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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00019
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 2001
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00019

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FLORIDA

GADSDEN LEON HATILTON
Sc FG I P SC MADISON P
SG FFFE ON
Tallahasse UWANNE CE
WAKULLA TAYLOR CS OL-
Y CS MBI


PINELLAS .


Shell




Shell





100 Kilometers


LEGEND
County boundary

Capital

City
1 Crushed stone/sand
and gravel districts

MINERAL SYMBOLS
(Major producing areas)

Cem Cement plant

Clay Common clay
CS Crushed stone

Ful Fuller's earth
Gyp Gypsum

Gyp-s Synthetic gypsum

IS Industrial sand
Ka Kaolin
Lime Lime plant

MGCQ Magnesium
compound plant
p Phosphate rock

Peat Peat
Per Perlite plant

S-ng Sulfur (natural gas)

SG Construction sand
and gravel
Shell Shell
Steel Steel plant

Ti Titanium minerals
Vm Vermiculite plant

Zr Zirconium
Concentration of
mineral operations


Source: Florida Geological SurveylU.S. Geological Survey (2001)








THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 2001, the estimated value' of nonfuel mineral production
for Florida was about $1.75 billion, based upon preliminary
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data. This was less than a 4%
decrease from that of 20002 and followed a 9.9% decrease in
2000 from that of 1999. In 2001, for the third time in the past
4 years, Florida ranked 5th (4th in 1999) among the 50 States
in total nonfuel mineral production value, of which the State
accounted for almost 4.5% of the U.S. total.
Florida continued to be the Nation's leading phosphate rock-
mining State in 2001, producing more than five times as much
as the next highest producing State. Phosphate rock is produced
in only four States. In terms of value, phosphate rock, crushed
stone, cement (portland and masonry), and construction sand
and gravel continued to be the most important raw nonfuel
mineral commodities produced in Florida. The dollar value of
these four mineral commodities when added together with that
of the titanium concentrates of ilmenite and rutile represented
about 94% of the State's total nonfuel mineral value. In 2001, a
significant decrease in the value of phosphate rock accounted for
most of the State's decrease in value. This was countered in part
by increases that occurred in cement, zirconium concentrates,
construction sand and gravel, magnesium compounds, and
titanium concentrates (table 1).
In 2000, significant increases occurred in portland and
masonry cement, up a combined $39 million, and in crushed
stone, up $29 million. These increases were further bolstered
by increases, ranging from about $4 million to slightly less
than $1 million, in the values of magnesium compounds,
zirconium concentrates, titanium concentrates (ilmenite and
rutile combined), fuller's earth, and staurolite. But these were
not enough to offset a more than $250 million decrease in the
value of phosphate rock. Producers of fertilizer in Florida and
North Carolina were affected by lower export sales and prices,


1The terms nonfuell mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending upon the minerals or mineral products.
Production may be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or
marketable production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable to
the individual mineral commodity.
All 2001 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of August 2001 and are expected to change. For some
mineral commodities, such as construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and
portland cement, estimates are updated periodically. To obtain the most current
information, please contact the appropriate USGS mineral commodity specialist.
Specialist contact information may be retrieved over the Internet at URL http:
/minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/contacts/comdir.html; alternatively, specialists'
names and telephone numbers may be obtained by calling USGS information
at (703) 648-4000 or by calling the USGS Earth Science Information Center
at 1-888-ASK-USGS (275-8747). All Mineral Industry Surveys-mineral
commodity, State, and country-also may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http: //minerals.usgs.gov/minerals.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 2000 may differ from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 2000, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 2000 to final 2000 data. Data for 2001 are preliminary
and are expected to change; related rankings may also change.
FLORIDA-2001


which resulted from the opening of new phosphoric acid and
diammonium phosphate (DAP) plants in Asia. The weak market
conditions led to reduced production from phosphate rock mines
and phosphoric acid plants in 2001. One mine in Florida closed
permanently in August 2000 owing to market conditions; the
company began using phosphate rock imported from Morocco
at its fertilizer plant. Since mid-1999, four mines have closed
in Florida as part of corporate restructuring programs and
depletion of reserves. Overall, production in the Florida-North
Carolina region during 2001 was 77% of rated annual capacity.
In addition, construction sand and gravel was down about $7
million (table 1).
Based upon USGS estimates of production in the 50 States
in 2001, Florida continued to be the only State to produce rutile
concentrates and staurolite; first in peat and first of two States
producing ilmenite concentrates and zirconium concentrates;
third in crushed stone; fifth in fuller's earth; and seventh in
portland cement. The State decreased to second from first
in masonry cement and to third from second in magnesium
compounds. Additionally, Florida produced significant
quantities of construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 provided the following
narrative information. The Mine Safety and Health
Administration reported in 2001 that there were 6,784 persons
employed in Florida's surface mining operations. This number
does not take into account contractors that may be working
for some operators. The limestone industry employed more
than 2,665, and the phosphate industry was second with 2,055
workers. The remainder of the workforce was from sand and
gravel companies, cement operations, the heavy-mineral sands
industry, and clay mines operations.
Florida producers supplied approximately one-quarter of the
world's phosphate needs and three-quarters of U.S. domestic
needs. Nearly all of the rock that was mined in Florida, which
was about 29 million metric tons (Mt) in 2000 (down slightly
from 30 Mt in 1999). About 95% was used to manufacture
fertilizer, and the remaining 5% was used in animal feed
supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and toothpaste.
Mulberry Corp., owner of the Piney Point Phosphate
plant, went bankrupt in 2001. While it filed for Chapter 11
bankruptcy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
as well as the State of Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP) assumed control Mulberry and the Piney Point
plant. The Florida DEP paid more than $400,000 per month
to maintain the plant and keep highly acidic wastewater from
seeping into Tampa Bay. The State of Florida was prepared to
spend tens of millions of dollars to seal Piney Point's mountain
range of phosphogypsum stacks, which contain the highly acidic


3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text submitted by
the Florida Geological Survey.







water, and shut the plant down completely. Phosphogypsum is a
radioactive waste of phosphate processing that the EPA requires
to be stored indefinitely on site in huge mounds. Pumps keep
the phosphogypsum circulating within the mounds to prevent
leakage into the ground water (Unger, 2001).
Phosphate companies actively mining in the State included
Cargill Fertilizer, Inc., CF Industries, Inc., IMC Phosphates
MP Inc., and PCS-Phosphate Co., Inc. IMC continued the
process of obtaining permits to open various sites including
Horse Creek in Manatee County and at Ona in Hardee County.
PCS Phosphate laid off several employees due to the closure
of a DAP plant in Hamilton County that was caused by
market conditions in 2001. In 2001, IMC closed all four of its
mines for the entire months of July and December to reduce
inventories of phosphate rock that had accumulated from the
closure of its phosphoric acid plants in Louisiana and lower
production rates at its Florida facilities.
Most of the stone that was mined in Florida was used for
road base material. Other uses included concrete and asphalt
aggregate, cement manufacturing, fertilizer, soil conditioning,
and rip rap.
During 2001, the State of Florida approved the purchase of
the 47-hectare (ha) Harmon Brothers Rock Co. mine located
near Copeland, FL. The State also agreed to purchase the Kirby
Mine located about 50 kilometers north of Gainesville, FL,
near the Ichetucknee River. In the case of the latter, it was the
State's intent is to protect the Ichetucknee River from potential
pollution.
Bergeron Sand, Rock and Aggregate Inc. sold its interest
in the Mazak Limestone Mine in Sumter County to Bedrock
Resources in 2001.
The Florida DEP issued permits for 10 mines in the Miami-
Dade Lake Belt Area. The 10-year permits allow companies
to dredge or fill about 2,200 ha of wetlands. Monies from a
State-imposed fee on each ton of mined material will be used to
acquire wetlands and conduct wetland enhancement and create
recreation areas.
Environmental resource permits (ERPs) were issued to 10 of
the 11 mines in the Miami-Dade Lake Belt Area. (Three permits
were issued in 2001, and the other seven permits were issued
in early 2002.) The permits for these mines, which are near
a public well, will be subject to review in 3 years. All of the
permits will be subject to review and renewal in 10 years. The


Army Corps of Engineers announced its intention to issue the
10 Federal permits, but local approvals were still going to be
required.
Babcock Florida Co. received an ERP permit in February,
2002, to double the size of their mine in Charlotte County to 773
ha.
Limestone of high purity can undergo calcination (heating)
and, together with other ingredients, be used to manufacture
portland and masonry cement. Florida was a major producer
and consumer of these two types of cement during year 2001.
Work began on the new Suwannee American Inc. cement plant
in Branford, FL, in 2001.
Florida produced both construction and industrial grade quartz
sand. Sand was mined at many localities throughout the State.
Quartz gravel only came from certain areas along the Trail
Ridge region of the peninsula or from northwest Florida.
Fuller's earth, common clay, and kaolin were mined in
few locations in Florida. Fuller's earth, typically used as
an absorbent material, was mined in Gadsden and Marion
Counties; kaolin, often used in the manufacture of paper and
refractories, was mined in Putnam County. Common clay was
mined in small quantities from various locations throughout the
State and was often used in the manufacture of brick, cement,
and lightweight aggregate.
Two of the five companies that mine heavy minerals in the
Unites States were located in Florida. E.I. du Pont de Nemours
and Company, Inc., and Iluka Resources, Inc. operated mines
in northeast Florida in Clay, Baker, and Putnam Counties. A
variety of minerals were located in the Florida heavy-mineral
sand deposits including ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxene.
Ilmenite and rutile were primary ingredients in the manufacture
of titanium dioxide pigments. These pigments were used in the
manufacture of paint, plastics, paper, and varnish and lacquers.
Iluka Resources put the local government approval process on
indefinite hold for its proposed Yulee heavy-minerals mine.
Iluka planned to proceed with the expansion in 2002.
A bill was proposed to impose a bond on phosphogypsum
stacks. The bond money would be used for stack closure in the
event the company failed to perform their obligation.

Reference Cited

Unger, H.M., 2001, Piney Point nears closure by DEP: Sarasota [Florida]
Herald-Tribune, March 28, p. Al.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2001








TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA 1/ 2/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


1999 2000 2001 p/
Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity


Cement:
Masonry
Portland
Clays, kaolin
Gemstones
Peat
Sand and gravel:
Construction
Industrial
Stone, crushed
Combined values of clays (common, fuller's earth),
magnesium compounds, phosphate rock, staurolite, titanium
concentrates, zirconium concentrates
Total
e/ Estimated. p/ Preliminary. NA Not available. XX Not applicable.


494 50,900 e/
3,500 260,000 e/
35 3,830
NA 1
408 8,180


27,200
509
91,700


114,000
6,370
466,000


XX 1,110,000
XX 2,020,000


546
3,750
33
NA
416

24,500
510
93,000


64,900 e/
285,000 e/
3,420
1
8,640

107,000
6,320
495,000


XX 848,000
XX 1,820,000


510 e/
4,010 e/
34
NA
516

24,600
495
90,000


61,200 e/
305,000 e/
3,580
1
9,490

110,000
6,300
494,000


TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND 1

1999


Number Quantity


Number


2000


Quantity


of (thousand Value Unit of (thousand Value
Kind quarries metric tons) (thousands) value Quarries metric tons) (thousands)
Limestone 2/ 95 r/ 87,900 r/ $442,000 r/ $5.03 85 89,200 $472,000
Dolomite 5 W W W 5 W W
Granite 1 W W W
Shell 6 r/ 1,480 r/ 6,360 r/ 4.31 r/ 5 W W
Total or average XX 91,700 466,000 5.08 XX 93,000 495,000
r/ Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." XX Not applicable. -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes limestone-dolomite reported with no distinction between the two.


Unit
value
$5.29
W

W
5.33


FLORIDA-2001


Mineral


Value


1/ Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.


XX 760,000
XX 1,750,000








TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2000, BY USE 1/ 2


Quantity
(thousand
metric tons)


Value Unit
(thousands) value


Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+11/2 inch):
Riprap and jetty stone 228 $2,09
Filter stone 101 67
Other coarse aggregate 98 48
Total or average 427 3,25
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse 13,200 90,20
Bituminous aggregate, coarse 6,870 49,40
Railroad ballast W
Other graded coarse aggregate 9,210 60,50
Total or average 29,200 200,00
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand, concrete 4,200 24,60
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal 3,000 19,30
Screening, undesignated 2,110 11,80
Other fine aggregate 8,980 42,00
Total or average 18,300 97,60
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase 12,500 51,90
Crusher run or fill or waste 5,690 22,80
Other coarse and fine aggregates 2,600 13,30
Total or average 20,800 88,00
Other construction materials 189 65
Agricultural limestone (3/) (3
Chemical and metallurgical, cement manufacture (3/) (3
Special, other fillers or extenders (3/) (3
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed (3/) (3
Unspecified: 4/
Reported 9,900 44,30
Estimated 6,900 32,00
Total or average 16,800 76,50
Grand total or average 93,000 495,00
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes dolomite, limestone, limestone-dolomite, and shell.
3/ Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Grand total."
4/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


'0
'3
.3
0


$9.18
6.66
4.93
7.61


0 6.85
0 7.18
V 5.34
0 6.56
0 6.84


0 5.85
0 6.43
0 5.61
0 4.67
0 5.34

0 4.16
0 4.00
0 5.12
0 4.24
8 3.48
) 5.95
) 3.58
) 5.79
) 5.00

0 4.48
0 4.66
0 4.55
0 5.33


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2001








TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 2000, BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

District 1 District 2 District 3 District 4
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch) 2/ W W W W 64 403 303 1,940
Coarse aggregate, graded 3/ W W W W 8,060 69,400 20,400 122,000
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch) 4/ W W W W 4,590 28,600 13,400 66,700
Coarse and fine aggregate 5/ 493 3,520 5,250 21,000 3,290 14,400 11,700 49,100
Other construction materials -- -- -- -- -- -- 189 658
Agricultural 6/ W W W W W W -
Chemical and metallurgical 7/ -- -- -- W W W W
Special 8/ -- -- W W
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed -- -- W W -- -- W W
Unspecified: 9/
Reported 854 4,000 4,600 19,500 231 1,080 4,220 19,800
Estimated 1,500 7,200 2,500 12,000 2,200 10,000 630 2,900
Total 3,340 20,700 13,300 59,500 23,000 143,000 53,300 272,000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes filter stone, riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregate.
3/ Includes bituminous aggregate (coarse), concrete aggregate (coarse), railroad ballast, and other graded coarse aggregate.
4/ Includes screening undesignatedd), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal), stone sand (concrete), and other fine aggregate.
5/ Includes crusher run (select material or fill), graded road base or subbase, and other coarse and fine aggregates.
6/ Includes agricultural limestone.
7/ Includes cement manufacture.
8/ Includes other fillers or extenders.
9/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.




TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2000, BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY 1/

Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Concrete aggregate (including concrete sand) 10,500 $52,500 $4.97
Plaster and gunite sands 896 4,290 4.79
Concrete products (blocks, bricks, pipe, decorative, etc.) 1,070 5,020 4.67
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and other bituminous mixtures 132 640 4.85
Road base and coverings 2/ 624 2,620 4.20
Fill 1,830 4,470 2.44
Other miscellaneous uses 3/ 1,300 7,910 6.08
Unspecified: 4/
Reported 2,450 10,800 4.43
Estimated 5,700 20,000 3.44
Total or average 24,500 107,000 4.39
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
3/ Includes filtration.
4/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA-2001








TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 2000, BY USE AND DISTRICT 1,

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1


Distl


Use Quantity Value Quantity
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ W W W
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ W W W
Fill 216 505 188
Other miscellaneous uses 4/ 950 3,880 6,310
Unspecified: 5/
Reported 407 2,970 1,270
Estimated 1,600 5,600 2,400
Total 3,180 13,000 10,100
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other miscellaneous uses."
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
4/ Includes filtration.
5/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


rict 2
Value
W
W
835
34,600


5,190
8,500
49,100


Districts 3 and 4
Quantity Value
5,650 25,700
635 2,590
1,430 3,130
1,030 6,000


767
1,700
11,200


2,670
5,400
45,400


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2001