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The Mineral industry of Florida
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 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1977-1979
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00007

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FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


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The Mineral Industry of


Florida



This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for
collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.


By James R. Boyle1 and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2


The value of nonfuel mineral production
in Florida in 1978 and 1979 was $1.1 billion
and $1.3 billion, respectively. The State
ranked first in the production of phosphate
rock and titanium concentrates, and second
in fuller's earth and peat. Staurolite and
zircon concentrates were produced only in
Florida. Nonmetals accounted for nearly all
of the State's total mineral production val-
ue in 1978 and 1979. The principal nonmet-


als produced, in order of value, were phos-
phate rock, stone, cement, sand and gravel,
and clays. All commodities, with the excep-
tion of magnesium compounds, staurolite,
and zircon concentrates, registered an in-
crease in production and value. Except for
titanium concentrates and zircon concen-
trates, all commodities registered an in-
crease in unit value.


Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Florida,


Mineral


1977 1978 1979
Quantity Value Quan Valuetity Quantity Value
Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands)


Cement:
Masonry thousand short tons-_ W W W W 255 $13,098
Portland ---------- do--- 2,540 $87,561 2,766 $111,892 2,957 126,562
Clays --------------do 581 22,313 601 28,850 681 231,308
Gemstones .. .._____ -- --NA 5 NA 4
Lime thousand short tonsC 165 7,350 180 8,18Z 210 11,440
Peat ---------------- do --_ 125 1,396 158 2,246 153 2,190
Sand and gravel- ---- do__ 20,218 38,989 21,860 36,950 21;708 39,520
Stone (crushed) __- _____do --..- 48,558 101,435 57,354 128,905 W W
Combined value of clays (kaolin, 1977
and 1979), magnesium compounds,
phosphate rock, rare-earth concen-
trate, staurolite, stone (dimension,
1977), titanium concentrate (il-
menite and rutile), and zircon con-
centrate, and values indicated by
symbol W ---------------XX 702,832 XX 781,742 XX 1,045,549
Total -----------_ _ XX 961,876 XX 1,098,772 XX 1,269,671-
NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; value included in "Combined value"
figure. XX Not applicable.
1Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2Excludes value of kaolin; value included in "Combined value" figure.








2 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79


Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county1
(Thousands)

1978 Minerals produced in 1978
t-,nty 197_7 19708 in order of value


Alachua -.-.-------. -
Bay-----------
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Dade ---------
Dixie ---------
Escambia
Gadsden_
Glades ---------------
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee -- --
Hendry
Hernando -------
Highlands - -----
Hillsborough --------
Jackson - - - -
Lake----------------
Lee-----------------
Leon
Levy _ _ __ _
Manatee --- ---
Marion
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco _---- -----
Polk
Putnam ---- --
St Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor ------ ----
Wakulla
Walton
Undistributed __


Total3 _----


$2278
509
2,600
10,728
15
W
2,172
24,378
2,877
W
W
466
W
W
W
W
NV
W
-78
W
520
4,560
5,435
W
1,905
W
8,204
333
W
24
16
W
1,358
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
892,828


961,876


$3,074
663
W
12,408
75
W
2,445
23,838
3,521
W
W
680
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
1,594
W
8,036
W
449
W
10,189
W
W
33
64
90
W
640,981
W
307
W
W
W
W
W
W
390,321


Stone.
Sand and gravel.
Clays, sand and gravel, stone.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Stone, phosphate rock.
Ilmenite, zircon, rutile, staurolite,
sand and gravel, monazite, clays.
Stone.
Cement, stone, sand and gravel.
Stone.
Sand and gravel.
Clays, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Phosphate rock.
Sand and gravel, stone.
Stone, cement, lime, clays.
Peat
Phosphate rock, cement, stone, peat.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, peat.
Stone.
Sand and gravel.
Stone.
Cement.
Stone, clays, sand and gravel, phosphate rock.
Stone.
Titanium, zircon, monazite.
Sand and gravel.
Do.
Stone.
Do.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel, peat.
Sand and gravel, clays, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Do.
Sand and gravel, stone.
Stone, lime.
Stone.
Do.
Sand and gravel.


1.098,772


W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed."
'The following counties are not listed because no nonfuel mineral production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbia,
De Soto. Duval, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Martin,
Okeechobee, Pinellas, St. Johns, Seminole, Union, Volusia, and Washington.
includess gem stones and values indicated by symbol W.
Dsata may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Of the 50.0 million metric tons of phos-
phate rock produced in the United States,
Florida was the predominant producer, and
for the 85th and 86th consecutive years
supplied more than any other State. Florida
and North Carolina supplied over 85% of
the domestic phosphate rock output, and
Florida supplied most of the exports.
Trends and Developments.-Of the 15
ports in Florida, 12 are served by oceango-
ing vessels and 3 by barges.
The Port of Tampa, the seventh largest
port in the Nation in terms of total tonnage,
recorded a 65% increase in tonnage since


1967. In 1978, approximately 50% of the
total tonnage was represented by phosphate
and related products. Tampa imports sub-
stantial quantities of mineral raw materials
used in fertilizer manufacture plus coal and
coke. Of the total imports, 26% were miner-
al or related commodities. The leading ex-
port was raw phosphate rock which, along
with fertilizers, accounted for 93% of total
exports. There are 16 terminals located in
the Tampa area to handle phosphate fertil-
izer and related chemicals.
The first shipment of Soviet anhydrous
ammonia was made under a 20-year, $20


--







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1978-79
1977 1978 1979P percent
change
Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total civilian labor force ----------------------thousands._ 3,519.0 3,711.0 3,835.0 +3.3
Unemployment ----- --------------------------do.... 289.0 246.0 230.0 -6.5
Employment (nonagricultural).
Minng"1----------------------------- -- -do- -- 9.1 9.5 10.0 +5.3
Mini do 9.1 9.5 10.0 +5.3
Manufacturing -----------------------------do--.... 380.9 415.5 437.7 +5.3
Contract construction------------------------do.... 178.9 209.5 244.8 +16.8
Transportation and public utilities ----------------- do..... 185.1 194.2 209.7 +8.0
Wholesale and retailtrade ------------------ do 771.0 836.9 897.4 +7.2
Finance, insurance, real estate ------------ _do .. 202.5 219.3 232.7 +6.1
Services ------------------do_ _.... 640.0 693.9 742.8 +7.0
Government ---- ------------------------ do 565.7 601.8 604.5 +0.4
Total nonagricultural employment __---------------- do... 2,933.2 3,180.6 3,379.7 +6.3
Personal income:
Total ----------------------------------- millions-- $56,961 $65,130. $75,597 +16.1
Percapita ---------------------------------- $6,728 $7,578 $8,532 +12.6
Construction activity:
Number of private and public residential units authorized --------- 108,052 2163,862 177,561 +8.4
Value of nonresidential construction --------------- millions-_ $1,070.0 $1,403.4 $1,694.8 +20.1
Value of State road contract awards ------------ do. .... $280.0 NA $383.6
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons-- 4,114 4,620 4,998 +8.2
Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value ----------------------__ millions-- $961.9 $1,098.8 $1,269.7 +15.6
Value per capital, resident population ---------------------- $114 $128 $143 +11.7
Value per square mile -------------------------------$16,425 $18,763 $21,682 +15.6
"Preliminary. NA Not available.
'Includes oil and gas extraction.
2Series revised in 1978; data not comparable with those of prior years.
Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and
U.S. Bureau of Mines.


billion trade pact between the U.S.S.R. and
Occidental Petroleum Corp. (Oxy). The
trade agreement calls for Oxy to supply 1
million tons of super phosphoric acid annu-
ally from its White Springs operation. In
return, Oxy will receive ammonia, urea,
and potash.
Legislation and Government Pro-
grams.-Under contract to the Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA), Texas In-
struments, Inc., prepared a draft Environ-
mental Impact Statement (EIS) intended to
establish guidelines for the issuance of
Federal environmental permits for new
phosphate mines and mills in a seven-
county area. The final EIS, released in
March 1978, recommended the elimination
of rock drying and of slime ponds; improved
recirculation of water; radiation standards;
reclamation requirements; protection of
wetlands; protection of ground water sys-
tems; fluorine emission standards; and re-
covery of uranium.
Since 1972, the Federal Bureau of Mines
(Bureau), at its Tuscaloosa Research Center,
has been involved in a concerted research
effort to develop methods that will either


eliminate the waste slimes retention areas
or provide an improved waste storage sys-
tem.
In-house Bureau project activity during
1978 included research on water recovery
from phosphatic clay slimes; continuous
flocculation dewatering and floc formation
studies; and reuse and purification of low-
quality waters for processing.
Further research included beneficiation
of dolomitic phosphate ores, beneficiation of
phosphate-bearing Hawthorn Formation
limestone, recovery of phosphate from bene-
ficiation slimes, and direct acidulation of
phosphate matrix to improve recovery of
P205.
Zellars-Williams, Inc., under contract to
the Bureau, evaluated phosphate deposits of
Florida for the Minerals Availability Sys-
tem. In addition to deposit characterization
by district, the report covers mining and
beneficiation, cost estimation, regulatory
and environmental considerations, identi-
fied resources, and production capacity.
The Bureau and the Florida Bureau of
Geology participated in a cooperative effort
to evaluate deep phosphate occurrences






MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79


1980


Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.


along Florida's east coast so that input
could be made into the ongoing evaluation
of the phosphate deposits of Florida. The
objectives were to identify the occurrences
of phosphate rock with their associated
economic, physical, and environmental
characteristics.
Florida's second largest phosphate pro-
ducer, Agrico Chemical Co., planned an
experimental mining project in St. Johns
County with a grant from the Bureau. The
mining technique involves drilling a well to


the phosphate clay where a mining head
dissolves the material and pumps it to the
surface. Concern centers on whether the
mining would harm the aquifer and lower
water levels in the area.
The 1978 Florida Legislature extensively
amended Chapter 211, Part H, Florida Stat-
utes in response to the recommendations of
the Phosphate Land Reclamation Study
Commission. The basic change enacted was
a redistribution of the severance tax.


REVIEW BY NONFUEL MINERAL COMMODITIES


NONMETALS
Cement--Shipments of both portland
and masonry cement increased in 1978 and
again in 1979. Production of portland 3a-
ment in the State ranked eighth nationally,
while masonry ranked seventh. Five compa-
nies produced portland cement; two, mason-
ry. Most of the shipments of both portland


and masonry cements were within the
State.
Portland cement shipments, mainly in
bulk form, were made by truck and rail.
Principal consumers were ready-mix com-
panies, building materials dealers, concrete
products manufacturers, with the remain-
ing to other contractors and government
agencies.


TOTAL















1 I I I II I


7,500


1,000


500


0
197


7


1985







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Principal raw materials used to manufac-
ture cement were mined within the State
and included limestone, clay, sand, and
staurolite. Oolitic aragonite imported from
the Bahamas was used by two companies.
Small amounts of gypsum, clinker, fly ash,
clay, iron ore, and slag were used, but most
were obtained from out-of-State sources.
Eleven rotary kilns were operated at five
plants. Of the 11, 10 were wet process and
1 was dry process. Nearly 400 million
kilowatt-hours of electrical energy, in addi-
tion to natural gas and minor amounts of
fuel oil and coal, were consumed in the
manufacture of cement. All of the power
was purchased.
Maule Industries, a Miami based inte-
grpted materials supplier that has been
operating under bankruptcy status since
1976, was taken over by Lone Star Indus-
tries under a court order.
Clays.-Total clay production and value
increased in 1978 and 1979. Florida ranked
second in the Nation in fuller's earth pro-
duction. Production increased from four
producers, with nine pits in Brevard, Gads-
dern, and Marion Counties. Main end uses
were for fertilizer, fillers, pet waste adsorb-
ents, pesticides, and drilling mud.
Kaolin was produced by one company at
two pits in Putnam County. Principal uses
were in electrical porcelain, whiteware, and
wall tile.
Common clay output and value decreased
in 1978, but increased in 1979. Miscella-
neous clay was produced by two companies
at two pits in Clay and Hernando Counties.
-The clays were used in the manufacture of
cement and lightweight aggregate.
Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluo-
silicic acid was recovered at six plants as
a byproduct of wet-process phosphoric acid
manufacture. Fluosilicic acid was used to
produce cryolite, aluminum fluoride, sodi-
um silica fluoride, and in water fluorida-
tion. The value of fluorine byproducts is not
included in the State's mineral value.
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined
at two plants in Duval County and one
plant in Hillsborough County. U.S. Gypsum
Co., Jim Walter Corp., and National Gyp-
sum Co. calcined gypsum in kettles, a rotary
kiln, and a holoflite unit, respectively. A
total of 626,000 short tons of calcined gyp-
sum was produced in 1978; production in
1979 increased to 659,000 tons.
Lime.-Quicklime was produced by Basic
Magnesia, Inc., Gulf County; Chemical
Lime, Inc., Hernando County; and Dixie


Lime & Stone Co., Sumter County. Hydrat-
ed lime was produced by Chemical Lime,
Inc. Lime was used for magnesia recovery,
water treatment, and in sewage disposal.
Magnesia.-Basic Magnesia, Inc., Port St.
Joe, Gulf County, produced caustic calcined
magnesia and refractory-grade magnesia
from seawater. Shipments and value in
1978 decreased 8.7% and 0.2%, respectively.
Florida ranked third nationally in the re-
covery of magnesium compounds from sea-
water.
Peat.-Florida ranked second in peat pro-
duction in 1978 and 1979. Nine plants pro-
duced moss, reed-sedge and humus peat
from six counties. Most of the peat, shipped
in bulk, was used to pack plants and shrubs,
for general soil improvement, and for pot-
ting soils.
Perlite.-Four companies produced
expanded perlite from crude ore shipped
into the State. Production increased to
28,000 tons in 1978, and to 29,000 tons in
1979. Value increased to $2.8 million in
1978, and to $3.0 million in 1979. Production
from plants in Broward, Duval, Escambia,
and Indian River Counties was used for
horticultural purposes, insulation, and fill-
ers. The value of expanded perlite is not
included in the State's mineral value.
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in
the Nation in the production of phosphate
rock. Marketable production of phosphate
rock in 1978 increased 4.8% in quantity and
11.7% in value; 1979 production decreased
4.6% from that of 1978, but value increased
14.1%.
Soft-rock phosphate was produced by four
companies in 1978 and 1979, operating six
mines in Citrus and Marion Counties. The
soft-rock phosphate was used for direct
application to the soil.
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
22 mines by 13 companies in Hamilton,
Hardee, Hillsborough, and Polk -Counties.
In 1978, agricultural uses accounted for
69.0%, industrial 0.7%, and exports 30.3%;
with similar distribution in 1979. Normal
superphosphate, triple superphosphate,
wet-process phosphoric acid, and defluorin-
ated phosphate rock were produced for
agricultural uses. Industrial uses included
the manufacture of elemental phosphorus
and ferrophosphorus.
The economic impact on the State of the
phosphate industry reached $2.5 billion in
1979. The industry had a significant impact
on -central Florida, primarily Columbia,
Hamilton, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee,






MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79


and Polk Counties. Employment by the
industry increased 12% in 1979, to 13,400.
During 1979, an estimated $377 million was
expended for expansion, replacement, and
new construction, a 90% increase over 1978
expenditures.
Agrico Chemical Co.'s $20 million expan-
sion project at its South Pierce acid facility
will increase capacity to 420,000 tons per
year. Completion date is scheduled for mid-
1981. The company began negotiations with
the Tampa Port Authority to sell its 225-
acre loading terminal at Big Bend to the
Authority for its expansion needs.
AMAX Inc., planned a $200 million, 4-
million-ton-per-year mine in Manatee and
De Soto Counties on land leased from Phil-
lips Petroleum Co. At year's end, negotia-
tions continued with Noranda Phosphate,
Inc., for leasing of additional adjacent lands.
Beker Industries Corp. completed permit-
ting requirements for a proposed 3-million-
ton-per-year mine in Manatee County. The
$80 to $100 million project is expected to go
onstream in 1981; reserves are estimated to
be 80 million tons.
Borden, Inc., completed their new benefi-
ciation plant at the Big Four Mine in
Hillsborough County. The facility includes
systems to recycle water and scrubbers to
reduce air pollution.
C. F. Industries became the first farm
cooperative to mine phosphate when its new
mine in Hardee County started operation in
1978. Production is planned at 1.5 to 2.0
million tons from the mine, with estimated
reserves of 80 million tons.
Estech General Chemical Corp., formerly
Swift Chemical Co., planned to develop a 3-
million-ton-per-year mine in Manatee Coun-
ty by 1983. Two Japanese firms have a
reported 12% interest, and Royster Co., a
20% interest in the operation.
Farmland Industries, Inc., planned to de-
velop a 2-million-ton-per-year facility in
Hardee County by 1981-82. The complex is
expected to produce 2,400 tons of sulfuric
acid per day, 300,000 tons per year of
phosphoric acid, and 600,000 tons per year
of diammonia phosphate.
Florida Phosphate Corp., a subsidiary of
Great Lakes Carbon Corp, went onstream
with its 100,000-ton-per-year phosphate re-
covery operation. The plant, north of Mul-
berry, will recover phosphate from debris
mined earlier-
W. IR Grace & Co. and International
Minerals & Chemical Corp. are jointly de-
veloping a 3- to 4-million-ton-per-year facili-


ty at Grace's Four Comer Mine in Hillsbor-
ough, Manatee, and Polk Counties. Develop-
ment is scheduled for completion in 1982.
W. R. Grace & Co. was awarded mining
rights on 120 acres of Federal land in Polk
County. The company is active in adjacent
lands and owns the surface rights in the
area.
International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
(IMC) planned a $400 million expansion of
its phosphate rock and chemical production.
Included are a 2- to 3-million-ton-per-year
expansion of phosphate mining and a 50%
increase in chemical production at its Mul-
berry facility. IMC is converting its New
Wales chemical plant to wet grinding and
expects to save up to 8 million gallons of
fuel oil and 18 million kilowatt-hours of
electricity per year. Completion is expected
in 1980. IMC also planned a $2.5 million
expansion of its Port Sutton terminal on
Tampa Bay. Capacity will be increased by
300,000 tons per year.
Mississippi Chemical Corp. continued the
permit process to develop a 3-million-ton-
per-year mine by the early 1980's. Reserves
are estimated at 95 million tons in Hardee
County. The company presently receives its
phosphate rock primarily from Mobil Oil
Corp.
Mobil Oil Corp. planned to develop a new
mine in Hardee County to replace its 3-
million-ton-per-year Forte Meade Mine,
which is approaching exhaustion. Plans are
to have the mine in operation by the mid-
1980's.
Occidental Petroleum Corp. (Oxy) initiat-
ed a $140 million expansion of its chemical
facilities adjacent to the Swift Creek Mine.
Increased output of phosphoric acid will be
required to meet the commitment Oxy has
with the U.S.S.R. Oxy also has an agree-
ment with Poland to supply 1 million tons
per year of phosphate rock for 20 years. Oxy
will purchase 500,000 tons of molten sulfur
from Poland over the same period.
Sand and Gravel.-Sand and gravel out-
put increased in 1978, but decreased in 1979.
Lake, Polk, and Sarasota Counties were the
leading producing counties, accounting for
about 60% of the output. Lake, Polk, and
Sarasota Counties also accounted for 56% of
the value of production.
During 1979, 41 companies operated 54
mines in 21 counties. Transportation was
primarily by truck, with the balance
shipped by railroad, waterway, and other.
The sand and gravel was used mainly for
construction purposes, which include con-







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Table 4.-Florida: Construction sand and gravel sold or used, by major use category

1977 1978 1979
Use Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value
(thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per
short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton

Concrete aggregate .. 12,344 $22,260 $1.80 11,452 $17,665 $1.54 11,949 $19,200 $1.61
Plaster andgunite sands NA NA NA W W W 239 584 2.44
Concrete products ---- 1,922 4,010 2.09 1,633 3,197 1.96 869 1,765 2.03
Asphaltic concrete __ 467 1,256 2.69 515 1,420 2.76 868 2,195 2.53
Roadbase and coverings- 2,350 3,873 1.65 1,128 1,439 1.28 2,214 2,845 1.28
Fill ------------- 1,836 1,903 1.04 5,703 6,175 1.08 4,503 4,556 1.01
Snow and ice control _-- NA NA NA __.
Other uses --------- 301 515 1.71 296 824 2.78 __ ..
Total' or average-__ 19,220 33,816 1.76 20,730 30,720 1.48 20,642 31,145 1.51

NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Other uses."
'Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Table 5.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by use

1977 1978 1979

Use Quantity Value Value ( Value Value Qutity Value Value
(thousand (thou- per short (thou- per short (thou- per
short tons) sands) ton tons) sands) ton tons) sands) ton

Construction:
Sand ------- 16,869 $29,024 $1.72 19,894 $28,350 $1.43 18,143 $26,843 $1.48
Gravel_ ---------- 2,352 4,793 2.04 833 2,370 2.85 2,500 4,302 1.72
Total1 or average -_ 19,220 33,816 1.76 20,730 30,720 1.48 20,642 31,145 1.51
Industrial sand ------- 997 5,172 5.19 1,128 6,226 5.52 1,066 8,375 7.86
Grand total' or
average ------- 20,218 38,989 1.93 21,860 36,950 1.69 21,708 39,520 1.82

'Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Table 6.-Florida: Crushed stone' sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

1977 1978 19792
Use
Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

Agricultural limestone ------ 1,019 3,529 1,000 3,695 1,131 6,036
Agricultural marl and other soil con-
ditioners---------------- W W W W 52 452
Poultry grit and mineral food --- W W W W 490 2,837
Concrete aggregate ----------- r12,889 r33,383 14,246 40,764 14,085 53,980
Bituminous aggregate -------4,440 10,190 4,188 11,066 3,498 12,490
Macadam aggregate --------- 578 1,519 721 2,514 W W
Densegraded roadbase stone---- 15,409 23,164 18,047 30,341 17,603 37,602
Surface treatment aggregate---- 2,106 6,101 2,828 8,260 2,885 12,804
Other construction aggregate and
roadstone--- ------- 3,085 7,409 5,645 10,251 13,409 30,858
Riprap and jetty stone --------- 61 291 51 265 58 277
Filter stone -----------44 W 79 W 55 233
Manufactured fine aggregate (stone
sand) ----------------- 3,093 6,600 4,029 9,376 5,642 19,770
Cement manufacture ------- 2,554 3,173 2,731 3,455 2,344 5,139
Lime manufacture ----------- W W W W 367 1,007
Asphalt filler ----------- W W 21 209
Other fillers--------------- W W W W 188 1,222
Fill --------------- 2,342 2,722 2,606 3,597 1,580 2,919
Other uses3 --- --------937 3,357 1,184 5,321 200 632
Total4 ----------------- 48,558 101,435 57,354 128,905 63,609 188,467

rRevised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other uses."
11977-78 data include limestone, shell, and marl.
'Crushed limestone only.
'Includes stone used for railroad and glass manufacture, unspecified uses, and uses indicated by symbol W.
4Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.






MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79


create aggregate and fill, with the balance
going into industrial uses.
Staurolite.-Staurolite was recovered as
a byproduct of ilmenite production at the
Highland and Trail Ridge plants of E. I. du
Pont de Nemours & Co., Clay County. Pro-
duction decreased in 1978, but increased
substantially in 1979. Staurolite was mainly
used in sandblasting, and minor amounts,
in cement. Florida is the only State with a
record production of staurolite.
Stone.-Florida ranked third in the Na-
tion in crushed stone production, which
included crushed limestone, dolomite, and
oyster shell.
Stone was produced by 75 companies at
105 quarries in 21 counties. The three lead-
ing producing counties were Broward, Dade,
and Hernando, which supplied nearly 70%
of the State's total tonnage and value.
Fifteen companies produced over 1 million
tons each from 33 quarries, and accounted
for 71% of the production and 75% of the
value.
Crushed stone was transported mainly by
truck, followed by railroad, and other.
Crushed stone was used for dense-graded
roadbase, concrete and bituminous aggre-
gate, and for cement manufacture. Two
companies processed oyster shell for road-
bed material.
Sulfur.-Florida ranked fifth in the Na-
tion in the recovery of sulfur from petrole-
um. Recovered sulfur from Exxon's desul-
furization plants in Santa Rosa County
increased slightly in 1978, but decreased in
1979. The value of byproduct sulfur is not
included in the State's mineral production
value.
Vermiculite.-Exfoliated vermiculite was
produced by two operators at four plants in


Broward, Duval, and Hillsborough Counties
from crude ore shipped into the State. Main
uses were for lightweight concrete aggre-
gate, horticulture, and insulation. The val-
ue is not included in the State's mineral
value.

METALS
Rare-Earth Minerals.-Humphrey's Min-
ing Co., Nassau County, and Titanium En-
terprises, Clay County, produced monazite
concentrate as a coproduct from their heavy
minerals operation. The dredging and wet
milling portions of the Titanium Enter-
prise's heavy mineral sand operation at
Green Cove Springs were shut down in mid-
1978 because of economic conditions, mainly
the depressed price for zircon. Production of
zircon, staurolite, and monazite continued
from the company's dry mill tailings. Tail-
ings are sufficient for another 2 years pro-
duction at current rates. At yearend, the
operation was for sale. Although the zircon
price was low, the demand for monazite was
firm.
Titanium.-Titanium Enterprises and E.
I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Clay County,
and Humphrey's Mining Co., Nassau Coun-
ty, produced titanium concentrate.
Humphrey's Mining Co.'s operation closed
in 1979 owing to depleted reserves.
Zircon Concentrate.-Production and
value of zircon concentrates from E. I. du
Pont de Nemours & Co. and Titanium
Enterprises, both in Clay County, decreased
in 1978. Florida was the only producer of
zircon concentrate.

'State mineral specialist, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa,
Ala.
2State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee,
Fla.








THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Table 7.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County


Cement-
Florida Mining & Materials Corp
General Portland, Inc -------

Lone Star Florida, Inc -------
Rinker Portland Cement Corp __

Clagelhard Minerals & Chemicals
Corp.
Mid-Florida Mining
Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp_
Gypsum calcinedd):
Jim Walter Corp

National Gypsum Co -------
United States Gypsum Co ----
Lime:
Chemical Lime, Inc_ ........

Dixie Lime & Stone Co.1
Magnesium compounds:
Basic Magnesia, Inc.2 -------
Peat:
F. E. Stearns Peat

Superior Peat & Soil --- --
Perlite (expanded)
Airlitc Processing Corp.
of Florida.
Armstrong Cork Co
Chemrock Corp -----------

W. R. Grace & Co.3
Phosphate rock:
Agrico Chemical Co
Borden,Inc
Brewster Phosphates -------
C. F. Industries --------

Estech General Chemical Corp- _
Gardinier, Inc ___________
International Minerals & Chemi-
cal Corp.
Mobil Oil Corp.4 _
Occidental Petroleum Corp ----
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc ----
W. R. Grace & Co ------_
Sand and gravel:
Florida Rock Industries, Inc.,
Shands & Baker.
General Development Corp ---


E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc.,
Ortona Sand Co. Div.
Standard Sand & Silica Co --
Staurolite:
E. L du Pont de Nemours & Co_ _


Box 23965
Tampa, FL 33622
4400 Republic National
Bank Tower, Box 324
Dallas, TX 75221
Box 2035 PVS
Hialeah, FL 33012
Drawer K
West Palm Beach, FL 33402
Menlo Park
Edison, NJ 08817
Box 68-F
Lowell, FL 32663
Berkeley Springs, WV 35411 __
Box 135
Jacksonville, FL 32226
4100 First Intl. Bldg.
Dallas, TX 75270
101 South Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IL 60606
Box 250
Ocala, FL 32670
Drawer 217
Ocala, FL 32670
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Route 1, Box 542D
Dover, FL 33527
Box 2688
Sebring, FL 33870
Route 2, Box 740
Vero Beach, FL 32960
Box 1991
Pensacola, FL 32589
End of Osage Street
Nashville, TN 37208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140
Box 3166
Tulsa, OK 74101
Box 790
Plant City, FL 33566
Bradley, FL 33835 --_____
Box 790
Plant City, FL 33566
Box 208
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 3269
Tampa, FL 33601
Box 867
Bartow, FL 38830
Box 311
Nichols, FL 33863
White Springs, FL 32096 -----
Box 867
Ft. Meade, FL 33841
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830

744 Riverside Ave.
Jacksonville, FL 32201
1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, FL 33131

First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, FL 33853
Box 35
Davenport, FL 33837
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898


Plant ____
Plants ---.

Plant -------
--do -----

Open pit mines -
--do ----
---do -----
Plant -----

---do ----
----do

____do .
---do ------
----do------


Hernando.
Dade and
Hillsborough.
Dade.
Do.

Gadsden.
Marion.
Gadsden.
Duval.

Hillsborough.
Duval.

Hernando.
Sumter.


-do ----- Gulf.


Bog-
Bog-

Plant -----
-_-do ---
---do ----

---do ----

Open pit mines
andplants.
Open pit mine and
plant.
--- do ------
O---do ----tn

Open pit mines -
Open pit mine and
plant.
Open pit mines __

--_do ----
Open pit mine -
--do ------
Open pit mine and
plant.

Pits-
---do ----


_-_-do ----
---do ----

Mines and plants-


Hillsborough.
Highlands.

Indian River.
Escambia.
Duval.
Broward.

Polk.
Hillsborough
and Polk.
Do.
Hardee.

Polk.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Hamilton.
Polk,
Do.

Clay, Dade,
Glades, Lake.
Brevard,
Charlotte,
Sarasota,
St. Lucie.
Glades, Lake,
Polk.
Dade, Polk,
Marion, Lake.

Clay.


See footnotes at end of table.








MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79


Table 7.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County


Stone:
Florida Crushed Stone Co ----- Box 317 Quarries ------ Hernando and
Leesburg, FL 32748 Sumter.
Florida Rock Industries, Inc.5 Box 427 ._- do ------ Collier, Lee,
Brooksville, FL 33512 Sumter,
Suwannee.
Lone Star Florida. Inc ------- Box 2601 PVS Quarry _------ Dade.
Hialeah, FL 33012
Southeastern Materials, Inc _ Box 2634 Quarries ----- Do.
Miami, FL 33012
Vulcan Materials Co -------- Box 660097 _do ------ Broward and
Miami Springs, FL 33166 Dade.
Titanium concentrates:
E. L du Pont de Nemours & Co DuPont Bldg. D-10084 Mines and plants- Clay.
Wilmington, DE 19898
Titanium Enterprises6 ----_.- Green Cove Springs, FL 32043 Mine and plant Do.

'A.so stone.
2.lso lime
'Also phosphate rock and exfoliated vermiculite.
.Also elemental phosphorus.
.Also sand and gravel.
'.Also zircon concentrate and rare-earth oxides and thorium oxide in monazite concentrate.


*,U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1981 341 6 05 222