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The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00016
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1998
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00016

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA



This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


In 1998, the preliminary estimated value' of nonfuel mineral
production for Florida was about $1.96 billion, according to
the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This value, the highest
nonfuel mineral value reported in the State's history, was a 7%
increase from that of 1997,2 and followed a 4% increase in
1997 from 1996. The increase continued an upward trend that
began in 1994, following 5 years of lowering values. For the
third consecutive year, Florida ranked fourth among the 50
States in total nonfuel mineral production value, of which the
State accounted for almost 5% of the U.S. total.
Florida continued to be the Nation's leading phosphate
rock-mining State in 1998, producing nearly seven times the
quantity of material as that of the next-highest State.
Phosphate rock is only produced in four States. In terms of
value, phosphate rock, crushed stone, and portland cement
continued to be the most important minerals produced in
Florida. In 1998, increases of $53 million in the value of
crushed stone, $44 million in phosphate rock, and $16 million
in portland cement led the State's increase in value (table 1).
This was further supported by smaller increases in
construction sand and gravel, zircon concentrates, rutile,
masonry cement, and peat, in descending order of net increase.
Values of production for all other mineral commodities also
increased except for staurolite and kaolin, which showed small
decreases, and gemstones, which remained unchanged.
Likewise, in 1997, most of Florida's nonfuel mineral
commodities increased in value, led by portland cement up
$29 million (up nearly 12%), zircon concentrates up $15.5
million, phosphate rock almost $10 million, and construction
sand and gravel up $6.7 million (almost 10%).
Based on USGS preliminary estimates of the quantities
produced in the 50 States in 1998, Florida remained the only2
State to produce rutile and staurolite. It ranked first in peat
and tied for first in masonry cement; third in fuller's earth and

1The terms nonfuell mineral production" and related "values" encompass
variations in meaning, depending on the minerals or mineral products.
Production may be measured by mine shipments, mineral commodity sales, or
marketable production (including consumption by producers) as is applicable
to the individual mineral commodity.
All 1998 USGS mineral production data published in this chapter are
preliminary estimates as of February 1999 and are expected to change. For
some mineral commodities (for example, construction sand and gravel,
crushed stone, and portland cement), estimates are updated periodically. To
obtain the most current information, please contact the appropriate USGS
mineral commodity specialist. A telephone listing for the specialists may be
retrieved over the Internet at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/contacts/
comdir.html; by using MINES FaxBack at (703) 648-4999 from a fax
machine with a touch-tone handset (request Document #1000 for a telephone
listing of all mineral commodity specialists); or by calling USGS information
at (703) 648-4000 for the specialist's name and number. All Mineral Industry
Surveys-mineral commodity, State, and country-also may be retrieved over
the Internet at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals; facsimile copies may be
obtained from MINES FaxBack.
2Values, percentage calculations, and rankings for 1997 may vary from the
Minerals Yearbook, Area Reports: Domestic 1997, Volume II, owing to the
revision of preliminary 1997 to final 1997 data. Data for 1998 are preliminary
and expected to change, while related rankings may also be subject to change.
FLORIDA-1998


crushed stone; fourth in magnesium compounds; and seventh
in portland cement. Florida ranked the first of three titanium-
producing States and the first of two States in zirconium
concentrates. Additionally, Florida produced substantial
quantities of construction and industrial sand and gravel.
The Florida Geological Survey3 provided the following
narrative information. Common clay is extracted from many
localities in Florida. Fuller's earth is Florida's number one
clay commodity because it surpasses both of Florida's other
two clay types, common clay and kaolin, in total quantity
produced and total mineral production value. Fuller's earth, in
the form of palygorskite (attapulgite), is mined by the
Engelhard Corp. and the Milwhite Co. in Gadsden County,
and, in the form of montmorillonite, is mined by MFM
Industries, Inc. in Marion County. Kaolin is mined by the
Feldspar Corp. in Putnam County.
The principal use of the heavy minerals in Florida remains
the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments. RGC (USA)
Mineral Sands, Inc. (RGC) and E.I. du Pont de Nemours and
Co., Inc. remain the only heavy mineral producers in the State.
In 1997, RGC began mining operations in Putnam County.
Florida's phosphate producers supply approximately 25% of
the world's and 75% of the Nation's phosphate needs. As
such, it is Florida's largest industrial mineral commodity in
terms of quantity produced and production value. Companies
that actively mined phosphate during 1998 include IMC-
Agrico Co., Cargill Fertilizer, Inc., CF Industries, Inc., Potash
Corp. of Saskatchewan and Agrifos L.L.C. NuGulf Industries
reopened its mine in late November. IMC-Agrico announced
the temporary shut down of the Kingsford and Payne Creek
Mines and the Clear Springs and Noralyn Mines will be closed
permanently in mid-1999.
IMC-Agrico Co. and Farmland Hydro LP are currently
trying to get approval to mine on about 25,000 hectares in
DeSoto, Hardee, and Manatee Counties. This region falls into
the Peace River Basin.
Florida Rock Industries (FRI) has received permits that will
allow them to complete construction of its cement plant at
Newberry, FL. Nearby, in the Branford area, the Suwannee
American Cement Co., a subsidiary of Anderson-Columbia
Co., has applied for air permits for a new cement plant. If
both companies begin production it would bring the total
number of cement plants in Florida to six (Matus, 1998).
E.R. Jahna Industries is now in the permitting phase on a
proposed sand mine in northern Polk County.
Limestone (CaCO3), the primary source of stone in Florida
and one with large reserves, is mined in many localities.
Much of the limestone is crushed and used as base course
material or as small aggregate in road building. The larger
size limestone aggregates are becoming a limited resource in
the State.

3Steven Spencer, Coastal/Economic Geologist, authored the text submitted
by the Florida Geological Survey.
11.1







FRI's request for a 10-year extension to its mining lease in
the Withlachoochee State Forest was turned down in 1998 by
the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). FRI was first issued a mining
lease by the USFS in 1965. The action by the USFS brings
limestone mining in the Withlachoochee State Forest to an end
(Hollingsworth, 1998).
The Quality Control 2000 program for qualifying
laboratories and training technicians who sample and test
aggregates, asphalt, concrete, and earthwork is moving
forward on schedule. This program is a result of the Federal
Highway Administration's mandate that all State's
Departments of Transportation have Quality Assurance
Procedures for Construction in place by June 30, 2000. The
University of Florida is acting as coordinator for the Florida
Department of Transportation in developing and administering
the program.
The Florida Minerals Association (FMA) was established
by several Florida mining companies in 1997 to provide
leadership and to advance and encourage responsible
development of the mineral industry in the State. The FMA
generally focuses on legislation and regulation, the
environment, public safety and health, and land use issues.
The association is in the process of selecting a director and
building an internet web page.
The Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP)
Bureau of Mine Regulation (BOMR) administers the State's
reclamation rules, which are found in the Florida


Administrative Code and which are authorized by Chapter 373
of the Florida Statutes. The BOMR regulates the permitting of
mines that are located on lands over which the DEP has
jurisdiction through DEP's dredge and fill and environmental
resource permitting rules. The BOMR also regulates the
design, construction, and maintenance of phosphogypsum
recovery stack systems.
In 1998, the BOMR coordinated the National Association of
State Land Reclamationists conference, where several mines
were recognized with awards for their reclamation efforts.
The BOMR published a document recently that outlines an
integrated habitat network for the Florida phosphate district
(Jim Price, FDEP-BOMR, written commun., 1999).
Miami-Dade Lake Belt Plan legislation was vetoed in the
1998 legislature. The veto took place not because of the plan
itself, but rather because of another provision that was
attached to the bill. The bill will be reintroduced into the 1999
legislature. The plan integrates mining operations with other
land uses. The plan calls for operators to contribute to a trust
fund that will, in turn, handle all wetlands mitigation. Federal,
State, and local permitting and reclamation will be
consolidated at the county level.

References Cited

Hollingsworth, Jan, 1998, Mistake allowed mining in state forest: Tampa
Tribune, November 24.
Matus, Ron, 1998, Cement plant is approved: Gainesville Sun, December 17,
p. 1B and 3B.


TABLE 1
NONFUEL RAW MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA 1/ 2/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars unless otherwise specified)

1996 1997 1998 D/
Mineral Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value
Cement:
Masonry 422 35.200 e/ 406 36.200 e/ 413 38.100
Portland 3.450 245.000 e/ 3.750 274.000 e/ 3.880 290.000
Clays:
Fuller's earth 377 58.900 W W W W
Kaolin 35 3.760 W W W W
Gemstones NA 1 NA 1 NA 1
Peat 298 5.550 361 5.710 263 7.160
Sand and gravel:
Construction 18.500 68.800 19.200 75.500 20.100 81.200
Industrial 515 6.340 507 5.800 536 6.220
Stone: Crushed 3/ 73.600 394.000 73.800 396.000 81.700 449.000
Combined values of clays (common). magnesium
compounds, phosphate rock, staurolite, stone [crushed
marl (1996-97)], titanium concentrates, zirconium
concentrates, and values indicated by symbol W XX 947,000 XX 1,040,000 XX 1,090,000
Total XX 1.760.000 XX 1.830.000 XX 1.960.000
e/ Estimated. D/ Preliminary. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing comDanv DroDrietarv data: value included with "Combined
values" data. XX Not applicable.
1/ Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2/ Data are rounded to three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
3/ Excludes certain stones; kind and value included with "Combined values" data.


FLORIDA-1998


11.2









TABLE 2
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED, BY KIND 1/

1996 1997
Number Ouantitv Number Ouantitv
of (thousand Value Unit of (thousand Value Unit
Kind quarries metric tons) (thousands) value Quarries metric tons) (thousands) value
Limestone 76 2/ 71.000 2/ $379.000 2/ $5.34 2/ 73 2/ 71.600 2/ $384.000 2/ $5.37 2/
Dolomite 4 W W 6.55 4 W W 6.42
Shell 4 W W 4.46 4 W W 4.61
Calcareous marl 2 (3/) (3/) (3/) 1 (3/) (3) (3/)
Total XX 73.600 394.000 5.35 XX 73.800 396.000 5.37
W Withheld to avoid disclosing comDanv DroDrietarv data: included in "Total." XX Not anplicable.
1/ Data are rounded to three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes "limestone-dolomite" reported with no distinction between the two.
3/ Excludes calcareous marl from State total to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.


TABLE 3
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS
IN 1997, BY USE 1/2/

Ouantitv
(thousand Value Unit
Use metric tons) (thousands) value
Coarse aggreate (+1 1/2 inch):
Riprap and ietty stone 3.530 $4.560 $1.29
Other coarse aggregate 3/ 30 240 8.00
Coarse aggregate. graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse 5.750 36.100 6.27
Bituminous aggregate, coarse 2.860 15.700 5.49
Other graded coarse aggregate 4/ 1.710 12.900 7.55
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch):
Stone sand. concrete 1.690 9.530 5.64
Stone sand. bituminous mix or seal 2.120 9.980 4.71
Screening. undesignated 2.380 8.020 3.36
Other fine aggregates 1.560 9.220 5.92
Coarse and fine aggregates:
Graded road base or subbase 13.900 44.000 3.16
Unpaved road surfacing 307 1.430 4.64
Crusher run or fill or waste 3.550 10.200 2.88
Other coarse and fine aggregates 430 3.260 7.58
Other construction materials 2 10 5.00
Agricultural:
Agricultural limestone 485 3.070 6.33
Other agricultural uses 200 885 4.43
Chemical and metallurgical, cement manufacture W W 1.45
Special. other specified uses not listed W W 2.24
Unspecified: 5/
Actual 27.500 204.000 7.39
Estimated 3.670 20.800 5.66
Total 73.800 396.000 5.37
W Withheld to avoid disclosing comDanv DroDrietarv data: included in "Total."
1/ Includes dolomite, limestone, limestone-dolomite, and shell; excludes calcareous marl from
State to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
2/ Data are rounded to three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
3/ Includes filter stone.
4/ Includes railroad ballast.
5/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA-1998


11.3









TABLE 4
FLORIDA: CRUSHED STONE SOLD OR USED BY PRODUCERS IN 1997,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/ 2

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

District 1 District 2 District 3 District 4
Use Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value
Construction a~greates:
Coarse aeureate (+1 1/2 inch) 3/ W W W W W W W W
Coarse aggregate. graded 4/ W W W W 4.950 34.400 4.660 22.500
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch) 5/ W W W W 4.120 18.700 3.370 16.100
Coarse and fine aggregate 6/ W W 6.790 21.800 2.990 11.300 7.530 19.600
Other construction materials -- -- W W -- -- -
Agricultural 7/ 221 1.520 W W 347 2.120
Chemical and metallurgical 8/ -- -- -- W W
Other miscellaneous uses 9/ -- W W
Unspecified: 10/
Actual W W W W W W W W
Estimated -- -- 1.150 6.870 848 4.820 W W
Total 2.340 16.500 9.130 36.600 22.000 129.000 40.400 214.000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing comDanv oroDrietarv data: included in "Total."
1/ Excludes calcareous marl from State to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
2/ Data are rounded to three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
3/ Includes filter stone and riprap and jetty stone, and other coarse aggregate.
4/ Includes concrete aggregate (coarse), bituminous aggregate (coarse), railroad ballast, and other graded coarse aggregate.
5/ Includes stone sand (concrete), stone sand (bituminous mix or seal), screening undesignatedd), and other fine aggregate.
6/ Includes graded road base or subbase, unpaved road surfacing, crusher run (select material or fill), and other coarse and fine aggregates.
7/ Includes agricultural limestone, and other agricultural uses.
8/ Includes cement manufacture.
9/ Includes other specified uses not listed.
10/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


TABLE 5
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1997,
BY MAJOR USE CATEGORY 1/


Ouantitv
(thousand Value Value
Use metric tons) (thousands) per ton
Concrete aggregate (including concrete sand) 5.720 $24.500 $4.28
Plaster and unite sands 774 3.000 3.87
Concrete products (blocks. bricks, pipe. decorative, etc.) 533 2.980 5.59
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and other bituminous mixtures 365 1.370 3.75
Road base and coverings 2/ 710 3.500 4.93
Fill 2.350 5.560 2.37
Other miscellaneous uses 3/ 1.020 4.810 4.72
Unspecified: 4/
Actual 3.910 17.400 4.44
Estimated 3.840 12.400 3.22
Total or average 19.200 75.500 3.93
1/ Data are rounded to three significant digits: mav not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes road and other stabilization (lime).
3/ Includes filtration.
4/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.


FLORIDA-1998


11.4









TABLE 6
FLORIDA: CONSTRUCTION SAND AND GRAVEL SOLD OR USED IN 1997,
BY USE AND DISTRICT 1/

(Thousand metric tons and thousand dollars)

District 1 District 2
Use Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 695 2.770 W W
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ W W 608 3.040
Other miscellaneous uses 4/ 835 2.920 6.500 29.000
Unspecified: 5/
Actual W W W W
Estimated 1.100 3.970 1.640 4.990
Total 2.630 9.650 8.750 37.100
District 3 District 4
Ouantitv Value Ouantitv Value
Concrete aggregate and concrete products 2/ 1.330 5.900 (6/) (6/1
Asphaltic concrete aggregates and road base materials 3/ 1.440 4.600 (6/) (6/1
Other miscellaneous uses 4/ 2.280 8.610
Unspecified: 5/
Actual 2.090 8.120
Estimated 1.100 3.430 -- -
Total 6.800 26.100 1.050 2.690
W Withheld to avoid disclosing comDanv oroDrietarv data: included with "Other miscellaneous uses."
1/ Data are rounded to three significant digits; may not add to totals shown.
2/ Includes plaster and gunite sands.
3/ Includes fill and road and other stabilization (lime).
4/ Includes filtration.
5/ Includes reported and estimated production without a breakdown by end use.
6/ Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total."


FLORIDA-1998


11.5