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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00021
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 2003
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00021

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FLORIDA


PINELLAS


Shell M/




Shell





0 100 Kilometers
I I


LEGEND
County boundary

Capital
City

1 Crushed stone/sand
and gravel districts

MINERAL SYMBOLS
(Major producing areas)
Cem Cement plant

Clay Common clay
CS Crushed stone

Ful Fuller's earth
Gyp Gypsum

Gyp-s Synthetic gypsum

IS Industrial sand
Ka Kaolin
Lime Lime plant

MaCQ Magnesium
compound plant
p Phosphate rock

Peat Peat
Per Perlite plant

S-ng Sulfur (natural gas)

SG Construction sand
and gravel
Shell Shell
Steel Steel plant

Ti Titanium minerals
Vm Vermiculite plant

Zr Zirconium
> Concentration of
S mineral operations


Source: Florida Geological Survey/U.S. Geological Survey (2003)


8'

"








THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA

This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 2003, the estimated value' of nonfuel mineral production
for Florida decreased to about $2 billion, based upon
preliminary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data. This was
an about a 1.5% decrease from that of 20022 and followed a
nearly 13% increase in value in 2002 from that of 2001. The
State ranked fifth (fourth in 2002) among the 50 States in total
nonfuel mineral production value, of which the State accounted
for more than 5% of the U.S. total.
Florida continued to lead the Nation in phosphate rock
mining in 2003 by producing more than six times as much as
the State with the next highest production. Phosphate rock
is produced in only four States. In terms of value, phosphate
rock, crushed stone, cement (portland and masonry), and
construction sand and gravel continued to be the most important
raw nonfuel mineral commodities produced in Florida. The
dollar value of these four mineral commodities and the next
highest commodity value, for titanium concentrates (ilmenite
and rutile), represented about 93% of the State's total nonfuel
mineral value. In 2003, the State's nonfuel mineral value
decreased mostly owing to a dropoff in the production and value
of phosphate rock, down about $70 million, and to zirconium
concentrates, down about $8 million. These decreases were
offset, in part, by the rising values of portland cement, crushed
stone, and construction sand and gravel (descending order of
change) (table 1).
In 2002, the production and value of most nonfuel minerals
increased, although several were unchanged. Phosphate rock
rose by nearly $150 million; crushed stone, by $58 million;
construction sand and gravel, by $5 million; and industrial sand
and gravel, by about $1 million. For several other nonfuel
minerals, such as fuller's earth, production decreased, but values
increased from those of 2001. Among the commodities with
low production but increased value were zirconium concentrates
(up by $8 million), cement (portland and masonry) (up more

'The terms nonfuell mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending upon the mineral products. Production may
be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or marketable
production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable to the
individual mineral commodity.
All 2003 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of July 2004 and are expected to change. For some
mineral commodities, such as construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and
portland cement, estimates are updated periodically. To obtain the most current
information, please contact the appropriate USGS mineral commodity specialist.
Specialist contact information may be retrieved over the Internet at URL http://
minerals.usgs.gov/ minerals/contacts/comdir.html; alternatively, specialists'
names and telephone numbers may be obtained by calling USGS information
at (703) 648-4000 or by calling the USGS Earth Science Information Center at
1-888-ASK-USGS (275-8747). All USGS Mineral Industry Surveys and USGS
Minerals Yearbook chapters-mineral commodity, State, and country-also may
be retrieved over the Internet at URL http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 2002 may differ from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 2002, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 2002 to final 2002 data. Data for 2003 are preliminary
and are expected to change; related rankings also may change.


than $4 million), and ilmenite (up $3 million). Staurolite
production was down about 15%, but its value decreased by
only about 6%.
Based upon USGS estimates of the quantities produced in
the 50 States in 2003, Florida continued to be the only State
to produce rutile concentrates and staurolite and continued to
rank first in the production of phosphate rock and peat, first of
two States that produced ilmenite concentrates and zirconium
concentrates, third in magnesium compounds, fourth in
fuller's earth, and seventh in portland cement. While Florida
led the States in the production of masonry cement (second
in 2002) and rose to second from third in crushed stone, it
decreased to seventh from fourth in the production of fuller's
earth. Additionally, Florida produced significant quantities of
construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 (FGS) provided the
following narrative information. Production and other data in
the following text are those reported by the FGS, based upon
that agency's own surveys and estimates. The FGS data may
differ from some production figures reported to the USGS. The
largest portion of Florida's nonfuel mineral value came from the
production of phosphate rock, in which Florida, based on FGS
estimates, accounted for approximately 75% of the Nation's
production and 25% of the world's production. The Florida
Phosphate Council reported that in 2003, more than 28 million
metric tons of phosphate rock was extracted from 1,821 hectares
(ha) of land. Commodities that also contributed significantly to
the State's nonfuel mineral production figures included crushed
limestone, heavy-mineral sands, masonry and portland cement,
peat, and clay.
Demand for aggregates was at an all-time high. In early
2004, however, the construction industry was hampered by an
inadequate supply of materials; shortages of aggregates, cement,
and steel happened somewhat concurrently.
The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
reported that in 2003, 6,978 persons were employed in Florida's
surface mining operations; this number does not take into
account contractors that may be working for some operators.
The crushed stone industry employed 2,683 workers, and the
phosphate industry employed 2,214 workers. The remainder
of the workforce was employed by sand and gravel, cement,
heavy-mineral sands, and clay mining operations.

Exploration and Development

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau
of Mine Reclamation issued permits to the following crushed
limestone operations: Alico LLC, West Lakes Excavation, a
208-ha mine in Lee County near Fort Myers; East Naples Land


3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text of the State
mineral industry information provided by the Florida Geological Survey.


FLORIDA 2003


11.1







Company, East Naples Mine, a 67-ha tract at a 688-ha mine near
South Golden Gates, Collier County; Concrete Structures Inc., a
4.5-ha site in the Lake Belt of Miami-Dade County; and Rinker
Materials Inc.'s 109-ha WuKrome Mine in Miami-Dade County
These may be new mines and/or mine expansions, but most had
not begun mining operations at yearend.
Although exempt from permits from the Florida Bureau of
Mine Reclamations, Carabelle Rock LLC's new crushed stone/
shell quarry in Tate's Hell State Forest was fully permitted by
the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. Counts Construction Co.
reopened the
79-ha Pansy Britt Mine in Marion County and has renamed it
the Diamondback Mine.
In 2002, the FGS and the U.S. Department of the Interior's
Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered into a second
multiyear program of offshore investigations into the geologic
processes and parameters that affect the shore and near-shore
zones within the coastal area and the identified and undiscovered
offshore sand resources available for beach replenishment. In
the first year (2002), the study comprised shallow sediments
in Federal waters offshore Nassau and Duval Counties from
5 to approximately 16 kilometers (km) and the sediments on
the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. More than
370 km of subsurface acoustic profile data were collected off
Nassau and Duval Counties and were interpreted to determine
locations thought to have been favorable for the deposition of
beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach sampling locations were
identified, and 106 surface samples were collected. Of the 10
offshore seabed grab sample locations visited, grab samples
were collected from 9. Three push cores were collected on the
ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions were made
and grain-size distributions were determined for all beach and
offshore seabed grab samples and push cores. A preliminary
seismic stratigraphic analysis of the subbottom profiler data
collected was completed. Because of the seismic stratigraphic
analysis conducted, the area study identified several features
indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach-
restoration-quality sand in Federal waters off Duval County.
This analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District Office, and a
copy of the preliminary work map that delineated those features
was provided to them. The study then selected 45 locations in
the study area of particular interest for vibracoring in the second
year. The results of the tasks completed in the first year of this
investigation were detailed in the draft document entitled "A
Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's
Northeast Coast Year 1 Interim Report 2002-2003," which is
available on the MMS Web site at URL http://www.mms.gov/
sandandgravel/florida.htm.
In 2003, the FGS continued this program of offshore
investigations in cooperation with the MMS. Data collection
concentrated primarily on the areas offshore Nassau and Duval
Counties and the northern half of St. Johns County from 5 to
approximately 16 km offshore and the sediments on the beaches
immediately adjacent to that area. During the second year, more
than 305 km of seismic data were collected and interpreted to
determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition
of beach-quality sand. A total of 63 beach sampling locations


11.2


in St. Johns and Flagler Counties was identified, and 127 points
were sampled. Fifty-five vibracores were collected offshore
Nassau and Duval Counties. The FGS is currently preparing the
second-year report.

Commodity Review

Industrial Minerals

Cargill Crop Nutrition acquired the Wingate Creek phosphate
rock mine from the holding company for bankrupt NuGulf
Industries Inc. and was in the process of reopening the mine.
Cargill Crop Nutrition Global Inc. and IMC Global announced
the creation of a new company (Mosaic Co.) in which Cargill
will own 51% and control more than 60% of phosphate rock
production capacity in Florida.
High-purity limestone is used to manufacture the clinker for
portland and masonry cement. Florida was a major producer
and consumer of both types of cement in 2003. Whereas
limestone is mined in several counties throughout the State,
cement clinker was produced only in Alachua, Dade, Hernando,
and Suwannee Counties. Cement plants, which were primarily
grinding plants that used imported clinker, operated in
Hillsborough and Manatee Counties.
Fuller's earth, common clays, and kaolin were mined in
several locations in Florida in 2003. Fuller's earth, which was
mined in Gadsden and Marion Counties, is typically used as an
absorbent material; kaolin, which was mined in Putnam County,
is used in the manufacture of paper and refractories. Common
clays were mined mostly in Clay and Lake Counties and in
small quantities from various locations throughout the State.
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. and Iluka Resources
Inc. continued to operate heavy-mineral sand mines in Baker,
Bradford, Clay, and Duval Counties. Ilmenite, leucoxene,
rutile, and zircon are the primary minerals of interest in the
heavy-mineral sand deposits of this region. Ilmenite and rutile
are the primary ingredients in the manufacture of titanium
dioxide pigments, which, in turn, are used in the manufacture of
lacquers, paint, paper, plastics, and varnish.

Environmental Issues and Reclamation

In 2003, the Bureau of Mine Reclamation issued 33
Environmental Resource Permits (ERP) and 10 Wetland
Resource Permits, accounting for about 9,000 ha of upland and
wetland disturbance; mine expansions and modifications were
included in this total.
Since July 1, 1975, Florida law has required that all mined
lands be reclaimed. In the past 10 years, $326 million has
been spent on mandatory as well as other related reclamation
projects. Mined land has been reclaimed for agricultural,
commercial, industrial, recreational, and residential purposes
and as sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife. Since 1980,
more than 30 million trees have been planted on reclaimed
lands. The mining companies have also donated thousands
of acres of land to State and public entities for recreation and
wildlife habitat. The industry has continued to work with the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection and other State

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2003







and Federal agencies to protect and to restore ecosystems and to
benefit wildlife (Florida Phosphate Council, 211 '4 ').
The following entities were operating and had reclamation
responsibility in Florida as of January 1, 2003: IMC Phosphates;
Cargill Crop Nutrition; CF Industries, Inc.; and PCS Phosphate.
The following companies maintained reclamation responsibility
under Florida law at the beginning of 2003: Agrifos LLC,
Brewster Phosphates, Estech, Inc.; Florida Power Co.,
ExxonMobil Corporation, NuGulf Industries Inc.; TECO Energy
Inc.; USS AgriChemcals, and the Williams Co.

Governmental Programs

The third annual Mining Day took place at Florida's State
Capitol in 2003. This event was jointly sponsored by the
aggregates, phosphate, heavy-minerals, and clay industries in
Florida in an attempt to bring awareness of the importance of
mining to decisionmakers.
The aggregates industry in Florida kicked off a public
education program in the elementary schools of several targeted
communities. This program, which has received the approval
of the State's Department of Education science curriculum
section, should be fully in place by the opening of the 2004 fall
term. The program goal is to enhance the science curriculum
with more mineral science and mining recognition at the fourth
grade level. The program will be supported by volunteers from


4A reference that includes a section mark () is found in the Internet
Reference Cited section.


local aggregate mining companies who will donate classroom
materials and provide mentoring assistance.
As part of an ongoing cooperative effort through the
STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program, the FGS completed geologic mapping for
the eastern portion of the USGS 1:100,000-scale Marianna
quadrangle and completed the final maps and cross sections
for the same area. The completed maps and cross sections are
available as part of the FGS Open-File Map Series (OFMS
92). The FGS is presently mapping the geology of the western
portion of the Gainesville quadrangle at a scale of 1:100,000 and
planned to publish a geologic map and several geologic cross
sections by September 2004 as OFMS 93.
Some FGS publication highlights included a CD-ROM about
a workshop to develop blueprints for the protection of Florida's
springs, a report on Florida's freshwater spring classification
system, a poster on Florida's sinkholes, and an open-file report
on the geology of Suwannee County. Information on obtaining
these and other new FGS publications may be found on the FGS
Web site at URL http://www.dep.state.fl.us/ geology/.

Internet Reference Cited

Florida Phosphate Council, 2004, 2004 Florida phosphate facts, accessed August
27, 2004, at URL http://www.flaphos.org/fact2004.pdf.


FLORIDA 2003


11.3








TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA' 2

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


Mineral
Cement:
Masonry
Portland
Clays:
Common
Fuller's earth
Kaolin
Gemstones
Peat
Sand and gravel:
Construction
Industrial
Stone, crushed
Combined values of magnesium compounds,
phosphate rock, staurolite, titanium concentrates,
zirconium concentrates, and values indicated
by symbol W
Total


Quantity


Value

62,600 e
294,000 e


94 e 1,280 e
334 e 22,200 e
32 3,380
NA 1
544 11,300


24,800
598
95,100


109,000
7,510
515,000


XX 770,000
XX 1,800,000


Quantity

591
3,950

W
W
32
NA
559

26,400
645
97,700


Value

64,000 e
297,000 e

W
W
3,370
1
11,500

114,000
8,640
573,000


XX 963,000
XX 2,030,000


2003P
Quantity

600
4,200

W
W
32
NA
434

29,000
826
98,200


Value

64,200 e
317,000 e

W
W
3,370
1
8,920

125,000
9,150
589,000


TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND'


Number Quantity
of (thousand
quarries metric tons)
78 92,100
5 1,820


Value
(thousands)
$497,000
12,500


Unit
value
$5.39
6.87


Number
of
quarries
76
5


Quantity
(thousand
metric tons)
95,900
1,200


(tho
$-


Shell 4 1,160 6,060 5.24 3 611
Total or average XX 95,100 515,000 5.42 XX 97,700
XX Not applicable.
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals shown.
Includes limestone-dolomite reported with no distinction between the two.


/alue
usands)
561,000
8,540
3,900
573,000


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2003


eEstimated. PPreliminary. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; value included with "Combined values" data.
XX Not applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.


XX 888,000
XX 2,000,000


Kind
Limestone
Dolomite


Unit
value
$5.85
7.13
6.38
5.87


11.4








TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2002, BY USE'


Use
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch):
Macadam
Riprap and jetty stone
Filter stone
Other coarse aggregates
Total or average
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse
Bituminous aggregate, coarse
Bituminous surface-treatment aggregate
Other graded coarse aggregates
Total or average
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand, concrete
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal
Screening, undesignated
Other fine aggregates
Total or average
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase
Unpaved road surfacing
Crusher run or fill or waste
Other coarse and fine aggregates
Total or average
Other construction materials
Agricultural limestone
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture
Sulfur oxide removal
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed
Unspecified: 3


Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
metric tons) (thousands) value


W
94
195
2,040
2,330


W 13.23
1,010 10.69
1,740 8.92
22,200 10.89
25,000 10.72


1,860 16,400 8.84
W W 9.92
W W 10.20
16,300 125,000 7.67
18,100 141,000 7.79

1,310 10,100 7.71
W W 7.99
525 3,700 7.05
9,070 68,400 7.54
10,900 82,200 7.54


8,820 38,800 4.40
W W 5.24
5,990 30,900 5.17
8,180 40,000 4.89
23,000 110,000 4.78
13 44 3.38
227 1.690 7.46


(2) 4.41
(2) 11.65
159 8.37


Reported 30,900 151,000 4.90
Estimated 10,000 52,000 5.04
Total or average 41,200 203,000 4.94
Grand total or average 97,700 573,000 5.87
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals
shown.
Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Grand."
Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA 2003


11.5








TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2002, BY USE AND DISTRICT'

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


Use
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch)2
Coarse aggregate, graded3
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch)4
Coarse and fine aggregate5
Other construction materials
Agricultural6
Chemical and metallurgical7
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed
Unspecified:8
Reported
Estimated
Total


District 1
Quantity Value


District 2
Quantity Value


District 3
Quantity Value


W W 102 774 W
W W W W 5,730
W W W W 3,880
W W 8,380 33,900 5,910

W W W W W

11 80
-- -- 11 80 --


1,530 7,330
1,100 5,200
3,790 24,700
District 4
Quantity Value


1,700 8,380
2,500 12,000
13,300 60,000
Unspecified district
Quantity Value


2,500
1,700
23,000


W
60,600
33,200
31,200

W
W



12,200
8,000
172,000


Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch)2 W W -
Coarse aggregate, graded W W -
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch)4 6,850 46,700
Coarse and fine aggregates 8,010 39,300 10 84
Other construction materials 13 44
Agricultural6
Chemical and metallurgical7 -- 200 2,330
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed 8 79
Unspecified:8
Reported 25,100 123,000
Estimated 5,000 27,000- -
Total 57,400 314,000 210 2,420
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
Includes filter stone, macadam, riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregates.
Includes bituminous aggregate (coarse), bituminous surface-treatment aggregate, concrete aggregate (coarse), and other graded
aggregates.
4Includes screening undesignatedd), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal), stone sand (concrete), and other fine aggregates.
Includes crusher run (select material or fill), graded road base or subbase, unpaved road surfacing, and other coarse and fine aggregates.
6Includes agricultural limestone.
Includes cement manufacture and sulfur oxide removal.
Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2003


11.6








TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2002,
BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY1

Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Concrete aggregate (including concrete sand) 7,980 $39,500 $4.96
Concrete products (blocks, bricks, pipe, decorative, etc.)2 732 3,090 4.22
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 688 2,100 3.05
Fill 3,530 7,810 2.21
Other miscellaneous uses 474 3,910 8.24
Unspecified:
Reported 7,610 34,800 4.58
Estimated 5,400 22,000 4.07
Total or average 26,400 114,000 4.29
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals
shown.
Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.







TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2002, BY USE AND DISTRICT'

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

District 1 District 2 District 3
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products2 559 2,460 3,850 18,900 4,300 21,300
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 20 35 W W W W
Fill 465 994 1,090 1,960 1,670 4,050
Other miscellaneous uses 2 10 696 2,740 431 3,160
Unspecified:
Reported 169 1,110 4,080 20,100 3,360 13,600
Estimated 1,800 7,100 2,300 9,500 900 3,500
Total 3,010 11,700 12,000 53,200 10,600 45,600
District 4
Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products2 -- -
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials -- --
Fill 310 808
Other miscellaneous uses 13 59
Unspecified:
Reported
Estimated 500 2,200
Total 778 3,040
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Other miscellaneous uses." -- Zero.
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
Includes plaster and gunite sands.
Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA 2003


11.7