Title: Educator's Guide
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 Material Information
Title: Educator's Guide
Physical Description: Video
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey/Florida Department of Environmental Protection and Diane Wilkins Productions
Place of Publication: Florida
Publication Date: 1997
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00093445
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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1. Photomicrograph of an igneous rock
magnified roughly 30 times. These rocks make
up parts of the Florida basement and are found
thousands of feet beneath land surface. The
rock is cut down to a thickness less than paper
and is mounted on a glass slide for viewing
through a microscope that uses crossed-
polarized light. Photo taken by Jon Arthur,
Florida Geological Survey.

2. A clay mine in Gadsden County. Photo
taken by Steve Spencer, Florida Geological

3. A calcite crystal found in a limestone
quarry. The image is about one-half actual
size. Photo taken by Tom Scott, Florida
Geological Survey.

4. Image of the Florida peninsula taken from
Space Shuttle flight STS052 (October, 1992)
from an altitude of 158 nautical miles. Photo
credit: NASA.

5. View of Suwannee Limestone exposed
along the west bank of the Suwannee River in
Hamilton County. Photo taken by Jon Arthur,
Florida Geological Survey.

6. The Winter Park sinkhole, showing
destruction of municipal swimming pool and
other property. The sinkhole formed during
May 8th and 9th, 1981. Photo credit: Florida
Geological Survey files.

This material was developed by the Florida Geological Survey, a bureau within the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. Financial assistance was provided through a grant from the Florida Advisory Council on Environmental
Education with proceeds from the sale of manatee and panther license plates. This material is the sole property of the State of
Florida. Information concerning this material, including the Educator's Guide and supplemental written materials, may be
obtained by contacting: Florida Geological Survey, Publications, 903 W. Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL 32304 7708.
voice: 904.488.9380 fax: 904.488.8086 e-mail:

Printed on recycled paper.




Ed Lane
Frank Rupert

in conjunction with the

Tallahassee, Forida

INTRODUCTION ...... .............................................. .......................... .... ............. ... ........ iv
HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE................................................................................. ................ ......v
ORDERING FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PUBLICATIONS.................................................... vi

Ecosystems........................................................................................................................ 1


Ecosystems....................................................................................................... ................. 3
Florida Geology............................................................................................................ 3

Rocks and Minerals .......................................................................................................... 4
Fossils and Fossilization Processes ....................................................................................... 7


Visualizing Geological Time................................................................................................... 9
Rocks, Minerals, and Crystals ....................................................................... .................... 10
Fossils and Fosslization Processes ............................................................. .........................11



Geological Hazards....................................... ..... ......................... ................................14

Aquifers............................................................................................................. ...............15


Solid Earth Materials and Mining .................................... .............................................. 19
Aquifers and Ground W ater.............................................................................................20



Environmental Concerns.................................................................................................. 23


Environmental Protection............... .............. ................................................................25
Geology as a Career ......................................................................................................25


No. 1 Definitions of selected geological terms ......................................................................27
No. 2 Quizzes: pre- and post-video viewing, with answers.......................................... .....33
No. 3 Optional Activities
Maps, map reading, aerial photographs, and satellite images........................................37
Creating sedimentary rock strata.................................................... ....................41
No. 4 Lists of clubs and museums in Florida ......................................................................42
Fossil clubs .......................................................................................................42
Fossil collecting permit............... .................. ..........................................................42
Rocks and Minerals .......................................................... ................................43
No. 5 Additional sources for literature and materials............................................................ 44
Florida Department of Environmental Protection........................................... ..............44
Florida Limerock and Aggregate Institute ..................................................................53
Florida Phosphate Council ........................................................... ......................53
Florida Petroleum Council ....................................... ............... ............................53
American Geological Institute.............................................. ...............................54
Geological Society of America.................................. .............. ............................54
American Association of Petroleum Geologists ............................................... ......... 54
U. S. Geological Survey .......................................... ............. .............................54
Florida Water Management Districts...........................................................................55

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and VIDEO CREDITS .......................................56


An understanding of Florida's geology is an essential part of an effective environmental and
ecological education program. The upper few-hundred feet of the earth's crust have the
most direct effect on life on the surface ... and they are the most affected by human
activity. This segment of the earth's crust is a fundamental and critical component of
Florida's environments and ecosystems. Characteristics and materials of the earth's upper
crust, such as surface and ground water and economic resources, determine the location
and nature of environments; and people, plants and animals are intimately connected with it.
Dynamic geological processes constantly modify the environments, causing ecosystems to
continually change in response.

The geology of the solid earth and the geological processes that act on it are the reasons
why environments and ecosystems are what they are, as well as where they are.

Florida's Geology Unearthed is more than just an entertaining video. It is a program which
tells how geology affects our lives here in Florida. It explores such topics as Florida's
geological history, its rocks, minerals, and fossils, and its water resources. It gives students
timely information regarding the topics of environmental degradation and waste disposal.

The Florida Geology Education Video, "Florida's Geology Unearthed" and the Educator's
Guide are designed to help educators inform and stimulate students in a variety of topics
related to earth sciences, natural resources, environments and ecosystems. These teaching
resources are intended to provide a general understanding of those broad topics. Also, this
creates a foundation for more specialized studies in such scientific fields as geology,
biology, chemistry, and physics; other specialized fields could include geography,
economics, resource management, urban planning, land-use planning, public health, and
history. This material should stimulate a sense of stewardship in future decision-making
citizens so they will appreciate, protect, conserve, and properly manage their natural

The purpose of the materials provided in the kit with the video is to provide teachers of
grades 8 and 9 with program information, suggested activities and other resource materials
which will supplement the information in the video.

The suggested activities in the Learning Activities will help students to extend their
knowledge and provide opportunities to develop skills which will enhance their experiences
for functioning in "real life" situations, as well as preparing them for the future as citizens
and consumers in society.


The Florida Geology Education Video, titled "FLORIDA'S GEOLOGY UNEARTHED," has four
built-in "breaks." Based on these "breaks," the Educator's Guide is divided into five PARTS,
thus allowing the educator to stop the video for discussion, or to assign activities. Part One
of the Educator's Guide pertains to the PART ONE of the video, which ends with Video
Break 1. PART TWO of the Educator's Guide follows Video Break 1, and so on until the end
of the video. The video's "breaks" also can be coordinated with material in the Learning
Activities, and Special Publication 35. Lists in the video, such as "How can we help win the
battle against solid waste?," are included in PART FIVE of the Educator's Guide for use as

The text portions of PARTS ONE through FIVE of the Educator's Guide differ in length
because the topics pertinent to each section are covered to differing extents in the video
and Special Publication 35. For some PARTS, additional material is presented in the
Educator's Guide to expand on the main topics. In other PARTS, Special Publication 35 and
the video provide sufficient information, thus the text portion in the Educator's Guide is

Each PART hias te following co;mpnernts:

SUNSHINE STANDARDS These list Standards that are relevant to the topics discussed in
each PART of the Educator's Guide. These standards provide educators an avenue for
integrating these materials into other existing curricula.

The Florida Geology Education Video Project complements state-wide education curriculum
standards as described in Science For All Students 11995, Florida Department of Education),
and the Sunshine State Standards (adopted 1996, Florida Department of Education).

KEY QUESTIONS These questions are provided as examples of some of the important
topics covered in each PART. The educator is encouraged to add any other questions they
feel are pertinent to the topics.

OBJECTIVES These outline some of the main ideas intended to be communicated by the
combined materials in the kit.

KIT RESOURCES The two most important references for Florida geological material are the
Florida Geological Survey publications: Special Pubication 35: lorida's Geological History
and Geological Resources, and Map Series 125: A Guide Map to Geologic and Paleontologic
Sites in Florida. Both of these publications are provided in the original kit with the video and
Educator's Guide. For those not having an original kit, these two publications can be
ordered, see page v. These publications should be consulted for all of the activities in the
Educator's Guide and Learning Activities, even if they are not specifically referenced.

provided in the original kit. They were chosen for their pertinence to the topics presented in
the video or in the Educator's Guide. They should be readily available. Appendix 5 has
information regarding resources from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Florida's water management districts, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other sources.


NOTICE: Copies of this Educator's Guide can be obtained from the Florida Geological
Survey, by requesting: Special Publication 41. This does NOT include the video or other
materials supplied with the original kit.

Information Circular 87, "List of Publications," is available free, and can be ordered from the
Florida Geological Survey Library. The Library is open to the public and on-premises
research can be done by the public, educators, students, private consulting firms, and
governmental agencies. The Florida Geological Survey is located in the Gunter Building, on
the campus of Florida State University, at the corner of West Tennessee Street and
Woodward Avenue, Tallahassee.

Florida Geological Survey
903 West Tennessee St.
Tallahassee, FL 32304-7708 Tel. 904.488.9380

The FGS World Wide Web (WWW) home page (
is currently under construction and is being added to the existing Florida Department of
Environmental Protection WWW page ( The purpose of the FGS
page is to provide a cost-effective public service for the dissemination of geologic data and
information for research and education.

Summaries of Florida's geological history, economic minerals industry, common rocks and
minerals, fossils, and explanations of geological hazards (e.g., sinkholes and radon) will be
among the educational titles within the home page. "Downloadable" copies of recent issues
of the FGS Forum, the Survey's biannual newsletter and the current list of FGS publications
will also be accessible. The page will also include an overview of the FGS, including
organizational history, current projects and an overview of each section within the Florida
Geological Survey.

PART ONE Florida Geology, Ecosystems and You


SCIENCE: Processes that shape the earth

Standard 1. The student recognizes that
the processes in the lithosphere,
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
interact to shape the earth.

SOCIAL STUDIES: People, places and
environments (geography)

Standard 1. The student understands the
world in spatial terms.

Standard 2. The student understands the
interaction of people and the physical


Standard 2. The student writes to
communicate ideas and information


1. How does geology affect your life?

2. What is an ecosystem?

3. How did Florida get its shape?

OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the
student will:

1. Develop an awareness of geology and
geomorphology and how they affect our

2. Expand their understanding of
ecosystems to include geology and
geological processes.

3. Demonstrate the relationship among
geological processes, geomorphology, and

4. Become aware of the concept of how
geological history and processes have
controlled the shape of Florida's

Part 1 Learning Activites.
Special Publicafion 35, pages 1-28, 47-50, 58-60.

Florida's Hydrogeologic Environment, by Paulette Bond: Florida Geological
Survey, color poster showing the hydrogeology of karst terrain.
Earth Systems: The Foundation of Florida's Ecosystems, by Ed Lane and
Frank Rupert: Florida Geological Survey, full-color poster illustrating
the relationships among Florida's ecosystems and geology (in

Italicied words in the text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 1 GEO-FACT: No rocks ... No water ... NO ECOSYSTEM !

----~~ ~-~~

ECOLOGY is the study of the relationship
between organisms and their
environment, including the study of
communities, patterns of life, natural
cycles, relationships to each other,
biogeography, and population changes.

An ECOSYSTEM is any area where the
Earth's living and non-living systems
interact; including the air that surrounds
our planet, the water bodies above and
below the Earth's surface, the soils and
solid surfaces of the Earth's outer layer,
and all the organisms that live on the
Earth, including humans.

VARIETY, and on many scales, from the
microscopic to planet-wide. Therefore, an
ecosystem's boundaries depend on the
scope of your point of view. Most
ecosystems have a diversity of animals
and plants, each of which includes a
range of environmental factors in its living
requirements. Because of this, there is
overlap among adjacent ecosystems. The
Everglades is an example of a large-scale
ecosystem; a smaller-scale ecosystem
could be a local park, or the land and air
encompassed by a school's property

change in time and space, due to both
natural and human influences. Shallow
lakes, for example, tend to fill in over time
with sediment and plant material; human
activities around the lake can accelerate
the process. Plant and animal
communities also change as part of the
life cyde of an ecosystem.

A knowledge of EARTH SYSTEMS is
necessary to understand how biological
and non-biological components interact to
create and sustain ecosystems. The solid
earth aspects of earth systems are
included in the science of geology, the
atmospheric components reside with
meteorology; and hydrogeology and
hydrology cover the aqueous parts of our
physical earth system.

Stratgraphy refers to the composition,
sequence, and correlation of the layered
rock-sequences that make up the Earth's
crust. The stratigraphic relationships of an
area's rock formations are a major factor
in determining the landforms, or
geomorphology, of that area. An area's
stratigraphy controls surface and ground-
water conditions, such as flow, recharge
and discharge areas, location and depth of
aquifers, and water quality. Some
geomorphic features can create very
localized microclimates and restricted
ecosystems; the Devil's Millhopper
sinkhole, in Gainesville, is a good example
of this phenomenon.

The physical characteristics of rocks and
geologic processes have direct relevance
to ecosystems. Weathering processes
break down rocks into their constituent
minerals and chemical components,
forming soils and nutrients. Erosion and
sediment transport processes then make
them available to the biosphere. Most
nutrients are recycled many times through
an ecosystem before losing their
usefulness to the system.



After watching Part 1 of the video:


ACTIVITY 1. Write down the name of an ecosystem. List for this ecosystem all plants,
animals, and geologic materials that you think are important to make it healthy and
sustainable. Remember: No rocks ... No water ... NO ECOSYSTEMS !

ACTIVITY 2. Draw and label an ecosystem ... be sure to include the four major

ACTIVITY 3. Write a creative story about a water drop's journey through an ecosystem. In
its travels, make sure the water drop encounters the atmosphere, the biosphere, the
hydrosphere, and the lithosphere ... and stress the drop's interaction with each of the


ACTIVITY 1. Think about one entire day in your life. Starting with the time you get up,
make a list of the things, objects, or products you use that come from the Earth? How
many of these probably needed the expertise of a geologist to find, remove, manufacture, or
transport to you. Save this list; it will be used again in Part 4 Learning Activity.

ACTIVITY 2. Draw an example of how erosion helps shape the land. Remember that
erosion can be either physical (as ocean waves cutting a beach face), or chemical (as rocks
dissolving). Write a paragraph that describes the geological process that you have drawn.
In the paragraph, mention how this process might become a geological hazard.

PA R T T W O Geological Time, Rocks and Minerals, and


SCIENCE: The nature of science

Standard 1. The student uses the
scientific processes and habits of mind to
solve problems.

Standard 2. The student understands
that most natural events occur in
comprehensible, consistent patterns.

Standard 3. The student understands
that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent.

SCIENCE: How living things interact with
their environment

Standard 1. The student understands the
competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature
of living things in the environment.

MATHEMATICS: Measurement

STANDARD 1. The student measures
quantities in the real world and uses the
measure to solve problems.

STANDARD 2. The student compares,
contrasts and converts within systems of
measurement (both standard/non-standard
and metric/customary).

STANDARD 3. The student estimates
measurements in real-world problem

MATHEMATICS: Number, sense,
concepts, and operations

STANDARD 1. The student understands
the different ways numbers are
represented and used in the real world.

STANDARD 2. The student understands
number systems.

SOCIAL STUDIES: Time, continuity, and

Standard 1. The student understands
historical chronology and the historical

Standard 2. The student understands the
world from its beginning to the time of
the Renaissance.


1. How do geologists study the earth
"beneath our feet?'

2. What is geological time?

3. What is important about limestone,
dolostone, fossils, and tectonics?

4. Why are rocks and minerals important
to ecosystems?

5. What is geological history?

6. Why are some geological hazards that
occur in other parts of the country not of
major concern to us in Florida?

1. Develop an understanding of why
geologists study the Earth.

2. Understand the concept of geological

3. Explain the relationships of limestone,
dolostone, fossils, and tectonics to
Florida's geological history.

4. Explain the importance of rocks and
minerals in ecosystems.

5. Describe Forida's geological history up
to the Ice Age.

6. Explain those factors in Florida's
geological history which "protect" Florida
from some geological hazards which exist

Part 2 Learning Activities.
Special Publication 35, pages 1-25, 50-55.
Map Series 125
Appendix 3 Creating sedimentary rock strata.
Appendix 4 List of fossil clubs in Florida.
Appendix 4 List of rock and mineral clubs in Florida.

additional resources):
Florida Rock Kit, available from Florida Geological Survey.
Florida Minerals: Florida Geological Survey, full-color poster showing
common minerals.

Rocks and Minerals A Guide to Field Identification, Golden Press; available in .most
local bookstores.
Students' personal rock, mineral, and fossil collections.

Italicized words in the text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 2 GEO-FACT: Most of Florida's beach sands have come from the erosion of the
Appalachian Mountains, over a period of millions of years.


Most of the sedimentary rocks now
exposed at the earth's surface, as well as
those under the surface, were either laid
down under water or were precipitated
out of water. In Florida such rocks
include the dastics, such as gravel, sand,
and clay, and the precipitates, like
fmestone and dolostone. Florida's plastic
rocks, the gravels, sands, and clays, are
derived from the weathering and erosion
of the Appalachian Mountains to the
north. The Appalachians were once as
tall and jagged as the Rocky Mountains
are today. Over eons of geological time,
these erosion products have been, and
still are being, carried by streams and
rivers to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic

Ocean. When this debris reaches the
Gulf, or any quiet body of water, the
particles settle out of the water and stack
up on the bottom of the body of water or
Gulf. In this way layers of sediments can
build up. They can become Ethifted into
sedimentary rocks through various
processes. One such process is
cementation, where individual particles
are bound together by minerals, which
precipitate out of ground water.

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical
element or compound formed as a product
of inorganic processes. Minerals are
crystalline solids; thus, all mechanical
mixtures, no matter how homogeneous in
texture, are excluded. Although certain
things may be thought of logically as

being minerals, they are not; some
common non-minerals are: coal, amber,
oil, animal bones, sea shells, pearls,
synthetic gems, cement, glass, and steel.
Rocks and soils are aggregates of
minerals. Mineralogy is the study of the
chemical and physical properties of
minerals, and their occurrence as
economic mineral deposits.

A crystal is a mineral having a solid form,
and possessing a three-dimensional
internal order of its atoms and molecules.
Crystallography is the scientific study of
these solid bodies.

Under favorable conditions some minerals
form solid bodies with regular geometric
shapes, having smooth, planar surfaces,
that is, crystals. For example, table salt
forms crystals in the shape of cubes. This
mineral, sodium chloride (NaCI), is called
halite. An examination of table salt with a
magnifying glass will reveal its cubic

Also, some plants and animals produce
crystalline substances. By definition,
though, they are not minerals. Sugar,
produced by many plants, is probably the
most commonplace such substance, and
its crystalline shape can be seen by
examining table sugar. Many organisms
that live in the sea, both plants and
animals, extract the mineral calcium
carbonate (CaC03) from the water and
then, as part of their life-processes,
secrete hard, crystalline, calcite shells or
plates. Similarly, some marine plants and

animals secrete the mineral quartz (SiO2)
to form protective shells or internal
support structures.

In Florida, the two most common minerals
are quartz and calcite. In Florida almost
all quartz occurs as sand, though some
good crystals are found in cavities in
limestone in quarries. Amorphous forms
of quartz occur frequently as chert
nodules which are, again, usually found in
limestone rocks. Prehistoric inhabitants of
Florida worked the chert nodules to create
their stone implements and weapons,
such as arrow and spear heads, or knives.
Some sites along streams, where the
limestone outcrops contained abundant
chert nodules, became favorite places for
the primitive craftsmen to set up their
"stone-age factories" to produce large
quantities of implements.

A good example of a crystalline substance
is quartz, one of the most common
minerals on earth. Because it is so
plentiful, good quality specimens of quartz
crystals usually can be bought from rock
and mineral merchants for reasonable
cost. Glass, though mainly quartz, is an
amorphous material having no regular
internal crystalline structure. Colored
glass is made by adding small amounts of
other minerals to the quartz during
manufacturing. Quartz is harder than
steel, and can scratch a knife blade.
Paradoxically, quartz crystals are very
brittle, and can be easily shattered with a
sharp blow, just like glass.

cross section


QUARTZ : silicon dioxide, SiO2

FORM : Six-sided prismatic crystals,
terminated by 6-sided triangular faces.
Also, massive or amorphous, as chert.

colorless or white, but may be yellow,
pink, smoky-gray, brown, or black;
amethyst is a semi-precious, purple
variety. Transparent to opaque.


A foss7i is any trace of prehistoric life.
The study of fossils is called paleontology.
Fossils may consist of shells, bones,
molds, casts, petrified wood, leaf
impressions, and the tracks, trails or
burrows left in the rock by organisms.
The creation of fossils was dependent
upon preservation of the organism's
remains before wind, water, weather,
bacteria, or predators could destroy them.
Preservation was commonly accomplished
by rapid burial of an animal's body, or an
organism's remains, in the bottom
sediments of an ancient sea, lake or
stream; by entombment underground in a
cave or sinkhole; or by entrapment in
amber or tar. The most common
fossilization process is permineralization
(replacement of original materials by a
new mineral, such as quartz, which
precipitates out of ground water). Other
fossilization processes include: freezing
(in glaciers or permafrost), dessication or
mummification (in deserts or saline
environments), and carbonization (organic
material is changed into a thin layer of

Florida's oldest fossil is a trWobite, a type
of extinct marine arthropod related to the
modem crab (see Special Publication 35,
p. 1). This trilobite lived on an ancient

seafloor about 450-million years ago
during the Ordovician Period. Its fossil
remains were recovered from an oil well
core sample taken at a depth of 4,628
feet below land surface in Madison
County. Dinosaur fossils are not found in
Florida. During the reign of the dinosaurs,
the area of present-day Florida was
submerged beneath the sea, precluding
the presence of land-dwelling dinosaurs.
Additionally, the rocks deposited during
the age of dinosaurs are now buried
thousands of feet deep under Florida.

The most common fossils found in Florida
are the shells, bones, and teeth of sea
animals. These creatures lived in the
shallow seas which covered all or part of
Florida during the Cenozoic Era. Much of
the limestone bedrock underlying our
state is comprised of fossil shells, ranging
from the tiny foraminifera to the larger
molusks, corals, and echinoids. As these
sea creatures died, their remains became
buried in the sea bottom, which ultimately
solidified into carbonate rock. Some
dolostone in Florida also contains the
delicate carbonized impressions of 50-
million-year-old sea grasses, which
flourished on the bottom of an ancient,
shallow sea. Pleistocene mollusk shell
beds in southwestern Rorida, which
contain beautifully preserved specimens,
are mined for road base material.
Vertebrate fossils are also found in

Florida's marine sedimentary rocks.
Complete skeletons are rare because
predators and scavenging organisms
quickly tear apart and scatter the skeletal
remains. Shark teeth, whale and fish
vertebrae, and dugong ribs are common
finds in many areas of Florida.

Florida also contains numerous land
animal fossils. As sea level began a
gradual fall about 30 million years ago,
significant areas of dry land began to
emerge. This land was inhabited by a
variety of mammals, many of which are
now extinct or no longer live in the state.
The land animal populations changed
through time, resulting in the rich and
diverse vertebrate fossil remains found in
Florida today. During the Pleistocene
Epoch, Florida's land animal diversity and
abundance probably resembled the
modern plains of Africa. Mastodons,
mammoths, horses, camels, giant sloths,
dire wolves, bears, capybaras,
glyptodonts, and saber-toothed cats,
among others, roamed the woods and
grasslands of Ice Age Florida. Today their
remains are found as individual bones and
rarely as complete skeletons in rivers,
mines, and other excavations.

Fossil hunting in Florida where to look:
lorida offers the student collector a
variety of opportunities to find fossils.
The best locations are mines, quarries,
and other excavations, which expose the
buried fossiliferous rock units. Spoil piles
in the phosphate mines of the famous
Bone Valley district, in Polk and
Hillsborough Counties, offer some of the
best vertebrate fossil collecting in the
state. In recent years most mining
companies have stopped allowing
collectors into their mines for liability and
insurance reasons.

Rivers and streams, from the panhandle to
southern Florida, offer good potential for
finding fossils. Deeply incised streams

may have fossiliferous strata exposed in
the stream banks. Fossils, particularly
more durable bones and teeth, may be
concentrated on bars or in depressions on
the stream floor. The Peace River, near
Arcadia in Polk County, is accessible by
canoe or wading, and contains abundant
fossils in the streambed. Other streams
may require snorkeling for best results.

Canals and other man-made excavations
will commonly expose fossiliferous strata.
The spoil material removed from such
excavations may contain abundant fossils,
as well. This material may have been
trucked some distance from its origin to
serve as construction fill or road base;
thus, fossils may sometimes be collected
far from their original site and without the
need to enter a quarry or other off-limits

Vertebrate fossils wash ashore on the
beaches along Florida's west and
northeast coasts. Walking the beaches at
low tide is the best method for spotting
the brown to dark gray to black fossils in
the sand. Venice Beach, in southwest
Florida, is famous for its abundant shark
teeth. Beach renourishment projects
occur statewide; these dredged spoils
may also yield fossils that have been
pumped from offshore fossil beds.

Practical uses of fossils: Some fossils
have significant economic value; they are
used to help locate oil and gas deposits,
and other mineral deposits. Some fossils
are good for correlating strata and in
determining relative geologic age. Fossils
record past forms of life, which indicate
changing environments and geographic
patterns during geological history.

Florida Fossil Clubs: There are several
fossil clubs in Florida. They have a
variety of activities, such as regular
meetings, field trips, and specimen sales.
A listing is given in Appendix 4.




HELPFUL ITEMS: calculator
geological time scale (see Special Publication 35, page 5).

1. Assemble class on 100-yard-long football or athletic field. The length of the field
represents 5-billion-years, the approximate age of the Earth.
2. Divide class into 7 or 8 groups.
3. Each group is assigned a significant occurrence in Earth history, such as the appearance
of the first photosynthetic, one-celled life. The last group should represent the appearance
of humans. The groups then consult the geological time scale for that date and convert the
time into yards distance on the playing field. Having designated one end zone to represent
the beginning of Earth history, a member of each group moves the appropriate distance
from that end zone to a position on the field.
4. When all students have assumed their proper positions, they shout out, in turn, the
occurrence in Earth history that their, position represents.
5. The spacing dramatically reveals the history of the Earth and the short period of time of
humans' existence.
6. At the "recent" end of the field, a similar exercise could be performed by having students
represent various events in Florida's geological history.
7. Sample conversions: 100 yards = 5,000,000,000 years (approximately)
1 yard = 50,000,000 years


1. Draw a large, round clock face with hours labelled. Do not draw hands, they will be
added as part of the demonstration.
ALTERNATIVE: Use an actual clock, the bigger the better, with a sweep-second hand.
2. Divide the class into 7 or 8 groups.
3. Assign each group a significant occurrence in Earth history. The last group should
represent the appearance of humans. Each group consults the geological time scale for that
date and converts the time into approximate hours, minutes, or seconds, as appropriate. All
of the clock's hands are set at 12 o'clock midnight, to represent the beginning of Earth
history. Starting with earliest geological event, a member of each team, in turn, sets the
clock's hands to the approximate elapsed time for that event.
4. As the clock is set, each team announces the occurrence that this time represents.
5. This demonstrates the relatively brief period of time of humans' existence, about 15 to
20 seconds before 12 o'clock noon.
6. Sample conversions: 12 hours = 5,000,000,000 years (approximately)
1 hour = 400,000,000 years
1 minute = 7,000,000 years
1 second = 117,000 years




Supplies needed:

Rock and mineral specimens.
Quartz sand and crystals, calcite crystals.
Small quantity of table salt.
Magnifying glasses or microscope.

1. Examine the specimens with the naked eye, then with the magnifying glass.
Study the shapes of each variety of crystals. Draw a picture of each one.

2. Separately, put the quartz sand and calcite crystal in a glass of plain water. Separately,
put some of the salt in a glass of water.

1. How are all of the specimens different? What similar characteristics do
they have?

2. What happened to the specimens when put into water? Why? What
physical or chemical properties could account for their behavior?

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Attend a meeting of your local rock, gem, and mineral club (see
Appendix 4).

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Visit a museum with rock and mineral collections (see Appendix
4 and MS 125).

ALTERNATE ACTIVITY 2. Create a classroom rock and mineral exhibit. Ask a geologist to
visit the class and help to identify the specimens. As a class, write the Florida Geological
Survey and request a rock and mineral kit for your class.




Special Publication 35, pages 8 25.
Map Series 125, A Guide Map to Geologic and Paleontologic Sites in Florida, by
Frank Rupert, Florida Geological Survey.

student's personal fossil collections
museum visits
field trips
Florida's Fossil Mammals, FGS poster.
Common Cenozoic Echinoids From Florida, FGS poster.
A Guide to Identifying Florida Fossil Shells and Other Invertebrates, by Lelia
and William Brayfield, Florida Paleontological Society, University of Florida,
Gainesville, 113 p.
Florida's Fossils, Guide to Location, Identification and Enjoyment, by Robin
Brown, Pineapple Press, Sarasota, 208 p.
Fossils A Guide to Prehistoric Life, A Golden Nature Guide, Golden Press, available
at most local book stores.

1. Arrange a field trip to a mine, beach, or other collecting site to look for Florida fossils.
Map Series 125 gives locations of many prospective sites. Permission must be obtained
before entering any property, anywhere. Two phosphate companies in the Mulberry, Polk
County, area which still permit group collecting at the time of this publication are: IMC
Agrico (contact Larry Peace or Larry Issac, 813-428-2500), and Cargill Corporation (Joyce
Bode, 813-285-8125).

TIP: Make a sieve for separating and washing fossils. It can be easily made by nailing
together a square frame, about 12" x 12" x 2.5" high, then tacking onto one side some
heavy wire (hardware cloth) with about 1/4" mesh.

2. Create a classroom fossil exhibit. With student finds, label each fossil by name, age,
geological formation in which it was found, and the location. Consult the suggested
reference materials and museum experts for help in identifying the fossils.

3. Visit a museum housing representative fossils and fossil displays; consult telephone
directory. Map Series 125 lists several Florida museums with fossil collections. Others are
listed in Appendix 4.

4. Contact the Rorida Geological Survey or the Geology departments at local universities to
request speakers or guided tours.

5. Contact local fossil clubs for information on their activities. See Appendix 4 for listing of
Florida fossil clubs.

PART T HREE -- Geological Hazards


SCIENCE: The nature of science

Standard 2. The student understands
that most natural events occur in
comprehensible, consistent patterns.

Standard 3. The student understands
that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent.

SCIENCE: Processes that shape the Earth

Standard 1. The student recognizes that
processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to
shape the Earth.

SCIENCE: Force and motion

Standard 1. The student understands
that types of motion may be described,
measured, and predicted.

Standard 2. The student understands
that the types of force that act on an
object and the effect of that force can be
described, measured, and predicted.


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.


1. What are glaciers?

2. Why does the sea level rise and fall?

3. What causes Florida's coastlines to be
a battleground between geological forces?

4. Why doesn't Florida have earthquakes?

5. What is karst?

6. What is radon?

OBJECTIVES As pat of this lesson the
student will:

1. Understand how glaciers function.

2. Understand the role of climate in
shaping Florida's landforms.

3. Understand how wind, waves, and
plate movements can affect shorelines.

Part 3 Learning Activities.
Special Publication 35, p.15-29; 47-57.

OTHER RESOURCES: (see Appendix 5).

Itakcized words in text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 3 GEO-FACT 1: Paleoindian people lived in areas of Florida that are now

PART 3 GEO-FACT 2: Eighty percent of Florida's 14 million residents live within 30 miles
of the coast.

PART 3 GEO-FACT 3: We cannot stop geological processes, but understanding the
processes helps us to live more safely with them.


Flooding of urban areas causes serious
problems in Florida, such as destruction of
property, loss of life, the threat of
disease, and huge losses of money.
Many times, the damage from flooding is
magnified by society's actions.
Conversely, by understanding how natural
drainage systems work, people can plan
their developments or construction to
avoid flooding problems.

Under natural conditions it is normal for
all streams or rivers, of any size, to
occasionally overflow their channel
embankments and flood the surrounding
land. The land adjacent to a -stream that is
subject to flooding is called a floodplain.
Such flooding usually is caused by larger
than normal amounts of rainfall.

Historically, floodplains have always been
prime real estate. Their soils usually are
thick, rich in nutrients, and well watered;
ideal for growing crops and animals.
Consequently, people have always farmed
them and built on them or near them.
Communities grew up at important stream
junctions or bridge crossings and, with
continued growth, tended to encroach
upon the floodplains. Each farming
operation, bridge or other building within
the limits of a stream's floodplain will
incrementally obstruct the flow of water,

resulting in the lowering of the stream's
ability to carry the runoff from rainfall. If
there are enough obstructions, and higher
than normal rainfall, the chances are good
that there will be a flood, to some local
degree. In Florida, not just "higher than
normal rainfall," but torrential rainfall
events are common, both from tropical
storms, as well as from hurricanes.
Another critical factor to be considered is
the effect of urban growth, even that
which is not directly on a floodplain.
Florida's explosive population growth has
resulted in ever-increasing demands for
housing, roads, and other urban
infrastructure to support it. Every square
meter of new -roof, new road, or new
parking lot represents another square
meter of impervious surface that will shed
rainfall, creating and increasing runoff of
rainwater. Some of this runoff will -be
absorbed by soil. However, once the
capacity of the soil to absorb rain is
surpassed, the excess water will add to
local streamflow. At some point, the
stream will fill, reach floodstage, then
overflow its channel.

These facts, then, lead to an important
conclusion: each new impervious surface
on a floodplain or near a stream will
increase both the frequency and
magnitude of a flood; the stream will
flood more often and the flood waters will
rise higher.




HELPFUL ITEMS: Magazines and newspapers in libraries or from newstands: Reports
of flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes, landslides, radon, or sinkhole

ACTIVITY 1. Based on a newspaper article about a natural disaster anywhere in the world,
write a brief explanation of why you think the publisher thought this would be of interest to

ACTIVITY 2. Do you think the citizens of Florida should be concerned about this type of
geological natural disaster happening to them? List the historical, climatological, and
geological factors that you think support your answer.

ACTIVITY 3. Examine the land use in the area or region where the natural disaster
occurred, paying particular attention to population and building density in urban areas,
roads, water resources and uses, coastal zone or floodplain uses, and farming practices.
Write a summary list of those activities of humans that you think may have contributed to
increasing the damage or financial losses from the disaster. Alongside each contributing
factor, briefly list the reason for its significance. Also, comment on policies or practices that
society could have done differently to lessen the damages.

ACTIVITY 4. Plan a field trip to a sinkhole. Note the character of the surrounding
landscape does it slope into the sinkhole; are there cracks in the soil; does it look very old
or relatively younger? If it has water, does its level appear to go up and down with rain;
does surface water appear to run directly into it? Critical observations of these
characteristics of the sinkhole will give clues to its hydraulic connection to the underlying
aquifer, and the potential for water-borne, surface contaminants to enter the aquifer directly
through the sinkhole. After studying the sinkhole, discuss reasons why it is dangerous to
swim and scuba dive in sinkholes.

P A T FO UR -- Economic Minerals, Water Resources, and
II Waste Disposal


SCIENCE: The nature of matter

Standard 1. The student understands
that all matter has observable, measurable


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.

MATHEMATICS: Measurement

Standard 1. The student measures
quantities in the real world and uses the
measures to solve problems.

Standard 2. The student compares,
contrasts, and converts within systems of
measurement (both standard/non-standard
and metric/customary).

Standard 3. The student estimates
measurements in real world problem

Standard 4. The student selects and
uses appropriate units and instruments for
measurement to achieve the degree of
precision and accuracy required in real
world situations.

MATHEMATICS: Albebraic thinking

Standard 1. The student describes,
analyzes and generalizes a wide variety of
patterns, relations and functions

MATHEMATICS: Number sense,
concepts, and operations.

Standard 1. The student understands
the different ways numbers are
represented and used in the real world.

Standard 2. The student understands
number systems.

Standard 3. The student understands
the effects of operations on numbers and
the relationships among these operations,
selects appropriate operations, and
computes for problem solving.


1. What resources do we

get from the

2. What is reclamation?

3. Why is the hydrologic cycle important
to Florida?

4. What are, permeability, transmissivity
and porosity?

5. How do our activities affect the quality
of our drinking water?

6. How can we reduce the amount of
solid waste which goes into our landfills?

OBJECTIVES As part of this lesson the
student win: .

1. Explain the uses of materials we get
from the Earth.

2. Show how mining disrupts ecosystems
and explain how reclamation recycles

3. Illustrate hydrologic cycle and describe
its functions.

4. Improve their awareness of how
ground water flows through rocks.

5. Discover the relationships between
human activity and the quality of our
drinking water.

6. List 5 things that will help in reducing
the amount of solid waste going into

Part 4 Learning Actividtes.
Special Publicatfon 35: pages 29 46, 58 60.

additional resources):
Florida Rock and Mineral Kit, available from Florida Geological Survey.

Students' personal rock and mineral collections.

Italcized words in text are defined in Appendix 1.

PART 4 GEO-FACT 1. 1.5 billion dollars worth of minerals are mined annually, ranking
Florida 10th nationally in value of minerals produced.

PART 4 GEO-FACT 2. Florida generates over 19 million tons of solid waste each year.
That's enough to fill a football stadium once a day.

PART 4 GEO-FACT 3. The amount of water used in Florida each year (approximately
1,500,000,000.000 gallons) is almost twice the amount of water
found in Lake Okeechobee.

AQUIFERS Almost all of the fresh
water used in Florida comes from ground-
water aquifer systems. They are,
therefore, natural resources of incalculable
value. An understanding of the geological
factors that control these aquifers'
occurrences, and the flow of water
through them, is crucial to protecting
them from pollution.

Porosity and permeabilty are physical
attributes of some rocks that allow them
to store and transmit water (SP-35, p.
43). Al ground water occupies the open
spaces, or pores, that occur in rocks. All

of Florida's aquifers are in sedimentary
rocks, either sand, gravel, limestone, or
dolostone, or some combination of these
rocks. The pores in Florida's sedimentary
rocks result from the stacking
arrangement among the irregular grains.
Florida's limestones or dolostones are
thought of as being "solid" rocks, but
they often have granular textures and
considerable porosity. Quite often, the
pores of these rocks are interconnected,
making the rocks permeable, and capable
of allowing water to flow through them.

The accompanying diagram illustrates the
usual configuration of the sedimentary
units that create the aquifers in Florida.
Most of Florida is mantled with clastic
sediments, of varying combinations of
gravels, sands, silts, or clays. Underlying
these clastics are carbonate rocks, such
as limestones or dolostones. In some
areas rocks having relatively low
permeability, called confining beds,
effectively seal-off and separate the
clastics from the carbonates, making the
deeper carbonate aquifer a confined
aquifer. This situation commonly occurs in
Florida, where two or more aquifer
"systems" lie adjacent to one another,
each having water with different
characteristics, such as quality or
temperature. If the integrity of a

confining bed is broken, ground water can
flow from one aquifer to another. The
usual breaches in confining beds are
natural, caused by sinkholes, or man-
made, by drilling wells through them.
Any breach, however, can create an easy
route for contaminants to enter the
aquifers, polluting their water. This
polluted water can be the source of
contamination to private or public water
supply systems, or to springs that
discharge to surface streams.

Ground water, with any entrained
pollutants, that flows through caves or
cavernous conduit systems can travel
several miles in a few hours. In contrast,
ground water flowing through less
permeable rocks could take days, weeks,
or even years to travel the same distance.

Simplified diagram showing features common to aquifers in Florida. The ultimate source of
recharge to the aquifers is rain. This water can reach the underlying aquifers by several
routes: (1) by infiltrating downward through the sandy soils or where limestone crops out at
the surface; (2) through sinkholes that breach the confining beds; or (3) through wells or
natural fractures that cut through the confining beds. Contaminants can enter the aquifers
through these breaches and be carried long distances by the natural flow patterns of the
ground water. Discharge from the aquifers is by pumpage from wells or at springs, such as
Siver Springs or Wakulla Springs.


; .. .. : I.IDEQO BREAK Noi .4) .


After watching Part 4 of the video:

ACTIVITY 1. Think about one day in your life. Starting with the time you get up, make a
list of how many things, objects or products you use that come from the Earth. How many
of these probably needed the expertise of a geologist to find, mine, manufacture, or
transport to you? Compare this list with the one you made at the beginning of the video,
for PART ONE Learning Activity.

ACTIVITY 2. Indicate on your list those materials that are mined closest to your home.


Special Publication 35, pages 43 50.

Florda's Hydrogeologic Environment, by Paulette Bond: Florida Geological
Survey, color poster showing the hydrogeology of karst terrain.

recharge, and storage.

This simplified example shows how a hydrogeoiogist would approach an investigation or an
analysis of the physical characteristics of an aquifer.

Supplies needed:
1. Transparent plastic container, such as a clear, two-liter, plastic
soda bottle, with the top cut off neatly.
2. A piece of transparent plastic tubing, about 2-feet long, 1/2" diameter.
3. Food dye, Kool-Aid, or colored mouthwash.
4. Clean sand or aquarium gravel, enough to fill the container in step 1, above.
Beach sand can be used, but it should be washed thoroughly with tap water to
remove the salt.
5. Any other source of sand will probably contain significant amounts of
silt, clay, or organic matter, which should be washed out. This can be done
by putting the sand in a container, with a small amount of dish detergent,
shaking or stirring to thoroughly mix the sand and soap, then pouring off the
water. Repeat until the sand is relatively free of the clay and soap.
6. Let the sand dry before beginning the demonstration, preferably air dry.
CAUTION: Do not microwave the sand to dry it.
7. A graduated container to hold enough water to fill the container in step 1,
above. Any container will do, such as a clean, gallon milk-jug. A graduated
scale can be made from a piece of paper marked off in centimeters, and
taped to the side of the jug.

1. Put the tubing in the container, but hold it a short way off the bottom.
2. Fill the container almost to the top with the sand. It does not need to be
tamped down.
3. Fill the milk-jug with tap water, to the level of the top of the graduated
scale; and add enough food dye, Kool-Aid, or mouthwash solution to color the
4. RECORD the reading of the level of the water in the milk-jug.
5. SLOWLY pour the water from the jug into the container of sand, trying
not to disturb the surface very much, and allowing the water to percolate
down through the sand. Continue pouring until the water just reaches the
top of the sand. You have just filled a container with water that supposedly
was already full of sand !
6. RECORD the reading of the level of the water in the milk-jug. Subtract the
second reading from the first reading.
7. SLOWLY siphon some of the water up into the tubing; it can be held up by
pinching the tube closed. Observe what happens to the water in the sand.

1. The sand-filled container represents an aquifer, a body of rock that holds
water, and which can supply water to a well or spring.
2. The tubing represents a pumping water well drilled into the aquifer.
3. POROSITY is a measure of the amount of open spaces, or pores, in a
4. PERMEABILITY is the measure of how easily a fluid or gas can move
through the pores of a material. Although this demonstration does not
actually measure the sand aquifer's permeability, it does show that the water
travels through the pores to supply the "pumping well."
5. RECHARGE is water that replenishes an aquifer, usually supplied by rain
falling on the Earth's surface. In this demonstration, the aquifer was
"recharged" by "rainwater" poured from the milk-jug, which then percolated
downward through the aquifer's pores.
6. The "pumping well" withdrew water from the aquifer's pores. This water
could have been used for drinking, irrigation, a manufacturing process, or
any other use by society. As the well pulled in water from the surrounding
sand, the water level in the aquifer fell. If the well was pumped for a long
enough time, it could "de-water" the aquifer. Not all the water could be
extracted, however, since some would remain stuck to the sand grains so
tightly that it could not be pumped by the well.

Exercise: Calculate the porosity of this simulated aquifer. (The numbers used here are to
show examples of calculations, only; every type of sand will produce different values. The
letters used in the formulas are shown on the diagrams.)

1. The porosity of an aquifer is expressed as a percentage of voids relative
to the total volume of rock being studied:

Porosity (%) = v X 100.

2. The amount of water poured into the sand-filled container is a good
approximation of the volume of the voids of the sand aquifer, because the
water just filled the voids. Calculate the volume of water poured into the
aquifer from the milk-jug; this represents the volume of voids:

voids (cubic centimeters) = side a X side b X height of water (x y).
3. Calculate the volume of the sand "aquifer" in the container:

volume (cubic centimeters) = ir2h. (x = 3.14)

4. Solve equation 1, for porosity:

a. Calculate: voids = side a X side b X height of water (x y)

voids = 14 cms X 14 cms X 1.25 cms = 245 cubic centimeters.

b. Calculate: volume = nr2h = 3.14 X (5 cms)2 X 10.5 cms =
824.25 cubic centimeters.

c. Calculate: Porosity (%) = X 100 = 29.7 %.

5. This percentage of porosity means that approximately one-third of the volume of
the sand "aquifer' is open space, or voids. In this case, the porosity also
approximates the amount of storage the aquifer has; in other words, it can "store"
this quantity of water or gas. This is an important aquifer property, since it
indicates to hydrogeologists the potential quantity of water that an aquifer could
supply to a well.

radius of tubing
bottle = r *pumping well)

-eI--- > reading x
sc-ale I (volume of

reading y




PA RT F I V E Environmental Concerns and Geological
; ",Careers .Y '"


SCIENCE: Processes that shape the Earth

Standard 2. The student understands the
need for protection of the natural systems
on Earth.

SCIENCE: The nature of science

Standard 3. The student understands
that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent.

LANGUAGE ARTS: Listening, viewing.
and speaking

Standard 1. The student uses listening
strategies effectively.

SOCIAL STUDIES: People, places, and
environments (geography)

Standard 2. The student understands the
interactions of people and the physical


Standard 1. The student understands
how scarcity requires individuals and
institutions to make choices about how to
use resources.


1. What professional careers in the
geological/sciences are available?

2. How do human activities impact the

3. Why do we need to protect the
environment and ecosystems?

4. How can waste be disposed of safely?

5. What is the role of government in
protecting the environment?

6. What can individuals do to protect
Florida's ground water?

O-BJECIVES As part of tis lesson the"
Student will:' :'' .

1. Explore different careers in geology.

2. List human activities which impact the

3. Suggest ways that will contribute to
the protection of the environment and

4. Suggest and analyze the safe disposal
of wastes using geological knowledge.

5. Understand the different roles
governmental agencies play in protecting
the environment.

6. Discover how individuals can protect
Florida's ground water.

--- -----

Part 5 Learning Activities.
Special Publication 35: pages 43 50, 58 60.

EcoVenturesT4 Learning in Florida's Environment a multimedia environmental
education program for middle school produced by Florida Department of
Environmental Protection.

PART 5 GEO-FACT: Florida gains over 3,000 residents each week.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS activities to help to protect environments
and ecosystems. The educator can use
The video presents several ways that these for hands-on activities or research
people can change their attitudes and projects.

List 1: How can we help conserve drinking water? (in Part 4 of video)
1. Use water-saving shower heads.
2. Do full loads of wash.
3. Fix leaks in plumbing.
4. Water lawn in early morning.
5. Use native plants that require little water.
6. Use shut-off nozzles on hoses.
7. Turn water off while brushing teeth.

List 2: How can we help win the battle against solid waste? (in Part 4 of video)
1. Don't litter.
2. Buy products with reduced packaging.
3. Use energy efficient light bulbs.
4. Use rechargeable batteries.
5. Buy recycled materials.

List 3: What can we do to protect ground water? (in Part 5 of video)
1. Follow directions when using fertilizers and pesticides.
2. Don't pour it down the drain.
3. Don't dump it on the ground.
4. Take household hazardous wastes to appropriate disposal facilities.
5. Keep septic systems maintained.
6. Buy biodegradeable products.




ACTIVITY. What can I do to protect the environment?

"How can we help conserve drinking water?"
"How can we help win the battle against solid waste?"
"How can we protect our drinking water from pollution?"

Discuss with the students the different ways that they and their families can achieve these
goals. Encourage them to start recycling programs in their homes, and generally come up
with ideas regarding how each student's everyday behavior can be modified to help protect
the environment. Discuss how the students or the entire class might start a new
community program or participate in an existing community program to accomplish these
goals. Now that they understand the importance of geology, have them "design" a new
license plate or a poster that stresses geology's role in environmental conservation and


ACTIVITY 1. Resource People

Invite local geologists to visit the classroom and bring examples of work they do, hi-tech
equipment they use, crystals, fossils, core samples, and the like. Check for geologists at
local engineering consulting firms, universities, and community colleges.

ACTIVITY 2. Where are the geologists?

Discuss with the class the different agencies and places that a geologist might work. Let a
team of students look in the phone book under: geologist, environmental and ecological,
sand and gravel, stone crushed, erosion, and consultants, to name a few. Also ask them
to think of different governmental agencies, colleges, and universities that employ
geologists. Local and regional agencies include city and county governments, water supply
authorities, water management districts, planning councils, road departments, and
environmental or planning offices. Examples of state and federal agencies include the
Forida Geological Survey, Rorida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

ACTIVITY 3. What kind of geologist would I like to be?

Have the students make a list of "adventurous or 'cool' things that geologists do." The
students should not limit their lists to things they observed in the video ... anything
reasonable goes (for example: dinosaur fossil hunting, collecting rocks on the moon,
studying volcanoes). The table below summarizes the most common geological professions,
with references to associated "cool" things. Allow the students to discuss and become
familiar with the different aspects of geology and the activities of geologists. Using the
table as a guide, the instructor can select a few examples from the students' lists (or

classroom discussions) and mention or describe the related geological profession. For
example, a student interested in beach erosion or the effects that Hurricane Andrew had on
the coastline could be informed that this is primarily the job of a coastal geologist.

Instructors with more interested students could also discuss how the science of geology is
unique because it integrates biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. For example, a
geologist who studies ancient life needs to understand biological processes and anatomy; a
geologist who studies earthquakes and how energy moves through the Earth's crust needs
to understand principles of physics and know how to solve math problems. Nearly all of the
geological professions make use of computers for creating models (such as the flow of
ground water through limestone aquifers), storing and analyzing data, generating maps or
cross sections, and for writing scientific reports.

Classroom discussion with interested students can be taken a step further. Some of the
professions listed, such as paleontologist or petrologist, can be divided into more specialized
areas of study. Recall the rock cycle and the different types of rocks ... there is a
petrologist (who studies the origins of rocks) for every major type of rock: igneous
petrology, metamorphic petrology, and sedimentary petrology. Sub-disciplines of
paleontology include: paleobotany, paleoecology, invertebrate paleontology, and vertebrate
paleontology. These examples may help the students understand the vast areas of
specialization in the field of geology, as well as the composite nature of the science of

volcanoes volcanologist crystals and minerals mineralogist
explore caves, springs karst geologist explore the ocean floor marine geologist
protect the environment environmental geologist mining for gold economic geologist
protect the environment geologist with degree in dinosaurs, fossils, paleontologist
environmental law ancient life
earthquakes seismologist rocks and how they petrologist
high-tech laboratories geochemist water resources hydrogeologist
huge sheets of ice, glaciologist hidden stories in stratigrapher
glaciers ancient rocks
sunny beaches coastal geologist the Moon, life on Mars planetary geologist
oldest rocks on Earth geochronologist tectonic plates, faults structural geologist
deep realms of Earth geophysicist make computer maps geologist, cartographer
explore historic sites, geoarcheologist
study artifacts

..:. P E N NDI X ONE N


amorphous having no definite shape or boundaries; a term applied to rocks and minerals
that have no definite crystalline structure.

Archaic Period 8,000 BC 500 BC, the period after which paleoindian people settled into
permanent residence in Florida.

aquifer a water-saturated zone of rock below the Earth's surface capable of producing
water in useful quantities, as from a well.

artifacts objects made by humans, such as stone tools; studied by geoarcheologists.

basalt a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock formed from molten rock that flowed onto
the Earth's surface.

basement rocks or basement refers to very deep, ancient rocks that underlie the
continents and oceans.

basin a large area of lower elevation than surrounding areas.

brachiopods marine invertebrate animals in which the soft parts are enclosed by two
shells, called valves.

bryozoa tiny marine animals that build colonies with their shells.

calcareous containing or primarily made of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3).

Cenozoic Era the latest of the four eras into which geologic time, as recorded by the
stratified rocks of the Earth's crust, is divided; it extends from the end of the Mesozoic Era
to and including the present, or Recent.

plastics consisting of fragments of rocks or organic structures: gravels, sands, silts, and

confined aquifer a zone of subsurface water-bearing rocks that contain water under
pressure due to zones above and below it having low permeability, which restrict the flow of
water into and out of it. An artesian aquifer is a type of confined aquifer.

coquina soft, porous limestone composed of broken shells, corals, and other organic

Scoral small, colonial, bottom-dwelling, marine animals that secrete external skeletons of
calcium carbonate (calcite). The colonies they create with their skeletons can make
enormous reef-complexes, such as the Florida Keys, the Australian Great Barrier Reef, and
many coral islands in the Pacific Ocean, and other oceans.

crinoid a marine animal consisting of a cup or "head" containing the vital organs,
numerous radiating arms, an elongate, jointed stem, and a root-like attachment to the sea
bottom while the body, stem and arms float

desalinization the process of removing salt and other impurities from sea water in order to
produce drinking water.

dolomite CaMg(C03)2, a rock-forming, carbonate mineral, very common in Florida.

dolostone a term for a sedimentary rock composed of fragmental, concretionary, or
precipitated dolomite of organic or inorganic origin.

echinoid one of a group of invertebrate marine animals, many of which have spines;
popularly called "sand dollars, sea biscuits, or sea urchins."

ecosystem a community of organisms, including humans, interacting with one another and
the environment in which they live.

environment all of the external factors that may act on an organism, either plant or animal,
or on a natural community. For example: gravity, air, wind, sunlight, moisture, temperature,
soil, and other organisms are some of the environmental factors that may affect the life
processes of an organism.

era a large division of geological time consisting of two or more geological periods.

erosion the natural processes of weathering, disintegration, dissolving, and removal and
transportation of rock and earth material, mainly by water and wind, as well as by ice.

exotic terrain a terrain that has undergone significant motion or travel with respect to the
stable continent to which it is accreted. Florida could be considered an exotic terrain with
respect to the North American continent, because it is thought to have once been part of
northwestern Africa.

fault a break in the Earth's rocks along which there has been displacement of the rocks.
Displacement may vary from inches to miles.

floodplain land next to a stream or river that is flooded during high-water flow.

foraminifera small, one-celled, mostly marine animals which secrete shells of calcium
carbonate or build them of cemented sand grains. They range in size from microscopic to a
few centimeters across. They occur in such quantities that their fossil shells make up almost
all of certain limestone rocks in Florida and other places in the world.

formation a rock unit possessing distinctive characteristics, such as mineral content,
fossils, or color, that allows it to be distinguished from adjacent rock units.

fossil remains or traces of prehistoric animals or plants. The most common types consist
of bones, carbon films, shells, molds, casts, and petrified wood.

fuller's earth a type of clay that is commercially valuable and widely used as cat ltter and
as a dispersant in insecticides.

geology the study of the planet. Earth, the materials of which it is made, processes that
affect these materials, the changes that the Earth has undergone in the past and the
changes it is currently undergoing.

geomorphology the branch of geology which deals with the form of the Earth, the
configuration of its surface, and the changes that take place in land forms over time.

glacier a large body of ice with definite lateral limits, which moves in a downslope direction
due to its great mass, as in Alaska.

granite a light-colored, coarse-grained, igneous rock formed from magma that cooled below
Earth's surface.

groin a shore-protection structure that projects away from shore, usually made of rocks,
wood pilings, or sheet metal.

heavy minerals a suite of accessory minerals of a sedimentary rock or sediments having
specific gravities greater than 2.9. The most common heavy minerals found in Florida are:
rutile, ilmenite, leucoxene, staurolite, zircon, kyanite, sillimanite, tourmaline, spinel, topaz,
corundum, and monazite.

karst a type of-terrain characterized by sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, springs,
rolling topography, and underground drainage systems. Such terrain is created by ground-
water dissolving limestone.

kaolin a rock composed essentially of clay minerals of the kaolinite group, most commonly
kaolinite. High purity deposits of this mineral are valuable for making quality ceramic

landfill a method of waste disposal wherein materials are buried. Present environmental
protection laws require the burial sites to be constructed with impermeable barriers, such as
clay or plastic liners, to prevent hazardous wastes or pollutants from escaping to the
surrounding soils or air.

lava molten rock that flows onto the surface from a volcano or fissure.

limestone a bedded sedimentary deposit consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate.
Limestone is an important and widely distributed carbonate rock; it is the consolidated
equivalent of limy mud, calcareous sand, or shell fragments.

lithify to turn to rock. Several geological processes can operate to consolidate loose
sediments into hard rocks. Pressure from thick sequences of overlying sediments can cause
lithification; for example, loose sand turned into sandstone. Chemical changes caused by
ground water can cement loose sediments into hard rocks; for example, loose sea shells and
sand cemented into coquina limestone.

magma molten rock generated within the Earth,

magnesium a metal (Mg), which, when chemically combined with calcium carbonate,
Ca(C03), forms the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO)2.

marine refers to sea water, to sediments deposited in sea water, or to animals that live in
the sea, as opposed to fresh water.

mercury a heavy, silver-white, metallic element, the only metal that is liquid at room
temperature; also called quicksilver. A virulent poison, dangerous to handle and work with.

mollusks invertebrate animals, including a variety of marine, fresh water and terrestrial
snails; clams, oysters, mussels, scallops; squids, octopus, pearly nautilus, as well as the
many extinct varieties.

paleoindians archeological term referring to native American cultures prior to 8,000 BC;
prehistoric inhabitants of Rorida.

paleontology the science that deals with the life of past geological ages, based on the
study of fossils.

peat a dark brown or black, organic residuum produced by the partial decomposition and
disintegration of mosses, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes or other wet places.
Peat deposits form when the rate of accumulation of plant matter exceeds the rate of
destruction by weathering or organisms. One of the largest peat deposits in the world is in
the Everglades.

percolation movement of water through the pores or voids in rock or soil.

period one unit of geological time into which Earth history is divided. A period is a
subdivision of an era.

permeability a measure of a porous material's ability to allow fluids or gases to flow
through its pores. An important property of rocks that determines how much and how
rapidly fluids or gases can move through them; for example, how much water can be
pumped from an aquifer (see: porosity).

phosphate rock a sedimentary rock containing calcium phosphate. Florida has some of the
most extensive deposits of phosphate rocks in the world. Very important in the
manufacturing of fertilizer.

plate tectonics a theory that large "plates" of the Earth's colder, upper crustal rocks are
capable of moving slowly (like rafts) on top of deeper, hotter, and more fluid rocks in the
mantle. Geologists have identified seven large plates and 11 or more smaller ones on the
Earth's surface.

Pleistocene Epoch the earlier of the two epochs comprising the Quaternary period.

porosity a measure of the amount of voids (pores) in a material. An important property of
rocks that determines the quantities of fluids or gases they can store; for example, the
amount of water an aquifer can store (see: permeabibity).

potable water water that can be consumed by humans without ill effects. Government
agencies have adopted standards of quality that specify limits of chemical constituents in
water sources.

potentiometric surface an imaginary surface defined by the level to which water in an
aquifer would rise in a well due to the natural pressure in the rocks.

precipitate(s) 1. the process whereby solids are left behind when liquids evaporate; for
example, vast deposits of salt were created when ancient seas evaporated. 2. precipitates:
the solid materials, themselves. (see: precipitation)

precipitation 1. hydrology: water discharged from the atmosphere in the form of fog, rain,
snow, sleet, or hail. 2. chemistry: the process of separating different minerals from a
solution by evaporation; for example, salt from sea water.

radon an invisible, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that is formed when uranium-238
decays. It can accumulate in buildings, causing potential health hazards.

reclamation the act or process of restoring mined-out lands to a useful state. Also, the
industry devoted to the recovery or re-use of waste materials.

rift or rifting refers to the breaking apart of continental plates.

saline salty; sea water or water nearly as salty as sea water.

salt-water Intrusion the phenomenon occurring when a body of salt water, because of its
greater density, invades a body of fresh water. It can occur in bodies of either surface or
ground-water. It is a common problem in coastal areas, caused when water supply wells
over-pump the fresh water aquifers, pulling sea water into the aquifers.

sandstone a type of sedimentary rock made of sand grains cemented together.

scarp an escarpment, cliff, or steep slope along the margin of a plateau, mesa, or terrace.

seismic pertaining to vibrations in the Earth, such as earthquakes; or to equipment or
methods used to create Earth vibrations, such as exploding dynamite used in oil exploration.

shale a type of sedimentary rock made of clay particles cemented together and which
usually can be made to split into thin slabs (see: slate).

shoal an underwater area covered by shallow water which may endanger boats.

silicilastic pertaining to plastic, non-carbonate rocks that are almost exclusively silicon-
bearing, either as forms of quartz or as clays. Examples of Florida siliciclastics are loose
quartz sands, silts, or clays.

siltstone a sedimentary rock made of silt-size particles cemented together.

sinkhole a depression in the land surface, usually round or funnel-shaped, that connects
with a subterranean passage created by solution of limestone rocks by circulating ground
water. Sinkholes may also form by collapse of a cavern roof.

slate a type of metamorphic rock created from shale, and is usually harder than shale.

solution feature a topographic or geomorphic feature of a landscape that was formed as a
result of water dissolving rocks, usually limestone or dolostone, such as: sinkholes, caves,
disappearing streams, springs, and sinkhole lakes.

spreading center a fissure separating continental plates, created when the plates move

stratigraphy the branch of geology that studies the formation, composition, sequence, and
correlation of the layered rock-sequences that make up the Earth's crust.

subduction the geologic process whereby one continental plate slides under another and is
gradually consumed in the Earth's interior.

suture a line or mark of splitting open or of joining together, such as where parts of two
continental masses collide and merge.

swale a shallow depression in the land's surface which may be filled with water. In karst
terrain it may indicate an incipient sinkhole forming.

tectonic pertaining to the rock structures and external forms resulting from the deformation
of the Earth's crust.

test a hard covering or supporting structure of some invertebrate animals; a shell.

transmissivity a property of an aquifer which defines the rate at which water moves
through it.

transpiration part of the life process of plants by which water vapor escapes from leaves
and enters the atmosphere.

trilobites ancient arthropods having a hard outer skeleton, and which became extinct over
200 million years ago.

unconfined in reference to aquifers, it describes a condition whereby water-bearing rocks
are at atmospheric pressure, i.e., water table conditions.

unconformity a surface of erosion or non-deposition that separates younger strata from
older rocks. It represents a missing span of time from the rock record.

vertebrate refers to animals that have a backbone.

water table in an aquifer, it is the upper surface of the zone of saturation under unconfined
conditions; water in the rocks is at atmospheric pressure.



See following two pages for the PRE- and POST-VIEWING "GEO-QUIZZES," which can be
copied for hand-outs.

for the video
"Florida's Geology Unearthed"

Geology is all around us. Whether we know it or not, we see examples of its processes in action every
day. The purpose of this video is to make viewers more aware of geology, how we are affected by
geology, and how we affect environments and ecosystems. Before viewing the video, take this GEO-
QUIZ. Don't be afraid if you don't know all the answers. There's lots to learn about geology I

Circle True or False.

1. Geology is the study of the
planet Earth, the materials of
which it is made, and the
processes that affect these

2. Within the Earth's shallow
layers are rocks, minerals, and

3. An ecosystem is any area
where only living systems are

4. The shape of the Earth's
surface is determined by geologic

5. Sinkholes and coastal erosion
are geological processes that
affect Florida.

6. Early humans appeared on
Earth about two million years

7. The Earth's surface is divided
into approximately 21 plates.

8. The Atlantic Ocean is not

9. Pangea was an ancient

10. The Florida Platform is wide
and relatively flat.











11. The peninsula of Florida
formed as sediments from the
Rocky Mountains eroded.

12. Fossils can date back to a
time before humans existed.

13. Ocean levels have basically
remained the same for millions of

14. Coal and gold are mined in

15. Winds, waves, and plate
movement can affect coastlines.

16. Most of Florida's residents
live near the coasts.

17. Sinkholes form when sand
and clay dissolve.

18. Foodplains are low-lying
areas around rivers and streams.

19. Florida does not produce oil or
natural gas.

20. Less than 1 % of the Earth's
water is drinkable.

Now that you've completed the GEO-QUIZ, sit back and enjoy the video! Listen for the
answers to the questions you just completed. You might know more about geology than
you realized I









for the video
"Florida's Geology Unearthed"

Circle True or False.

1. Geology is the study of the
planet Earth, the materials of
which it is made, and the
processes that affect these

2. Within the Earth's shallow
layers are rocks, minerals, and

3. An ecosystem is any area
where only living systems are

4. The shape of the Earth's
surface is determined by geologic

5. Sinkholes and coastal erosion
are geological processes that
affect Florida.

6. Early humans appeared on
Earth about two million years

7. The Earth's surface is divided
into approximately 21 plates.

8. The Atlantic Ocean is not

9. Pangea was an ancient

10. The Florida Platform is wide
and relatively flat.











11. The peninsula of Florida
formed as sediments from the
Rocky Mountains eroded.

12. Fossils can date back to a
time before humans existed.

13. Ocean levels have basically
remained the same for millions of

14. Coal and gold are mined in

15. Winds, waves, and plate
movement can affect coastlines.

16. Most of Florida's residents
live near the coasts.

17. Sinkholes form when sand
and clay dissolve.

18. Floodplains are low-lying
areas around rivers and streams.

19. Florida does not produce oil or
natural gas.

20. Less than 1 % of the Earth's
water is drinkable.












to the

pre- and post-viewing GEO-QUIZZES

1. True. Geology incorporates the sciences of biology, physics, and chemistry, as well as

2. True. Underneath the Earth's crust are layers of solid and semi-molten rocks.

3. False. An ecosytem is any area where living and non-living systems are found.

4. True. Tectonic plate movement and volcanic activity are two processes that shape our

5. True. These are only two examples of geologic processes that affect Florida. Others
include radon gas, unstable soils and clays, and river flooding.

6. True. Humans appeared on Earth long after fishes, reptiles, and birds.

7. True. The Earth's plates move in different directions, causing earthquakes at their

8. False. The Atlantic Ocean is widening at. a rate of less than five centimeters a year I

9. True. This ancient continent was composed of what is now North and South America,
Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and most other land masses.

10. True. The Florida Platform lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

11. False. Florida's peninsula formed as the Appalachian Mountains eroded.

12. True. Remember, humans appeared just two million years ago !

13. False. Ocean levels rose and fell as much as 300 feet during the Ice Age.

14. False. Neither gold nor coal are mined in Florida.

15. True. The storm surge associated with Hurricane Andrew drastically affected the
coastline of southeast Florida.

16. True. 80 % of Florida's residents live within 30 miles of the coast !

17. False. Sinkholes can form when limestone dissolves, not clay and sand.

18. True. Homes and businesses built on floodplains are subject to flooding during periods
of heavy rain.

19. False. Florida has produced oil and natural gas for more than 50 years.

20. True. Most of the water covering the Earth is salt water.




HELPFUL ITEMS: Open-File Report 67: Topographic Maps, by Frank Rupert, Florida
Geological Survey.
County soil survey maps, U.S. Natural Resource Conservation
Service, available at county district offices and some local and
university libraries.
Topographic maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images: available
from U.S. Geological Survey, some university libraries, and some
local stores that sell maps.

A map is a representation of the geographical environment. Maps come in many different
forms. Perhaps the most common type of map is printed or drawn on a flat surface, such
as a sheet of paper. However, globes, physical models, line drawings, and both
photographs taken from aircraft and electronic satellite images are also types of maps. Map
makers are called cartographers.

Maps are vital tools in studying geology. Different types of maps are prepared and used by
geologists to depict a variety of things about our physical environment, including the shape
of the earth's surface, the types of soil and sediments which occur at the surface, the
distribution of mineral resources, as well as the types of rocks found beneath the surface of
the earth. The entire list of maps used by earth scientists is extensive, and beyond the
scope of this introduction. Some of the most common types are described below.

Soil maps: A soil map shows the distribution of different soil types within a certain
geographic region. The common types in use today show the standard soils types defined
by the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resource Conservation Service.
They are constructed to show the soil distribution within individual counties. The area of
occurrence of various soil types are represented on the soil map by irregular polygons. Soils
can be important indicators of the local geology. Many soils form from the erosion and
chemical breakdown of the underlying bedrock. Others are carried in from distant areas and
deposited by rivers, streams, or the wind. In this respect, soils are intimately related to the
geology of the region. Soil maps are also useful to farmers, as certain soils are better for
crops, and to construction engineers, who must consider the physical characteristics of soils
when designing building foundations.

Topographic maps: A topographic map is a map illustrating the topography or shape of
the land surface. Topographic maps show the locations and form of hills, valleys, streams,
and other features as well as many man-made landmarks. They illustrate the shape and
elevation of surface features by the use of contour Enes. Contour lines are imaginary lines
(they exist on paper only) which connect points of equal elevation on the earth's surface.
They provide a means of displaying three-dimensional information on a two-dimensional
sheet of paper. The vertical difference in elevation between adjacent contour lines is called
the contour interval.

Consider the illustration in Figure 1. As shown in the upper portion, this figure illustrates a
section of hilly coastline bisected by a flat stream valley, and featuring a flat, sandy spit
enclosing a small bay. If we were to go to this site and actually paint horizontal lines of
equal elevation on the hills and valley
floor at each 20 feet interval above sea
level in elevation, then look down on the
--- scene from above, we would'see a view
similar to the map in the lower part of the
figure. The lower portion of Figure 1 is a
topographic map of this section of coast.
Notice several things about the map in
this figure which hold true of all
topographic maps:

1) Contour lines appear closely packed
/ together on the steep bluff face on the
l. eft. In the flat valley and on the gently-
Ssloping hill top above the bluff, they are
widely-spaced. This is because on steep
S slopes elevation increases occur with
S*k4 greater frequency per unit of horizontal
map distance and thus appear closer
Figu 1. Perspective view and topograpc map together. To visualize this, imagine a
of a section of hil coastine. yardstick with the inch markings
representing short, parallel contour lines;
looking straight down at a yardstick lying flat on the ground, the inch marks appear spaced
uniformly at 1 inch apart. Now slowly lift one end of the yardstick to form an imaginary
slope face while still looking down at it and watch the inch marks appear to move closer
together as you increase the slope of the stick.

2) The land slope, or the ratio of vertical to horizontal distance, may be determined from
topographic maps. Slope is usually expressed as a ratio (i.e., 1:100) or as a percent (1
percent). The slope between points A and B on Figure 1, for example may be calculated by
dividing the elevation increase (vertical distance) from A to B by the horizontal distance
between the points. In this case the vertical distance is the elevation at B (100 feet) minus
the elevation at A (about 50 feet, as it is halfway between the 40 and 60 feet contour
lines), which equals 50 feet. The horizontal distance between A and B is measured from the
map bar scale at the bottom of the map, and is approximately 3500 feet. Therefore, the
slope is 50/3500 or 1:70, or 0.014 (1.4 percent).

3) Contour lines do not intersect, cross, or branch. They may touch or coincide only on
very steep slopes (and this is commonly due to the thickness of the printed contour lines -
only on vertical slopes would the lines truly coincide).

4) Contour lines form a "V" pointing upstream (or up-gradient) in stream valleys or drainage
rivulets. In closely spaced stream valleys, such as those shown on the hill on the right in
Figure 1, a series of "W" shapes may result; the stream valley "V's" point towards the top
of the Nh, the down slope-pointed "V's" are the intervening noses of higher ground
between streams.

5) The contour interval is constant on any map. Every fourth or fifth contour line is labeled
with their elevation for reference; on actual topographic maps, the contour lines representing
every 50 feet of elevation are commonly labeled, while those in between are not. Spot
elevations are sometimes shown for specific points on the map. All elevations are relative
to mean sea level, which is taken to be '0" foot elevation.

6) Wide rivers and streams are defined by parallel lines approximating their mean width;
narrow streams and creeks are shown with single blue lines; coastlines and lake shores are
shown with a single unlabeled line.

7) Local man-made structures, including buildings, roads, and bridges are commonly

On actual topographic maps, many of the different features are delineated in color; contours
lines are brown, water is blue, roads are printed in red or black, and structures are printed in
black. Cities and other large areas of manmade disturbance are usually printed in either
purple or gray shading. Areas of vegetation are shaded green.

Topographic maps are prepared today largely from composite aerial photographs, with field
checking where needed, and provide some of the most accurate local detail available.
Therefore they are a useful tool for locating possible new sites, planning fossil-hunting
expeditions, and as references in accurately documenting the location of known fossil sites.
Topographic maps can be especially useful in locating areas where fossiliferous strata may
be exposed, either naturally by stream erosion and karst activity, or by man's excavations.

Topographic maps in Florida: The entire state of Florida has been mapped by the U.S.
Geological Survey in 7.5 minute topographic quadrangles. These maps are termed seven-
and-a-half minute quadrangles because each map covers a rectangular area of land surface
equal to 7.5 minutes of longitude in width (about 7.5 miles) and 7.5 minutes of latitude in
height (8.5 miles). Latitude and longitude tick marks are provided along the margins of
topographic maps. One thousand and thirty-seven 7.5 minute quadrangles are required to
cover the entire state. The actual paper quadrangle maps are about 23-inches wide by 27-
inches high. This size allows a standard scale for the map of 1:24,000 (one unit of map
distance, in inches, feet, or millimeters, etc., equals 24,000 of the same units on the
surface of the earth). The fractional scale and a bar scale of distance is part of the
information printed at the bottom of the map. The direction of true north is always towards
the top of the map. Magnetic north, which may be a few degrees east or west of true
north, is also indicated on the map.

Earlier topographic maps, generally dating from prior to 1940, were based on 15 minute
quadrangles. These covered an area equivalent to four of the 7.5 minute maps, and had a
scale of 1:62,500. The larger, modern 7.5 minute maps generally provide better detail,
although the older maps can often be used to document historical changes in land features
or urban sprawl.

Today, each topographic quadrangle map is given a specific name, usually based on some
local geographic feature (I.e., Tallahassee Quadrangle, Okeechobee NW Quadrangle, etc.).
Certain of the maps, especially those in highly-populated areas, are updated every several
years to show the expansion of civilization. Others in more remote locations may not have
been updated since the original mapping in the 1940s. A handy index showing the
locations and names of all 1,037 quadrangle maps covering the state is printed by the
United States Geological Survey.

Geologic Maps: A geologic map illustrates the rock formations that occur at or near the
earth's surface in a specific geographic area. Geologic maps may also show fault lines and
other geologic features in an area. The various rock units occurring in an area are generally
shown on the map with different colors or patterns. In an area of completely horizontal rock
strata, only the uppermost rock unit would be shown covering the entire map. Rocks are
rarely flat, and in many cases natural forces have tilted, folded, or domed up the local rock
strata so that, once planed flat by erosional forces, two or more different rock units are
exposed at the surface.

Geologic maps are useful in illustrating the occurrence of different rocks at the earth's
surface. Geologic maps are typically used in searching for economic mineral deposits, fresh
water-bearing rocks, or for locating fossiliferous strata, to name a few. They may be used
by the construction industry to find suitable materials for building foundations. Such maps
may also be used to locate areas of low-permeability strata for siting potentially dangerous
waste dumps, land fills, or other environmentally-hazardous operations.

Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images: An image map is any photographic or electronic
scanner image of the earth's surface. Image maps commonly include aerial photographs,
taken by high-flying aircraft, and satellite images, taken from earth-orbiting satellites.
Adjacent Individual aerial photographs may be spliced together to show a broader area than
the one single photo could show. Such a collage of photos is called a mosaic.

Image maps show the true configuration of features on the earth's surface, including rivers,
lakes, coastlines, and mountains. Certain types of aerial photographs, called stereo pairs,
taken simultaneously by twin cameras angled at slightly different angles to the surface, can
even show the earth's surface in three-dimensions when viewed through a stereoscope.
Image maps are very useful in constructing other types of maps. They are, for example,
used extensively in the construction of the topographic quadrangle maps described above.
Image maps are also viewed directly in studying natural features on the surface. False-color
image maps are produced using special color-filters which alter the true colors of surface
vegetation, wet areas, areas disturbed by man, and soils, commonly revealing features not
readily observable in natural-color images. Geologists use image maps to trace rock
formations, faults, study the configuration of rivers and coasts, and even prospect for
mineral deposits from space.

The United States Geological Survey has produced several versions of a false color satellite
image map of Florida. Many interesting geomorphic features are readily visible on this map.
The varying vegetation types of crops, marshes, swamps, and scrub areas are easily
discernible. Also apparent are the ancient coast-parallel beach ridges spanning the center of
the peninsula. Florida's numerous takes and larger sinkholes may also be observed, as well
as cultural urban sprawl, particularly in metropolitan areas such as Jacksonville and Miami.

A. Supplies needed:
1. a transparent plastic container, about 6-inches square by 9-inches high;
2. a small amount of clean, light-colored sand ... enough to fill the container about
two-inches deep;
3. a small amount of darker-colored sand ... enough to fill the plastic pan about
one-inch deep.

NOTE: the quantities of sand, water, and size of the container can be changed to
enhance the final outcome of the experiment.

B. Demonstration:
1. Fill the container about half-full of water.
2. Gently dump into the water about half of the light-colored sand and let it settle.
3. Gently dump the darker sand into the water and let it settle ... this should have
created two separate strata of sediments, roughly parallel to the bottom of
the container.
4. Gently dump the rest of the light-colored sand into the water ... this should
create a third strata, roughly parallel to the other two.

C. Discussion:
1. Which size particles settle out first?
2. If you saw this type of "layer cake geology" in a quarry, dirt pit or road-cut,
what would you think was the mechanism that created the sedimentary rock strata?

S/ (rock strata)

ANSWERS: The instructor may wish to delete these before copying for students' use.
C 1. The larger, heavier particles settle out of the water first.
C 2. The sediments were probably deposited by the action of water, either by streams or
by waves along a shoreline.



Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Jacksonvlle Museum of Science and History, Jacksonville.
Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach.
Museum of Florida History, Tallahassee.
Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa.
South Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton.
The Conservancy Nature Center, Naples.
Silver River Museum, Ocala.

FLORIDA FOSSIL CLUBS: There are several fossil clubs throughout Florida. They have a
variety of activities, such as regular meetings, newsletters, field trips, and specimen sales.

Bone Valley Fossil Society. 2704 Dixie Road, Lakeland, FL 32746. Contact: Ed Holman.
Florida FossiHunters: P.O. Box 533736, Orlando, FL 32853. Contact: Dean Sligh.
Florida Paleontological Society- Florida Museum of Natural History, Museum Road,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Contact: Eric Taylor.
Foss Club of Miami: 12540 SW 37th St., Miami, FL 33175. Contact: Dr. Gordon Hubbell.
Paleontological Society of Lee County. P.O. Box 151651, Cape Coral, FL 33915. Contact:
David Cale 941.656.6111.
Southwest Florida Fossi Club: 2265 Gulf Drive, 240E, Sanibel, FL 33957. Contact: Al
Space Coast Fossil Club: 6252 Weston Lane, Orlando, FL 32810. Contact: Dean Sligh.
Suncoast Archeological and Paleontological Society. 1529 30th Avenue N, St. Petersburg,
FL 33704. Contact: Ray Robinson 813.821.0805.
Tampa Bay Fossil Club: P.O. Box 290561, Tampa, FL 33687. Contact: Frank Kocsis, Jr.

A permit is required to collect vertebrate fossils in Rorida. Information regarding this
requirement can be obtained from: Russ McCarty
Program of Vertebrate Paleontology
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel: 352.392.1721

Copies of the pertinent Florida statutes and permit application can be found on the Internet:

httpl/www.flmnh. ufl.e.. .vertpaleo/vppermit.htm

Exclusions: Fossil shark teeth are specifically excluded from these regulations, as are fossil
plants and invertebrates, including shells, so no permit is required to collect these



Anclote Earth Science Club
P.O. Box 36
Port Richey, FL 34673

Central Brevard Rock & Gem Club
3985 Seville Ave.
Cocoa, FL 32926

Gem & Mineral Club of DeLand
P.O. Box 265
DeLand, FL 32721

Gulf Coast Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 1885
Panama City, FL 32409

Imperial Polk County Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 2054
Auburndale, FL 33823

Lake City Gem & Mineral Society
Route 2, Box 479-L
Lake Butler, FL 32054

Miami Mineral & Gem Society
P.O. Box 558172
Miami, FL 33135

Orlando Gem & Mineral Club
1604 Tanager Drive
Orlando, FL 32803

St. Lucie County Rock & Gem Club
P.O. Box 354
Ft. Pierce, FL 334954

Treasure Coast Rock & Gem Society
P.O. Box 531
Vero Beach, FL 32961

Tomoka Gem & Mineral Society
140 Warwick Avenue
Ornond Beach, FL 33174

Canaveral Mineral & Gem Society
2526 Watkins Drive
Melbourne, FL 32901

Florida Gold Coast Gem & Mineral Society
13511 S.W. 16th Court
Davie, FL 33325

Gem & Mineral Society of the Palm Beaches
P.O. Box 3041
West Palm Beach, FL 33402

Highlands Gem & Mineral Club
2115 Van Pelt Road
Sebring, FL 33870

Jacksonville Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 7084
Jacksonville, FL 32073

Manasota Rock & Gem Club
P.O. Box 5872
Sarasota, FL 34277-5872

Mid-Florida Gem & Mineral Society
14958 S.W. 35 Circle
Ocala, FL 34473

Pinelas Geological Society
P.O. Box 6263
Clearwater, FL 34618-6263

Suncoast Gem & Mineral Society
P.O. Box 13254
St. Petersburg, FL 33733

Tropical Mineral & Gem Society
P.O. Box 560893
Miami, FL 33256-0893

Withlacoochee Rockhounds
4215 Orchard Drive
Hemando Beach, FL 34607




EcoVenturesTM : The Florida Department of Environmental Protection also has produced a
multimedia environmental education program for middle schools. EcoVenturesT helps
middle school students learn about Florida's aquatic environment and its relationship to
other Florida ecosystems and ecosystems management problems that affect us. Information
about this program is available from:

Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Marine Resources
Office of Marine Fisheries Management and Assistance Services
MS 240
3900 Commonwealth Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000 Tel. 904.922.4340

Various divisions of DEP have produced hundreds of publications, brochures, pamphlets,
and handouts that are environmentally and ecologically oriented. A complete list of these
materials, Environmental Education Publicatons of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, can be obtained from:

Department of Environmental Protection
Office of Environmental Education
3900 Commonwealth Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000

Tel. 904.488.7326

The following list is of selected publications from: Environmental Education Publcations of
te Florida Department of Environmental Protection.


Division of Air Resource Management 904.488.0114

Questions and Answers
About Ozone

Explains difference between Stratospheric &
Tropospheric ozone. Also the ground level ozone
problems in Florida.

Protecting the Ozone Layer-EPA A checklist for citizen action.

Clearing the Air About Ozone

Help Prevent Further Destruct-
ion of our Ozone Layer

Pamphlet on ground-level ozone problems in the
southern United States.

Pamphlet on recycling your vehicle air conditioning


The Acid Rain Program
It's Working-EPA

Environmental Benefits of
Acid Rain-EPA

Emergency Planning and

Pamphlet explains a new approach to environmental
management. How we can reduce and what will
control Acid Rain.

Pamphlet answers the most commonly asked
questions about Reducing Acid Rain.

Booklet on hazardous materials, answers Who &
What on Response.

Division of Environmental Resource Permitting 904.488.0130

Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management 904.487.2600

How to Create A Lake
Management Plan

Non-native Plants: Unwanted
Biological Invaders of Florida's

"Florida's Native Underwater

Aquatic Plants: Underwater
Forests of Lakes and Rivers

"Rorida's Spring-fed River

"Rules of Green-Thumb at the

Booklet outlines a successful method used to
develop lake management plans.

Booklet outlines activities for students (grade 4 and
up) to learn how to conduct an aquatic plant
survey and compare plant species diversity.

Poster with underwater photography of submersed
aquatic plants of Florida.

Student activity book, describes the importance of
native aquatic plant species and the problems
caused by invasive non-native plants in freshwater

Pamphlet describes unique ecology of spring-fed
rivers and gives tips on how to preserve the plant
communities found in them.

Pamphlet describes three basic rules for yard care in
sensitive habitats of coastal areas.

Bureau of Mine Reclamation 904.488.8217

Ongoing Projects & Programs
Which are Interrelated With the
Implementation of the integrated
Habitat Network Coordinated
Development Area

A Regional Conceptional
Reclamation Plan for the
So. Phosphate District of

Information for participants in the State Phosphate
Mine Reclamation Program. The title says it all.

An analysis of environmental, economic & political
factors within a 9-county region of central Rorida.
Includes maps.



Bureau of Submerged Lands & Environmental Resources 904.488.0130

Florida State of the
Environment: Wetlands
Resource Permitting

Describes wetlands types and why we should
protect our wetlands, and the rules and
regulations for permitting.

Division of Law Enforcement 904.488.5757 ext 74

Bureau of Emergency Response

Pamphlet describes the Bureau of Emergency
Response programs and contacts.

Division of Marine Resources 904.488.6058

Office of Fisheries Management 904.922.4340

Reef Report

Quarterly Newsletter- Provides artificial reef
information to the recreational fisherman.

Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) 813.896.8626

Estuaries: The Cradle of
the Ocean

Florida's Mangroves:
Walking Trees

Florida Salt Marshes

The Underwater World
Florida's Seagrasses

Pamphlet describing estuaries and their importance
to marine and fisheries resources.

Pamphlet describing the species of mangroves that
live in Florida, their importance and where they are

Pamphlet describes plants that make up salt
marshes, roles they play in the coastal environment
and various threats to the marshes.

Pamphlet describing types and kinds of seagrasses
in Florida, their roles as marine nurseries, threat to
seagrass beds throughout Florida.

Bureau of Coastal & Aquatic Managed Areas (CAMA) 904.488.3456

Aquatic Preserves

General fold-out describing Florida's aquatic preserve
system and the habitats that are protected in the

Coastal & Aquatic Managed Areas Brochure describing programs of the bureau
including map sites.

Specific Aquatic Preserves

Brochures describing the following preserves:
Apalachicola Aquatic Preserve (AP), St. Martins
Marsh, Tampa Bay, Southwest Florida,
Pine Island Sound, Banana River, North Fork of the
St. Lucie, Indian River Lagoon, and the Aquatic
Preserves of the Florida Keys.


Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve (ANERR) 904.653.8063

Apalachicola National Estuarine Leaflet describing the resources and purpose of the
Research Reserve (ANERR) Reserve.

Shells of the ANERR Field checklist and visitors guide.

Project Estuary Middle/High school curriculum, available for
checkout from ANERR library.

Estuarine Pathways Elementary curriculum available for checkout from
the ANERR library.

Aquatic Preserves of Information on Apalachicola Bay Aquatic Preserves.
Apalachicola Bay Region

Coastal Connections Educational field trip opportunities from ANERR.

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) 305.743.2437

Florida Keys National Marine Pamphlet describing sanctuary and its habitats,
Sanctuary (NMS) geological history and Past-Present-Future

Looe Key NMS Mooring Buoy Mooring buoy locations and descriptions of coral
System found at each buoy.

Looe Key NMS Brochure describing the Keys common marine
life/aerial photos of interesting spots.

Key Largo NMS Brochure with map describing the Keys marine life
and interesting sites.

Inside the Florida Keys National Brochure/map describing threats to coral reef
Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) ecosystems, summary objectives of management
plan and overview of FKNMS Plan.

Inside The New Florida Keys Quarterly newsletter about the NMS, describes
current events & issues.

Florida's Coral Reef Ecosystem Brochure (in several languages) describing the Florida
Coral Reefs.

Nat'l Marine Sanctuary Program Fact sheet on the NMS program.

Marine Sanctuary Magazine Quarterly magazine on all National Marine
Sanctuaries in U.S.


Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (RBNERR) 941.775.8845

Rookery Bay National Estuarine Pamphlet describing the purpose and activities of
Research Reserve RBNERR) Rookery Bay National Esturarine Research Reserve.

Rookery Bay Reserve: An Leaflet describing educational opportunity at the
Opportunity for Estuarine Reserve.
Research & Education

The "Big Picture" Poster

Marine Science Curriculum

Guide to Protecting Our Estuary

Division of Recreation and Parks

Florida State Parks Guide

Know the Facts

Help Our State Parks

Become a Volunteer

Florida Leisure Resource

Individual Park Brochures

Open Lands Florida

Management of Florida's State
Park Lands

Depicts nine habitats of RBNERR watershed
and describes functions of each.

Manual includes field, lab and classroom activities
for high school students.

Describes actions citizens can do to avoid
contributing to non-point pollution.


Booklet describing each park and facilities offered.

Pamphlet on Florida Boating Improvement Program,
Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program,
Land and Water Conservation Fund Program.

Gift Catalog with listing ways business, industry or
the public can help support the Park System.

Pamphlet showing how volunteers can help at State

Directory of leisure services provided and
support groups in Florida.

Describing individual State Parks.

Brochure listing Parks not listed in Park Guide that
allow public access.

Brochure describing the land management of the
State Park Service.

Division of Technical Services 904.488.2790

Bureau of Geology Rorida Geological Survey 904.488.4191

Map series 125 A Guide Map to Geologic & Paleontologic sites in


Open File Report 34

Open File Report 50

Open File Report 63

Open File Report 65

Open File Report 66

Open File Report 67

Leaflets (various)

Biennial Reports

Special Publication 35

Special Publication 41

Information Circular 87

Open File Maps Series

Map Series 112

Florida Geology Forum

Geology Posters :

Florida's Hydrogeology

Common Cenozoic Echinoids

Florida's Fossil Mammals

Earth Systems: The Foundation of
Florida's Ecosystems


The Geology and Geomorphology of Florida's
Coastal Marshes.

A Geological Overview of Florida.

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to the Florida Panhandle.

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to The Northern Florida

A Fossil Hunter's Guide to Southern Florida.

Topographic Maps: Useful tools for the Florida Fossil

Geologic guides to various Florida State Parks.

Activities and research at the Florida Geological

Florida's Geological History.and Geological

Educator's Guide for the video "Florida's Geology

List of Publications.

Geologic maps of the State, by county.

Geology and Waste Disposal in Florida.

Newsletter of the Florida Geological Survey.

Illustrates the Hydrogeology of karst terrain with

Illustrates 22 fossil echinoid species.

Illustrates reconstructed skeletons of large Miocene-
Pleistocene mammals.

Illustrates the role of geology toward the understanding
of Florida's various ecosystems.


Division of Water Facilities 904.487.1855

Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water Resources 904.488.3601

Florida Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Network Newsletter

Drinking Water News

Division of Waste Management

Bureau of Solid Waste

Directory of Solid Waste

Solid Waste Management in

Used Oil: various posters, etc.

Pollution Prevention Program

Florida State of the
Environment: Solid Waste
Management, Hazardous Waste
Site Cleanup

Newsletter designed to improve communication
between those who maintain the state Ground Water
Quality Monitoring Network.

Newsletter generated from Drinking Water Section.



List all of the solid waste management facilities-
landfills, incinerators, etc., in the state, 153 pages.

Legislative report on status of solid waste
management and recycling in Florida, 310 pages.

Order form for posters, displays, PSAs decals,
handouts, rubber coin mats, etc.,
available upon request.

Fact sheets to assist businesses in: cutting cost,
reducing waste, protecting the environment.

Two brochures describing Florida's programs for
solid waste management and hazardous waste site

Ecosystem Management Office of Water Policy/SWIM Program 904.488.0784

SWIM: Environmental Progress
Through Partnership

The Florida Coastal Sediment
Contamination Atlas

A Guide to the Interpretation
of Metals Concentrations in
Estuarine Sediments

Development of an Approach
to Assessment of Sediment
Quality of Florida Coastal

Booklet provides information on the progress and
success of the SWIM program.

Document contains maps illustrating the spatial
extent of chemical contamination in Florida's Coastal

Document explains variable metal backgrounds, and
how to quantitatively measure levels of metal
contamination in estuarine sediments.

Document provides numerical guideline for over 30
common contaminants found in sediments. Four


Magnitude and Extent of Sedi-
ment Toxicity in Tampa Bay

Report on the sediment toxicity in Tampa Bay area.

Office of Greenways and Trails 904.487.4784

Greenways and Trails

FL Recreational Trails System

HIKE-The Florida Trail

FL State Parks Bicycle Tours

Information Guide For Bicycle

Fact Sheets: Hiking and Back-
packing, Horseback riding, and
Bicycling Opportunities in Florida

Directory-Canoe Liveries &

Canoe Information Resource

Describing the Office of Greenway and Trails.

Brochure describes 36 canoe trails with order form
for maps of each.

Pamphlet describes the Florida Trail.

Pamphlet has three tours charted, maps, tips for

Packet lists information on bicycling in Florida, the
laws, best trails, on/off road and mountain
biking, climate, tours, restriction and maps.

Fact sheets listing these opportunities in Florida
State Parks.

Directory of organizations with canoe-livery and
rental service.

Guide to organizations with canoe activities.

Office of Environmental Education 904.488.9334

Guide to the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection

Publications List

Rorida-State of the
Environment Series

Asbestos Removal-What You
Should Know

Classroom and Field Experiments
for Florida's Environmental

Brief descriptions of the programs of the Department
divisions and offices, including phone numbers.

Environmental education publications distributed by

8 booklet series describing the regulatory programs:
Solid Waste Management, Wastewater Management,
Hazardous Waste Site Cleanup, Ground Water,
Reuse of Reclaimed Water, Air Quality,
Stormwater Management, and Wetlands.

Fold-out pamphlet describing the danger of asbestos,
how to handle it, and where to get more

Booklet describing 14 laboratory and field
experiments for middle and high school
environmental and science classes.



Your Environment Booklet aimed at upper elementary/middle school
children with information and activities describing
Florida's environment and how you can help to
protect it.

Environmental Education Two-page environmental education series of
materials punched for 3-hole binders,describing in
#1 Wetlands in Florida some detail various environmental problems and
#2 Ground Water in Florida issues in Florida and the nation.
#3 The Auto and the Environment
#4 Solid Waste and Recycling
#5 The Water You Drink
#6 Mercury in Florida's Environment
#7 Invading Exotic Species in Florida

Estuarine Habitats- Elementary A set of seven Supplemental Teaching Activities for
Teaching Activities Series estuarine habitats.

EPA-Earth Trek...Explore your Activities booklet for 6-12 grade students
Environment and teachers.

EPA-Science Demonstration Pamphlet has brief selections of science
Drinking Water (K-1 2) demonstrations relating to projects in Drinking

Minerals Activity Booklet For teachers and elementary students exploring the
role of minerals in our society.

Living In Florida's Environment Tabloid-size publication with basic information one
needs to know to appreciate Florida and its
environmental assets. Covers from pre-history
through modern times.

EPA "Wetlands-Reading List" Reading list for pre-kindergarten through grades
Pre-K to 12th K-12 on Wetlands.

Educational Resources Additional listing of educational resources.

Career Profiles Special publication from the Association for Women

Implementing Ecosystem Booklet is a summary of how the department is
Ecosystem Management implementing Ecosystem Management.

Career Fact Sheets: Brief overview of Environmental careers, what they
do, where they work, education requirements,
Geology, Toxicology, employment and salaries.
Engineering, Botany, Ecology,
Biological Science, Park Ranger,
Forestry, and Chemistry



Towards Environmental

Ecosystem Management News

Ground Water-How You Can


Storage Tank Systems...
Responsibilities for Owners and
Operators in Florida.

An Environmental State of the
State of Florida

From Earth Day 1 to 25

Florida Environmental
Regulation Commission (ERC)

A preliminary guide to what it takes to be an
environmental citizen in Florida.

Quarterly newsletter describing current Ecosystem
Management in Florida.

Brochure describing ways you can help protect your
ground water.

Ecosystem Management and Environmental

Brochure on Keeping our groundwater safe.

Pamphlet developed for Earth Day '95 describing the
state of Florida's environment.

Pamphlet discussing 25 Years of Environmental
Lawmaking in Florida.

Pamphlet describes duties of Environmental
Regulation Commission.

End of Department of Environmental Protection publications

Florida Umerock and Aggregate Institute: Provides technical and promotional material
relative to the mining industry in Florida.
1007 DeSoto Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32301 (904) 942-0781

Florida Phosphate Council: Provides technical and promotional material
relative to the phosphate mining industry in
P.O. Box 367 Florida.
Lakeland, FL 33802-0367
Tel. 904.224.8238

Florida Petroleum Council:

Suite 800, First Florida Tower
215 South Monroe St.
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Provides technical and promotional material
relative to the oil and gas industry in Florida.

Tel. 904.561.6300


.Carers t Geos dencer, -.brochures from: '

America Geological Institute
4220 King St.
Alexandria, VA 22302-1507

Geological Society of America
3300 Penrose Place
P.O. Box 9140
Boulder, CO 80301

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
P.O. Box 979
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101


A series of general-interest publications is available to inform the public about the activities
of the U.S. Geological Survey. The following offices can provide information about the
USGS, its publications, maps, and its programs and activities:

Public Inquiries Office
U.S. Geological Survey
503 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

Geologic Inquiries Group
U.S. Geological Survey
907 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

Public Affairs Office
U.S. Geological Survey
119 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

Hydrologic Information Office
U.S. Geological Survey
419 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

National Cartographic Information Center
U.S. Geological Survey
507 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

Earth Science in the Public Service (30-page booklet from):

Book and Open-File Reports Section
U.S. Geological Survey
Federal Center, Box 25425
Denver, CO 80225 Tel. 303.236.7476

. .... .....

The five water management districts that encompass all of Florida publish educational and
technical materials that are pertinent to ecosystems and environmental issues. For your
area of the state, inquire at that water management district's information office.

Water Management District
81 Water Management Drive
Havana, FL 32333

Water Management District
P.O. Box 1429
Palatka, FL 32178-1429
(904) 329-4103 or 1-800-226-4181 (FL only)

Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680
(561) 686-8800 or 1-800-432-2045 (FL only)

Water Management District
9225 County Road 49
Live Oak, FL 32060
(904) 362-1001 or 1-800-226-1066 (FL only)

Water Management District
2379 Broad St..
Brooksville, FL 34609
(352) 796-7211 or 1-800-423-1476 (FL only)



Jon Arthur

Associate Producers:


Director (South Florida):




Diane Wilkins, Nathan Hipps

Diane Wilkins

Nathan Hipps

Nathan Hipps

Diane Wilkins and Robert Seidler

Diane Wilkins

Production Assistants:


Computer graphics and Art

Additional animation:



Beatrice Queral, Amy Seidler

Scott Reese

Diane Wilidns
Scott Reese
Michael Hulver

Rick Green
Ed Lane
Charles Knight

U.S. Geological Survey, NASA, Run Time Software,
Southwest Florida Water Management District, TASA Graphic Arts, Inc.

Jon Arthur, Russell Dorsey, Tom Scott, Brian Moore, NASA

Bi Kinmble

Cast ..

Will Stith

Kristen Wison


Irtervews: J

Special Appearances

Also Appearing:

Heather Brown

on Arthur, Ph.D., P.G.
ion Hargrove
im Ladner, P.G.
bonnie McClaugherty, P.G.
ill Parker, Ph.D.
oger Portel
udy Richtar, P.G.
om Scott, Ph.D., P.G.
alter Schmidt, Ph.D., P.G.
am Upchurch, Ph.D., P.G.
ll Wilson, P.G.

Carmen Cummings/Tamara Gant

Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Department of Geology, Florida State University
F. Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Florida
Florida Department of Enviromental Protection
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey
ERM-South, Inc.
Subsurface Evaluations, Inc.

Bly L Cypress, Executive Director, Ah Tha Thi Tdki Museum
Dave DeWitt Southwest Florida Water Management District
Andrea Kerlnger, Yesterday Today

Hale Quarry: Stephanie Nagy, Justin Pooser, April Hayes
FGS Drill Rig: Jim Trindell, Alex Howell
Laboratory: Frank Rupert
Geo-questions: Katie Kimble, Kellan Lawing, Salleeta Lloyd and Crystal Franklin
Geo-ists: Mary Aaron, Allison Carver, Asha Dhanarajan, Ivey Johnson
Southwest Florida WMD Rig: Dave DeWitt, ROMP Geophysical Logging Unit

John Schutz Ann Daugherty, Diane Wilkins




Additional footage:

Florda Public Television, Florida Crossroads
Ron Compton
Tom Scott
Russell Dorsey
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Ann Tihansky and Dan Duer
Gene Shinn
U.S. Geological Survey
in Motion Productions, Mark Barrett
Karat Productions, Inc., Wesley Skiles

Northwest Florida Water Management District
"WaterWays' Program
Richard Harder
Jim Leonard
WESH -TV, Channel 2
Steve Wessells
Richard Horodner The Hurricane Photographer
Jim Cassel
Cathy Veatch



Anastasia State Recreation Area
Black Diamond Ranch
Bok Tower Gardens
Brooks Sink Container Corporation
C & C Peat Co., Inc.
Calumet Florida, Inc.
Castilo de San Marcos National Monument
Cherry Lake Farms
Devil's Milihopper State Park
Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve
Falling Waters State Recreation Area
Florida Caverns State Park
Florida Museum of Natural History
Floridin Company
Hale Quarry
.. "i . .. ...

Independent Aggregates
Leon Sinks Special Interest Area,
Apalachicola National Forest
Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach
Museum of Florida History
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Quality Aggregates, Inc.
RGC Minerals, Inc.
Sarasota County Utilities
St. Joseph State Park
Suwannee River State Park
Suwannee River Water Management District
The Nature Conservancy
Vulcan/iCA Distribution Company

: Other: :

American Geological Institute, Portrait_USACD-ROM
American Museum of Natural History
Christopher M. Keane and Robert W. Ridkey Joint Education Initiative, University of Maryland
City of Tallahassee
Denver Museum of Natural History
Department of Geology, Florida State University
Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago
Faculty and students from Leon High School, Leon County
Naional Geographic Society
South Florida Water Management District
Suwanee River Water Management District

. ..:

.. Educator'squide Acknowledgqments

The authors grateful acknmoedge input and review by members of the FGEV advisory committees. Dodie Zeler was helpful
in document formatting and cross referencing between the video, the Guide and Sunshine State Standards. Nathan Hipps
developed the video pre. and post-tests and Jon Arthur contributed portions of the tex.

: '.... ... V

The Florida Geology Education Video Project (FGEV) includes:

"Florida's Geology Unearthed"
Educator's Guide
Supplemental written materials

Project Manager Jon Arthur, Ph.D., P.G.

Educators Guide Authors: Ed Lane and Frank Rupert

FGEV Project Distrtiuton: Deborah Mekeel

FGEV Communications:

FGEV Package Design:

Cindy Collier and La Marr Mitchell

Chameleon Graphics and Design, Tallahassee, FL

FGEV Environmental Education Advisory Committee:

Dr. Jon Arthur
Ms Cindy Cosper
Ms Joan Crow
Dr. Robin Denson
Ms Penny Kisiah
Mr. Ed Lane
Mr. Jim Lewis
Dr. Larry Olsen
Ms Janice Ouimet
Ms Georgann Penson
Mr. Frank Rupert
Mr. Richard Stevens
Ms Koren Taylor
Ms Diane Wilkins
Ms Dodie Zeiler

Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Academic Resource Center, Leon County
Gulf Archeology Research Institute
Fairview Middle School, Leon County
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Panhandle Regional Environmental Education Center
Leon High School, Leon County
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Florida Geological Survey
Lincoln High School, Leon County
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Diane Wilkins Productions
Florida Department of Environrriental Protection

FGEV Geology Technical Advisory Committee (GTAC):

Dr. Jim Cowart
Mr. Dave DeWitt
Mr. Russell Dorsey
Mr. Jim Frazee
Mr. Joe May
Ms Katherine MiHa
Dr. Paul Ragland
Ms Ann Tihansky

Department of Geology, Florida State University
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Gulf Archeology Research Institute
St. Johns River Water Management District
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Department of Geology, Florida State University
U.S. Geological Survey

Florida Geological Survey GTAC members:

Dr. Jon Arthur
Mr. Jim Balsilie
Mr. Ken Campbell

Mr. Rick Green
Mr. Jim Ladner
Ms Jackie Lloyd

Dr. Walt Schmidt
Dr. Tom Scott
Mr. Steve Spence

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