature and data,
2) mapping geologic units in the field at 1:24,000 scale using standard techniques, 3) core and
cuttings analyses of existing samples, 4) new core drilling, 5) collecting and describing outcrop
samples, and 6) preparing a geologic map, geological cross-sections, and geomorphic map of the
area. Field work, performed during the fall of 2007 and the spring and summer of 2008,
consisted of sampling and describing numerous outcrops, river and pit exposures. One hundred
and twenty-four new samples of geologic material were added to the FGS surface-sample
archives (M-Series), six new cores were drilled, and over 200 outcrops were examined during
this project. All data, including data from over 350 wells, were compiled and analyzed by the
authors. The map and accompanying plates were developed in ESRI's ArcGIS ArcMap 9.2 for
publication as part of the Florida Geological Survey Open-File Map Series.
The study area is blanketed by a veneer of Quaternary sediments and soils. For this
reason, and in keeping with geologic mapping practices developed by Scott et al. (2001), the
authors have adopted the policy of mapping the first named geologic unit within 20 feet (6.1
meters) of the surface. If undifferentiated Quaternary (Qu) sediments attain a thickness greater
than 20 feet (6.1 meters), then they appear as the mapped unit. If these undifferentiated
sediments are less than 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, then the underlying stratigraphic unit appears
on the map.
The region is generally vegetated, and public access in the northern portion of the
mapped area is hindered by the presence of numerous farms and privately owned land. Much of
the southern portion of the study area is owned by a large timber company (Foley Land and
Timber Company) and permission was obtained to access the area for field work and drilling
operations. Fieldwork access was typically limited to public roads, State-owned lands, Foley
property, and Suwannee River Water Management District-owned lands. Access to a large tract
of land (the Avalon Plantation) located in the west-central portion of the study area was not
granted by the owners of the property (Figure 1 on OFMS 99-01). Therefore, new field data in
this region was limited to public-access roads.

Previous Work

The current study builds on many previous geologic investigations in and around the
present map area. The Florida Geological Survey has previously published reports on the
geology of Jefferson (Yon, 1966), Taylor (Rupert, 1996) and Madison (Hoenstine et al., 1990)
Counties that were very useful in preparing this report. A statewide geologic map (Scott et al.,
2001) was published by the FGS in digital format and provided much of the base map material.
Preliminary county geologic maps have been published for Madison (Campbell, 1993a),
Jefferson (Rupert and Yon, 1993), and Taylor (Campbell, 1993b) Counties at scales of
1:126,720. It is important to point out, however, that each of these Open-File Map Series
geologic maps were constructed in an average time-frame of two weeks utilizing selected in-
house geologic data with little to no extra field work. Although these maps provided an excellent
starting point for the detailed geologic mapping undertaken for this project, significant
refinement of the geologic maps was possible as a result of this project. This study also benefited
from the work performed for geologic mapping in the eastern portion of the USGS Perry 30 x 60
minute quadrangle (Green et al., 2007). Many of the field relationships and stratigraphic






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


problems were worked out during that project and data gathered during the project proved
invaluable in its completion.

GEOLOGIC SUMMARY

The near surface geology of the western portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale Perry
quadrangle is composed of a complex mixture of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and siliciclastic
sediments. A combination of factors, including fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposition,
dissolution of underlying carbonates, erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea
level and structural features, have influenced the geology of the study area.
Much of the western portion of the Perry quadrangle is located within the Aucilla and
Econfina River basins (Figure 2). In this area, the Aucilla, Econfina, Fenholloway, and Wacissa
rivers and their tributaries contain numerous documented springs, including one first magnitude
spring and 24 lesser magnitude springs. A first magnitude spring is defined as having a minimum
average flow of 100 cubic feet per second, or 64.6 million gallons per day. Many of these springs
have evidenced significant increases in pollutants in the last few decades, particularly nitrate
(Scott et al., 2002). Detailed geologic mapping of lithostratigraphic units in this area provides
critical data needed for future assessments of the vulnerability of the aquifer systems and these
springs to contamination. The recharge areas for many of these springs are believed to be located
in and around the current study area. Understanding the surficial geology of the map area is a
key factor in developing management and protection plans, not only for the springs, but for the
unconfined portions of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS).

Structure

Several structural variables have affected the geology of the region. The Peninsular Arch
(Figure 3), a structurally high area which affected deposition from the Cretaceous to the early
Cenozoic, is the dominant subsurface feature in the Florida peninsula (Applin, 1951; Puri and
Vernon, 1964; Williams et al., 1977; Schmidt, 1984; Miller, 1986; Scott, 1997). The axis of the
Peninsular Arch extends from southeastern Georgia to the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee in
southern Florida in a general northwest to southeast trend. The crest of the arch passes beneath
Alachua County south and east of the study area and is highest in Union and Baker Counties east
of the study area. The arch was a topographic high during most of the Cretaceous Period and had
Upper Cretaceous sediments deposited over it (Applin, 1951). It formed a relatively stable base
for Eocene carbonate deposition except during times of periodic land emergence due to lowered
sea levels (Williams et al., 1977). The arch did not affect late Tertiary to Holocene sediment
deposition (Williams et al., 1977; Scott, 1997).
The Ocala Platform is the most prominent structure affecting the near surface
depositional and post-depositional environments within the map area. Hopkins (1920) originally
named this feature the Ocala Uplift. Vernon (1951) described the Ocala Uplift as a gentle flexure
developed in Tertiary sediments with a northwest-southeast trending crest. Because there is
continuing uncertainty about the origin of this feature, Scott (1988) used the term Ocala
Platform, rather than Ocala Uplift or Ocala Arch, since it does not have a structural connotation.
The Ocala Platform exerted its influence on late Tertiary sediment deposition, and
Miocene sediments of the Hawthorn Group are thought to have been deposited across the
platform (Scott, 1981a; Scott, 1988). Post-Miocene erosion, however, has removed sediments of






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


the Hawthorn Group from much of the crest of the Ocala Platform, exposing Eocene and
Oligocene carbonates (Cooke, 1945; Espenshade and Spencer, 1963; Brooks, 1966; and Scott,
1981b). This is evident in the southern portion of the map area (see OFMS 99-01).
Undifferentiated sediments have subsequently been deposited on the exposed Oligocene
carbonates. These consist of residual clays, sands, and aeolian sands deposited during the
Pliocene to Holocene (Scott, 1997).


LEGEND
City
Swallet CEDAR
1st Magnitude Spring
Non 1st Magnitude Spring
County Boundary
River or Stream
Lake or Pond
1:100.000 Quadrangle
Alapaha River Basin
Aucilla River Basin
Econfina River Basin
St. Marks River Basin
Lower Suwannee River Basin
Upper Suwannee River Basin
Withlacoochee River North Basin
O.F.M.S. 99. 2008
Current STATEMAP Studv Area


0 10 20 30 40 50 60


N



S


Figure 2. Location of selected river basins, springs, swallets, and other water bodies.


a 7







e n


0 10 20 30 40 50 Miles


70 80 Kilometers






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Vernon (1951), utilizing aerial photographs, mapped fracture patterns throughout
northern peninsular Florida. Regionally, these fractures generally trend parallel to the axis of the
Ocala Platform in a northwest-southeast orientation. A secondary system of fractures intersects
these primary fractures at high angles in a northeast-southwest trend (Vernon, 1951). Orientation
of stream meanders along portions of the Wacissa and Aucilla Rivers suggests that these fracture
patterns may be a controlling factor in stream location (Yon, 1966).


SOUTHEAST 0

I "3


I
-


Sr


KILOMETERS
0 20 40 O0 8 100

0 M0 0I
MILES


D OFMS 99 Map Area Boundary


Ibdb -


Figure 3. Principal subsurface structures of north Florida (modified from Puri and
Vernon, 1964, and Schmidt, 1984).


aIl







OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Geomorphology

Several relict Neogene coastal terraces, which developed as a result of fluctuating sea
levels, have been documented in the study area. Healy (1975) recognized seven marine terraces
within the study area (Figure 4): the Silver Bluff terrace at elevations of between 1 and 10 feet
(.30 meters to 3.0 meters) above mean sea level (MSL), the Pamlico terrace at elevations
between 10 and 25 feet (3.1 meters and 7.6 meters) above MSL, the Talbot terrace at elevations
between 25 and 42 feet (7.6 and 12.8 meters) above MSL, the Penholoway terrace at elevations
between 42 and 70 feet (12.8 and 21.3 meters) above MSL, the Wicomico terrace at elevations
of 70 to 100 feet (21.3 to 30.5 meters) above MSL, the Sunderland/Okefenokee terrace at
elevations between 100 and 170 feet (30.5 and 51.8 meters) above MSL, and the Coharie terrace
at elevations between 170 and 215 feet (51.8 and 70.5 meters). Detailed discussions and
correlations of these marine terraces and relict shorelines have been attempted by many authors,
including Matson and Sanford (1913), Cooke (1931, 1939), Flint (1940, 1971), MacNeil (1950),
Alt and Brooks (1965), Pirkle et al. (1970), and Healy (1975).

















LeFend .
County Boundary
0 OFMS 99 Map Area Boutnda E

Relief of Terraces, in Feet
S
215 320 Hazlelurst terrace.
Coast~wise delta plain
170 215 Colharie terrace
100 170 Sunderland/
Okefenokee terrace
70- 100 Wicomico terrace
42- 70 Peniholoway terrace
25 42 Talbot terrace
S10-25 Panlico terrace
> I 10 Sih-er Bluff lerrace 0 10 20 30 40 5[ 60 70 Ro KM



Figure 4. Terraces in Florida (after Healy, 1975).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


According to Scott (in preparation), the study area contains parts of two geomorphic
districts the Ocala Karst District and the Tifton Upland District (Figure 2; OFMS 99-03).
Within the map area, these districts have been further subdivided topographically into four
regional physiographic units: the Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay, the Woodville Karst Plain (Ocala
Karst District), the Madison Hills and the Tallahassee Hills (Tifton Upland District). The Cody
Scarp forms the boundary between the two districts within the map area (Figure 1 on OFMS 99-
03).

Ocala Karst District

The Ocala Karst District encompasses a broad area from Wakulla County in the
panhandle of Florida, south to Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties in the west-central peninsula
and inland to nearly the center of the peninsula (Figure 3 on OFMS 99-03). Elevations within the
district range from sea level along the coast to in excess of 300 feet (91.4 meters) above mean sea
level (MSL) on the Brooksville Ridge. Within the study area, elevations range from sea level to 105
feet (32.0 meters) above MSL along the central eastern edge of the map area. In this area, the Ocala
Karst District is subdivided into the Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay and the Woodville Karst Plain.
Carbonate sediments, ranging from the Lower Oligocene Suwannee Limestone to the
Lower Miocene St. Marks Formation, lie at or near the land surface within the study area. The
Ocala Karst District is dominated by dissolution sinkholes and shallow bowl-shaped depressions,
producing a rolling topography. Generally, a variably permeable siliciclastic cover allows
downward percolating groundwater to slowly dissolve the underlying limestone, leading to
cover-collapse sinkholes and cover-subsidence features. Cover-collapse sinkholes form rather
abruptly from the structural failure of an underlying cavern roof. An excellent example of this is
Devil's Mill Hopper, located in Alachua County southeast of the present study area (Evans et al.,
2004).
Cover subsidence features generally occur in areas where sediments sag as carbonates
dissolve underneath. Typically, areas such as these have shallow sinks formed by the downward
movement of the siliciclastic overburden filling voids created by slow dissolution of underlying
carbonates or by slow dissolution of the carbonate surface. Springs, sinking (swallets) and
resurgent streams, and caverns commonly occur within the Ocala Karst District.

Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay

Regionally, the Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay complex extends from Madison County
southward to the Gulf of Mexico in Dixie County (Figure 3 on OFMS 99-03). The Perry Karst
subdivision is a narrow transitional zone between the Woodville Karst Plain to the west and San
Pedro Bay on the east. Elevations within the study area range from less than 5 feet (1.5 meters) to
in excess of 100 feet (30.5 meters) above MSL. The elevations in San Pedro Bay are generally
higher than in the Perry Karst area or the Branford Karst Plain. Elevations decline to the south
toward the Gulf Coast. The Perry Karst area is poorly to moderately drained, while San Pedro Bay
is extremely poorly drained. Copeland (2005) provides an excellent discussion of the San Pedro
Bay, its origin and surrounding areas. The Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay complex occupies the
central eastern portion of the study area. Within the map area, elevations of the Perry Karst/San
Pedro Bay range from 45 feet (13.7 meters) to over 100 feet (30.5 meters) above MSL.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


The Suwannee Limestone underlies the Perry Karst/San Pedro Bay in this area. In the San
Pedro Bay, a clay layer up to five feet (1.5 meters) thick overlies the limestone, providing
confinement to the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) (Copeland, 1982). Plio-Pleistocene sediments
cover the entire area, and the unit is poorly to very poorly drained. Recharge to the FAS is low to
moderate in San Pedro Bay, while recharge to the FAS may be moderate to high along the transition
from San Pedro Bay to the Perry Karst.

Woodville Karst Plain

The Woodville Karst Plain, which has very common karst features, springs, disappearing
streams (swallets), and resurgent streams, extends from Wakulla and Leon Counties southward to
the Taylor-Dixie County line (Figure 3 on OFMS 99-03). Elevations, in general, range from sea
level to approximately 50 feet (15.2 meters) above MSL. A number of rivers and streams traverse
the Woodville Karst Plain, including the St. Marks, Aucilla, Wacissa, and Econfina Rivers. Relief
is very low over the entire area and drainage is poor, resulting in vast swamps. Sand dunes occur in
various portions of the karst plain. An impressive dune field lies in the south-central portion of the
study area, with dune crest elevations exceeding 65 feet (19.8 meters) above MSL.
Tertiary carbonates underlie the entire area beneath a thin siliciclastic cover. The Lower
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone underlies the karst plain in Taylor and Jefferson Counties. The
Lower Miocene St. Marks Formation occurs in one small area along the central-west edge of the
map area in the headwaters of the Wacissa River. Springs, swallets and river rises commonly occur
in this area (Scott et al., 2004).

Tifton Upland District

The Tifton Upland occurs from the Apalachicola River on the west to northwestern
Hamilton County between the Alapaha and Withlacoochee Rivers and extends into Georgia
(Figure 3 on OFMS 99-03). Topographically, the upland is characterized by broad, undulating hills
with a well developed dendritic drainage pattern. Elevations range from less than 100 feet (30.5
meters) above MSL in the major stream and river valleys and in the swamps of the eastern portion
of the district, to 300 feet (91.4 meters) above MSL on the hilltops. Elevations decrease toward the
southern limit of the district. Within the study area, elevations range from approximately 40 feet
(12.2 meters) to nearly 230 feet (70.1 meters) above MSL. Where the uplands make the transition to
the Ocala Karst District, the boundary is marked by the Cody Scarp at elevations ranging from
approximately 50 feet (15.2 meters) to 125 feet (38.1 meters) above MSL. Within the study area, the
Tifton Upland District is subdivided into the Madison Hills and the Tallahassee Hills.
Siliciclastic sediments belonging to the Hawthorn Group and the Miccosukee Formation
underlie the Tifton Upland in the map area. The Miocene Hawthorn Group occurs as the near-
surface unit in the lower lying areas, while the Pliocene Miccosukee Formation forms the hilltops
within the map area. Sinkholes occur in this district but are much less abundant than in the Ocala
Karst District. Karst features are more common in the Madison Hills than in the Tallahassee Hills.

Madison Hills

The Madison Hills extend from the eastern end of the Tallahassee Hills in central Jefferson
County, eastward to eastern Madison County on the west side of the Withlacoochee River. Within






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida, a small area of the Madison Hills in northwestern Hamilton County is separated from the
main body of this zone by the Withlacoochee River Valley (Figure 3 on OFMS 99-03). The
elevation of the hills is generally lower than in the Tallahassee Hills with hill tops often below 200
feet (61.0 meters) above MSL. In the study area, elevations range from 50 feet (15.2 meters) to
slightly more than 200 feet (61.0 meters) above MSL. The valleys are broad and poorly drained.
The Miccosukee Formation forms the higher areas while the Hawthorn Group sediments underlie
the lower portions of the landscape. Karst features occur most commonly in the eastern part of the
district. The Lower Oligocene Suwannee Limestone underlies the Hawthorn Group in the Madison
Hills.

Tallahassee Hills

The Tallahassee Hills extend from the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines in Gadsden and
Liberty Counties on the west to eastern Jefferson County (Figure 3; OFMS 99-03). The lowest
elevations are approximately 50 feet (15.2 meters) above MSL along the Cody Scarp, the
boundary between the Tallahassee Hills and the Woodville Karst Plain, while elevations of hill
tops range to more than 300 feet (91.4 meters) above MSL. Well drained valleys have local relief
often exceeding 150 feet (45.7 meters) above MSL. In general, the hill top elevations decrease from
west to east and north to south. A number of large lakes exist in this area, including Lake Jackson
and Lake Miccosukee. This area is generally well drained with swampy conditions existing in the
lower elevations. In the study area, the Tallahassee Hills are developed on the Hawthorn Group and
Miccosukee Formation siliciclastic sediments. Karst features are present within this zone where the
carbonates of the St. Marks Formation and Suwannee Limestone occur near the surface.

Cody Scarp

The Cody Scarp has been described as "...the most persistent topographic break in the
State" (Puri and Vernon, 1964). White (1970) interpreted the scarp as being a combination of fluvial
and karst erosion and shoreline development. The scarp is a multiphasic scarp in that it may have
initially been a sea-level scarp but subsequently was highly modified, at least in part, by
karstification and surficial erosion. It is named for the community of Cody in Jefferson County
which is just west of the map area. Upchurch (2007) describes the Cody Scarp as "a classic
example of a karst escarpment with numerous poljes, uvalas, sinkholes, sinking streams, siphons,
springs, and other karst features along its length." The difference between a karst escarpment and
any other topographic scarp is that the toe of the scarp is characterized by limestone or dolostone
that is dissolved by the surface water and groundwater as the scarp retreats (Upchurch, 2007).
The scarp is very well developed near Wacissa (Photo 1; OFMS 99-03), where it appears to
be primarily a sea-level scarp, and separates the Tallahassee Hills from the Woodville Karst Plain.
Further east, where the scarp forms the boundary between the Madison Hills and the subdivisions of
the Ocala Karst District, it becomes less distinct as more karstification and surficial erosion have
altered it. Where the Cody Scarp occurs between the Tallahassee Hills and the Woodville Karst
Plain, the toe of the scarp is at approximately 50 feet (15 meters) and the crest is at 125 feet (38
meters) above MSL. In the eastern portion of the map area, the scarp is less distinct with the toe at
approximately 75 feet (23 meters) and the crest at more than 125 feet (38 meters) above MSL.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS

Tertiary System

Eocene Series
Avon Park Formation

The Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation (Tap), first described by Applin and Applin
(1944), is the oldest unit investigated in the present study area. The unit, which only occurs in the
subsurface in the study area, consists of cream to light-brown to tan, poorly-indurated to well-
indurated, variably fossiliferous limestone (grainstone to wackestone, with rare mudstone). The
limestones are interbedded with tan to brown, very poorly-indurated to well-indurated, very fine
to medium crystalline, fossiliferous (molds and casts), vuggy dolostones. Fossils present in the
unit include mollusks, foraminifera, echinoids, algae and carbonized plant remains.
The Avon Park Formation was only encountered in a few wells in the study area. The top
of the Avon Park ranges from 177 feet (53.9 meters) below MSL in W-18832 to 165 feet (50.3
meters) below MSL in W-4497 (cross-section G-G' on OFMS 99-02). No wells utilized for
cross-sections penetrated the entire section of the Avon Park Formation. The Avon Park
Formation forms part of the FAS (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on
Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).

Ocala Limestone

The Upper Eocene Ocala Limestone (To), first described by Dall and Harris (1892), is a
biogenic marine limestone comprised largely of foraminifera, mollusks, echinoids and
bryozoans. The unit, which sits unconformably on the Avon Park Formation, may be dolomitized
to varying degrees within the study area, making the contact between the two units difficult to
discern in cuttings. Based on lithologic differences, the Ocala Limestone can be informally
subdivided into an upper and lower unit (Scott, 1991a). This subdivision, while often apparent in
cores and quarries, is difficult to ascertain in cuttings. As a consequence of this, the geologic
cross sections do not break out the upper and lower Ocala Limestone.
The upper unit is typically a white to cream, fine- to coarse-grained, poorly- to well-
indurated, poorly-sorted, very fossiliferous limestone (wackestone, packstone, and grainstone).
Fossils commonly include foraminifera, bryozoans, mollusks, and a rich diversity of echinoids.
The lower unit is typically a white to cream, fine- to medium-grained, poorly- to moderately-
indurated limestone (grainstone to packstone). Fossils include foraminifera, bryozoans, algae,
mollusks, echinoids, and crabs.
The top of the Ocala Limestone, which is often karstified, ranges from 42 feet (12.8
meters) above MSL in W-15930 (cross sections C-C' and G-G' on OFMS 99-02) to 89 feet (27.1
meters) below MSL in W-620 (cross section D-D' on OFMS 99-02). Only a few wells penetrated
the entire thickness of the Ocala Limestone in the study area. In these wells, the thickness of the
Ocala Limestone ranges from 155 feet (47.2 meters) in W-4497 (cross-section G-G' on OFMS
99-02) to a projected thickness of 215.5 feet (65.7 meters) in W-15930 (cross-section G-G' on
OFMS 99-02). The Ocala Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Suwannee Limestone
(Ts) throughout the study area. The Ocala Limestone forms part of the FAS (Southeastern
Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Oligocene Series
Suwannee Limestone

The Lower Oligocene Suwannee Limestone (Ts), named by Cooke and Mansfield (1936)
for exposures of limestone along the Suwannee River from White Springs to Ellaville,
unconformably overlies the Ocala Limestone throughout the study area. It is exposed in the bed
of the Wacissa River from just below the headwaters of the river to the confluence of the Aucilla
River just above Nutall Rise (Yon, 1966). Numerous additional exposures of the Suwannee
Limestone also occur within the southern one-third of the map area (see OFMS 99-01). The
Suwannee Limestone is primarily a white to cream, poorly- to well-indurated packstone to
grainstone comprised of foraminifera, miliolid tests, pelecypods, gastropods and echinoids. The
echinoid Rhyncholampas gouldii, an index fossil for the Suwannee Limestone, is commonly seen
in outcrops. The lithology is variably recrystallized and may range from poorly-indurated,
friable limestone to well-indurated limestone cemented by calcite spar. Dolomitization of the
Suwannee Limestone is common in the area, particularly in the vicinity of the Aucilla River. The
Suwannee Limestone forms the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico offshore of the study area (Yon,
1966). Silicified residual boulders of the Suwannee Limestone ("float") are commonly found in
the south-central to southeastern portion of the study area, indicating that it was once thicker than
wells indicate (OFMS 99-01).
The top of the Suwannee Limestone ranges from 84 feet (25.6 meters) above MSL in W-
6925 (cross section B-B' on OFMS 99-02) to 63 feet (19.2 meters) below MSL in W-6906 (cross
section E-E' on OFMS 99-02). The Suwannee Limestone ranges in thickness from
approximately 27 feet (8.2 meters) in W-15930 (cross section G-G' on OFMS 99-02) to 113 feet
(34.4 meters) in W-18841 (cross sections B-B' and G-G' on OFMS 99-02).
The unit is unconformably overlain by sediments of the Miocene Hawthorn Group,
Torreya Formation (Tht) in the northern portion of the study area, sediments of the St. Marks
Formation (Tsmk) in the west-central portion of the study area, and undifferentiated Quaternary
sediments (Qu) throughout the middle portions of the study area. The Suwannee Limestone
forms part of the FAS (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).

Miocene Series

St. Marks Formation

The Lower Miocene St. Marks Formation (Tsmk), named by Finch (1823), is exposed
west of the study area in Wakulla, Leon and western Jefferson Counties along the northwestern
flank of the Ocala Platform (Scott, 2001). The St. Marks Formation, which unconformably
overlies the Suwannee Limestone, was only recognized in a few wells within the northwestern
region of the study area (see cross sections A-A', B-B' and E-E' on OFMS 99-02) and no
outcrops of the formation were observed within the study area. The St. Marks Formation is a
white to yellowish-gray, poorly- to moderately-indurated, quartz sandy, fossiliferous limestone
(packstone to wackestone). Mollusk molds and casts are common and may be abundant.
Common foraminifera present in the St. Marks Formation include Sorites sp. and Archaias
floridana.






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The top of the St. Marks Formation ranges from 68 feet (20.7 meters) above MSL (W-
15882, cross-section E-E' on OFMS 99-02) to 8 feet (2.4 meters) above MSL in W-1854 (cross-
section B-B' on OFMS 99-02) within the study area. A maximum thickness of 88 feet (26.8
meters) was penetrated in W-6906 of cross-section E-E' (OFMS 99-02), with a projected
thickness of up to 105 feet in W-15882 (cross-section E-E on OFMS 99-02). The unit pinches
out against the Suwannee Limestone towards the east and south (see cross sections A-A', B-B'
and E-E'; OFMS 99-02). Where present, the St. Marks Formation forms part of the FAS
(Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit
Definition, 1986).

Hawthorn Group

Sediments of the Hawthorn Group (Th) are encountered throughout much of the northern
one-third of the study area where they unconformably overlie the Suwannee Limestone or the St.
Marks Formation (OFMS 99-01). Sediments of the Hawthorn Group are thought to have been
deposited over the Ocala Platform throughout the area, but post-Miocene erosion removed
sediments from the crest of the Ocala Platform exposing the Oligocene carbonates in the
southern portion of the map area (Cooke, 1945; Espenshade and Spencer, 1963; Brooks, 1966;
and Scott, 1981b). Fossils in the Hawthorn Group are sparse but may include vertebrate remains,
corals, and mollusks. Williams et al. (1977) report that the most commonly found fossils are
oysters and coral heads. Within the map area, the Miocene Hawthorn Group (Th) is composed of
the Lower Miocene Torreya Formation (Tht).

Torreya Formation

The Lower Miocene Torreya Formation of the Hawthorn Group (Tht) is typically a
siliciclastic unit with increasing amounts of carbonate in the lower portion of the unit. The
majority of Torreya Formation outcrops expose the siliciclastic part of the unit which varies from
white to light olive gray, unconsolidated to poorly-indurated slightly clayey sand to light gray to
bluish-gray, poorly-consolidated silty clay often containing a variable but minor component of
carbonate (calcareous or dolomitic). Phosphate grains, while a common but minor lithologic
component of the unit, are often absent (Scott, 1988).
Several field samples (M-Series) were collected in the southeast quadrant of the Lamont
quadrangle (T 01 S, R 05 E, S 10 and 15), and one sample was collected along the Aucilla River
(T 02 S, R 05 E, S 02) which, at first glance, appeared to be from the Miccosukee Formation
(Tmc). These samples were red to orange clayey sands to sandstones. Upon further examination
under a binocular microscope, however, these samples were determined to have secondary
wavellite cement binding the sands. In these cases, the samples were deemed to be deeply
weathered Torreya Formation siliciclastics (Tht) in which secondary wavellite was precipitated
(Figure 2, OFMS 99-02). Field mapping suggests that the upper surface of the Torreya
Formation is irregular, and the central portions of some hills in the northern part of the mapped
area, which are mapped as Miccosukee Formation, are likely formed by the Torreya Formation.
Where this situation is present, the contact between the two units is difficult to verify due to
downslope migration of Miccosukee Formation sediments as they weather and cover Torreya
Formation sediments.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The carbonate sediments of the Torreya Formation are white to light olive gray, poorly-
indurated, variably sandy and clayey limestones. The limestone (mudstone and wackestone)
often contains molds and casts of mollusks. The Torreya Formation overlies the FAS and forms
part of the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit (IAS/ICU) (Southeastern
Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).
The top of the Torreya Formation ranges from 145 feet (44.2 meters) above MSL in W-
10713 (cross section A-A' on OFMS 99-02) to approximately 45 feet (13.7 meters) above MSL
in the vicinity of where it pinches out on the Aucilla River in the Lamont SE quadrangle (see
OFMS 99-02). The unit ranges from less than 5 feet (1.5 meters) in the vicinity of the Aucilla
River up to 155 feet (47.2 meters) thick in W-6558 in the Greenville quadrangle (see Appendix
A for well location).

Tertiary-Quaternary Systems

Pliocene Series

Miccosukee Formation

The Pliocene Miccosukee Formation (Tmc), named by Hendry and Yon (1967), is a
prodeltaic siliciclastic unit composed of grayish-orange to grayish-red, mottled, poorly- to
moderately-indurated, interbedded clay, sand and gravel of variable coarseness and admixtures.
The unit has limited distribution in the eastern panhandle of Florida and occurs from central
Gadsden County (west of the study area) to eastern Madison County (Scott et al., 2001).
The top of the unit, present predominantly within the northwestern and northeastern
corners of the map area, with minor outliers in the north-central portion of the map area, ranges
from approximately 100 feet (30.5 meters) above MSL to approximately 230 feet (70.1 meters)
above MSL in field exposures (see OFMS 99-01 and OFMS 99-02). The Miccosukee Formation
ranges from a few feet thick to approximately 130 feet (39.6 meters) in thickness in this area.
The unit is relatively impermeable due to its high clay content, but is considered to be part of the
surficial aquifer system (SAS) (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).

Pleistocene Series

Undifferentiated Quaternary

Undifferentiated Quaternary sediments (Qu) lie unconformably on the Oligocene
Suwannee Limestone (Ts), the Miocene St. Marks Formation (Tsmk) and the Miocene Torreya
Formation (Tht) throughout much of the middle portion of the study area. These sediments,
which generally consist of sandy clays and clayey sands, often include weathered and silicified
boulders of the Suwannee Limestone ("float"). The undifferentiated Quaternary sediments (Qu)
are part of the SAS (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Quaternary Beach Ridges and Dunes

Sediments mapped as Quaternary beach ridges and dunes (Qbd) exhibit discernable
beach ridges and dune features. These sediments consist of unconsolidated, light gray to tan, fine
to medium quartz sand with variable percentages of organic material. They are only present in a
small area in the extreme south-central portion of the map area. The Quaternary beach ridges and
dunes (Qbd) sediments are part of the SAS (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee
on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986).

HYDROGEOLOGY

The hydrogeology of the map area consists of (in ascending order) the Floridan aquifer
system (FAS), the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit (IAS/ICU), and the
surficial aquifer system (SAS) (Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986). The FAS, which is the primary source of drinking
water in the region, is generally comprised of carbonate units of the Avon Park Formation, the
Ocala Limestone, the Suwannee Limestone, and the St. Marks Formation. The sands, silts, clays
and carbonates of the Hawthorn Group comprise the IAS/ICU. The SAS is comprised of the
Miccosukee Formation, undifferentiated Quaternary sediments and Quaternary beach ridge and
dune sediments.
Where siliciclastic sediments of the Hawthorn Group and Miccosukee Formation are
thick, they provide confinement for the FAS, but where the siliciclastic sediments of the
Hawthorn Group and younger units are thin or missing, karst features often occur. "Swallets"
(stream-to-sink features) are of particular concern to geoscientists and hydrogeologists in the
area. Several swallets occur along the edge of the Cody Scarp and in the southern half of the map
area and provide avenues for direct recharge to the FAS by surface water and runoff from
agricultural and urban areas (Figure 1 on OFMS 99-03).

DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS

Several derivative products will come from this project. During the mapping project, data
from several hundred wells (Appendix A) were analyzed. Formation picks, made on all available
wells, will allow for the creation of a structure contour map of the top of rock in the study area,
along with an isopach map of overburden for the area. Several Florida Geological Survey staff
members are working on an additional publication, which is beyond the scope of the original
project, which will depict these maps. Additional derivative data that is anticipated to come from
this mapping effort includes an aquifer vulnerability assessment map. Data derived from prior
STATEMAP products has often been used to augment other FGS and Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) projects in the state (Arthur et al., 2008 (in review); Baker et
al., 2007).

FIELD HAZARDS

The authors have been performing fieldwork in Florida for over 50 years between them.
Some of the things that the authors have always been cognizant of are the various hazards which
may pose a safety threat while doing field work in Florida. Among these are heat stroke,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lightning, plants and wildlife. For example, thunderstorms and the accompanying lightning are a
particular hazard while drilling and often led to shutting down of the drilling rigs until the
lightning passed. The lightning photo below was taken by Tom Scott while doing fieldwork in
Florida Bay several years ago. Florida is known as "the lightning capital of the world" for good
reason.


In the current study area, there were an abundance of field hazards encountered.
Fortunately, through the use of telephoto lenses, images of some of these hazards were captured
from a safe distance. Brief descriptions and photos are included to aid future workers in the
proper identification of these dangerous flora and fauna.

Plants

Poisonous plants including poison ivy (Rhus radicans) and poison oak (Rhus pubescens)
are very common in Florida. The leaves, roots, and fruit of these plants contain a poisonous sap
which can cause severe itching, inflammation and blisters in people susceptible to the poison.
Poison ivy usually grows as a vine on tree trunks or sprawling over the ground and is
easily recognized by the presence of three leaves ("leaves of three, let it be"). The leaflets are
elliptical, wider near the base, and the middle leaf is longer than the other two. The leaves may
vary greatly in size. They are reddish in the spring, turn green during the summer, and may
become various shades of yellow, orange, or red in the autumn.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Poison oak is an erect shrub that can grow several feet tall. The leaves resemble oak
leaves and usually (but not always) occur in groups of three. The berries are generally yellow
and grow in clusters.


Reptiles


A wide variety of snakes, including the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus
adamanteus), the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), the cottonmouth water moccasin
(Agkistrodon piscivorus), the pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus milarius), and the eastern coral snake
(Micrurusfulvius) were encountered this year while doing fieldwork. Bites from any of these
snakes are serious and can be fatal in some cases. The photos below of various snakes are
provided in order to help in identifying them.
Note the distinctive diamond pattern on the eastern diamondback rattlesnake versus the
pattern for the timber rattlesnake as seen in the photos on the next page. Both snakes are highly
poisonous, but are rarely aggressive unless stepped on or cornered. The timber rattlesnake can
reach 5 feet (1.5 meters) in length and the eastern diamondback 7 feet (2.1 meters). The pygmy
rattlesnake is much smaller than the other two rattlers, generally less than 2 feet (0.6 meters), but
is still quite venomous. The cottonmouth water moccasin, however, can be particularly
aggressive and has been known to approach people. This snake has a very distinctive white
mouth and throat, from whence its name is derived. The eastern coral snake can easily be
identified by two features: the black snout, and the red and yellow bands which touch each other.
While generally nonaggressive, bites from this snake are often fatal unless treated with antivenin
within a few hours.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


















'' ~~kboto by Tqom Sctt Fl .







"It~; It' 4i

i S sf- 4p; '
























18






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


The American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is very common in the waterways
within Florida and encounters with these reptiles were a regular occurrence in the field this
season. While they are generally not aggressive, nesting female alligators can be quite
dangerous, particularly during mating season (generally May through September). The alligator
in the right-hand photo below was estimated to be up to 12 feet (3.7 meters) long and
aggressively approached an 18 foot (5.5 meter) boat while in the field.





















Mammals

Another significant danger this year was the presence of numerous American black bears
(Ursus americanus) in the wildlife refuges in the area. Although no photos were captured of
bears, several sightings were made by field and drilling crews while in the field. While these






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


bears tend to be shy and retreat from humans, they have been known to attack and can be
dangerous when with cubs.

Insects

Ticks are a significant hazard in North Florida. Two of the most common tick-borne
diseases of concern are Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Lyme disease is a
bacterial infection caused by a spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) which is transmitted via the tick
bite (CDC, 2008a). Lyme disease can have symptoms (rash, muscle aches, fever, and mild-flu-
like symptoms) which may mimic other diseases and can often be misdiagnosed.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is caused by a bacteria (Rickettsia rickettsii)
which is spread through tick bites. Common ticks in Florida which may transmit these diseases
include the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), the lone star tick (Amblyomma
americanum), and the deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). Initial signs and symptoms of the disease
include sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle pain, often followed by development of a
rash (CDC, 2008b).


Three FGS staff members (two samplers for the springs team and one of the drillers) have
contracted RMSF due to tick bites. The photos on the next page are of: 1) the rash resulting from
RMSF (left) from the bite of a lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and 2) the site of a tick
bite (right) which resulted in the infection of one of our staff members with RMSF.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Spiders can pose another hazard and one spider, in particular, is dangerous and common
in Florida. The black widow (Latrodectus mactans) is considered to be the most venomous
spider in North America, with venom that is reportedly 15 times stronger than a rattlesnake's
venom (National Geographic, 2008). Black widow spiders are easily recognized by the presence
of a red "hourglass" marking on the underside of the abdomen. The photos of the black widow
were taken when a piece of Suwannee Limestone was rolled over to look at the underside.
Fortunately, the sample was turned over with a rock hammer and not a bare hand, something that
is a good habit to get into to avoid being bitten. The bite of the black widow spider may feel like
a pin prick, but the initial pain goes away rapidly, leaving localized swelling and two tiny red
marks at the site of the bite. Cramps in the shoulder, thigh and back muscles generally begin
within 15 minutes to a few hours. In severe cases of a black widow bite, pain may spread to the
abdomen, blood pressure may rise, there may be nausea, sweating and difficulty in breathing.
Death can result, depending on the victim's age, physical condition, and the location of bite.
Death seldom occurs, however, if a physician is consulted and treatment is promptly sought.
Another very common spider encountered while doing field work in Florida is the golden
silk spider (Nephila clavipes). While this spider is not poisonous, its web does pose an
annoyance when hiking through the woods. During the summer and late fall, the large webs of
this species are extremely common and it is not uncommon for hikers to walk through the webs
and have the spider end up on them as in the case of FGS staff member Tom Greenhalgh in the
photo below. The bite from this spider is generally less painful than a bee sting and produces
only localized pain and redness, which quickly dissipates.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allison, D., Groszos, M. and Rupert, F. R., 1995, Top of rock in the Floridan Aquifer System in
the Suwannee River Water Management District: Florida Geological Survey Open-File Map
Series 84, scale 1:475,000.

Alt, D. and Brooks, H.K., 1965, Age of the Florida marine terraces: Journal of Geology, v. 73,
no. 2, p. 406-411.

Altshuler, Z.S., Dwornik, E. J. and Kramer, H., 1963, Transformation of montmorillonite to
kaolinite during weathering: Science, v. 141, no. 3576, p. 148-152.

Applin, P., 1951, Possible future petroleum provinces of North America Florida: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 35, p. 405-407.

Applin, P.L. and Applin, E.R., 1944, Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida
and southern Georgia: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p.
1673-1753.

Arthur, J.D., Baker, J., Cichon, J., Wood, A. and Rudin, A., 2008 (in review), Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA): Contamination potential of Florida's principal aquifer
systems: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 67.

Baker, A.E., Wood, H.A.R. and Cichon, J.R., 2007, The Marion County Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment; final report submitted to Marion County Board of County Commissioners in
fulfillment of Marion County Project No. SS06-01, March 2007, 42 p. (unpublished).

Bond, P.A., 1989, Mineral resources of Jefferson County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Map Series 129, scale 1:126,720, 2 sheets.

Brooks, H.K., 1966, Geological history of the Suwannee River, in Southeastern Geological
Society, 12th Annual Field Conference Guidebook, p. 37-45.

Campbell, K., 1993a, Geologic map of Madison County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Open-File Map Series 27, scale 1: 126,720.

Campbell, K., 1993b, Geologic map of Taylor County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open-
File Map Series 29, scale 1:126,720.

CDC, 2008a, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Lyme Disease:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/ (August 2008).

CDC, 2008b, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rmsf/index.htm (August 2008).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ceryak, R., Knapp, M.S. and Burnson, T., 1983, The Geology and Water Resources of the Upper
Suwannee River Basin, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigation 87, 165
p.

Colquhoun, D.J., 1969, Coastal plain terraces in the Carolinas and Georgia, U.S.A.: Wright,
H.E., Jr., editor, Quaternary Geology and Climate: Volume 16 of the Proceedings of the VII
Congress of the International Association for Quaternary Research, v. 16, p. 150-162.

Cooke, C.W., 1916, The age of the Ocala Limestone: United States Geological Survey
Professional Paper 95-I, p. 107-117.

Cooke, C.W., 1931, Seven coastal terraces in the southeastern United States: Washington
Academy of Sciences Journal, v. 21, p. 503-513.

Cooke, C.W., 1939, Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 17, 120 p.

Cooke, C.W., 1945, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29, 342 p.

Cooke, C.W. and Mansfield, W.C., 1936, Suwannee Limestone of Florida [Abstract]: Geological
Society of America Proceedings, 1935, p. 71-72.

Copeland, R.E., 1982, Identification of Groundwater Geochemical Patterns in the Western
Portion of the Suwannee River Water Management District, in Beck, B., ed., Studies of the
Hydrogeology of the Southeastern United States: 1981: Americus, Georgia Southwestern
College Special Publication 1, p. 19-29.

Copeland, R., 2003, Florida spring classification system and spring glossary: Florida Geological
Survey Special Publication 52, 17 p.

Copeland, R., 2005, Geomorphic influence of scarps in the Suwannee River Basin: Southeastern
Geological Society Guidebook 44, p. 1-17.

Dall, W.H. and Harris, G.D., 1892, Correlation papers, Neocene: United States Geological
Survey Bulletin 84, 349 p.

Doering, J.A., 1960, Quaternary surface formations of the southern part of the Atlantic Coastal
Plain: Journal of Geology, v. 68, p. 182-202.

Espenshade, G.H. and Spencer, C.W., 1963, Geologic features of phosphate deposits of northern
peninsular Florida: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1118, 115 p.

Evans, W.L., III, Green, R.C., Bryan, J.R. and Paul, D.T., 2004, Geologic map of the western
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle, northern Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Open-File Map Series 93, 2 plates, scale 1:100,000.






OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank: Bob Heeke and Carlos Herd of the Suwannee River
Water Management District (SRWMD) for access to district lands; Ron Ceryak for providing
well information for the SRWMD; David Nicholson for providing access to the Big Bend
Wildlife Management Area; Morgan Wilbur for access to the Aucilla Wildlife Management
Area; Michael Keys and Terry Peacock for access to the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge;
Celso Gonzalez-Falla and Charles E. Gilman III for access to Gilman Trust property. Ken
Campbell, Bridget Coane, Tom Greenhalgh, Nick John, Harley Means, and Guy Richardson
provided additional field support. Rick Copeland, Jackie Lloyd, Harley Means, Frank Rupert
and Christopher Williams are thanked for their time in reviewing, discussing, and editing the
product. This geologic map was funded in part by the FDEP/FGS and in part by the USGS
National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program under USGS assistance award number
07HQPA0003.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Appendix A: Wells utilized for study.


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Toal
ID# ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) ept
(Feet)
1 W-620 FGS Cuttings 30 00 44.99 83 46 01.99 Manlin Hammock 6 115
2 W-621 FGS Cuttings 30 02 27.99 83 43 29.99 Hampton Springs 19 120
3 W-705 FGS Cuttings 30 20 15.90 83 44 22.14 Shady Grove 79 175
4 W-1854 FGS Cuttings 30 20 15.67 83 58 58.31 Wacissa 37 7,913
5 W-4497 FGS Cuttings 30 04 05.09 83 30 00.99 Perry 61 460
6 W-5455 FGS Cuttings 30 25 47.00 83 51 36.00 Lamont 74 141
7 W-5859 FGS Cuttings 30 09 49.00 83 36 51.00 Boyd 47 145
8 W-6061 FGS Cuttings 30 27 24.99 83 57 52.00 Waukeenah 147 250
9 W-6559 FGS Cuttings 30 27 36.06 83 47 10.16 Lamont 85 112
10 W-6906 FGS Cuttings 30 24 16.22 83 59 23.93 Waukeenah 165 250
11 W-6925 FGS Cuttings 30 21 08.00 83 51 18.00 Lamont SE 134 69
12 W-6932 FGS Cuttings 30 26 37.00 83 54 00.00 Waukeenah 214 265
13 W-7122 FGS Cuttings 30 20 02.79 83 47 55.28 Lamont SE 114 60
14 W-10459 FGS Core 30 02 29.99 83 36 49.99 Perry 31 70
15 W-10713 FGS Cuttings 30 26 35.00 83 54 31.00 Waukeenah 205 280
16 W-13129 FGS Cuttings 30 02 40.08 83 41 49.34 Hampton Springs 22 30
17 W-13206 FGS Cuttings 30 12 37.99 83 52 24.00 Johnson Hammock 30 10
18 W-15279 FGS Cuttings 30 10 20.00 83 41 16.00 Secotan 40 400
19 W-15300 FGS Cuttings 30 10 12.00 83 40 27.00 Secotan 40 401
20 W-15882 FGS Core 30 22 13.00 83 58 11.00 Wacissa 184 144
21 W-15884 FGS Core 30 25 23.13 83 42 03.20 Greenville 90 73
22 W-15906 FGS Core 30 17 49.00 83 59 03.00 Wacissa 32 31
23 W-15907 FGS Core 30 20 49.00 83 55 33.00 Wacissa 43 31
24 W-15911 FGS Core 30 21 33.48 83 36 18.12 Greenville SE 95 94
25 W-15912 FGS Core 30 23 42.00 83 48 45.00 Lamont 70 70
26 W-15922 FGS Core 30 17 02.76 83 46 42.22 Lamont SE 47 45
27 W-15930 FGS Core 30 11 11.87 83 31 58.91 Boyd 89 65
28 W-15931 FGS Core 30 26 16.41 83 37 14.81 Greenville NE 100 102
29 W-15943 FGS Core 30 17 22.71 83 32 09.52 Greenville SE 92 59
30 W-15946 FGS Core 30 11 19.00 83 45 18.00 Johnson Hammock 36 29
31 W-15960 FGS Core 30 20 13.44 83 42 19.81 Shady Grove 83 97
32 W-15986 FGS Core 30 26 13.14 83 30 55.81 Greenville NE 125 101
33 W-18095 FGS Core 30 07 43.00 83 57 41.00 Nutall Rise 5 90
34 W-18108 FGS Core 30 06 10.00 83 53 23.00 Snipe Island 5 50
35 W-18830 FGS Core 30 13 18.87 83 56 53.79 Nutall Rise 18 114
36 W-18831 FGS Core 30 12 05.00 83 50 00.80 Johnson Hammock 32 128
37 W-18832 FGS Core 30 13 43.80 83 32 33.06 Boyd 93 330
38 W-18839 FGS Core 30 14 56.50 83 45 22.20 Johnson Hammock 44 128
39 W-18840 FGS Core 30 07 15.20 83 44 58.10 Hampton Springs 27 110
40 W-18841 FGS Core 30 22 49.80 83 32 58.44 Greenville NE 152 439.5
41 W-105 FGS Cuttings 30 04 16.07 83 31 43.02 Perry 52 90
42 W-185 FGS Cuttings 30 04 35.99 83 40 16.99 Hampton Springs 24 60
43 W-186 FGS Cuttings 30 06 06.62 83 34 22.85 Perry 47 90
44 W-525 FGS Cuttings 30 28 26.36 83 40 10.39 Greenville 95 229
45 W-607 FGS Cuttings 30 07 10.15 83 35 07.68 Perry 44 364
46 W-732 FGS Cuttings 30 04 46.95 83 34 18.79 Perry 44 255
47 W-905 FGS Cuttings 30 22 10.67 83 58 42.63 Wacissa 187 200
48 W-1063 FGS Cuttings 30 06 35.00 83 35 05.00 Perry 37 9
49 W-1257 FGS Cuttings 30 02 47.00 83 55 06.00 Snipe Island 4 16
50 W-1258 FGS Cuttings 30 05 20.40 83 53 09.57 Snipe Island 4 9
51 W-1877 FGS Cuttings 30 04 00.99 83 40 32.99 Hampton Springs 21 6,254
52 W-2687 FGS Cuttings 30 04 07.00 83 30 39.00 Perry 52 370
53 W-2743 FGS Cuttings 30 04 13.68 83 31 24.65 Perry 54 375
54 W-2905 FGS Cuttings 30 04 12.07 83 30 45.00 Perry 50 345
55 W-3664 FGS Cuttings 30 04 25.01 83 33 45.99 Perry 46 100
56 W-3820 FGS Cuttings 30 05 58.99 83 35 02.99 Perry 43 55
57 W-4334 FGS Cuttings 30 03 02.25 83 33 05.15 Perry 52 44
58 W-4335 FGS Cuttings 30 03 51.77 83 31 23.26 Perry 45 28
59 W-4336 FGS Cuttings 30 04 22.72 83 33 27.08 Perry 43 18
60 W-4337 FGS Cuttings 30 04 15.12 83 31 04.08 Perry 54 28
61 W-4338 FGS Cuttings 30 03 58.69 83 31 59.06 Perry 50 18








OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Total
Mp civedData TypeD Depth
ID # ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) (Feet
(Feet)
62 W-4339 FGS Cuttings 30 04 34.47 83 31 17.15 Perry 59 33
63 W-4340 FGS Cuttings 30 04 47.01 83 32 14.98 Perry 52 18
64 W-4341 FGS Cuttings 30 03 15.31 83 31 47.79 Perry 52 18
65 W-4342 FGS Cuttings 30 04 48.32 83 33 35.91 Perry 45 8
66 W-4343 FGS Cuttings 30 03 48.59 83 33 25.80 Perry 43 18
67 W-4344 FGS Cuttings 30 03 43.73 83 32 01.04 Perry 48 14
68 W-5325 FGS Cuttings 30 25 29.27 83 46 51.05 Lamont 87 151
69 W-5356 FGS Cuttings 30 08 47.99 83 36 44.99 Boyd 44 70
70 W-6174 FGS Cuttings 30 23 06.92 83 48 42.90 Lamont 68 80
71 W-6402 FGS Cuttings 30 24 35.00 83 54 33.00 Waukeenah 205 161
72 W-6517 FGS Core 30 29 10.13 83 49 39.64 Lamont 90 93
73 W-6525 FGS Cuttings 30 06 58.42 83 58 40.58 Snipe Island 3 24
74 W-6558 FGS Cuttings 30 29 41.98 83 43 20.75 Greenville 116 230
75 W-6635 FGS Cuttings 30 04 42.00 83 31 46.00 Perry 69 240
76 W-6930 FGS Cuttings 30 24 11.12 83 53 49.67 Waukeenah 128 200
77 W-6931 FGS Cuttings 30 22 17.83 83 56 38.34 Wacissa 200 127
78 W-7120 FGS Cuttings 30 22 17.83 83 56 38.34 Wacissa 200 192
79 W-7130 FGS Cuttings 30 24 42.70 83 52 53.74 Waukeenah 100 65
80 W-7134 FGS Cuttings 30 24 42.70 83 52 53.74 Waukeenah 100 78
81 W-7135 FGS Cuttings 30 23 00.00 83 48 50.00 Lamont 62 65
82 W-7137 FGS Cuttings 30 18 41.54 83 52 46.75 Wacissa 44 90
83 W-7139 FGS Cuttings 30 19 30.00 83 49 55.00 Lamont SE 45 85
84 W-7140 FGS Cuttings 30 24 42.70 83 52 53.74 Waukeenah 100 70
85 W-7141 FGS Cuttings 30 23 05.02 83 55 55.99 Waukeenah 106 97
86 W-7155 FGS Cuttings 30 27 23.00 83 53 52.00 Waukeenah 220 70
87 W-7225 FGS Cuttings 30 28 10.00 83 35 15.00 Greenville NE 120 74
88 W-7226 FGS Cuttings 30 28 51.38 83 32 16.17 Greenville NE 95 59
89 W-7228 FGS Cuttings 30 28 43.53 83 33 15.32 Greenville NE 115 89
90 W-7229 FGS Cuttings 30 28 42.55 83 31 21.61 Greenville NE 95 42
91 W-7236 FGS Cuttings 30 28 26.00 83 34 49.00 Greenville NE 95 43
92 W-12697 FGS Cuttings 30 05 29.00 83 49 03.00 Manlin Hammock 15 7,467
93 W-12981 FGS Cuttings 30 28 07.00 83 53 31.00 Waukeenah 200 124
94 W-13027 FGS Cuttings 30 10 23.00 83 35 49.00 Boyd 55 70
95 W-13130 FGS Cuttings 30 05 32.04 83 31 07.97 Perry 61 73
96 W-13196 FGS Cuttings 30 25 30.00 83 37 57.00 Greenville 105 90
97 W-13215 FGS Cuttings 30 25 42.87 83 55 50.32 Waukeenah 175 270
98 W-13297 FGS Cuttings 30 26 32.00 83 38 45.00 Greenville 90 130
99 W-13302 FGS Cuttings 30 08 42.80 83 38 54.07 Secotan 36 30
100 W-13317 FGS Cuttings 30 29 12.00 83 35 45.00 Greenville NE 100 130
101 W-13369 FGS Cuttings 30 19 33.00 83 41 48.00 Shady Grove 75 120
102 W-13370 FGS Cuttings 30 17 33.11 83 41 04.38 ShadyGrove 72 63
103 W-13522 FGS Cuttings 30 01 36.04 83 42 10.24 Hampton Springs 62 56
104 W-14692 FGS Cuttings 30 20 31.81 83 48 51.81 Lamont SE 80 78
105 W-14693 FGS Cuttings 30 29 20.00 83 41 45.00 Greenville 84 180
106 W-14867 FGS Cuttings 30 07 26.00 83 58 12.00 Snipe Island 5 20
107 W-15273 FGS Cuttings 30 08 58.00 83 40 48.00 Secotan 37 808
108 W-15852 FGS Core 30 11 33.00 83 38 58.00 Secotan 48 30
109 W-15856 FGS Core 30 05 38.94 83 34 19.00 Perry 45 25
110 W-15868 FGS Core 30 25 33.84 83 55 03.01 Waukeenah 205 238
111 W-15934 FGS Core 30 16 01.58 83 39 46.69 Shady Grove 68 64
112 W-15947 FGS Core 30 07 39.23 83 35 46.81 Boyd 44 39
113 W-15959 FGS Core 30 15 55.75 83 39 40.55 ShadyGrove 70 55
114 W-15985 FGS Core 30 16 51.00 83 49 50.00 Lamont SE 40 35
115 W-16755 FGS Core 30 06 18.00 83 58 55.00 Snipe Island 1 2
116 W-16757 FGS Core 30 04 53.00 83 58 17.00 Snipe Island 2 7
117 W-16758 FGS Core 30 05 33.00 83 58 02.00 Snipe Island 2 2
118 W-16767 FGS Core 30 05 00.00 83 57 54.00 Snipe Island 3 6
119 W-16769 FGS Core 30 05 27.00 83 58 56.00 Snipe Island 1 6
120 W-16771 FGS Core 30 07 12.21 83 59 39.28 Snipe Island 0 5
121 W-16772 FGS Core 30 06 18.00 83 59 10.00 Snipe Island 1 1
122 W-16774 FGS Core 30 05 39.00 83 58 41.00 Snipe Island 2 3
123 W-16780 FGS Core 30 04 33.00 83 57 54.00 Snipe Island 1 4
124 W-17769 FGS Core 30 11 37.00 83 57 00.00 Nutall Rise 12 8








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Total
Mp civedData TypeD Depth
ID # ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) (Feet
(Feet)
125 W-18096 FGS Core 30 07 43.00 83 56 50.00 Nutall Rise 5 70
126 W-18097 FGS Core 30 07 20.00 83 57 12.00 Snipe Island 5 60
127 W-18098 FGS Core 30 06 54.00 83 57 36.00 Snipe Island 5 55
128 W-18100 FGS Core 30 08 05.00 83 57 10.00 Nutall Rise 5 65
129 W-18101 FGS Core 30 08 38.00 83 56 44.00 Nutall Rise 5 75
130 W-18102 FGS Core 30 07 46.00 83 55 47.00 Nutall Rise 5 65
131 W-18103 FGS Core 30 08 31.00 83 56 09.00 Nutall Rise 5 66
132 W-18104 FGS Core 30 07 38.00 83 53 37.00 Nutall Rise 5 85
133 W-18105 FGS Core 30 07 02.00 83 54 02.00 Snipe Island 5 60
134 W-18106 FGS Core 30 06 14.00 83 54 20.00 Snipe Island 5 70
135 W-18107 FGS Core 30 05 00.00 83 54 46.00 Snipe Island 5 70
136 -50831002 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 13.99 83 33 44.99 Perry 45 45
137 -50536001 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 32.99 83 46 43.99 Manlin Hammock 5 19
138 -50827001 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 42.29 83 30 45.69 Perry 50 49
139 -50828007 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 46.99 83 31 42.99 Perry 51 57
140 -50529001 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 54.28 83 51 01.93 Manlin Hammock 8 36
141 -50726003 SRWMD Water Well 30 00 53.99 83 35 45.99 Perry 40 24
142 -50723002 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 05.99 83 35 42.99 Perry 40 40
143 -50723003 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 05.99 83 35 30.99 Perry 40 50
144 -50828002 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 06.99 83 31 58.99 Perry 50 79
145 -50830002 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 23.99 83 33 25.99 Perry 45 36
146 -50623009 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 39.99 83 41 39.99 Hampton Springs 26 30
147 -50820003 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 40.99 83 32 20.99 Perry 41 37
148 -50721003 SRWMD Water Well 30 01 48.32 83 38 02.38 Hampton Springs 31 35
149 -50720002 SRWMD Water Well 30 02 07.99 83 39 04.99 Hampton Springs 26 25
150 -50723004 SRWMD Water Well 30 02 09.99 83 35 28.99 Perry 40 47
151 -50819002 SRWMD Water Well 30 02 11.38 83 34 00.07 Perry 45 64
152 -50614002 SRWMD Water Well 30 02 50.99 83 41 45.99 Hampton Springs 25 31
153 -50817001 SRWMD Water Well 30 02 51.00 83 32 28.75 Perry 52 63
154 -50815001 SRWMD Water Well 30 03 04.99 83 30 34.99 Perry 56 38
155 -50808005 SRWMD Water Well 30 03 40.99 83 33 13.99 Perry 45 31
156 -50710002 SRWMD Water Well 30 03 42.99 83 36 37.99 Perry 30 49
157 -50711001 SRWMD Water Well 30 03 52.99 83 35 56.99 Perry 36 37
158 -50702006 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 12.99 83 35 30.99 Perry 34 28
159 -50806014 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 30.99 83 33 57.99 Perry 45 28
160 -50702013 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 32.99 83 35 22.99 Perry 40 30
161 -50701006 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 38.99 83 34 48.99 Perry 45 20
162 -50702004 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 49.99 83 36 07.99 Perry 40 33
163 -50806018 SRWMD Water Well 30 04 54.99 83 33 58.99 Perry 40 150
164 -40436003 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 04.99 83 53 26.00 Snipe Island 10 36
165 -50804011 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 02.89 83 31 40.29 Perry 60 50
166 -40636004 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 06.99 83 40 46.99 Hampton Springs 25 30
167 -40736011 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 11.99 83 34 23.99 Perry 45 47
168 -40731007 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 20.99 83 40 04.99 Hampton Springs 27 57
169 -40633001 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 24.46 83 44 03.81 Hampton Springs 21 25
170 -40833012 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 22.99 83 31 57.99 Perry 58 74
171 -40832009 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 26.99 83 32 17.99 Perry 55 80
172 -40736016 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 28.99 83 34 38.99 Perry 45 40
173 -40736010 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 39.99 83 35 00.99 Perry 45 27
174 -40831007 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 46.99 83 33 30.99 Perry 54 51
175 -40736019 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 49.99 83 34 52.99 Perry 45 55
176 -40733002 SRWMD Water Well 30 05 50.99 83 37 28.99 Perry 31 31
177 -40726004 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 08.99 83 35 41.99 Perry 40 28
178 -40628001 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 08.99 83 30 53.99 Perry 26 70
179 -40726005 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 09.99 83 35 22.99 Perry 35 25
180 -40829003 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 09.99 83 32 33.99 Perry 55 295
181 -40725011 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 17.99 83 34 55.99 Perry 41 85
182 -40829002 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 24.99 83 33 01.99 Perry 60 40
183 -40726001 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 26.99 83 35 57.99 Perry 25 28
184 -40830006 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 35.99 83 33 31.99 Perry 46 72
185 -40529001 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 46.60 83 50 33.92 Manlin Hammock 15 25
186 -40727001 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 46.99 83 36 24.99 Perry 35 28
187 -40819002 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 51.99 83 33 27.99 Perry 45 34








OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Total
Mp civedData TypeD Depth
ID # ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) (Feet
(Feet)
188 -40721001 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 52.99 83 37 34.99 Hampton Springs 30 16
189 -40724002 SRWMD Water Well 30 06 58.99 83 34 19.99 Perry 50 48
190 -40723016 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 05.99 83 36 06.99 Perry 35 30
191 -40723019 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 12.99 83 35 37.99 Perry 35 55
192 -40722008 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 15.99 83 36 33.99 Perry 38 28
193 -40820001 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 19.99 83 32 44.99 Perry 43 53
194 -40724027 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 23.99 83 35 11.99 Perry 35 42
195 -40419006 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 33.99 83 58 26.00 Nutall Rise 5 32
196 -40724015 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 32.99 83 34 36.99 Boyd 47 40
197 -40716004 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 40.99 83 37 34.99 Secotan 35 33
198 -40713014 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 41.99 83 35 12.99 Boyd 40 35
199 -40713001 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 43.99 83 34 17.99 Boyd 45 31
200 -40818002 SRWMD Water Well 30 07 48.15 83 33 48.89 Boyd 49 43
201 -40714002 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 08.99 83 35 39.99 Boyd 43 23
202 -40518003 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 24.99 83 52 20.00 Johnson Hammock 15 15
203 -40713010 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 31.99 83 34 35.99 Boyd 43 35
204 -40717003 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 35.99 83 39 03.99 Secotan 35 72
205 -40712011 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 37.99 83 35 05.99 Boyd 47 35
206 -40807010 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 41.01 83 33 55.35 Boyd 45 63
207 -40807002 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 45.99 83 33 32.99 Boyd 60 118
208 -40407002 SRWMD Water Well 30 08 51.99 83 58 08.00 Nutall Rise 4 17
209 -40408004 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 05.99 83 57 03.00 Nutall Rise 10 62
210 -40711001 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 16.99 83 35 20.99 Boyd 51 29
211 -40711006 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 21.70 83 35 35.12 Boyd 48 34
212 -40704001 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 27.99 83 37 51.99 Secotan 40 32
213 -40806005 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 28.99 83 33 36.99 Boyd 65 31
214 -40703013 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 38.99 83 36 54.99 Boyd 44 55
215 -40702007 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 42.79 83 35 32.89 Boyd 50 28
216 -40702014 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 45.99 83 35 44.99 Boyd 50 27
217 -40702003 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 56.99 83 35 47.99 Boyd 50 31
218 -40806008 SRWMD Water Well 30 09 58.99 83 33 28.99 Boyd 65 50
219 -40701001 SRWMD Water Well 30 10 01.99 83 34 49.99 Boyd 55 26
220 -40702002 SRWMD Water Well 30 10 16.99 83 35 21.99 Boyd 57 48
221 -40403001 SRWMD Water Well 30 10 22.99 83 55 20.00 Nutall Rise 15 38
222 -30736006 SRWMD Water Well 30 10 32.99 83 34 52.99 Boyd 55 119
223 -30736008 SRWMD Water Well 30 10 37.59 83 34 40.49 Boyd 60 42
224 -30730004 SRWMD Water Well 30 11 59.99 83 39 19.99 Secotan 50 200
225 -30419001 SRWMD Water Well 30 12 04.14 83 58 09.95 Nutall Rise 13 30
226 -30424003 SRWMD Water Well 30 12 39.99 83 52 35.00 Nutall Rise 33 40
227 -30704003 SRWMD Water Well 30 15 05.99 83 37 25.99 Greenville SE 82 185
228 -20732004 SRWMD Water Well 30 16 12.99 83 39 11.00 Shady Grove 80 95
229 -20732003 SRWMD Water Well 30 16 12.99 83 38 48.00 Shady Grove 75 130
230 -20433001 SRWMD Water Well 30 16 17.12 83 55 37.90 Wacissa 30 30
231 -21335011 SRWMD Water Well 30 16 23.99 83 55 48.00 Wacissa 95 95
232 -20729001 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 04.12 83 39 15.25 Shady Grove 70 72
233 -20629001 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 11.99 83 44 59.00 Shady Grove 50 32
234 -20729002 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 13.99 83 38 28.00 Shady Grove 75 98
235 -20528002 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 16.49 83 50 08.56 Lamont SE 40 35
236 -21430015 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 17.99 83 57 19.00 Wacissa 125 150
237 -20728005 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 16.99 83 38 04.00 Shady Grove 77 37
238 -20730002 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 20.99 83 39 34.00 Shady Grove 75 225
239 -20620003 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 43.99 83 44 35.00 Shady Grove 50 61
240 -20719001 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 44.99 83 39 44.00 Shady Grove 77 60
241 -20720003 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 48.49 83 38 53.80 Shady Grove 80 80
242 -20720002 SRWMD Water Well 30 17 48.99 83 38 25.00 Shady Grove 85 175
243 -20524001 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 08.99 83 47 13.00 Lamont SE 50 32
244 -20620005 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 10.95 83 44 46.04 Shady Grove 56 65
245 -20513002 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 12.99 83 47 02.00 Lamont SE 51 50
246 -20615002 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 17.99 83 42 35.00 Shady Grove 80 59
247 -20617001 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 44.99 83 45 18.00 Lamont SE 62 70
248 -20615004 SRWMD Water Well 30 18 51.99 83 42 39.14 Shady Grove 82 107
249 -20818001 SRWMD Water Well 30 19 01.99 83 34 07.99 Greenville SE 104 95
250 -20510001 SRWMD Water Well 30 19 22.99 83 49 10.00 Lamont SE 55 97








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Total
Mp civedData TypeD Depth
ID # ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) (Feet
(Feet)
251 -20512002 SRWMD Water Well 30 19 41.99 83 46 23.00 Lamont SE 60 105
252 -20508003 SRWMD Water Well 30 19 49.99 83 51 00.00 Lamont SE 50 86
253 -10432002 SRWMD Water Well 30 20 52.99 83 57 28.00 Wacissa 40 85
254 -10731002 SRWMD Water Well 30 20 56.99 83 39 50.00 Shady Grove 80 75
255 -10734001 SRWMD Water Well 30 20 58.99 83 36 31.00 Greenville SE 115 42
256 -10731001 SRWMD Water Well 30 20 59.99 83 39 38.00 Shady Grove 80 75
257 -10336001 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 04.99 83 59 25.00 Wacissa 41 32
258 -10833003 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 02.99 83 31 39.99 Greenville SE 140 130
259 -10732002 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 14.99 83 39 12.00 Shady Grove 95 95
260 -10736001 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 14.99 83 35 02.00 Greenville SE 145 115
261 -10735001 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 19.99 83 35 41.00 Greenville SE 107 110
262 -10534001 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 31.99 83 49 07.00 Lamont SE 67 81
263 -10336014 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 32.99 83 58 42.00 Wacissa 40 100
264 -10336013 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 33.99 83 59 15.00 Wacissa 45 120
265 -10336006 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 38.99 83 59 29.00 Wacissa 48 72
266 -10831001 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 37.99 83 33 34.99 Greenville SE 140 120
267 -10728002 SRWMD Water Well 30 21 50.99 83 37 36.00 Shady Grove 115 260
268 -10325002 SRWMD Water Well 30 22 02.99 83 59 01.00 Wacissa 168 250
269 -10729001 SRWMD Water Well 30 22 10.54 83 38 02.74 Shady Grove 123 103
270 -10325001 SRWMD Water Well 30 22 13.99 83 59 22.00 Wacissa 132 210
271 -10730001 SRWMD Water Well 30 22 34.99 83 39 28.00 Greenville 100 91
272 -10522007 SRWMD Water Well 30 22 38.99 83 48 53.00 Lamont 70 140
273 -10521006 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 05.99 83 49 59.00 Lamont 140 269
274 -10519001 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 11.99 83 52 11.00 Lamont 80 99
275 -10719001 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 21.99 83 39 56.00 Greenville 85 180
276 -10821002 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 29.99 83 32 03.99 Greenville NE 120 180
277 -10816004 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 46.99 83 31 50.99 Greenville NE 130 120
278 -10816002 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 50.99 83 31 29.99 Greenville NE 140 150
279 -10517002 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 56.99 83 51 04.00 Lamont 75 160
280 -10717002 SRWMD Water Well 30 23 59.99 83 38 32.00 Greenville 100 111
281 -10717001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 06.99 83 38 39.00 Greenville 100 100
282 -10715001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 08.99 83 36 31.00 Greenville NE 110 147
283 -10717003 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 09.99 83 38 55.00 Greenville 100 95
284 -10418001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 12.99 83 58 03.00 Waukeenah 190 260
285 -10411001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 12.99 83 54 22.00 Waukeenah 180 250
286 -10312003 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 37.99 83 59 03.00 Waukeenah 170 430
287 -10409001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 44.99 83 56 21.00 Waukeenah 200 340
288 -10407001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 45.99 83 57 44.00 Waukeenah 200 395
289 -10808001 SRWMD Water Well 30 24 51.99 83 32 44.00 Greenville NE 100 245
290 -10301001 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 11.99 83 58 52.00 Waukeenah 210 280
291 -10704004 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 20.74 83 38 02.14 Greenville 95 80
292 -10704002 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 30.99 83 37 24.00 Greenville NE 119 109
293 -10806001 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 33.76 83 33 54.52 Greenville NE 102 90
294 -10601001 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 45.99 83 40 43.00 Greenville 110 117
295 -10804001 SRWMD Water Well 30 25 51.58 83 32 06.45 Greenville NE 151 195
296 -10604003 SRWMD Water Well 30 26 02.76 83 43 45.08 Greenville 75 210
297 10733005 SRWMD Water Well 30 26 50.99 83 37 50.00 Greenville 149 95
298 10727005 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 04.09 83 36 55.50 Greenville NE 120 189
299 10428001 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 07.99 83 56 16.00 Waukeenah 170 190
300 10727001 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 06.99 83 37 11.00 Greenville NE 121 90
301 10727002 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 22.99 83 36 49.00 Greenville NE 95 90
302 10730001 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 29.99 83 39 15.00 Greenville 110 180
303 10630001 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 37.99 83 45 47.00 Lamont 80 170
304 10727006 SRWMD Water Well 30 27 48.99 83 36 24.00 Greenville NE 110 205
305 10424001 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 02.99 83 53 12.00 Waukeenah 192 222
306 10721010 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 04.99 83 38 04.00 Greenville 110 180
307 10722008 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 13.59 83 37 11.90 Greenville NE 128 105
308 10620004 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 20.99 83 44 23.00 Greenville 85 175
309 10720004 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 21.99 83 38 40.00 Greenville 85 265
310 10722007 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 21.99 83 36 13.50 Greenville NE 100 97
311 10723002 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 21.89 83 35 13.00 Greenville NE 100 123
312 10719006 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 22.99 83 39 56.50 Greenville 95 72
313 10720005 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 28.59 83 39 03.90 Greenville 97 105







OPEN-FILE REPORT 92


Total
Map *Archived Data Data Type Latitude Longitude 1:24,000 Elev. Total
Mp civedData TypeD Depth
ID # ID# Source DD MM SS DD MM SS Quadrangle (Feet) (Feet
(Feet)
314 10623001 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 28.99 83 41 27.00 Greenville 100 120
315 10721015 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 34.69 83 38 01.20 Greenville 102 150
316 10721012 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 36.89 83 37 19.60 Greenville NE 100 120
317 10622002 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 37.99 83 42 49.00 Greenville 95 161
318 10722005 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 39.79 83 36 21.40 Greenville NE 102 108
319 10517001 SRWMD Water Well 30 28 56.99 83 51 03.00 Lamont 98 110
320 10718001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 00.99 83 49 13.00 Lamont 103 87
321 10718002 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 01.99 83 40 09.90 Greenville 100 240
322 10618002 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 04.99 83 45 27.00 Lamont 80 180
323 10716011 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 04.59 83 37 57.20 Greenville 115 82
324 10313001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 14.99 83 58 47.00 Waukeenah 177 200
325 10814001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 13.99 83 30 08.99 Greenville NE 117 118
326 10717001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 18.89 83 38 29.00 Greenville 91 175
327 10513001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 27.99 83 47 02.00 Lamont 85 170
328 10415001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 28.99 83 55 01.00 Waukeenah 190 203
329 10512001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 31.69 83 46 50.47 Lamont 80 155
330 10507001 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 37.99 83 52 06.00 Lamont 125 280
331 10711004 SRWMD Water Well 30 29 49.99 83 35 59.00 Greenville NE 120 135



*NOTE: Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) Archived ID # is the well's
township, range, and section location. The format is as follows: + or indicates township north
(+) versus south (-); there is no need to include an east / west indicator for the range, as the entire
SRWMD is east of the Prime Meridian. Following the +/- are 6 digits representing the township,
range, and section (TTRRSS), and finally a 3 digit unique identifier assigned consecutively to
each well within a given section to differentiate wells with the same +/- and 6 digit number.


For example: -031224004 means Township 03 South, Range 12 East, Section 24, unique well
004.