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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00018
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 2000
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00018

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA



This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 2000, the estimated value' of nonfuel mineral production
for Florida was about $1.92 billion, based upon preliminary U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) data. This was a 5% decrease from
that of 19992 and followed an 11.6% increase in 1999 from
1998. In 2000, for the second time in the past 3 years, Florida
ranked fifth among the 50 States in total nonfuel mineral
production value, of which the State accounted for almost 5% of
the U.S. total.
Florida continued to be the Nation's leading phosphate rock-
mining State in 2000, producing almost six times as much as the
next highest producing State. Phosphate rock is produced in
only four States. In terms of value, phosphate rock, crushed
stone, portland cement, and construction sand and gravel
continued to be the most important raw mineral commodities
produced in Florida. (Listings of mineral commodities are in
descending order of value, magnitude of change in value, or
quantity produced.) In 2000, increases of an estimated $56
million in cement (portland and masonry combined), $42
million in crushed stone, $6 million in construction sand and
gravel, plus smaller yet significant increases in zirconium
concentrates and fuller's earth bolstered the State's nonfuel
mineral economy. Staurolite and industrial sand and gravel also
showed small increases for the year. These increases were more
than offset by a very substantial drop in the value of phosphate
rock, along with much smaller decreases in the values of rutile,
magnesium compounds, peat, kaolin, and common clays,
resulting in a net drop for the year (table 1). Producers of
fertilizer in Florida and North Carolina were affected by lower
export sales and prices, which resulted from the opening of new
phosphoric acid and diammonium phosphate plants in Asia.
One mine in Florida closed permanently in August owing to
market conditions; the company began using phosphate rock
imported from Morocco at its fertilizer plant. Since mid-1999,
four mines have closed in Florida as part of corporate

1The terms nonfuell mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending upon the minerals or mineral products.
Production may be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or
marketable production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable to
the individual mineral commodity.
All 2000 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of July 2001 and are expected to change. For some
mineral commodities, such as construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and
portland cement, estimates are updated periodically. To obtain the most current
information, please contact the appropriate USGS mineral commodity specialist.
A telephone listing for the specialists may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/contacts/comdir.html, by using MINES
FaxBack at (703) 648-4999 from a fax machine with a touch-tone handset
(request Document #1000 for a telephone listing of all mineral commodity
specialists), or by calling USGS information at (703) 648-4000 for the
specialist's name and number. All Mineral Industry Surveys-mineral
commodity, State, and country-also may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals; facsimile copies may be obtained from
MINES FaxBack.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 1999 may vary from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 1999, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 1999 to final 1999 data. Data for 2000 are preliminary
and are expected to change; related rankings may also be subject to change.
FLORIDA 2000


restructuring programs and depletion of reserves. Overall,
production in the Florida-North Carolina region during 2000
was below 90% of rated annual capacity (Jasinski, 2001).
In 1999, increases in the values of crushed stone (up $92
million), phosphate rock, construction sand and gravel (up
almost $30 million), cement (up $11 million), and smaller yet
significant increases in fuller's earth and both titanium
concentrates, ilmenite and rutile, led to the State's increase in
value. The only significant decrease for the year was a more
than $10 million drop in the value of zirconium concentrates
and a much smaller drop in that of magnesium compounds.
Based upon USGS preliminary estimates of production in the
50 States in 2000, Florida continued to be the only State to
produce rutile concentrates and staurolite; it was first in
masonry cement and peat and first of two States producing
ilmenite concentrates and zirconium concentrates; third in
magnesium compounds; and seventh in portland cement. While
the State rose to second from third in crushed stone and to third
from fourth in fuller's earth, it dropped to eighth from seventh
in kaolin. Additionally, Florida produced substantial quantities
of construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 provided the following
narrative information. The Mine Safety and Health
Administration reported that there were 3,808 persons employed
in Florida's surface mining operations and another 2,334
persons employed in associated mills and preparation plants
during 2000. The limestone industry employed over 3,000, and
the phosphate industry was second with nearly 2,300 workers.
The remainder of the work force was from sand and gravel
companies, cement operations, the heavy-mineral sands
industry, and clay mines operations.
Most of the stone that is mined in Florida is used for road
base material. Other uses include and asphalt aggregate and
concrete, cement manufacturing, fertilizer, rip rap, and soil
conditioning. Youngquist Brothers, Inc. submitted an
application for a new limestone mine in Lee County. They sold
their Corkscrew Limerock Mine to RMC South Florida Inc.
Limestone can be used to manufacture portland and masonry
cement. Florida was a major producer and consumer of these
two types of cement during year 2000. In North Florida,
Anderson Mining Co. sold its Columbia City pit to the State.
The pit was used to mine limestone used for the production of
cement. Suwannee American Inc. began construction of a new
integrated cement plant in Branford, FL. Tarmac-America, Inc.
was purchased by a Greece's Titan Cement Co. (CNNfn, August
28, 2000, Titan to buy Tarmac, accessed July 16, 2001, at URL
http://cnnfn.cnn.com/2000/08/28/deals/titan). CSR America
Inc. purchased the aggregates and cement company FCS
Holdings Inc. and its subsidiary Florida Crushed Stone Co.
Florida produced both construction and industrial grade
quartz sand. Sand is mined at many localities throughout the

3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text submitted by
the Florida Geological Survey.
11.1







State. Quartz gravel only comes from certain areas along the
Trail Ridge region of the peninsula or from northwest Florida.
Common clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin were mined in few
locations in Florida. Fuller's earth, typically used as an
absorbent material, was mined in Gadsden and Marion
Counties; kaolin, often used in the manufacture of ceramics, was
mined in Putnam County. Common clay was mined in small
quantities from various locations throughout the State and was
often used in the manufacture of brick, cement, and lightweight
aggregate.
E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc. and Iluka Resources,
Inc. mined heavy minerals in northeast Florida in Baker, Clay,
and Putnam Counties. A variety of minerals were in the Florida
heavy-mineral sand deposits including ilmenite, leucoxene,
rutile, and zircon. Ilmenite and rutile were primary ingredients
in the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments. These
pigments were often used in the manufacture of lacquers, paint,
paper, plastics, and varnish.
Florida producers supplied approximately one-quarter of the
world's phosphate needs and three-quarters of U.S. domestic
needs. About 90% of the rock that is mined in Florida, which
equates to approximately 29 million metric tons (Mt) in 2000
(down slightly from 30 Mt in 1999), was used to manufacture
fertilizer. The remaining 10% was used in applications such as


animal feed supplements, soft drinks, toothpaste, and vitamins.
In 2000, $1,128 billion worth of fertilizer was exported from
Florida making it one of Florida's leading export commodities
(Florida Phosphate Council, Spring 2001, 2000 Florida
phosphate facts, accessed July 17, 2001, at URL
http://www.flaphos.org/facts01.html).
Phosphate companies actively mining in the State included
Cargill Ferilizer, Inc., CF Industries, Inc., IMC-Phosphate Co.,
and PCS-Phosphate. IMC was in the process of obtaining
permits to open its Ona and Pine Level Mines and Farmland
Hydro, L.P. was still in the process of obtaining permits to open
its Hardee County Mine. Currently, there is an individual
prospecting for hard-rock phosphate in Lafayette County.
During the 2000 legislative session, the State Fire Marshall
was given the exclusive authority to regulate blasting at
construction aggregate mines. Until State rules are finalized and
adopted, existing county rules will continue to apply (H. Hayes,
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of
Mine Reclamation, oral commun., 2001).

Reference Cited

Jasinski, S.M., 2001, Phosphate rock: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral
Commodity Summaries 2001, p. 120-121.


TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA 1/ 2

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

1998 1999 2000 p/
Mineral Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
Cement:
Masonry 442 40,600 e/ 494 50,900 e/ 550 56,700 e/
Portland 3,470 259,000 e/ 3,500 260,000 e/ 4,200 310,000 e/
Clays, kaolin W W 35 3,830 34 3,500
Gemstones NA 1 NA 1 NA 1
Peat 391 7,360 408 8,180 368 7,090
Sand and gravel:
Construction 20,900 84,600 27,200 114,000 27,300 120,000
Industrial 525 6,150 509 6,370 528 6,710
Stone, crushed 3/ 81,000 3/ 377,000 3 92,300 469,000 98,000 511,000
Combined values of clays (common, fuller's earth), magnesium
compounds, phosphate rock, staurolite, stone [crushed marl
(1998)], titanium concentrates, zirconium concentrates, and
value indicated by symbol W XX 1,030,000 XX 1,110,000 XX 904,000
Total XX 1,810,000 XX 2,020,000 XX 1,920,000
e/ Estimated. p/ Preliminary. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; value included with "Combined values"
data. XX Not applicable.
1/ Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
3/ Excludes certain stones; kind and value included with "Combined values" data.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2000


11.2









TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND 1


1998 1999
Number Quantity Number Quantity
of (thousand Value Unit of (thousand Value Unit
Kind quarries metric tons) (thousands) value Quarries metric tons) (thousands) value
Limestone 2/ 93 r/ 76,800 r/ $351,000 $4.57 r/ 97 87,500 $440,000 $5.03
Dolomite 5 r/ 2,430 17,700 7.31 r/ 5 W W W
Granite -- -- -- -- 1 W W W
Shell 7 r/ 2,110 r/ 8,750 r/ 4.15 r/ 8 2,390 10,500 4.38
Total or average XX 81,000 377,000 4.64 r/ XX 92,300 469,000 5.08
r/ Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." XX Not applicable. -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes limestone-dolomite reported with no distinction between the two.


TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS
IN 1999, BY USE 1/ 2/


Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+11/2 inch):
Macadam W W $5.00
Riprap and jetty stone 158 $1,040 6.59
Filter stone 122 674 5.52
Other coarse aggregate 1,160 3,980 3.42
Total or average 1,440 5,690 3.94
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse 16,200 116,000 7.13
Bituminous aggregate, coarse 4,420 24,600 5.56
Bituminous surface-treatment aggregate 1,340 5,410 4.05
Other graded coarse aggregate 5,680 33,400 5.87
Total or average 27,700 179,000 6.47
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand, concrete 7,180 37,900 5.28
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal 3,040 16,300 5.35
Screening, undesignated 4,210 20,900 4.98
Other fine aggregate 2,170 13,700 6.31
Total or average 16,600 88,800 5.35
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase 17,800 67,800 3.81
Unpaved road surfacing W W 6.73
Crusher run or fill or waste 5,140 19,100 3.72
Other coarse and fine aggregates 975 6,610 6.78
Total or average 23,900 93,600 3.91
Other construction materials 270 1,120 4.14
Agricultural:
Agricultural limestone (3/) (3/) 7.66
Other agricultural uses (3/) (3/) 3.43
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture (3/) (3/) 4.27
Sulfur oxide removal (3/) (3/) 3.60
Special, other fillers or extenders (3/) (3/) 5.80
Other miscellaneous uses and specified uses not listed 113 643 5.69
Unspecified: 4/
Reported 9,230 42,300 4.58
Estimated 8,000 34,000 4.34
Total or average 17,200 76,700 4.47
Grand total or average 92,300 469,000 5.08
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes dolomite, granite, limestone, limestone-dolomite, and shell.
3/ Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Grand total."
4/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA-2000


11.3









TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 1999,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1 District 2 District 3 District 4
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
Construction:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch) 2/ W W W W 150 685 W W
Coarse aggregate, graded 3/ W W W W 9,000 84,100 W W
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch) 4/ W W W W 4,430 25,500 11,900 60,900
Coarse and fine aggregate 5/ 1,110 7,110 10,000 37,500 2,920 11,300 9,850 37,700
Other construction materials -- -- -- -- 266 1,100 4 19
Agricultural 6/ W W W W W W -
Chemical and metallurgical 7/ -- W W W W W W
Special 8/ -- -- -- W W
Other miscellaneous use -- -- 84 404 -- -- 29 239
Unspecified: 9/
Reported 699 3,280 1,330 6,000 2,540 11,600 4,670 21,400
Estimated 480 2,100 1,300 5,600 2,200 9,900 3,900 17,000
Total 2,890 19,000 13,800 56,400 24,000 156,000 51,500 238,000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes filter stone, macadam, riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregate.
3/ Includes bituminous aggregate (coarse), bituminous surface-treatment aggregate, concrete aggregate (coarse), and other graded coarse aggregate.
4/ Includes screening undesignatedd), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal), stone sand (concrete), and other fine aggregate.
5/ Includes crusher run (select material or fill), graded road base or subbase, unpaved road surfacing, and other coarse and fine aggregates.
6/ Includes agricultural limestone and other agricultural uses.
7/ Includes cement manufacture and sulfur oxide removal.
8/ Includes other fillers or extenders.
9/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1999,
BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY 1/


Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Concrete aggregate (including concrete sand) 9,040 $43,900 $4.86
Plaster and gunite sands 862 4,560 5.29
Concrete products (blocks, bricks, pipe, decorative, etc.) 400 2,030 5.08
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 2/ 790 3,070 3.89
Fill 2,360 6,470 2.74
Other miscellaneous uses 3/ 3,350 15,000 4.48
Unspecified: 4/
Reported 5,080 22,000 4.33
Estimated 5,300 17,000 3.21
Total or average 27,200 114,000 4.19
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
3/ Includes filtration.
4/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-2000


11.4









TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1999,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1 District 2
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 567 2,180 W W
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ -- -- W W
Fill 240 593 238 917
Other miscellaneous uses 4/ 3 7 221 1,350
Unspecified: 5/
Reported 294 2,630 356 1,430
Estimated 1,800 5,900 1,800 6,200
Total 2,860 11,300 9,510 43,800
District 3 District 4
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 2,800 12,900 W W
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ -- W W
Fill 1,500 3,850 387 1,110
Other miscellaneous uses 4/ 3,120 13,600
Unspecified: 5/
Reported 4,430 18,000
Estimated 960 3,400 800 1,600
Total 12,800 51,800 2,030 7,200
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
4/ Includes filtration.
5/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA 2000


11.5