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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00020
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 2002
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00020

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FLORIDA


PINELLAS


0 100 Kilometers
I I


LEGEND
County boundary

Capital
City
1 Crushed stone/sand
and gravel districts

MINERAL SYMBOLS
(Major producing areas)
Cem Cement plant

Clay Common clay
CS Crushed stone

Ful Fuller's earth
Gyp Gypsum

Gyp-s Synthetic gypsum

IS Industrial sand
Ka Kaolin
Lime Lime plant

MaC2 Magnesium
compound plant
p Phosphate rock

Peat Peat
Per Perlite plant

S-ng Sulfur (natural gas)

SG Construction sand
and gravel
Shell Shell
Steel Steel plant

Ti Titanium minerals
Vm Vermiculite plant
Zr Zirconium
"- Concentration of
S mineral operations


Source: Florida Geological Survey/U.S. Geological Survey (2002)


B'

~I








THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA

This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 2002, the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production
for Florida rose to about $2.02 billion, based upon preliminary
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data. This was a more than
12% increase from that of 20012 and followed a slight 1%
decrease in 2001 from that of 2000. The State increased in rank
to fourth from fifth among the 50 States in total nonfuel mineral
production value, of which the State accounted for more than
5.5% of the U.S. total.
Florida continued to lead the Nation in phosphate rock
mining in 2002, producing about seven times as much as the
next highest producing State. Phosphate rock is produced in
only four States. In terms of value, phosphate rock, crushed
stone, cement (portland and masonry), and construction sand
and gravel continued to be the most important raw nonfuel
mineral commodities produced in Florida. The dollar value
of these four mineral commodities plus titanium concentrates
(ilmenite and rutile) represented about 94% of the State's total
nonfuel mineral value. In 2002, substantial increases in the
value of phosphate rock and crushed stone, having a combined
total increase of about $200 million, accounted for most of
the increase for the year. Increased production and values of
cement and construction sand and gravel bolstered gains as
did a small increase in zirconium concentrates. A relatively
small drop in the value of peat accounted for the largest single
decrease (table 1).
In 2001, many nonfuel minerals increased in production and
value. Crushed stone was up $20 million, and portland cement
was up about $9 million; titanium (ilmenite) concentrates,
zirconium concentrates, peat, and both construction and
industrial sand and gravel increased (in descending order of


'The terms "nofuel mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending upon the minerals or mineral products.
Produciton may be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or
marketable production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable to
the individual mineral commodity.
All 2002 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of July 2003 and are expected to change. For some
mineral commodities, such as construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and
portland cement, estimates are updated periodically. To obtain the most current
information, please contact the appropriate USGS mineral commodity specialist.
Specialist contact information may be retrieved over the Internet at URL http:
/minerals.usgs.gov/ minerals/contacts/comdir.html; alternatively, specialists'
names and telephone numbers may be obtained by calling USGS information
at (703) 648-4000 or by calling the USGS Earth Science Information Center
at 1-888-ASK-USGS (275-8747). All Mineral Industry Surveys-mineral
commodity, State, and country-also may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http: //minerals.usgs.gov/minerals.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 2001 may differ from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 2001, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 2001 to final 2001 data. Data for 2002 are preliminary
and are expected to change; related rankings may also change.


increase) (table 1). These increases, however, were not enough
to offset the significant drop in phosphate rock production
and value and smaller decreases in the value of rutile and
masonry cement that led to the State's small decrease for the
year. Fertilizer producers in Florida and North Carolina were
affected by lower export sales and prices, which resulted from
the opening of new phosphoric acid and diammonium phosphate
(DAP) plants in Asia. Weak market conditions led to reduced
production from phosphate rock mines and phosphoric acid
plants in 2001. One mine in Florida closed permanently in
August 2000 because of market conditions; the company began
using phosphate rock imported from Morocco at its fertilizer
plant. Since mid-1999, four mines have closed in Florida as
part of corporate restructuring programs and the depletion of
reserves. Overall, production in the Florida-North Carolina
region during 2001 was 77% of rated annual capacity.
Based upon USGS estimates of the quantities produced in
the 50 States in 2002, Florida continued to be the only State
to produce rutile concentrates and staurolite. It remained first
in rank in the production of phosphate rock and peat, first of
two States producing ilmenite concentrates and zirconium
concentrates, third in magnesium compounds, fifth in fuller's
earth, and seventh in portland cement. Florida led the States
in the production of masonry cement (second in 2001) and
rose to second from third in the production of crushed stone.
Additionally, Florida produced significant quantities of
construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 (FGS) provided the following
narrative information. The greatest portion of Florida's
nonfuel mineral production value came from the production of
phosphate rock, which accounted for about 75% of the Nation's
production and 25% percent of the world's production. In
2002, more than 27 million metric tons of phosphate rock was
extracted from 1,968 hectares (ha) of land (Florida Phosphate
Council, 2003 4). Other important commodities included clay,
crushed limestone, heavy-mineral sands, masonry and portland
cement, and peat.
The Mine Safety and Health Administration reported that
6,728 persons were employed in Florida's surface mining
operations in 2002; this number does not account for contractors
who may be working for some operators. The limestone
industry employed 2,504 workers, while the phosphate rock
industry employed 2,071 workers. The remainder of the
workforce was employed at cement operations, clay mining

3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text of the State
mineral industry information provided by the Florida Geological Survey.
4References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet
References Cited section.


FLORIDA 2002


11.1






operations, heavy-mineral sands facilities, and sand and gravel
companies.

Exploration and Development

In 2002, the FGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Minerals
Management Service (MMS), completed a study of the geologic
processes and parameters affecting the shore and near-shore
zones within the coastal area and the identified and undiscovered
offshore sand resources available for beach replenishment. The
area studied comprised shallow sediments in Federal waters
off Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin Counties from
5 kilometers (km) to approximately 16 km offshore and the
sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area.
The findings are included in a 5-year annual report. The report
describes extensive new beach-quality sand deposits, including
more than 18 million cubic meters of potential reserves off St.
Lucie County, which were found through a program of site-
specific vibrocoring. The report is available on the MMS Web
site at http://www.mms.gov or on CD-ROM from the FGS.

Commodity Review

Industrial Minerals

Cargill Fertilizer bought Farmland Hydro L.P.'s chemical
complex in Polk County and the proposed Farmland Hardee
County Phosphate Mine in early November 2002. Martin
Marietta Materials Inc. signed a mining services agreement with
Limerock Industries Inc. that allows it to operate three limestone
quarries in north Florida (Pit & Quarry, 2002). The primary
quarry is located near Perry, FL.
High-purity limestone was used to manufacture portland and
masonry cement. Florida was a major producer and consumer
of both types of cement in 2002. Although limestone was mined
at several locations throughout the State, cement was produced
only in Hernando, Dade, and Alachua Counties.
In the clay industry, Active Minerals Co. acquired the mining
lease for the Fletcher-Meginniss fuller's earth mine from Oil-Dri
Corp. of Georgia. Active Minerals Corp., which is owned by
ITC Industries, plans to reopen and expand the mine. Fuller's
earth, common clay, and kaolin were mined at a few locations in
Florida. Fuller's earth, typically used as an absorbent material,
was mined in Gadsden and Marion Counties; kaolin, often used
in the manufacture of paper and refractories, was mined in
Putnam County. Common clay was mined in small quantities
from various locations throughout the State and used in the
manufacture of lightweight aggregates.
Heavy-mineral sand mines continued to be operated by E.I.
du Pont de Nemours and Company Inc. and Iluka Resources,
Inc. in Baker, Clay, and Putnam Counties. Ilmenite, rutile,
zircon, and leucoxene were the primary minerals of interest
in the sand deposits of this region. Ilmenite and rutile are the
primary ingredients in the manufacture of titanium dioxide
pigments, which, in turn, are used in the manufacture of paint,
plastics, paper, varnish, and lacquers.


11.2


Environmental Issues and Reclamation


From July 1, 1975, to Dec. 31, 2002, approximately 67,900
ha had been mined for phosphate. Mandatory reclamation
regulations went into effect July 1, 1975. Since 1975, 70%
of the land mined for phosphate has been reclaimed (Florida
Phosphate Council, 2i' .
Phosphate companies actively mining and having reclamation
responsibility at yearend included Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.; CF
Industries, Inc.; IMC Phosphates MP Inc.; and PCS-Phosphates
Co., Inc. The following companies are no longer operating but
continue to have reclamation responsibility: Agrifos L.L.C.,
Brewster Phosphates, Estech, Florida Power Co., Exxon/Mobil
Co., Nu Gulf Industries Inc., TECO, USS Agrichemicals, and
The Williams Co.
In 2002, 37 applications for Environmental Resource Permits
(ERP) (excluding phosphate) were approved for more than
6,900 ha. Mine expansions and modifications were included
in this total. The Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) issued an Intent for an ERP and Conceptual
Reclamation Plan for the proposed IMC Phosphates Ona Mine
in Hardee County. An administrative hearing is scheduled for
September 2003 because of a challenge to the Intent.
In 2002, FDEP issued an Intent for an ERP for an extension
of the IMC Ft. Green Mine. A challenge to the Intent resulted
in a 5-week administrative hearing and an administrative law
judge ruling in favor of the Department. One of the challenging
parties entered into a settlement agreement with IMC, while
another is appealing the ruling.

Governmental Programs

A State senator proclaimed February 6, 2002, as Mining
Day at the State Capitol. Twenty-one mining companies
displayed products and discussed mining issues with legislators,
colleagues, and visitors. The Florida Limerock and Aggregate
Institute organized the event and planned to make it an annual
affair.
The FGS finished field mapping the western portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 Marianna Quadrangle and completed the final
maps and cross sections for the same area. The completed maps
and cross sections are available as part of the FGS Open-File
Map Series (OFMS 91), which is part of an ongoing cooperative
effort through the STATEMAP component of the USGS
National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program.
The FGS Web site is on the Internet at URL http://
www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/. Some of the new publications
there include a geologic map of the State, a report on marine
sand resources of Florida's Gulf of Mexico, a poster on
protecting Florida's springs, a poster on Florida's industrial
minerals, and an open-file report on granulometry.

Internet References Cited

Florida Phosphate Council, 2003, 2002 Florida phosphate facts, accessed August
7, 2003, at URL http://www.flaphos.org/facts2002.pdf.
Pit & Quarry, 2002 (August 26), Martin Marietta Materials announces
transactions in Texas, Florida, Iowa, accessed August 7, 2003, at URL http:
//www.pitandquarry.com/pitandquarry/article/articleDetail.jsp?id 29844.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2002








TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA' 2

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


2002P


Mineral
Cement:
Masonry
Portland
Clays:
Common
Fuller's earth
Kaolin
Gemstones
Peat
Sand and gravel:
Construction
Industrial
Stone, crushed
Combined values of magnesium compounds,
phosphate rock, staurolite, titanium concentrates,
zirconium concentrates, and values indicated


Quantity


Value Quantity Value Quantity


64,900 e 556
285,000 e 4,060


W
W
33
NA
416


24,500
510
93,000


W
W
3,420
1
8,640


107,000
6,320
495,000


Value


62,600 e 610 e 69,000 e
294,000 e 4,130 e 299,000 e


94 e 1,280 e
334 e 22,200 e
32 3,380
NA 1
544 11,300


24,800
598
95,100


94
334
31
NA
546


109,000 26,000
7,510 524
515,000 104,000


1,280 e
22,200
3,500
1
9,800


116,000
8,020
595,000


by symbol W XX 848,000 XX 770,000 XX 896,000
Total XX 1,820,000 XX 1,800,000 XX 2,020,000
eEstimated. PPreliminary. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; value included with "Combined values" data.
XX Not applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.






TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND'

2000 2001
Number Quantity Number Quantity
of (thousand Value Unit of (thousand Value Unit
Kind quarries metric tons) (thousands) value quarries metric tons) (thousands) value
Limestone2 85 89,200 $472,000 $5.29 78 92,100 $497,000 $5.39
Dolomite 5 2,280 15,900 7.00 5 1,820 12,500 6.87
Shell 5 1,460 6,980 4.77 4 1,160 6,060 5.24
Total or average XX 93,000 495,000 5.33 XX 95,100 515,000 5.42
XX Not applicable.
'Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals shown.
Includes limestone-dolomite reported with no distinction between the two.


FLORIDA 2002


11.3








TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2001, BY USE'


Quantity
(thousand
metric tons)


Value
(thousands)


Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch):
Macadam W W
Riprap and jetty stone 105 $762
Filter stone 88 594
Other coarse aggregates 58 506
Total or average 251 1,860
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse 9,050 57,100
Bituminous aggregate, coarse W W
Bituminous surface-treatment aggregate W W
Other graded coarse aggregates 8,160 56,800
Total or average 17,200 114,000
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand, concrete 2,230 15,400
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal W W
Screening, undesignated 3,100 23,900
Other fine aggregates 3,740 30,200
Total or average 9,070 69,600
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase 14,200 57,700
Crusher run or fill or waste 3,280 13,000
Other coarse and fine aggregates 4,730 21,600
Total or average 9,070 92,300
Other construction materials 825 3,530
Agricultural limestone 214 1,470
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture (2) (2)
Lime manufacture (2) (2)
Special, other fillers or extenders (2) (2)
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed (2) (2)
Unspecified:3
Reported 31,100 167,000
Estimated 11,000 52,000
Total or average 42,100 219,000
Grand total or average 95,100 515,000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
1Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals shown.
Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data, included in "Grand total."
3Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


Unit
value


$5.79
7.26
6.75
8.72
7.42


6.31
6.31
4.85
6.96
6.62


6.92
7.62
7.72
8.09
7.67


4.06
3.97
4.56
4.16
4.28
6.85


3.95
4.96
5.87
7.91


5.37
4.76
5.21
5.42


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2002


11.4








TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2001, BY USE AND DISTRICT'

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


Use
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch)2
Coarse aggregate, graded3
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch)4
Coarse and fine aggregate5
Other construction materials
Agricultural6
Chemical and metallurgical7
Special8
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed
Unspecified:9
Reported
Estimated
Total


District 1 District 2 District 3
Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value


W
W
W
3,530


W
W
W
5,910


W
W
W
23,700


W
1,880
1,710
1,340


W W W W
-- -- -- W
W -- -- W
-- W W


1,030 4,870
1,900 9,200
4,000 26,000
District 4
Quantity Value


2,260
1,900
10,600


10,800
8,900
48,200


8,450
4,800
20,300


W
18,700
13,400
6,840


W
W
W



44,600
24,000
117,000


Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch)2 229 1,500
Coarse aggregate, graded3 14,600 85,300
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch)4 W W
Coarse and fine aggregates5 14,400 58,200
Other construction materials 825 3,530
Agricultural6
Chemical and metallurgical7 W W
Special8
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed (10) (10)
Unspecified:9
Reported 19,300 107,000
Estimated 2,500 11,000
Total 60,200 324,000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2Includes filter stone, macadam, riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregates.
3Includes bituminous aggregate (coarse), bituminous surface-treatment aggregate, concrete aggregate (coarse), and other graded aggregates.
4Includes screening undesignatedd), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal) stone sand (concrete), and other fine aggregates.
Includes crusher run (select material or fill), graded road base or subbase, and other coarse and fine aggregates.
6Includes agricultural limestone.
Includes cement manufacture and lime manufacture.
8Includes other fillers or extenders.
Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.
10Less than 1/2 unit.


FLORIDA 2002


11.5








TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2001, BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY'


Use
Concrete aggregates and concrete products
Plaster and gunite sands
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and other bituminous mixtures
Road base and coverings2
Fill
Other miscellaneous uses'
Unspecified:


Reported
Estimated
Total or average
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other miscellaneous uses."
Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals shown.
2Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
3Includes filtration.
4Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


Quantity
(thousand Value
metric tons) (thousands)
3,180 $14,400
286 1,700
W W
W W
1,310 2,590
736 2,630


13,500
5,800
24,800


65,000
22,000
109,000


TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2001, BY USE AND DISTRICT'

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1 District 2
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregates and concrete products W W W W
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials -- -- W W
Fill 225 502 565 646
Other miscellaneous uses3 1,190 6,860 8,790 43,800
Unspecified:4
Reported W W W W
Estimated 1,600 6,200 2,500 9,600
Total 3,060 13,600 11,800 54,000
District 3 District 4
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregates and concrete products W W W W


Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials
Fill 303 801
Other miscellaneous uses3 2,610 10,600
Unspecified:4
Reported 5,950 25,200
Estimated W W
Total 8,870 36,500
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Other miscellaneous uses." -- Zero.
1Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3Includes filtration.
4Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


640
3,770



W
4,410


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2002


Unit
value
$4.53
5.94
3.31
4.07
1.98
3.57


4.81
3.83
4.40


11.6