The Mineral industry of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00011
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1983
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00011


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[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]

The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
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Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
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All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.

The Mineral Industry of


This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for
collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.

By James R. Boyle' and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2

The value of nonfuel mineral production
in 1983 in Florida was nearly $1.3 billion, an
increase of $52 million over that of 1982.
Nearly all the minerals produced in the
State had increased outputs in 1983. Florida
ranked fifth nationally in total value of
nonfuel minerals produced, and nonmetals
accounted for over 97% of the value of the
State mineral output. The State ranked
first in the production of phosphate rock
and masonry cement; second in crushed
stone, fuller's earth, and peat; and sixth in

portland cement. Staurolite and zircon con-
centrates were produced only in Florida.
Principal nonmetals, in order of value, were
phosphate rock, stone, cement, sand and
gravel, and clays.
Florida remained the predominant pro-
ducer of phosphate rock, and for the 90th
consecutive year supplied more than any
other State. Florida and North Carolina
supplied 84.5% of the domestic phosphate
rock output, with Florida supplying most of
the exports.

Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Floridal
1982 1983
Mineral Value Value
Min Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands)

Masonry _________________ thousand short tons__ 231 $16,267 313 $19,557
Portland -----------_____________ do -____ 2,651 136,190 3,329 164,048
Clays ---------------------------- do. --- 672 231,339 684 31,566
Gem stones_________________________________ NA 6 NA 6
Lime _----------------- thousand short tons__ 103 5,828 W 13,881
Peat ________________________________do._ 120 1,575 114 1,999
Sand and gravel:
Construction ____------------------ do .-- r13,616 r30,081 e14,900 e31,500
Industrial __---- __________do ___ 341 4,257 329 3,447
Stone (crushed) -------------------------do e53,100 e182,300 57,282 235,700
Combined value of clays (kaolin, 1982),magnesium compounds,
phosphate rock, rare-earth metal concentrate, staurolite, tita-
nium concentrates (ilmenite and rutile), and zircon concentrate XX 815,155 XX 773,275
Total -_-_ ----------_________________ XX rl,222,998 XX 1,274,979
eEstimated.-rRevised. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. XX Not applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2Excludes kaolin; value included with "Combined value" figure.


Florida's economy eased out of the reces-
sion in 1983, resulting in an unemployment
rate of 7.4% at yearend, compared with
9.5% at yearend 1982. The unemployment
rate in the phosphate industry was much
higher. Early in 1983, the rate was about

16%, but by midyear it was in excess of
25%, with the number of unemployed ex-
ceeding the previous high established in
mid-1982. By late 1983, the rate had
dropped as demand for phosphate rock im-

Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county'

County 1981 1982 Minerals produced in 1982
in order of value

Alachua ------------$3,429 (2)

Bay _____ ___
Brevard __ ____
Broward ----- -
Calhoun ____--
Char!otre -___ __
Clay .- ... ...

Collier __-- ___
Escambia ______
Gadsden -_ ____
Glades_ __
Gulf -
Hardee ------
Hernando __ _____
Highlands ---
Hillsborough ----
Jackson -------
Lake --------
Lee -__-
Leon --- -
Levy ___
Monroe ------
Orange ____ ___
Palm Beach_ _. -.... .___
Pasco -._ -- __
Polk _-- __--
Putnam ------

St. Lucie ------
Sarasota -- ____
Sumter -------_
Suwannee -____ -
Walton -------- ---
Undistributed -- _--
Sand and gravel (construction)
Stone (crushed) --------

Total --_--- -__









Sand and gravel (construction).
Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand
and gravel (industrial).
Sand and gravel (construction).

Ilmenite, zircon, rutile, staurolite, sand and
gravel (construction), clays, monazite.

Cement, sand and gravel (construction).
Sand and gravel (construction), sand and
gravel (industrial).
Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand
and gravel (industrial).
Sand and gravel (construction), sand and
gravel (industrial).
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Phosphate rock.
Cement, lime, clays.
Phosphate rock, cement, peat.
Sand and gravel (construction), peat, clays.

Sand and gravel (construction).

Phosphate rock, cement.
Clays, sand and gravel (construction).

Phosphate rock, sand and gravel (construc-
tion), sand and gravel (industrial), peat.
Sand and gravel (industrial), clays, sand and
gravel (construction), peat.
Sand and gravel (construction).

Sand and gravel (construction).

eEstimated. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed." XX Not
The following counties are not listed because no nonfuel mineral production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbia,
De Soto. Dixie, Iuval, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Martin,
Nasau. Okeechobee. Osceola, Pinellas, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Union, Volusia, Wakulla, and Washington.
County distribution for construction sand and gravel (1981) and crushed stone (1982) is not available; total State values
shown separately under "Sand and gravel (construction)" or "Stone (crushed)."
'Crushed stone was produced, data not available by county.
'Construction sand and gravel was produced; data not available by county.
*Includes gem stones that cannot be assigned to specific counties, and values indicated by symbol W.
sData do not add to total shown because of independent rounding.


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1982 1983P Change,
Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total civilian labor force ----------------------------thousands_ 4,682.3 4,984.4 +6.4
Unemployment----- ----------------------------do 444.3 367.0 -17.4
Employment (nonagricultural):
Mining' d----------------------------------- 9.3 10.1 +8.6
Manufacturing ---------------------------------- do---- 450.7 493.5 +9.5
Contract construction ------ --------------do-... 242.5 288.0 +18.8
Transportation and public utilities---------_ --_--_---------do .... 230.2 229.1 -.5
Wholesale and retail trade ---------------------------_do .. 1,012.6 1,102.4 +8.9
Finance, insurance, real estate ------------------------do --_ 276.3 300.9 +8.9
Services d-- -------------------------------do. 947.3 995.0 +5.0
Government ------------------------------------do--. 647.2 640.0 -1.1
Total nonagricultural employment -------------------_ do -- 3,816.1 4,059.0 +6.4
Personal income:
Total -------------------------------------- millions- $114,356 $123,804 +8.3
Percapita --------------------------------------- $10,907 $11,592 +6.3
Construction activity:
Number of private and public residential units authorized --------------_ 103,813 186,759 +79.9
Value ofnonresidential construction ------------------- millions $3,257.7 $4,102.1 +25.9
Value of State road contract awards ----------- -do.-- $391.0 $340.0 -13.0
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons_- 4,398 5,262 +19.6
Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value ------------------------- millions $1,223.0 $1,275.0 +4.2
Value per capital, resident population ------ ---- ---- ------_ $117 $119 +1.7
Value persquaremile --------- ------------------------ $20,891 $21,734 +4.0
'Includes oil and gas extraction.
Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and
U.S. Bureau of Mines.


c 2,000



_ 1,000

o0 I I I I I I
1977 1980 1985

Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.


Trends and Developments.-During the
year. nearly all phases of construction re-
bounded substantially, providing a strong
boost to the overall economy, especially the
minerals segment. According to the Federal
Reserve Bank of Atlanta,3 Florida's total
capital needs for transportation, water, and
waste water, including backlog require-
ments. total $41 billion through the year
2)00. Approximately 90% of these capital
needs are for transportation, mainly roads.
The projections indicate a long-term high
demand for construction minerals such as
cement, sand and gravel, and crushed stone.
To generate revenue for education re-
quirements, Florida's corporate income tax
was increased in 1983 through changes
which increase the tax base for some compa-
nies. The changes include a repeal of Flori-
da's existing exemption of foreign source
income as taxable corporate profits, a
change in the definition of Florida sales,
and a provision for worldwide unity appor-
tionment for determining the corporate in-
come tax. Among those affected would be
most of the phosphate, cement, and other
mineral-related companies. Under world-
wide unitary apportionment, a company's
worldwide operating income is included in
taxable corporate profits. Companies oper-
ating primarily in Florida will experience
little change in taxes, while multinationals
could be heavily impacted. Review and pos-
sible modification of the unitary tax was
underway because of the adverse reaction
by corporations in the State.
The Port of Tampa handled nearly 44
million tons of cargo in 1983, up nearly 11%
from that of 1982. The major portion of
exported phosphate was shipped out of that
port. Phosphate rock exports totaled nearly
15 million tons, compared with 13 million
tons in 19S2. Total earnings of phosphate
exporters, however, were 7% lower than in
1982 because of lower world prices. Other
minerals exported through the port includ-
ed clay and industrial sand.
The Port of Tampa also imported about
670,000 tons of aragonite from The Baha-
mas for use in the manufacture of cement,
up slightly from that imported in 1982.
Other minerals imported included cement,
coal. gypsum rock, potash, salt, and liquid
Union Carbide Corp. announced a $9
million modernization program at its indus-
trial gases facility at Mims. To be completed
in 1984, the program will include upgrading
process liquefaction and computer control.

The plant has a capacity for 500 tons per
day of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon.
Total oil and gas production in Florida
declined for the fifth consecutive year. Oil
production dropped from 25.3 million bar-
rels in 1982 to 19.6 million barrels in 1983;
gas production dropped from 26.9 billion
cubic feet in 1982 to 24.2 billion cubic feet in
1983. Twenty-seven wells were drilled in
1983: 15 wildcats, all dry; 9 development
wells, all producers; and 3 service wells for
saltwater disposal.
Legislation and Government Pro-
grams.-The U.S. Bureau of Land Manage-
ment reported $234,379 in mineral lease
payments to the State in 1983. The Federal
Government divides bonuses, rentals, and
royalties received from Federal mineral
leasing activities on public lands equally
with the States in which the minerals occur.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and
the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted miner-
al. energy, geochemical, and marine geology
studies in and offshore Florida. The studies
included mineral potential in several Road-
less Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II)
areas, and resource studies on titanium,
heavy minerals, and phosphate. During the
year, the USGS published several Miscella-
neous Field Studies Maps pertaining to the
RARE II studies, which are a joint effort
with the Bureau. The maps included "Min-
eral Resource Potential Map of the Sa-
vannah Roadless Area, Liberty County,
Florida" (MF-1470), "Mineral Resource Po-
tential of the Clear Lake Roadless Area,
Leon County, Florida" (MF-1479), and "Min-
eral Resource Potential Map of the Natural
Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Flori-
da" (MF-1572-B).
Since 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines
Tuscaloosa Research Center has been
involved with various projects related to
dewatering phosphate waste slimes, up-
grading marginal ore, and developing
means to improve the post-mining environ-
ment. In-house Bureau project activity dur-
ing 1983 included research on beneficiation
of dolomitic phosphate ores, dewatering of
waste phosphate clay slime by flocculation
utilizing a field test unit, recovery of phos-
phate from dewatered slimes, and proce-
dures for reestablishment of wetland eco-
systems after mining.
Bureau Reports of Investigation (RI)
issued during the year pertaining to the
mineral industry of Florida included RI
8731, "Recovery of Phosphate From Florida
Phosphate Operations Slimes," and RI 8776,


"Evaluation of Radium and Toxic Element
Leaching Characteristics of Florida
Phosphogypsum Stockpiles." Information
Circulars (IC) issued included IC 8914, "The
Florida Phosphate Industry's Technological
Environmental Problems, A Review"; IC
8926, "Minerals Availability Commodity Di-
rectory on Phosphate"; IC 8929, "Economic
Evaluation of Borehole and Conventional
Mining Systems in Phosphate Deposits"; IC
8932, "Costs and Effects of Environmental
Protection Controls Regulating U.S. Phos-
phate Rock Mining"; and IC 8937, "Phos-
phate Rock Availability-Domestic."
During the year, the Florida Bureau of
Geology continued its geologic investiga-
tions in the State. Projects underway in-
cluded stratigraphy of South Florida, a
summary of peat deposits, a summary of
geologic parameters to be assessed for haz-
ardous waste disposal, geomorphology of
Northwest Florida, a summary of the eco-
nomic minerals of Florida, and other basic
geologic studies within the State. Publica-
tions released during the year included
"Earthquakes and Seismic History of Flori-
da," "The Hawthorn Formation of North-
eastern Florida," "The Geology and Water


Resources of the Upper Suwannee River
Basin, Florida," and several map series
concerning water use within the State. In
September, the reclamation program,
which had been assigned to the Bureau of
Geology, was elevated to Bureau status and
became a separate entity.
The Florida Institute of Phosphate Re-
search continued its funding of research
activities with respect to mining and proc-
essing phosphate rock and reclamation of
disturbed lands. The Institute's funding for
research exceeds $3 million annually with
the major areas of study including utiliza-
tion of byproduct gypsum, reduction of
slime pond areas, evaluation of waste clay
handling techniques, and reclamation of
phosphate lands. Other areas of concern
were innovative beneficiation and mining
concepts and effects of radiation. About 50
projects were funded to some level during
1983. Florida Statute 378.101, relating to
phosphate research, was amended by the
legislature and approved by the Governor
in May. The amendment increased the
Board of Directors from three to five mem-
bers, with the new members appointed in


Cement.-Shipments of portland and ma-
sonry cement increased 25.6% and 35.7%,
respectively, from those of 1982. Cement
was the third leading commodity in value in
the State. Production of masonry cement in
Florida ranked first nationally, while that
of portland cement ranked sixth. Increased
construction activity impacted favorably on
the cement industry with masonry cement
output at its highest level in over 10 years
and portland cement output approaching
the record-high year production of 1980.
Four companies produced portland cement
at five plants; masonry was also produced at
five plants. A fifth company operated a
grinding plant to produce portland cement
from imported clinker. Most of the output of
both cement types was used within the
State; Florida was a net importer of cement
with about 1.5 million tons being shipped
into the State, up from about 700,000 tons in
1982. Portland cement shipments, mainly in
bulk form, were made by truck and rail.
Principal consumers were ready-mix con-
tractors, building materials dealers, and
concrete products manufacturers, with the

remainder being consumed by other con-
tractors and governmental agencies.
Most raw materials used to manufacture
cement were mined within the State and
included limestone, clays, sand, and stauro-
lite. Oolitic aragonite imported from The
Bahamas was used, as were small amounts
of gypsum, clinker, fly ash, iron ore, and
slag; most were obtained from out-of-State
Ten rotary kilns were operated at the five
plants-eight were wet process and two
were dry process. About 446 million kilo-
watt hours of electrical energy, in addition
to natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were used
in the manufacture of cement.
Atlantic Cement Co. purchased 50% of
Continental Cement Co.'s terminals in Cape
Canaveral and Port Everglades for $9 mil-
lion. Both firms will use designated silos for
deliveries from oceangoing vessels. Ideal
Basic Industries Inc. sold its Palm Beach
terminal to Eagle Cement Co. Eagle plans
to handle about 250,000 tons per year
through the terminal; most of the cement
will come from Mexico.
Florida Crushed Stone Co. continued with
plans to build a 600,000-ton-per-year cement

____ __I .- __I__1I~_-l-~~


plant at Brooksville for an estimated $80
million. Construction was delayed awaiting
permits for the cement plant, which were
received by yearend. The company was also
seeking approval to construct a coal-fired
120-megawatt powerplant for the cement
operation. Permission had not been receiv-
ed by yearend. When approved, construc-
tion was expected to take 2 years. Construc-
tion of the cement plant was contingent on
approval of the powerplant. A local bond
issue had been passed for financing the
Clays.-Clays mined in Florida included
common clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin.
Total clay production increased 12,000 tons,
while value decreased $1.5 million.
Common clay output and value increased
13.8% and 56.4%, respectively, over those of
1982. Common clay was produced by three
companies at three pits in Clay, Hernando,
and Lake Counties in the northern part of
the State. The clay was used in the manu-
facture of cement and lightweight aggre-
Florida ranked second in the Nation in
output of fuller's earth with production and
value decreasing compared with that of
1982. Fuller's earth was mined by four
producers at four pits in Gadsden and
Marion Counties. Main end uses were for
pet waste absorbents and oil and grease
absorbents, and in fertilizers, pesticides,
and saltwater drilling muds. Material
mined was a montmorillonite-attapulgite
product, which was crushed, sized, and
dried. End products were shipped nation-
wide. Excel Minerals Inc. constructed a
packaging plant in Quincy to distribute pet
waste absorbent clays supplied by the Flori-
din Co. in Quincy.
Kaolin was produced by one company in
Putnam County with production increasing
11.5% over that of 1982. Principal uses were
electrical porcelain, whiteware, and wall
tile. with major markets in the Southeast.
Byproduct industrial sand was recovered
for glass and other industrial uses. Glass
sand was shipped to plants in Alabama,
Florida, and Tennessee.
Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluo-
silicic acid was recovered as a byproduct of
wet-process phosphoric acid manufacture.
Fluosilicic acid was used to produce cryolite,
aluminum fluoride, and sodium silicofluo-
ride, and was also used in water fluorida-
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined
at two plants in Duval County and one

plant in Hillsborough County. United
States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and
National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in
kettles, a rotary kiln, and holoflite unit,
respectively, prior to wallboard manufac-
ture. In terms of annual output, Florida
ranked fourth nationally in the manufac-
ture of wallboard. U.S. Gypsum's plant
ranked third nationally in output, while
National Gypsum's plant ranked seventh.
Production and value increased 40% and
50%, respectively, over those of 1982. Flori-
da gypsum wallboard was marketed primary
ily in southern Georgia and Florida. By-
product gypsum was recovered by Occiden-
tal Chemical Co. at its plant in Hamilton
County; output increased over that of 1982.
Lime.-Quicklime and hydrated lime
were produced in Florida, with output o
both increasing over that of 1982. Quicklime
was produced by Basic Magnesia Inc., Gulf
County; Chemical Lime Inc., Hernando
County; and Dixie Lime & Stone Co., Sum-
ter County. Hydrated lime was also pro-
duced by Chemical Lime. Production and
value of lime increased significant-
ly, over those of 1982; output was at its
highest level in over 10 years. Historically,
Florida markets have consumed significant-
ly more lime than was produced in the
State, with out-of-State producers supplying
the markets. Lime was used in magnesia
recovery from seawater sewage treatment
systems and in animal food.
Magnesium Compounds.-Florida rank-
ed second in the Nation in the recovery of
magnesium compounds from seawater. Ba-
sic Magnesia, Gulf County, produced caustic
calcined magnesia and refractory-grade
magnesia from seawater. Shipments and
value increased 4.0% and 9.6%, respective-
ly, over those of 1982, indicating an increase
in unit value.
Peat.-Florida ranked second nationally
in peat sales in 1983. Reported production
decreased from that of 1982. Five companies
reported production of moss, reed-sedge,
and humus peat from five counties. Most of
the peat, shipped in bulk, was used for
general soil improvement and for potting
The Natural Resources Committee in the
Florida House of Representatives approved
a 1-year ban on the issuance of permits for
peat mining for nonagricultural purposes in
Florida swamps. The Department of Natu-
ral Resources (DNR) was directed to deny
approval of any such activities until after
July 1, 1984. The bill provided that DNR


conduct a study of the effects of peat mining
Son the State's wetlands and make recom-
mendations concerning restrictions on non-
agricultural peat mining.
Perlite (Expanded).-Four companies
produced expanded perlite from crude ore
shipped into the State. Production decreas-
ed to 21,200 tons, while value decreased to
$3.5 million. Perlite was expanded at plants
in Broward, Duval, Escambia, and Indian
River Counties, and was used for construc-
tion aggregate, horticultural purposes, insu-
lation, and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in
the Nation in the production of phosphate
rock. The phosphate industry continued to
be the principal mineral industry in the
State. Marketable production of phosphate
rock in 1983 increased 7.5% in quantity but
decreased 6.1% in value from that of 1982.
Phosphate rock production remained at a
low level during the year, resulting in
temporary closure of, or reduction of output
from, most of the area's mines. The decreas-
ed output was caused by reduced demand
for both domestic fertilizers and exports. At
midyear, over 26% of the work force was
unemployed with mines and plants either
shut down temporarily or operating on
reduced schedules. The industry rebounded
late in the year, reducing the unemploy-
ment rate to about 9%, but still operated
well below capacity levels.
According to the Florida Phosphate Coun-
cil, 1983 output of all major finished prod-
ucts increased over that of 1982: phosphoric
acid (80%), triple superphosphate (29%),
diammonium phosphate (72%), monoammo-
nium phosphate (103%), and animal feed
supplements (3%). The council also reported
that capital spending declined from $410
million in 1982 to $88 million in 1983.
Employment decreased from 14,600 in 1980,
the peak year, to 11,540 at yearend 1983.
The industry paid nearly $110 million in
State and county taxes, with severance
taxes of over $67 million. The severance tax
of $1.84 per ton in 1982 was increased to
$2.10 per ton in 1983, with a portion (5%)
returned to the individual producing coun-
During the year, Zen-Noh, a Japanese
trade organization, contracted with Estech
Inc. and International Minerals & Chemical
Corp. (IMC) for multiyear supplies of phos-
phate rock. Estech will supply 460,000 met-
ric tons per year for 8 years and IMC will
supply 317,000 metric tons per year for 13

To reduce power costs at their sulfuric
acid plants, Conserve Inc, IMC, and The
Royster Co. were retrofitting their units to
recover high-pressure steam and cogenerate
electricity. Increased electrical costs justi-
fied the capital expenditures. Excess gen-
erated power will be sold to the Tampa
Electric Co.
The industry reduced electric power ex-
penses from $158 million in 1982 to $150
million in 1983. Cogeneration plants al-
lowed energy use to increase from 2.9 bil-
lion kilowatt hours in 1982 to 3.5 billion
kilowatt hours in 1983 without a corre-
sponding rise in costs.
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
20 mines by 12 companies in Hamilton,
Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk
Counties. Of the 12 companies with facili-
ties, 6 increased production in 1983, 5
decreased production, and 1 purchased ma-
terial and utilized inventories. Seven com-
panies increased export tonnage in 1983,
two remained at about the same level, one
decreased exports, and two did not export.
In 1983, agricultural uses accounted for all
of the production. Normal superphosphate,
triple superphosphate, wet-process phos-
phoric acid, phosphate rock for direct appli-
cation, and defluorinated phosphate rock
were produced for agricultural purposes.
All of the companies produced wet-process
phosphoric acid, five produced triple super-
phosphate, four produced normal super-
phosphate, three produced direct applica-
tion material, and one produced defluorina-
ted rock.
Agrico Chemical Co. operated the Fort
Green, Payne, and Saddle Creek Mines
during the year. The Saddle Creek Mine,
down since August 1981, reopened in April
on a 5-day schedule which increased to a 7-
day operation by December. The South
Pierce chemical operations, which function-
ed at reduced levels during the year, were
running at design capacity by yearend.
Agrico announced plans to import prilled
sulfur from Canada to replace liquid sulfur
used to produce sulfuric acid. Permits were
applied for and were pending at yearend.
Agrico initiated the permitting process to
continue testing borehole mining of deep
phosphate in St. Johns County. Primary
testing was done in cooperation with the
U.S. Bureau of Mines. Phase 2, by Agrico,
would include drilling six slurry wells in
1984 and continuing feasibility testing;
phase 3 would be full-scale production.
AMAX Phosphate Inc. operated the Big


Four Mine intermittently during the year.
The mine was closed in April 1982 and
reopened in mid-1983. The Piney Point fer-
tilizer plant, which also closed in April
1982, reopened late in 1983 and was oper-
ating at full capacity by yearend. AMAX's
Pine Level Mine development in De Soto
and Manatee Counties was deferred with an
uncertain projected startup date. The $300
to $600 million development reportedly was
planned to produce 4.5 million tons per
Beker Phosphate Corp. operated its Win-
gate Creek Mine in Manatee County using
two floating dredges to remove overburden
and matrix. The mine was closed for a short
period early in the year. Phosphate rock
was trucked to Port Manatee for shipment
to Beker's fertilizer plant in Louisiana.
Controversy over truck transportation to
the port continued during the year as Beker
had difficulty obtaining rights of way for a
rail line. By yearend, county officials had
denied an extension of an agreement to ship
by truck.
Brewster Phosphates, a partnership be-
tween American Cyanamid Co. and Kerr-
McGee Corp., operated the Haynsworth and
Lonesome Mines at various work schedules
during the year. Most of the output was
shipped to an acid plant in Louisiana
through the Port of Tampa.
CF Industries Inc.'s Hardee Complex
No. I operated intermittently during the
year. Late in the year, the company restart-
ed its sulfuric acid plant at Bartow, which
had been shut down in February.
Estech operated the Silver City and Wat-
son Mines in Polk County, with the Silver
City Mine being shut down in January for
an indefinite period. The two mines have a
combined capacity of about 2 million tons
per year with depletion of deposits antici-
pated by the early 1990's. Estech continued
in its attempts to develop its Duette Mine in
Manatee County. Environmental concerns
have delayed development of the proposed
3-million-ton-per-year mine since 1975.
Estech, at yearend, reportedly needed two
more permits, for a total of 31, before
development of the mine. After the last
permits were issued, it would still be about
3 years before mining would begin. The
company has reportedly expended over $10
million in its attempts to develop the mine.
Farmland Industries Inc. continued at-
tempts to obtain permits for its proposed 2-
million-ton-per-year Hickory Creek Mine in
Hardee County. Farmland has been in the

ARBOOK, 1983

permitting stage since 1977 and at yearend
reportedly needed three more permits; one
for dredge and fill and two watershed per-
mits. Startup for the proposed mine remain-
ed indefinite at yearend.
Gardinier Inc. produced phosphate rock
at its Fort Meade Mine in Polk County.
Gardinier filed to extend its mine into 5,400
acres in Hardee County. The company plans
to mine nearly 3,800 acres, leaving land
around creeks undisturbed.
W. R. Grace & Co. operated its Bonny
Lake and Hookers Prairie Mines in Polk
County during the year. Because of depleted
reserves, the Bonny Lake Mine was ex-
pected to be mined out early in 1984. W. R.
Grace purchased a deposit of phosphate
rock reserves from Agrico for $25 million.
The addition of an estimated 16 million tons
of reserves will extend the life of the Hook-
ers Prairie Mine an additional 5 to 6 years.
The startup of W. R. Grace's Four Corner
Mine, a joint venture with IMC, was post-
poned until early 1985. W. R. Grace will
operate the 5-million-ton-per-year mine
with 50% of the production going to IMC.
Hopewell Land Co., a subsidiary of Nor-
anda Inc., continued development of its
550,000-ton-per-year mine in Hillsborough
County. Production was scheduled for late
1984, with about one-half of the output
going to the company's fertilizer plant in
Canada and the remaining output sold.
IMC, the world's largest private producer
of phosphate and phosphate chemical prod-
ucts, operated the Clear Springs, Noralyn,
and Kingsford Mines. The mines operated
at reduced schedules early in the year with
output increasing later in 1983. Although
the mines did not operate at design capaci-
ty, IMC's production levels were not reduc-
ed by weak demand as much as those of
other Florida companies. IMC's New Wales
chemical complex also operated below ca-
pacity during 1983.
Mobil Chemical Corp. operated the
Nichols and Fort Meade Mines in Polk
County. Early in the year, the Nichols Mine
was shut down, and Mobil overhauled its 40-
cubic-yard dragline at a cost of $1.2 million.
Mobil also shut down its elemental phos-
phorus furnaces at Pierce and will purchase
its requirements from Monsanto Co. in
Tennessee. Mobil proceeded with the per-
mitting process to develop the 3-million-ton-
per-year South Fort Meade Mine. Early in
the year, the State rejected Mobil's propos-
ed reclamation plan for the South Fort
Meade Mine. Late in the year, Mobil an-


nounced it will test electroendosmosis to
determine if the method can be used to
shorten the time required to reclaim clay
settling areas.
Occidental Chemical produced phosphate
rock from its Suwannee River Mine and its
Swift Creek Mine. During the year, both
facilities operated intermittently with out-
put increasing by yearend. The Swift Creek
Mine closed in December.
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals Inc., which had
closed its Rockland Mine in May 1982,
eliminated all maintenance activities at the
mine in March 1983. United States Steel
Corp. announced that its phosphoric acid
plant in Bartow, inactive since 1981, would
be shut down permanently in January 1984.
Sand and Gravel.-Florida produced both
construction and industrial sand and gravel
in 1983. Total sand and gravel production
and value were estimated to have increased
over those in 1982; unit values decreased.


Construction.-Construction sand and
gravel production is surveyed by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines for even-numbered years
only; therefore, this chapter contains only
estimates for 1983. The data are based on
annual company estimates made before
Output of construction sand and gravel
was estimated to have increased slightly,
while unit value decreased. Many sand and
gravel facilities operated at reduced levels
early in the year, with demand increasing
late in the year.
Industrial.-Five companies produced in-
dustrial sand and gravel, one as byproduct
of kaolin operations. Production decreased
3.5% with value decreasing 19% from that
of 1982. Unit value decreased 16%. Indus-
trial sand was used for glass manufacture
and for foundry sands with markets in
Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee.

Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers

1982 1983
Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value
(thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per
short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton
Sand ---___- -______________ -NA NA NA NA NA NA
Gravel -- --____--------------_ NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sand and gravel (unprocessed) ------_---- ____ NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total or average r--------____13.616 r$30,081 r$2.21 e14,900 e$31,500 e$2.11
Sand ----------------------------- 341 4,257 '12.48 327 3,417 10.44
Gravel ---------------- ---------- -- 2 30 15.00
Total or average ----------------------- 341 4,257 r12.48 329 3,447 10.48
Grand total or average r-1__-_ __ '3,957 r34,338 r2.46 e15,229 e34,947 e2.29
eEstimated 'rRevised. NA Not available.

Staurolite.-Florida was the only State
with a recorded production of staurolite, an
iron-aluminum silicate low in free silica.
Staurolite was recovered as a byproduct of
ilmenite processing in Clay County by E. I.
du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. and by
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd. Inc. The
staurolite was recovered by electrical and
magnetic separation from heavy minerals
concentrates. Production and value increas-
ed 4.8% and 1.7%, respectively, over those
of 1982. Staurolite was used primarily in
foundry applications and in sandblasting;
demand was down because of discontinu-
ance of its use in cement.
Stone.-Stone production is surveyed by
the U.S. Bureau of Mines for odd-numbered
years only; the 1982 chapter gave estimates.

Data for even-numbered years are based on
annual company estimates made before
yearend. Florida ranked second in the Na-
tion in crushed stone production, which
included limestone, dolomite, marl, and oy-
stershell. Output increased, reversing a
downward trend started in 1980. Unit prices
increased about 20%. Increased construc-
tion activity directly affected output of
crushed stone and other aggregate.
Crushed stone was produced by 81 compa-
nies at 113 quarries in 24 counties. Leading
counties were Dade, Hernando, and Brow-
ard, which supplied 66.2% of the State's
output. Fifteen quarries produced over 1
million tons each and accounted for 57.4%
of the State's production.


Table 5.-Florida: Crushed stone' sold or used by producers in 1983, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

Use Quantity Value
ir y

Coarse aggregate (+ 1-1/2 inch):
Riprap and jetty stone ______---------------------
Filter stone---
Coarse aggregate, graded:
Concrete aggregate, coarse ----------------------
Bituminous aggregate, coarse
Bituminous surface treatment aggregate -----------________
Railroad ballast- -__ -----------------------------_-
Other graded coarse aggregate _--------- ----------
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch)
Stone sand, concrete -------------------------- -- -
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal ------- --_--_____
Screening, undesignated -__--------------
Other fine aggregate ----------------- ---------
Coarse and fine aggregate:
Graded road base or subbase ---- ----------- ------
Unpaved road surfacing ---------- -----------_-- ___
Crusher run or fill or waste- _---------------------------_- __________
Other coarse and fine aggregate ---------- -------- ___
Agricultural limestone _____-- __---- -------- ---------_-_______---
Poultry grit and mineral food --------------__-- ________
Other agricultural uses ------ ---- _- ____
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture _----- ----------__-_
Lime manufacture ------------------------
Asphalt fillers or extenders _______ _______ _______
Whiting or whiting substitute ___ ______ ___________
Other fillers or extenders ---_-- ------_______-__
Other ------ ----------------- ----__-

40 173
504 3,162
15,780 73,246
2,437 12,605
w W
459 2,603
3,523 16,200
1,026 5,744
1,874 8,931
12,767 33,800
1,485 3,470
1,633 3,290
346 1,822
284 814
w w
3,663 15,598
46 101
w W
11,416 54.140

Tota2 --- ------------------- ---_-------------------- 57,282 235,700
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Special: Other."
'Includes limestone, dolomite, marl, and shell.
2Data do not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Crushed stone was transported mainly by
truck and railroad and was used for dense-
graded road base, concrete and bituminous
aggregate, and cement manufacture. Eight
companies processed oystershell for roadbed
Sulfur (Recovered).-Florida ranked
eighth in the Nation in the production of
byproduct elemental sulfur. Recovered sul-
fur from Exxon Corp.'s natural gas desul-
furization plant in Santa Rosa County
decreased for the fifth straight year.
Vermiculite (Exfoliated).-Exfoliated
vermiculite was produced by two companies
at four plants in Broward, Duval, and
Hillsborough Counties from crude ore
shipped into the State. Production increas-
ed 10.8% while value decreased 1%, indi-
cating a drop in unit price from that of 1982.
Principal uses were for concrete aggregate,
horticulture, and insulation.


Iron and Steel.-Florida Steel Corp., one
of the top 15 steelmakers in the Nation,
operated minimills at Jacksonville and
Tampa during the year. The company, with
five plants in the Nation, was the fourth

largest minimill operator, with five plants
and a rated total capacity of 1.6 million tons
per year. Although markets became stron-
ger during the year, the demand was not
sufficient to reopen the company's facilities
at Indiantown.
According to the Directory of Florida
Industries, 10 gray iron foundries and 9
steel foundries operated intermittently dur-
ing 1983. With the exception of a foundry in
Jacksonville and one in Tampa, all found-
ries were relatively small.
Shipments of ferroalloys decreased 3.5%,
while value increased slightly.
Mineral Sands.-Du Pont and Associated
Minerals produced concentrates from its
heavy minerals operations in Clay County.
Rutile and ilmenite shipments increased
28.6% and 52.2%, respectively, over those of
1982; unit prices of both decreased. Florida
was the only reported State with shipments
of rutile, and one of two States with ship-
ments of ilmenite. Du Pont, which operates
two dredges, was building another to re-
place an older unit. Du Pont expanded
capacity to 72,000 tons per year by improv-
ing processing, and with the addition of a
new cone section planned to boost capacity


to 77,000 tons per year by the end of 1983.4
Union Camp Corp. planned to build an
8,000-ton-per-year humate processing plant
in Jacksonville with scheduled completion
in 1984. Humate is an organic byproduct of
the mining of heavy mineral sands.
Rare-Earth Minerals.-Florida was the
only producer of rare earths from mineral
sands mining. Associated Minerals recov-
ered monazite concentrate as a byproduct of
its operation in Clay County. Production
increased slightly, while value decreased
from that of 1982.
Zircon.-Production and value of zircon
concentrate from Du Pont and Associated

Minerals operations in Clay County increas-
ed 5.2% and 0.3%, respectively, over those
of 1982. Florida was the only producer of
zircon in the United States; it was recovered
as a byproduct of mineral sands operations.
Principal markets were in the foundry,
ceramic, and refractory industries. Markets
in the foundry industry were down, but
refractory applications picked up late in the

'State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa, AL.
2State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee,
3Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Economic Review.
Feb. 1984, pp. 6-20.
4Industrial Minerals (London). Dec. 1983, p. 32.

Table 6.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

cement :
General Portland Inc_ _--__

Lonestar Florida Pennsuco Inc
Moore McCormack Resources
Rinker Portland Cement Corp
Engelhard Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mid-Florida Mining Co _--_
Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp
)ypsum calcinedd)
Jim Walter Corp ----
National Gypsum Co _____
United States Gypsum Co -
Basic Magnesia Inc -------
Chemical Lime Inc ------
Dixie Lime & Stone Co.' _-
Basic Magnesia Inc -------
Peace River Peat Co -----
Superioi Peat & Soil Co -
rlite (expanded):
Airlite Processing Corp. of
Armstrong Cork Co-_ ----
ChemrockCorp _----
W. R. Grace & Co.2 -----

See footnotes at end of table.

12700 Park Central P1.
Suite 2100
Dallas, TX 75251
Box 2035 PVS
Hialeah, FL 33012
Box 23965
Tampa, FL 33622
Box 650679
Miami, FL 33165
Menlo Park
Edison, NJ 08817
Box 68-F
Lowell, FL 32663
Berkeley Springs, WV 25411 _____
Box 135
Jacksonville, FL 32226
4100 First International Bldg.
Dallas, TX 57270
101 South Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IL 60606
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748
Drawer 217
Sumterville, FL 33585
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Box 1192
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 1688
Sebring, FL 33870
Route 2, Box 740
Vero Beach, FL 32960
Box 1991
Pensacola, FL 35289
End of Osage St.
Nashville, TN 37208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140

Plants-----__ Dade and
Plant _______ Dade.
-- do _-____ Hernando.
_ _ _do ____ Dade.

Open pit mines
and plant.
--_- do __
--- do____
Plant -_____
__-_do _____
_-_-do _____

_--_do _____
_--- do ____



----do __-__ Gulf.

Bog ____
Bog ____

Plant _______
_-__ do ____


Indian River.


Table 6.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Phosphate rock
Agrico Chemical Co ___

AMAX Chemical Inc-----
Beker Phosphate Corp ___-
Brewster Phosphates _____
CF Industries Inc ________

EstechfInc ---____
Gardinier Inc ___
W. R. Grace & Co --_-____

International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Chemical Corp. _...
Occidental Chemical Co _--_
US.S Agri-Chemicals Inc _
Sand and gravel (1982):
Florida Rock Industries Inc.,
Shands & Baker.
General Development Corp _
E R. Jahna Industries Inc.,
Ortona Sand Co. Div.
Silver Sand Co. of Clermont
Associated Minerals (USA)
Ltd. Inc.
E. L du Pant de Nemours & Co.
Florida Crushed Stone Co _ _
Florida Rock Industries Inc _

Lone Star Florida Inc._ ----

Rinker Southeastern Materials
Vulcan Materials Co _____
Titanium concentrates:
Associated Minerals (USA)
Ltd Inc.
F. L du Pont de Nemours & Co.

Box 1110
Mulberry, FL 33860
402 South Kentucky Ave.
Lakeland, FL 33801
Box 9034
Bradenton, FL 33506
Bradley, FL 33835 __________
Box 790
Plant City, FL 33566
Box 208
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 3269
Tampa, FL 33601
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 867
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 311
Nichols, FL 33863
White Springs, FL 32096_ _- -_ __
Box 867
Fort Meade, FL 33841
Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32216
1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, FL 33131
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, FL 33853
Route 1, Box US 1
Clermont, FL 32711

Green Cove Springs, FL 32043 ____
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898

Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748
Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32216

Box 6097
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310
Box 5230
Hialeah, FL 33014
Box 660097
Miami Spring, FL 33166
Green Cove Springs,
FL 32043
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898

Open pit mines
and plants.
Open pit mine
and plant.
-- ___ .....

Open pit mines
and plant.
Open pit mine
and plant.
Open pit mines _
Open pit mine
and plant.
Open pit mines
and plant.



Hillsborough and


_. o _ _. -
---- Uo------
___-do --___ Do.

-_ _do----__ Hamilton.
Open pit mine Polk.
and plant.
Pits ________ Clay,Glades,
Lake, Marion,
Polk, Putnam.
S-- do------_ Henry, St Lucie,
_ do.----_ Glades,
Lake, Polk.
Pit-________ Lake.

Mine and plant Clay.
Mines and plants Do.

Quarries ----- Hernando
and Sumter.
-- -do_ -__ Alachna, Collier,
Hernando, Lee,
Levy, St Lucie,
Quarry ------ Dade.
Quarries ----- Do.
---- do- --___ Broward and
Mine and plant Clay.

Mines and plants Do.

'Also stone
'Also exfoliated vermiculite.
'Also elemental phosphorus.