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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00017
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1999
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00017

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA



This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 1999, the preliminary estimated value' of nonfuel
mineral production for Florida was about $1.9 billion, according
to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This was a more than
6% increase from that of 1998,2 and followed a 1.1% decrease
in 1998 from 1997. The increase continued an overall upward
trend that began in 1994, following 4 years of lower values. In
1999, for the third time in the past 4 years, Florida ranked fourth
among the 50 States in total nonfuel mineral production value,
of which the State accounted for almost 5% of the U.S. total.
Florida continued to be the Nation's leading phosphate
rock-mining State in 1999, producing more than six times as
much as the next-highest producing State. Phosphate rock is
produced in only four States. In terms of value, phosphate rock,
crushed stone, and portland cement continued to be the most
important raw mineral commodities produced in Florida.
(Listings of mineral commodities are in descending order of
value, magnitude of change in value, or quantity produced.) In
1999, increases of $80 million in phosphate rock, $32 million in
crushed stone, $12 million in construction sand and gravel, and
$6 million in portland cement led the State's increase in value
(table 1). Relatively smaller increases in masonry cement and
several other mineral commodities contributed to the overall
increase. The only significant decrease was a $12 million drop
in the value of zircon concentrates. In 1998, significant
decreases occurred in the values of fuller's earth, crushed stone,
portland cement, zircon concentrates, and ilmenite and rutile
titanium concentrates. These decreases more than offset a
substantial increase in the value of phosphate rock, moderate
gain in construction sand and gravel, and smaller increases in
masonry cement and peat, resulting in a net decrease for the
year (table 1).
Based upon USGS preliminary estimates of production in
the 50 States in 1999, Florida remained the only State to

'The terms nonfuell mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending upon the minerals or mineral products.
Production may be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or
marketable production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable to
the individual mineral commodity.
All 1999 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of May 2000, and are expected to change. For some
mineral commodities, such as, construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and
portland cement, estimates are updated periodically. To obtain the most current
information, please contact the appropriate USGS mineral commodity specialist.
A telephone listing for the specialists may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/contacts/comdir.html, by using MINES
FaxBack at (703) 648-4999 from a fax machine with a touch-tone handset
(request Document #1000 for a telephone listing of all mineral commodity
specialists), or by calling USGS information at (703) 648-4000 for the
specialist's name and number. All Mineral Industry Surveys-mineral
commodity, State, and country-also may be retrieved over the Internet at URL
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals; facsimile copies may be obtained from
MINES FaxBack.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 1998 may vary from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 1998, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 1998 to final 1998 data. Data for 1999 are preliminary
and are expected to change; related rankings may also be subject to change.


FLORIDA-1999


produce rutile concentrates and staurolite; it was first in peat and
masonry cement, first of two States producing zircon
concentrates, and first of three States producing ilmenite
concentrates. Florida continued to be third in crushed stone
production, fourth in fuller's earth, seventh in portland cement,
and dropped from third to fourth in magnesium compounds.
Additionally, Florida produced substantial quantities of
construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 (FGS) provided the
following narrative information. Most employment in Florida's
mining industry was associated with the mining and processing
of minerals and materials used in the State's construction
industry. Based upon information the FGS received from the
U.S. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health
Administration, 6,464 persons were employed at Florida mines
and mills and another 1,037 persons were employed as office
staff during 1999. The limestone sector was the largest
employer with over 3,150 employees, and the phosphate
industry was second with nearly 2,500 workers. Most of the
remaining was employment at sand and gravel, cement, heavy
mineral sand, and clay mine pit operations.
Most of the stone mined in Florida was used for road
construction. Florida Rock Industries, Inc. acquired Harper
Brothers, Inc.'s aggregate mining and highway and heavy
construction business in Ft. Myers, FL (North American Quarry
News, 1999a). Southdown, Inc. agreed to acquire Sunshine
Materials, Inc.'s limestone quarry site in west-central Florida
(North American Quarry News, 1999b). Martin-Marietta
Materials, Inc. obtained an Environmental Resource Permit
(ERP) from the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection's Suwannee River Water Management District for an
expansion of its Perry Quarry, which was formerly operated by
Florida Rock Industries, Inc. Angelo's Aggregate Materials,
Ltd. proceeded with an ERP application for its Jasper Pit in
Madison County. Angelo's, currently producing sand from the
Jasper Pit, was developing plans to excavate limestone from
portions of the Jasper Pit, in addition to its sand production.
The operators of several other limestone mines, although
smaller than Martin-Marietta's Perry Quarry, filed ERP
applications as part of their plans to reactivate their operations.
Some of the limestone is from high-purity deposits, which can
be calcined (heated) and, together with other ingredients, can be
used to manufacture portland and masonry cement. During the
past year, Florida Rock Industries, Inc. brought its Newberry
cement plant on-line and began production.
The State's sand and gravel resources can be subdivided
into construction and industrial, the bulk of which is
construction grade. Florida ranks approximately 15th in the
Nation in construction sand and gravel used or produced and
20th in industrial sand. Whereas sand is mined at many
locations throughout the State, quartz gravel is mined only along

3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text submitted by
the Florida Geological Survey.
11.1







the Trail Ridge region of the peninsula and in the far
northwestern regions of Florida. CSR America, Inc. (parent
company of Rinker Materials Corp.) acquired Harper Brothers,
Inc., Palmdale Sand Mine in Glades County, Florida. (Leu
Newman, Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Bureau of Mine Reclamation, oral commun., 2000).
The Gypsum Division of Lafarge Corp. announced plans to
open a new wallboard plant in Putnam County (North American
Quarry News, 1999c).
Common, fuller's earth, and kaolin clays were mined in a
few locations in Florida. Fuller's earth, typically used as an
absorbent material, was mined in Gadsden and Marion
Counties; kaolin, often used in the manufacture of paper and
refractories, was mined in Putnam County; and common clay,
often used in the manufacture of brick, cement, and lightweight
aggregate, was mined in small quantities from various locations
throughout the State.
Two of five companies that mine heavy minerals in the
United States are located in Florida. E.I. du Pont de Nemours,
Co., and RGC (USA) Mineral Sands, Inc. mined respectively in
Bradford and Clay Counties, which are in northeastern Florida.
Following a merger of RGC's Australian parent company with
another Australian company, the heavy mineral mines of Green
Cove Springs and Putnam East Extended Satellite operated
under the name Iluka Resources, Inc. A variety of minerals are
found in Florida's heavy mineral sand deposits, including
ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile (titanium minerals), and zircon.
Ilmenite and rutile are primary source materials used to
manufacture titanium dioxide pigments. These pigments are
often used in the manufacture of paint, varnish and lacquers,
plastics, and paper.
According to the FGS, Florida producers supplied
approximately 25% of the world's phosphate needs and 75% of
U.S. domestic needs. Based upon FGS surveys and estimates,
approximately 34 million metric tons of phosphate rock was
mined in the State in 1999, nearly all of which was used to
manufacture agricultural fertilizer. The remainder was used in
products such as feed supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and
toothpaste. In 1998, $1.8 billion worth of fertilizer was
exported, making it one of Florida's leading export
commodities.
Phosphate companies actively mining in the State included
the IMC-Agrico Co., Cargill Fertilizer, Inc., CF Industries, Inc.,
Agrifos, L.L.C., Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, and Nu-
Gulf Industries, Inc. Farmland Hydro, L.P. planned to apply to
open a new mine in Hardee County.


Mulberry Corp.'s Piney Point phosphate plant (formerly
owned by Royster Phosphates, Inc.) in North Manatee County
was reopened in August, employing about 170 people, but
closed again in October because of challenges from
environmental groups. All Mulberry plants were closed in
December.
For IMC-Agrico, 1999 was a very busy year. It applied to
open two new mines, Ona and Pine Level, but shut down several
operations. IMC-Agrico permanently closed the Payne Creek
and Noralyn-Clear Springs Mines. Near the end of 1999, the
company also planned to close some plants in central Florida
and Louisiana to cut output by more than 20% because of "a
global fertilizer glut." IMC-Agrico announced that it planned to
close its Nichols chemical plant east of Tampa (74 workers).
The company planned to cease production of triple
superphosphate, one of three major crop nutrients, at its New
Wales chemical plant. Mine shutdowns also occurred at
Cargill's Ft. Meade Mine (several weeks) and at Nu-Gulf's
Wingate Creek Mine (News-Journal online, November 14,
1999, Nation's largest phosphate company to close mines,
plants, accessed June 15, 2000, at URL http://www.n-jcenter
.com/1999/Nov/14/). IMC-Agrico received conceptual approval
for a 69-hectare (ha) expansion at its Four Comers Mine near
Duette. The project was on hold because of problems with the
county government and consultants' reports. Opposition from
the State delayed the company's planned expansion of about
1,140 ha at its Ft. Green Mine near Duette (Herald Tribune
News Coast, September 3, 1999, State opposes Manatee Mine
expansion, accessed June 15, 2000, at URL
http://www.newscoast.com).
In the peat sector, the Hyponex Co. announced plans to
mine approximately 53 ha of South Lake County marshland
(Orlando Sentinel, 1999). American Peat, Inc. was preparing an
ERP application for the Loper Peat Mine in Madison County,
formerly operated by W.C. Loper.

References Cited

North American Quarry News, 1999a, Florida Rock Industries completes
acquisition of Harper Bros., Inc.: North American Quarry News, July, v. 1,
p. 6.
- 1999b, Southdown lands Florida ready-mix concrete and aggregates
producer: North American Quarry News, August, v. 1, p. 8.
- 1999c, Lafarge to build new wallboard production facility in Florida:
North American Quarry News, October, v. 1, p. 15-16.
Orlando Sentinel, 1999, Mine may turn muck to bucks: Orlando Sentinel,
September 8, p. 2.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-1999


11.2









TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA 1/ 2/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

1997 1998 1999 p/
Mineral Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantit Value
Cement:
Masonry 406 36,200 e/ 442 40,600 e/ 454 42,000 e/
Portland 3,750 274,000 e/ 3,470 259,000 e/ 3,560 265,000 e/
Gemstones NA 1 NA 1 NA 1
Peat 361 5,710 391 7,360 354 7,920
Sand and gravel:
Construction 19,200 75,500 20,900 84,600 23,500 96,700
Industrial 507 5,800 525 6,150 516 6,410
Stone: Crushed 3/ 73,600 r/ 394,000 r/ 81,000 377,000 85,800 409,000
Combined values of clays (common, fuller's earth, kaolin),
magnesium compounds, phosphate rock, staurolite, stone
(crushed marl), titanium concentrates, zirconium
concentrates and values XX 1,040,000 XX 1,030,000 XX 1,100,000
Total XX 1,830,000 XX 1,810,000 XX 1,930,000
e/Estimated. p/Preliminary. r/Revised. NA Not available. XX Not applicable.
1/ Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
3/ Excludes certain stones; kind and value included with "Combined values" data.


TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND 1/

1997 1998
Number Quantity Number Quantity
of (thousand Value Unit of (thousand Value Unit
Kind quarries metric tons) (thousands) value Quarries metric tons) (thousands) value
Limestone 70 r/ 70,400 r/ $376,000 r/ $5.3 r/ 91 76,600 $351,000 $4.15
Limestone-dolomite 2 W W 5.74 2 W W 7.62
Dolomite 4 W W 6.42 4 W W 5.78
Calcareous marl 1 (2/) (2/) (2/) 1 (2/) (2/) (2/)
Sandstone -- -- -- -- 1 W W 4.00
Shell 4 W W 4.61 6 1,950 7,940 3.70
Total or average XX 73,600 r/ 394,000 r/ 5.36 r/ XX 81,000 377,000 4.65
r/ Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." XX Not applicable. -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Excluded from total to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.


FLORIDA-1999


11.3









TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS
IN 1998, BY USE 1/ 2

Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Coarse aggregate (+11/2 inch):
Riprap and jetty stone 94 $719 $7.65
Filter stone 106 776 7.32
Other coarse aggregate 66 407 6.17
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse 6,590 43,700 6.63
Bituminous aggregate, coarse 3,000 17,100 5.69
Other graded coarse aggregate 1,740 10,200 5.90
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand, concrete 2,200 12,000 5.45
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal 1,660 8,730 5.27
Screening, undesignated 2,740 11,200 4.09
Other fine aggregate 2,320 12,000 5.16
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase 13,600 50,200 3.69
Unpaved road surfacing W W 3.57
Crusher run or fill or waste 3,860 13,700 3.56
Other coarse and fine aggregates 1,600 6,140 3.80
Other construction materials 5,070 21,900 4.32
Agricultural:
Agricultural limestone 438 2,680 6.11
Poultry grit and mineral food W W 19.94
Other agricultural uses 377 3,800 10.09
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture 3,440 13,200 3.83
Glass manufacture W W 9.89
Special:
Asphalt fillers or extenders W W 12.97
Other fillers or extenders 77 426 5.54
Other miscellaneous uses: Other specified uses not listed 282 3,910 13.87
Unspecified: 3/
Actual 23,500 105,000 4.46
Estimated 8,050 36,300 4.51
Total or average 81,000 377,000 4.65
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total."
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits, except unit value; may not add to totals
totals shown.
2/ Includes dolomite, limestone, limestone-dolomite, and shell; excludes calcareous marl from total
to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
3/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-1999


11.4









TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 1998,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/ 2/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1 District 2 District 3 District 4


Use Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quanti
Construction aggregates:
Coarse aggregate (+1 1/2 inch) 3/ W W W W 44 214 1
Coarse aggregate, graded 4/ W W W W 5,010 37,600 5,7
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch) 5/ W W W W 4,040 19,100 4,6
Coarse and fine aggregate 6/ 955 4,980 8,200 28,300 3,770 15,100 6,1
Other construction materials 381 3,540 449 3,800 -- 5,0
Agricultural 7/ 196 1,400 (8/) (8/) 327 1,630
Chemical and metallurgical 9 -- -- (8/) (8/) (8/) (8/)
Special 10/ -- (8/) (8/) (8/) (8/)
Other miscellaneous uses -- -- (8/) (8/) -- --
Unspecified: 11/
Actual 502 1,660 564 1,860 5,460 26,500 16,9
Estimated 677 3,090 1,080 5,230 1,500 7,260 4,8
Total 2,710 14,700 11,100 49,100 22,500 116,000 44,8
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other construction materials." -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Excludes calcareous marl from total to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
3/ Includes filter stone, riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregate.
4/ Includes concrete aggregate (coarse), bituminous aggregate (coarse), and other graded coarse aggregate.
5/ Includes stone sand (concrete), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal), screening undesignatedd), and other fine aggregate.
6/ Includes graded road base or subbase, unpaved road surfacing, crusher run (select material or fill), and other coarse and fine aggregates.
7/ Includes agricultural limestone, poultry grit and mineral food, and other agricultural uses.
8/ Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total."
9/ Includes cement manufacture and glass manufacture.
10/ Includes asphalt fillers or extenders and other fillers or extenders.
11 Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


ty Value

74 1,100
'80 28,100
.50 23,400
60 21,700
70 21,900

8/) (8/)

8/) (8/)

'00 74,700
:00 20,700
:00 196,000


TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1998,
BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY 1/


Quantity
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 8,380 $38,200 $4.56
Plaster and gunite sands 480 2,060 4.29
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 2/ 693 2,320 3.34
Fill 2,560 5,910 2.31
Other miscellaneous uses W W 4.09
Filtration W W 4.94
Unspecified: 3/
Actual 4,880 20,800 4.28
Estimated 3,300 12,300 3.72
Total or average 20,900 84,600 4.04
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total."
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
3/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA-1999


11.5









TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1998,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)


District 1 District 2
Use Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 788 3,080 6,530 30,200
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ W W W W
Fill 634 770 W W
Other miscellaneous uses W W W W
Filtration -- -- W W
Unspecified: 4/
Actual W W 258 1,010
Estimated 606 2,430 1,930 7,370
Total 2,370 9,060 9,470 41,500
District 3 District 4
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 1,540 7,040 2 5
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ 139 463 286 1,040
Fill 956 2,350 W W
Other miscellaneous uses W W -
Filtration W W
Unspecified: 4/
Actual 4,050 16,100 W W
Estimated 760 2,480 -- -
Total 7,940 30,400 1,140 3,560
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total." -- Zero.
1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3/ Includes road and other stabilization (cement and lime).
4/ Reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK-1999


11.6