Title: Evaluation of some bactericides and bactericide mixtures for suppression of bacterial diseases on landscape ornamental plants
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Title: Evaluation of some bactericides and bactericide mixtures for suppression of bacterial diseases on landscape ornamental plants
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University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Mid Florida Research and Education Center
Apopka, Florida

Evaluation of Some Bactericides and Bactericide Mixtures for Suppression
of Bacterial Diseases on Landscape Ornamental Plants

James 0. Strandberg1


Plant Pathology Research October, 2007
Report 2007 2





Diseases of woody ornamental plants incited by bacteria occur sporadically
during nursery production, but when they occur, they are difficult to control, so economic
losses often result. Bacterial plant pathogens in the genera Xanthomonas and
Pseudomonas probably cause the greatest losses, particularly in a humid climates
such as Florida provides. Pseudomonas species. such as P. syringae, P. chicorii, and
P. marginalis occur frequently and damage many nursery crops. Damage from
Xanthomonas species, especially various pathovars of X. campestris, is especially
common in warm, humid weather. At present, there are few options for control or
suppression once these pathogens appear. Copper compounds and antibiotics provide
mostly unsatisfactory results, especially in disease-favorable climates. Moreover,
growers usually attempt to suppress or control bacterial plant pathogens after disease
damage has appeared when control is particularly difficult.

This study evaluated some new products (and mixtures) with potential for
suppression and control of plant pathogenic bacteria. Treatments were applied weekly
because a previous test during the spring and summer of 2006 indicated that similar
products applied at 14-day intervals did adequately suppress bacterial diseases or
significantly reduce disease damage (Strandberg, 2006). It is not feasible to test
bactericides on numerous ornamental species, but the results obtained here are likely
transportable to similar crops. Successful suppression or control (or lack of it) of four
typical and representative pathogens (two Pseudomonas and two Xanthomonas spp.)
on four representative species of woody ornamental plants were evaluated .



1 Professor, Plant Pathology


Page 1










MATERIALS AND METHODS


Two Xanthomonas spp. were evaluated on two representative woody ornamental
plants: Prunus umbellata or P. incisa x campanulata cv. 'Okame' infected with
Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni, and Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera infected with a
Xanthomonas species (currently being identified to species) respectively. Two species
representative of the genus Pseudomonas: Pseudomonas chicorii and P. marginalis
were evaluated on Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), and Hydrangea (Hydrangea
quercifolia) respectively. Also, an unknown Xanthomonas species (which is currently
being identified) was isolated from some Hydrangea plants, so there was likely a mixed
infection on this host.

Treatments were applied at 7-day intervals beginning on June 27 through September.
Plants were quantitatively evaluated by periodic (7-day interval) leaf sampling and
estimating percent leaves infected and percent leaf area damaged of the sampled
leaves. The tests were done at the University of Florida, Mid-Florida Research and
Education Center, Apopka, Florida.

There were four replicates for each treatment in a randomized complete block design.
Plot size was 4 ft X 12 ft (0.0011 acre). Each plot contained 12 plants of each of the four
species placed in adjacent closely-spaced rows. Plots were separated by at least six
feet on all sides from adjacent plots.

Treatments were applied with a compressed air-powered sprayer maintained at 40 Ib/in2
pressure at the nozzle (TeeJet 8004 tip Spraying Systems Co, Wheaton, IL 60189) to
deliver 50 gal/acre. Treatments and application rates are specified in Table 1. Test
plants, originally growing in 1-gallon pots, were transplanted into 3-gallon pots by June
15 using a peat-sand-pine bark-compost potting mix with minor elements and dolomite.
Osmocote fertilizer 19-6-12 was added twice during the test (30 g per pot). Plants were
watered nightly with an automatic, overhead sprinkler irrigation system.

Moderate disease damage was present on Japanese Plum, Hydrangea, and Wax myrtle
the beginning of the experiment; Hibiscus had minimal amounts of disease damage,
therefore, Hibiscus plants were re-inoculated with bacteria cells produced in culture.
Nutrient broth was inoculated with P. chicorii, and grown at 24 C for 24 hr with
continuous shaking. Bacterial cells were then centrifuged, re-suspended in tap water,
and sprayed on appropriate test plants early in the morning when plants were wet with
dew and from irrigation.

Treatments were applied to all test plants at 7-day intervals. Plots were evaluated each
week for disease incidence and damage by sampling 15 leaves at random from each
replicate of each species throughout the experiment. Leaf samples were evaluated for
percent of sampled leaves diseased and average percent leaf area damaged (LAD)
using specially-prepared pictorial disease damage keys. For each sampling date,


Page 2









average percent LAD and the percent of leaves infected were calculated. Final results
were determined by obtaining the average of the area under the disease progress curves
(AUDPC). Data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA (block, treatment) and means were
separated with Student-Newman-Keuls method. Results are provided as relative
AUDPC for percent LAD and percent leaves infected (Tables 2 5). Percent LAD and
percent leaves infected on the final sampling day were also analyzed (Tables 2 5).
Because of the variation in data and the difficulty in interpreting it, the weekly results for
LAD and percent infected leaves for each treatment were plotted along with data for the
unsprayed control. These data are provided in Figures 1 4, A and B).


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Disease damage progressed normally on Japanese Plum, Hydrangea, and Wax Myrtle,
but more slowly on Hibiscus after it was inoculated, so fewer sampling days were
obtained for Hibiscus. However, there was sufficient disease damage to evaluate the
products tested. on all four host species. A complicating issue was the periodic and
production of new leaves that occurred throughout the experiment. Since the samples
came from a particular sector of the plant's foliage; this sometimes had the apparent
effect of greatly reducing LAD and percent infected leaves because of the dilution effect
of the new and uninfected leaves that were collected at random. On the other hand,
when a flush of new leaves became infected, and continuous new leaf production did not
occur, this resulted in repeated collections of diseased leaves. Of the data collected, the
area under disease progress curves provided the best information for determining
efficacy. The plots of disease damage and percent of sampled leaves infected
(compared with unsprayed controls) provided additional information for interpretation of
the results.

None of the treatments were judged to adequately suppress any of the bacterial
diseases studied. However, inspection of disease progress curves provided some
indications of efficacy.

Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni on Japanese Plum Disease damage was severe.
No treatment appeared to suppress disease incidence or severity (Figurel A and B).
Area under the disease progress curves indicated that some of the treatments might
have increased disease incidence and damage, but this effect was not striking or
consistent (Table 2) There were no significant differences between the final ratings
(Table 2).

Xanthomonas species on Wax myrtle Disease damage was severe. None of the
treatments appeared to consistently reduce disease damage. However, Phyton New
Dimension, Kasumin plus Kocide 3000, and Tricon appeared to have some effect in
reducing the percent infected leaves (Figure 2 A and B). There were no significant
differences between the area under the disease progress curves or the final ratings
(Table 3).


Page 3









Pseudomonas marginalis on Oak Leaf Hydrangea Disease damage and icidence
moderate to severe. Tanos plus Kocide 3000 Kasumin plus Kocide 3000, and Tricon
appeared to reduce the severity of disease damage, but none of the treatments
consistently reduced the percent of leaves infected (Figure 3 A and B). There were no
significant differences among the disease progress curves or the final ratings (Table 4).

Pseudomonas chicorii on Hybiscus Disease incidence and severity mas only slight to
moderated on Hibiscus. Phyton New Dimension, Tricon, Kasumin plus Kocide 3000, K-
Phite plus Tricon Tanos plus Kocide 3000, and Biophos plus chelated copper all
appeared to somewhat reduce disease damage, although often not consistently.
Kasumin plus Kocide 3000, Tricon, Biophos plus chelated copper and Kocide 3000
moderately reduced the percent of diseased leaves, although not always significantly or
consistently (Figure 4 A and B). There were no significant differences between the area
under the disease progress curves or the final ratings (Table 5).

No phytotoxicity was noted in this experiment.

The weather during this experiment was typical for the location except rain events were
relatively more frequent than average. Coupled with nightly sprinkler irrigation, warm
temperatures, and closely spaced plants, an environment very favorable for bacterial
plant pathogens was created. Accordingly disease incidence and damage were severe.
It is also difficult to sample and evaluate foliar diseases of woody ornamentals.
Fluctuations in foliage growth followed by relatively dormant periods resulted in data that
are quite variable as shown in Tables 2 through 4. However, inspection of the plots of
sampling data indicates that some of treatments had some beneficial effects and might
be useful where conditions are less favorable for disease.



Strandberg, J. O. 2006. Evaluation of Some Bactericides and Biopesticides for Suppression of Bacterial
Diseases on Landscape Ornamental Plants. University of Florida, IFAS, MREC Apopka, Plant Pathology
Research Report 2006 2, October, 2006. 12 P.

Available at:

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/jos/IR4%20Woody%200rnamental%20Report.pdf


Page 4









Table 1. Treatments and application rates evaluated for control of bacterial disease on
four woody ornamental species at Apopka, Florida, Summer, 2007.

Product Application Rate

Phyton New Dimension 25 oz/100 gal/A Copper pentahydrate

Kasumin + 64oz/50 gal/A Kasugamycin (2%)
Kocide 3000 2 Ib/100 gal/A Copper Hydroxide

Tricon 0.8 % Sodium borate decahydrate

K-Phite + 2qts / 100 gal /A Phosphorous acid
Tricon 0.4 % Sodium borate decahydrate

Tricon 0.8 % Sodium borate decahydrate
(alternated with)
Phyton New Dimension 25 oz/100 gal/Al Copper pentahydrate

BioPhos + 2% Phosphorous acid
Chelated copper 0.1 Ib ai Cu Chelated copper

Tanos + 8 oz/100 gal/A Famoxadone (25%)
+ Cymoxanil (25%)
Kocide 3000 2 lb/100 gal/A Copper hydroxide

Kocide 3000 2 Ib/ 100 gal/A Copper hydroxide


Control---
1 All rates were re-calculated for application
experiment.


in 50 gal/acre of water per acre in this


Page 5









Table 2. Summary of data for Japanese Plum (Prunus incisa x campanulata cv Okame)
plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni following application of some
bactericides at 7-day intervals at Apopka, Florida, Summer and Fall, 2007.
AUDPC 1 Last 2 AUDPC 3 Last 4
Product Percent Percent Percent % leaves
LAD LAD Infected Infected
Phyton New Dimension 4350.6 a 31.86 4877.8 b 88.33


Kasumin +
Kocide 3000


Tricon


K-Phite +
Tricon


Tricon
(alternated with)
Phyton New Dimension

BioPhos +
Chelated copper

Tanos +
Kocide 3000

Kocide 3000

Control


4278.7 a

4105.4 a

4182.2 a


5174.9 b


5105.9 b



3957.6 a

4211 4a

4550.9 a

7.911
0.000


7.20

24.00

18.12


24.28


8.50



11.38

14.76

12.47

1.824 NS
0.122


3915.3 a b

3977.1 a b

4683.7 a b


3968.3 a b


4111.5 a b



4353.7 a b

3939.5 a b

3644.7 a

2.988
0.018


70.00

91.67

88.33


95.00


78.33



66.67

80.00

81.67

1.525 NS
0.201


1 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent leaf area damaged. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P = 0.05 level.
2 Percent LAD on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-
Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of Arc Sin of percentage values. Values followed by the same
letter are not significantly different at the P = 0.05 level.
3 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent of leaves infected. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance. NS = not significant at P = 0.05 level.
4 Percent of leaves infected on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-
Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of Arc Sin of percentage values. NS = not significant at
P = 0.05 level.


Page 6










Table 3. Summary of data for Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera) plants infected with a
Xanthomonas spp. following application of some bactericides at 7-day intervals at
Apopka, Florida, Summer and Fall, 2007.
AUDPC1 Last 2 AUDPC3 Last 4
Product Percent Percent Percent % leaves
LAD LAD Infected Infected
Phyton New Dimension 2957.1 2.62 3298.6 45.00

Kasumin +
Kocide 3000 2844.0 2.07 3038.9 40.00

Tricon 2946.6 3.05 3357.7 45.00

K-Phite +
Tricon 2946.6 2.37 3566.3 51.67

Tricon
(alternated with) 3133.5 5.65 3521.3 53.33
Phyton New Dimension

BioPhos +
Chelated copper 2963.8 2.38 3077.5 40.00

Tanos +
Kocide 3000 2986.0 2.28 3156.7 41.67

Kocide 3000 3112.1 1.68 3065.7 31.67

Control 3304.3 4.23 3278.6 46.67
F= 1.291 NS 1.445 NS 1.245 NS 0.873 NS
P= 0.294 0.225 0.317 0.552
1 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent leaf area damaged. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance. NS = not significant at P = 0.05 level.
2 Percent LAD on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-
Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of Arc Sin of percentage values. NS = not significant at P = 0.05
level..
3 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent of leaves infected. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance of ArcSin of percentage values. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P =
0.05 level.
4 Percent of leaves infected on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-
Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of ArcSin of percentage values. NS = not significant at
P = 0.05 level.


Page 7









Table 4. Summary of data for Oak Leaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) plants
infected with Pseudomonas chicorii and an unknown Xanthomonas spp following
application of some bactericides at 7-day intervals at Apopka, Florida, Summer and Fall,
2007.
AUDPC1 Last 2 AUDPC3 Last 4
Product Percent Percent Percent % leaves
LAD LAD Infected Infected
Phyton New Dimension 257.83 3.22 222.31 55.0


Kasumin +
Kocide 3000 225.28 2.7833 168.92 55.0

Tricon 196.76 1.72 188.79 46.7

K-Phite +
Tricon 255.55 3.59 194.21 56.7

Tricon
(alternated with) 244.89 3.55 250.35 61.7
Phyton New Dimension

BioPhos + 218.05 3.38 179.04 63.3
Chelated copper

Tanos +
Kocide 3000 210.67 2.7107 168.38 53.8

Kocide 3000 228.06 2.83 204.69 50.0

Control 231.78 3.37 239.91 58.3

F 21.70 NS 0.509 NS 1.982 NS 0.739 NS
P 0.68 0.206 0.093 0.657
1 Calculated relative mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent leaf area damaged.
Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis
of variance. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P = 0.05 level.
2 Percent LAD on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-
Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of the Arc Sin of percentage values. NS = not significant at P =
0.05 level..
3 Calculated relative mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent of leaves infected.
Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis
of variance. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P = 0.05 level.
4Percent of leaves infected on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-
Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of the Arc Sin of percentage values. NS = not
significant at P = 0.05 level..


Page 8










Table 5. Summary of data for Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) plants infected with
Pseudomonas chicorii following application of some bactericides at 7-day intervals at
Apopka, Florida, Summer and Fall, 2007.
AUDPC1 Last 2 AUDPC3 Last 4
Product Percent Percent Percent % leaves
LAD LAD Infected Infected
Phyton New Dimension 18.72 a b 0.93 35.73 ab 0.15


Kasumin +
Kocide 3000 6.02 a 0.20 22.68 ab 0.07

Tricon 14.06 a b 0.37 28.08 ab 0.10

K-Phite +
Tricon 29.98 a b 0.75 19.37 ab 0.12

Tricon
(alternated with) 33.02 a b 0.25 14.91 a 0.05
Phyton New Dimension

BioPhos +
Chelated copper 31.84 a b 0.38 20.40 ab 0.12

Tanos +
Kocide 3000 30.94 a b 0.67 40.55 ab 0.10

Kocide 3000 22.34 a b 0.35 28.54 ab 0.08

Control 39.62 b 1.07 40.13 b 0.20

F= 3.020 1.491 NS 3.340 1.747 NS
P= 0.013 0.242 0.010 0.139
1 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent leaf area damaged. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance. Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P = 0.05 level.
2 Percent LAD on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-
Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of Arc Sin of percentage values. NS = not significant at P = 0.05
level.
3 Calculated mean area under the disease progress curves in arbitrary units for percent of leaves infected. Value is
average for four replications. Means separated by Student-Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of
variance. NS = not significant at P = 0.05 level.
4
Percent of leaves infected on last sampling day. Value is average for four replications. Means separated by Student-
Newman-Keuls method based upon 2-way analysis of variance of ArcSin of percentage values. NS = not significant at
P = 0.05 level.


Page 9












-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


Z

I-
uJ
LU

C0

.0 LU
o uJ
S U)

C
QI


-- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-- TRICON
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL

z
0 \







\0 22 240 6 28
0 LU
<
1





160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


"0
---0
o9.-o


K-PHITE + TRICON
UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 1A. Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Japanese Plum infected
with Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni during June through September, 2007 at
Apopka, Florida.


Page 10











-0- TRICON / PHYTON ND
---0-- UNS[RAYED CONTROL

Z
z

o... "0


10
(5



6 '* .00 ** 20 U0
0.0 )CO
LU
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160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-0- KOCIDE 3000
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 1A (continued). Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Japanese
Plum infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni during June through
September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.

Page 11


260 280












-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
...0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


100 -
W
go -
LU
90
O
LL
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S 80-
C-)
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70-
--
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160 180 200 220 240 260


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-*- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


W

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O

w OO

W 70
' 80




Z '
40


160 180 200 220 240 260 280
Q-




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160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


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---0 UNSPRAYED CONTROL C

90 -
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0 80 -
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0* 70-
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-------------40-


DAY OF YEAR


-0- K-PHITE + TRICON
...0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0.-0O


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 1B. Percent of sampled leaves from Japanese Plum infected by Xanthomonas
campestris pv. pruni during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida


Page 12


0. o0
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100 -


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160 180 200 220 240 260 280


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'--O" UNSPRAYED CONTROL


! I

0O
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160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


--- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
0 -O- UNSPRAYED CONTROL n

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0 r Z
Q-





160 180 200 220 240 260 280

DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


-*- KOCIDE 3000
---0-- UNSPRAYED


160 180 200 220 240 260


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 1B (continued). Percent of sampled leaves from Japanese Plum infected by
Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni during June through September, 2007 at Apopka,
.Florida.




Page 13














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(.
S14-
I-

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S10-

< 8
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03 6
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(9
S14-

S12 -
LU
S10-

< 8
)
0 w
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0 40
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a. I -


I .+. . .


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


-- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


S 1 2 2
160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


-- TRICON
O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


(9
S14

2 12-
LU
S10-
< 8-

LU
c0 6
LU
03 4
Q


9


-- K-PHITE + TRICON
--O -- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 10 2 220 240 260 280
160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 2A. Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Wax Myrtle infected
with a Xanthomonas spp. (secies undetermined) during June through September,
2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 14


(9
S14-
--

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LU
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160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
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z


uJ





i -
.0 U)
0 C
0.


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- KOCIDE 3000
-..0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 2A (continued). Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Wax Myrtle
infected with a Xanthomonas spp. (species undetermined) during June through
September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 15














-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
-O-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


100 -
-)

I- 90-

00
LU

LL60
S80-
U)






0 50
LU
S70-


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Ul
0
S50-
LU

04


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...O" UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TRICON
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


100 -


90-
OC
LU
z 80-
U)
70-


S60-
-L
0
z 50-
LU
0
--

1U 40-
U-
0-


--- K-PHITE + TRICON
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


60 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


Figure 2B. Percent of sampled leaves from Wax Myrtle infected with a Xanthomonas
spp. (species undetermined) during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.






Page 16


DAY OF YEAR


100 -
-)

S90-
O
--
LU
S80-
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> 70-

LU
j 60-
LL
0
H 50-
z
C-
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LU 40
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30
30 -
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100


-*- TRICON / PHYTON ND
,--0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
..O"0 UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 2B (continued). Percent of sampled leaves from Wax Myrtle infected with a
Xanthomonas spp. (species undetermined) during June through September, 2007 at
Apopka, Florida.


Page 17


260 280


100











-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
--..O0 UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
---0- Col 1 vs Col 43


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TRICON
--.O0 UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR






-*- K-PHITE + TRICON
--..O0 UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280

DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280

DAY OF YEAR


Figure 3A. Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Oak-Leaf Hydrangea
infected with Pseudomonas. marginalis during June through September, 2007 at
Apopka, Florida.


Page 18












-*- TRICON / PHYTON ND
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


O

.O
.0


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


z


(.

<
<
O Q
03
U)


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- KOCIDE 3000
...O0- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


I.


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 3A (continued). Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Oak-Leaf
Hydrangea infected with Pseudomonas. marginalis during June through September,
2007 at Apopka, Florida.



Page 19


I.


260 280









-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
...0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TRICON
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0 0


-*- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
---0- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


-*- K-PHITE + TRICON
"'O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240 260 280

DAY OF YEAR


160 180 200 220 240 260 280

DAY OF YEAR


Figure 3 B. Percent of sampled leaves from Oak-Leaf Hydrangea infected with
Pseudomonas. marginalis during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 20












-*- TRICON / PHYTON ND
...0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240


260 280


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
--0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


*..o0



00


' 0.
6..0


260 280


DAY OF YEAR


I-
0

LU


IU)


_j
LL
U-
z
0u

C-)
a


-*- KOCIDE 3000
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


260 280


160 180 200 220 240


DAY OF YEAR


260 280


Figure 3 B (continued). Percent of sampled leaves from Oak-Leaf Hydrangea infected
with Pseudomonas marginalis during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.






Page 21












-*- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


1.4 -

1.2 -

1.0 -

0.8 -

0.6 -

0.4 -

0.2 -

0.0 -


-*- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
0O-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL
0
.0



b


180 200 220 240 260 280 300

DAY OF YEAR


*- TRICON
O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL
O
0.









d


180 200 220 240 260 280 300

DAY OF YEAR


1.2 -


1.0 -


0.8 -


0.6 -


0.4 -


0.2 -


-- K-PHITE + TRICON
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


'"0


180 200 220 240 260 280 300


DAY OF YEAR


180 200 220 240 260 280 300


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 4A. Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Hibiscus infected with
Pseudomonas.chicorii during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 22


1.2 -

1.0 -

0.8 -

0.6 -

0.4 -

0.2 -

0.0 -


1.2 -

1.0 -

0.8 -

0.6 -

0.4 -

0.2 -

0.0 -











-*- TRICON / PHYTON ND
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


180 200 220 240 260 280 300


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
...0- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


-*- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
---0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0 0
", Z


180 200 220 240 260 280 300


DAY OF YEAR


-- KOCIDE 3000
.O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0..



0


180 200 220 240 260


280 300


DAY OF YEAR


180 200 220 240 260 280


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 4A (continued). Disease damage ratings of sampled leaves from Hibiscus
infected with Pseudomonas.chicorii during June through September, 2007 at Apopka,
Florida.





Page 23












-0- PHYTON NEW DIMENSION
. 0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


180 200 220 240 260 280 300

DAY OF YEAR


-0- TRICON
"0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0.25 -



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -



0.00


0.25 -



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


-*- KASUMIN + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0.






O r


O
0


. .

6


180 200 220 240 260 280 300

DAY OF YEAR


-*- K-PHITE + TRICON
..0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


.0
0'I


180 200 220 240 260 280


180 200 220 240 260


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 4B. Percent of sampled leaves from Hibiscus infected with
Pseudomonas.chicorii during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 24


0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


0.25



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


280 300


I











-*- TRICON / PHYTON ND
...0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


0.25 -



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


--- BIOPHOS + CHELATED CU
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


180 200 220 240 260


280 300


180 200 220 240 260


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


-*- TANOS + KOCIDE 3000
..O0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


180 200 220 240 260


0.22 -

0.20 -

0.18 -

0.16 -

0.14 -

0.12 -

0.10 -

0.08 -

0.06 -


280 300


-*- KOCIDE 3000
S..0-- UNSPRAYED CONTROL


180 200 220 240 260 280 30
180 200 220 240 260 280 30


DAY OF YEAR


DAY OF YEAR


Figure 4B (continued). Percent of sampled leaves from Hibiscus infected with
Pseudomonas.chicorii during June through September, 2007 at Apopka, Florida.


Page 25


0.25 -



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


280 300


0.25 -



0.20 -



0.15 -



0.10 -



0.05 -


.4 I I I




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