• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Theoretical foundations
 Creating the guides
 Final thoughts
 Introductory guide
 Animal homes guide
 Animal habitats guide
 Reference
 Biographical sketch
 Signature page
 Grant of permissions






Title: Creating prekindergarten educator guides for the Florida Museum of Natural History
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091766/00001
 Material Information
Title: Creating prekindergarten educator guides for the Florida Museum of Natural History
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Coker, Elizabeth
Publisher: College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
 Notes
General Note: Museum Studies terminal project
General Note: Project in lieu of thesis
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091766
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Thesis Paper ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Copyright
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    Abstract
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Theoretical foundations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Creating the guides
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Final thoughts
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Introductory guide
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Animal homes guide
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Animal habitats guide
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Reference
        Page 39
    Biographical sketch
        Page 40
    Signature page
        Page 41
    Grant of permissions
        Page 42
Full Text





CREATING PREKINDERGARTEN EDUCATOR GUIDES
FOR THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

















By

ELIZABETH COKER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF THE ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2009




































2009 Elizabeth Coker









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS ................... ......................................... ........... .. 4

ABSTRACT ......................................................... ....................

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................ .. ................................ ...... .. ....... ...... .7
Educational Programming at the Florida Museum of Natural History .........................7
The Need for Prekindergarten Educator Guides ..................... ......... ......... ..... 8
Overview of the Prekindergarten Educator Guides.............................. .............9

2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS.............................. .......... ............... 11
Understanding Young Children.................................. .............. .... ......... 11
The Learning Process................ ...................................... .. ... .... 14

3 CREATING THE GUIDES..............................................................20
B rainstorm ing ....... ...... ....................... ........... ..... .......... 20
Applying Theory to the Guides.......................................... ............. ..........21
Implications for the Prekindergarten Educator Guides ........... .................23

4 FINAL THOUGHTS ................ .............. ............................ 25
Evaluation and Assessm ent ..................................................... ......... 25
Conclusion................... .................... ................................ 26

APPENDIX

A INTRODUCTORY GUIDE ...............................................................28

B ANIMAL HOMES GUIDE ....................... .....................................30

C ANIMAL HABITATS GUIDE........................................... ..............34

REFEREN CE LIST........... ..................................... ..................... ......... 39

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................... ...................................... ........40









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank the chair and the members of my supervisory committee for their support and

encouragement, Jamie Creola for her advice and mentorship throughout this project and the

Florida Museum of Natural History with providing me with this opportunity. I thank my

husband and my parents for the unwavering love and support that kept me going.









Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis
Presented to the Graduate School at the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Master of the Arts

CREATING PREKINDERGARTEN EDUCATOR GUIDES
FOR THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

By

Elizabeth Coker

May 2009

Chair: Glenn Willumson
Major: Museum Studies


For this Museum Studies project in lieu of thesis I will be working with staff members at

the Florida Museum of Natural History to create resource guides for early education teachers.

These guides will be based on the permanent exhibits at the Florida Museum of Natural History

and involve hands-on activities and discussion questions focused on specific themes related to

the exhibits. Each guide will have 3 sections: 1. pre-visit activities for the teachers to do in

classrooms as a foundation for a museum visit; 2. a tour guide with suggested questions and

specific exhibit components to visit; and 3. post-visit activities that bring the educational

experience together and reinforce the ideas presented. Where applicable, a take-home activity

will also be provided for children to take their new knowledge home and share it with their

families. Once completed, the guides will be made available to teachers through the Florida

Museum of Natural History's website.

The paper accompanying this project will have four chapters. The first chapter will

introduce the project, outline the need for the project and give some background information

about early education in museums and the current early education programs offered by the









Florida Museum of Natural History. The second chapter will outline academic research in the

field of early education supporting the creation of these guides. The third chapter will consist of

the guides themselves. The final chapter will reflect on the creation process and make

suggestions for implementation and evaluation.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Educational Programming at the Florida Museum of Natural History

The Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) is an educational institution whose

mission states that it is "dedicated to understanding, preserving and interpreting biological

diversity and cultural heritage." Following this mission, the museum served more than 83,000

visitors through educational programs within the museum and an additional 37,000 people

through outreach programming, according to the 2006-2007 annual report. The report states that

"these programs include curriculum-based tours for students, home school classes, teacher

workshops, weekday and weekend classes for children, summer camps, adult workshops,

outreach programs to schools and community centers and other public events." Specifically, the

school programs of the Florida Museum reached more than 47,400 students.

However, the Museum's school programs mainly focus on K-12 classrooms. Currently,

the only program aimed at the 3-5 age group is the once a month Wigglers and Walkers program.

This is a drop-in program for children ages 3-5 and their parents that includes tours of the

museum and related hands-on activities. Wigglers and Walkers is very popular and demonstrates

the potential for further expansion of programming for early education, but it is only targeted at

family groups, parents and children rather than teachers and classes. With the growing emphasis

on early education in Florida, the museum needs to expand its offerings to prekindergarten

students and their teachers. Following a nationwide trend, Florida is putting a larger emphasis

on early education programs through the Voluntary Prekindergarten program (VPK). With this

program, preschools and day-cares in Florida can apply to be VPK prekindergarten programs.

Then, parents can enroll their children and the state will cover the costs. Data from the past two









years indicates that prekindergarten enrollment in Florida is on the rise. During the 2006-2007

school year, 124,393 children were enrolled in the VPK program. In 2007-2008, that number

increased to 133,888 children (FL Department of Education, 2008). With more children entering

prekindergarten in Florida, the museum needs to offer educational resources not just for young

children and their families, but also for their teachers. In order to fill this gap in the Florida

Museum's educational programming, I have created online resources for prekindergarten

teachers. These resources include an introductory guide to teaching science to young children

and two educator guides with science lessons and activities. The guides created for this thesis

project are the first step in expanding the museum's educational resources for prekindergarten

students and their teachers.



The Need for Prekindergarten Educator Guides

The ideas that inspired the creation of the educator guides stem from two different

projects within the museum's education department. The first is an event designed for

prekindergarten educators that took place in February of 2008. The second is an Institute of

Museum and Library Services grant that is sponsoring a teacher enrichment program at the

museum.

In February 2008, the Florida Museum of Natural History, as a partner in the Early

Learning Coalition's Literacy and Learning committee hosted Pre-K Day, an event designed to

"reach over 500 pre-k children and their teachers" (FLMNH, Sponsorship Proposal to Associates

Board, 2007).' Teachers who registered for the event received pre-visit activity packs and

participated in mandatory teacher training workshops that showcased the resources of the Florida

1 This proposal is an internal communication between staff members in the Education department at the museum and
members of the museum's Associates Board. The board provides funding to different projects in the museum each
year to departments that have submitted requests for funding and proposals for the use of the funds.
8









Museum. The teacher training included information about inquiry-based education and teaching

science. They also watched demonstrations of pre- and post-visit activities related to the Pre-K

Day theme, "Things with Wings." On Pre-K Day, the teachers brought their students to the

Florida Museum for a morning of fun science and education activities based on the theme. The

next month, the teachers returned to the museum for a post-event workshop to reinforce the

learning objectives presented before the event. During the workshop, the teachers learned how

to do activities based on Florida's Voluntary Prekindergarten Standards. The workshop also

presented teachers with ideas for activities they could do with their students after the museum

visit.

The second inspiration for the project was the Institute of Museum and Library Services

(IMLS) grant awarded to the museum. FLMNH received a 2-year grant from the IMLS to create

a K-12 teacher enrichment program. This program is designed to help educators gain a better

knowledge of the museum and its resources. "Through support of the Museums for America

grant program, the FLMNH will develop a teacher enrichment program that provides teachers

with a) the scientific knowledge and techniques and b) classroom materials and online resources

to supplement and enhance student learning in the classroom, as well as c) in-gallery experiences

that tie Museum exhibits to the curriculum and enhance school field trips" (FLMNH, Grant

Narrative from IMLS grant application, 2006). The Prekindergarten Education guides created

for this project will be the first step in creating similar resources for prekindergarten teachers.

These guides provide a starting point for another IMLS grant proposal in support of a

comprehensive prekindergarten teacher enrichment program similar to the one being created with

the current grant.









Overview of the Prekindergarten Educator Guides

While the Florida Museum of Natural History already provides many educational

resources, these two projects indicated that the museum had an interest in expanding its teacher

resources and providing more resources for a prekindergarten audience. Therefore, I decided to

create educator guides for prekindergarten teachers. Taking into account current research on

early education and the resources available within the museum, the guides are based on the

permanent exhibits at FLMNH and involve hands-on activities and discussion questions focused

on specific themes related to the exhibits. Each guide will have 3 sections: pre-visit activities

for the teachers to do in classrooms as a foundation for a museum visit; a self-guided tour outline

featuring specific exhibit components and related discussion questions; and post-visit activities

that bring the educational experience together and reinforce the ideas presented. A take-home

activity will also be provided for children to take their new knowledge home and share it with

their families. The complete guides will be available on the museum's website for teachers to

download. By putting the guides on the website, the museum makes these guides available for

any teacher to use, not just the teachers who visit the museum.

The Florida Museum of Natural History has few resources available for early education

teachers and their young students. The final product of this thesis project, the educator guides,

will provide online resources for prekindergarten teachers across the state, as well as provide the

Florida Museum of Natural History with a starting point for the continued development of early

education programming.









CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS


In order to create successful learning experiences for children, educators must have an

understanding of how their students think, what their physical and mental abilities are, how they

perceive the world and how they learn from their experiences. This understanding allows

educators to plan and shape a child's experiences, providing the best possible environment for

learning. Children learn in different ways during the stages of their life, so one type of lesson or

activity will not work for all children. Therefore, before any curriculum can be created, an

educator needs to be aware of the needs, skills and abilities of the children for whom their

lessons are designed. Regardless of whether that program is implemented in a classroom or

museum setting, most educational theorists agree on what is appropriate for each age group. For

this project, that group is young children ages 3-5.



Understanding Young Children

Children ages 3-5 are at a point where growth and development are occurring rapidly in

several different areas, including gains in cognitive, physical and motor, language and

communication, social and emotional abilities. The growth in these areas is interconnected, so

that gains in one area affect gains in another area (Bredekamp and Copple, 1997). For example,

as a child's physical abilities improve, it is easier for that child to move about their environment.

This brings the child in contact with new objects and new people, leading to increases in

cognitive and social development. If a child is in an environment that emphasizes only one of

these areas, this may be detrimental to a child's development. Similarly, educational curriculum

must also emphasize different areas in order to promote balanced development. Researchers









have studied the impact of academic-only programs and have found that children in these

classrooms struggle with the development of social skills:

The integrated nature of children's development and learning
underlies early childhood educators' insistence on not losing sight
of the 'whole child'. This understanding precludes the notion that
one can provide a program that focuses on one area of learning or
development while neglecting or ignoring others, such as occurs in
many programs that stress formal academics with very young
children (Bredekamp and Copple, 1997, 98-9).

Stipek, an early education researcher, and her colleagues also found that "a strong emphasis on

academic achievement appeared to preclude a positive social context" (Stipek, et al. 1992, 14)

This indicates that focus on only one area of development can be detrimental to the development

of other areas. Therefore, educational programming for pre-kindergartners must include

activities and content that addresses each area of a child's development. This will encourage

balanced growth in all domains.

Knowing what a child can and cannot do is equally important. Activities that are too easy

can bore a child, but activities that are too challenging can frustrate a child and leave negative

associations. While each child's level of development is unique and varies based on personal

experience, background and genetic disposition, there is an average baseline of what can be

expected during each stage of life. These guidelines are broken down by age, with different

expectations at ages 3, 4, and 5. The following outline of general expectations is adapted from

Bredekamp and Copple (1997, 99-118) and is by no means comprehensive. Instead, it gives a

general impression of what to expect from children in this age group.

Children at age three have fairly good gross motor control and fine motor control. They

are able to walk and run well; however they have trouble balancing and judging distance and

height when climbing or jumping. They can manipulate large beads and blocks, handle writing









utensils with fingers instead of the whole fist, and can draw shapes. Their communication skills

are improving, though they still have a limited vocabulary and tend to over-generalize and

change topics quickly. Children at this age can express themselves in short sentences and ask

basic questions. Socially and emotionally, three-year-olds play well with others, but in general

still have difficulty taking turns and sharing. They still have trouble controlling intense feelings,

but want to please others.

At age 4, a child's motors skills have improved so that the child can balance, climb and

jump with more precision. Children at this age have increased endurance and can actively play

for longer periods of time. They can manipulate smaller objects and make complex structures or

patterns with blocks and beads. Vocabulary and sentence length increases and the child is able to

understand more abstract uses of words. Along with the increase in length, a four-year-old's

sentence structure increases in complexity and the child will try to communicate beyond their

working vocabulary. A child at this age begins to engage in cooperative play and starts

controlling their emotions better. While the child may have better emotional control, he can still

become distracted from directions and does get angry when things don't go his way.

Five-year-olds have good physical coordination and stamina, but can be overconfident in

their abilities. They can do complicated fine-motor tasks and use hammers, screwdrivers,

scissors and computer keyboards. In addition, a five-year-old can write letters and print their

name. Their vocabulary is at least double what it was at age 3 and uses long, complex sentences.

Additionally, five-year-olds can carry on an extended conversation without interrupting and can

relate stories and personal experiences clearly. Because of this increased skill in communication,

five-year-olds enjoy dramatic play with peers and cooperate well. Physical aggression decreases









as the child learns to express feelings through words and facial expressions. Also, children at

this age can follow directions.

While there is variability in development in this age group, children ages 3-5 are active

learners. They are fully engaged in the learning process and much of their learning comes from

discovery and play. Their engagement in the learning process utilizes all of their senses. They

don't just look at the world around them; they hear, smell, taste and touch the world.



The Learning Process

Young children learn best when actively engaged in the learning process, especially when

they are challenged and stretched to their limits, while being supported by an adult. Teachers

who work with this age group cannot be idle observers and monitors of children's behavior.

Instead, they must interact with the children, guiding their learning and pushing them to the edge

of their abilities. A caring adult's support can help a child discover more than they might be able

to go on their own, allowing them to learn and experience new things. Successes supported by

an adult encourage children to continue on their own, leading to more success. This is especially

important with young children because they need even more interaction and support due to their

short attention spans and lower capacity for self-regulation during lessons or activities. These

lessons or activities should be guided by the learning cycle described by early learning

researchers Bredekamp and Rosegrant (1992). This learning cycle follows four repeating

processes: awareness, exploration, inquiry and utilization. (See Figure 1)

In the awareness stage, a child perceives and recognizes something of interest in the

surrounding environment. The educator can facilitate this perception by creating an environment

filled with things to spark a child's interest, including new ideas, objects, places or people. Once









a child is aware of something new, the teacher should encourage the child's interest, leading into

the exploration stage. In this stage, the child begins to construct meaning around their

experience though sensory perception. The child collects further information about the

experience through exploration and observation. At the end of this stage, the child has a firm

understanding of what the experience means personally, but does not have any grasp of other

possible meanings.

In the inquiry stage, a child refines the meaning he has created by comparing his meaning

to constructions created by others. They relate what they have learned to previous knowledge

and begin to generalize the experience and propose explanations for their meaning. Finally, after

a child has refined their understanding of the learning experience, they can apply their learning.

In this stage, the utilization stage, the child uses the learning experience in new ways and applies

it in new situations. It is the application of knowledge in new situations that begins the cycle of

learning again.

Even when not supported by an adult, children move through the learning cycle by

constantly observing, interacting and learning from the world around them. Educational theories

usually divide this learning into two different categories of education: formal and informal.

Crane explains that formal education takes place in a structured setting and is planned by a

trained educator whereas informal education is unstructured, unplanned learning guided by the

learner (1994, 3). Formal education is what happens in the classroom, when a teacher instructs

the students. On the other hand, informal education happens outside the classroom. This

dichotomy between formal and informal cannot always be used to describe learning experiences

because some learning cannot be classified as one of the other. In her book Exploring Science in

Early Childhood Education, Lind describes three different types of learning experiences (2000).









This idea varies from the more widely known theory of formal and informal learning. Most

young children have not developed enough to be able to guide their own learning process. They

cannot self-monitor and self-direct their learning successfully. Therefore, Lind describes three

types of learning experiences: naturalistic, informal and structured. Lind's theory is more

applicable to early education because it provides for a type of learning experience situated

between formal and informal education. This middle ground gives educators another way to

interact with young children and guide their learning process.

According to Lind's theory, naturalistic learning is what children do on their own when

they explore and play. This corresponds to the standard definition of informal learning. Adults

do not take an active role in these learning experiences. Lind explains the adult's role in a child's

learning experience:

The adult's role is to provide an interesting and rich environment.
That is, there should be many things for the child to look at, touch,
taste, smell and hear. The adult should observe the child's activity
and note how it is progressing and then respond with a glance, a
nod, a smile, a verbal description of the children's actions or
elaboration of their comments, or a word of praise to encourage the
child. The child needs to know when he is doing the appropriate
thing (2000, 17).

Informal learning experiences build on the naturalistic learning initiated by the child. In these

experiences, an adult notes the child's experience and then elaborates on it. In short, the adult

takes advantage of a "teachable moment" to guide the child to a better understanding of the

experience. The following interaction between a father and daughter is an example of a

teachable moment within an informal learning experience:

"I'm 6 years old," says 3-year-old Kate while holding up three
fingers. Dad says, "Let's count those fingers. One, two, three
fingers. You are 3 years old." (2000, 17-8)









In this teachable moment, the father's question helped his daughter come to a better

understanding of the concept of age and counting. Through his intervention, Kate had an

informal learning experience in which she learned that three fingers indicate her age. Structured

learning is initiated by the adult. This type of learning experience is similar to the traditional

definition of formal education. These experiences, unlike informal experiences, are preplanned

activities directed by an adult and designed for a specific educational purpose.

While following this learning cycle and utilizing the three types of learning experiences,

teachers need to be aware of the two different forms of thinking that go on while children learn.

Harlan and Rivkin, two researchers who study early childhood science education, define these

two ways of thinking:

1. Conscious thinking, which we are aware of doing, because
we use language as we acquire and use information.
2. Nonconscious thinking, also referred to as implicit
learning or unconscious thought, which goes on
continuously beyond our conscious awareness because
language is not involved (2004, 8).

Harlan and Rivkin explain that conscious and nonconscious thinking occur simultaneously and

enhance the learning experience. Nonconscious thinking allows learners to code their

knowledge in various ways, forming a more complete picture and leading to insights or "Aha!"

moments. Harlan and Rivkin give the example of Eli:

When Eli offered a surprisingly sophisticated insight to a class
discussion, he considered his words briefly, then said "Wow! I
didn't know I knew that!" Eli couldn't verbally explain how he
came up with his sudden burst of understanding, but it was the
result of valid mental activity (2004, 9).

The valid mental activity is Eli's nonconscious thought processes. Though Eli isn't consciously

putting the pieces together, his mind continues to work on the puzzle and presents the complete

answer to his consciousness, hence his surprise when he presented his idea.









In order to take advantage of both conscious and nonconscious processes during the

learning cycle, teachers need to give children ample time to work through problems on their

own. While a child may not come to the correct conclusion, the experience of discovering that

conclusion and then being guided to the correct answer by the teacher is a more powerful

educational experience. Children learn better when they are allowed to follow the learning cycle

at their own pace, supported and guided by a teacher.














Cycle of Learning and Teaching


What Children Do
Awareness Experience
Acquire an interest
Recognize broad parameters
Attend
Perceive


Observe
Explore materials
Collect information
Discovery
Create
Figure out components
Construct own understanding
Apply own rules
Create personal meaning
Represent own meaning


Inquiry Examine
Investigate
Propose explanations
Focus
Compare own thinking
with that of others
Generalize
Relate to prior learning
Adjust to conventional rule
systems

Utilization Use the learning in many
ways; learning becomes
functional
Represent learning in various
ways
Apply learning to new situations
Formulate new hypotheses
and repeat cycle


What Teachers Do
Create the environment
Provide opportunities by introducing new objects,
events, people
Invite interest by posing problem or question
Respond to child's interest or shared experience
Show interest, enthusiasm

Facilitate
Support and enhance exploration
Provide opportunities for active exploration
Extend Play
Describe child's activity
Ask open-ended questions "What else could you do?"
Respect child's thinking and rule systems
Allow for constructive error


Help children refine understanding
Guide children, focus attention
Ask more focused questions "What else works like this?"
"What happens if..."
Provide information when requested "How do you spell ...?"
Help children make connections






Create vehicles for application in real world
Help children apply learning to new situations
Provide meaningful situations in which to use learning


Figure 1 Cycle of Learning and Teaching from Bredecamp, Sue and Teresa Rosegrant (Eds.), 1992 "Reaching
Potentials: Appropriate Curriculum and Assessment for Young Children," Vol. 1, p.33. Washington DC: National
Association for the Education of Young Children.


Exploration









CHAPTER 3
CREATING THE GUIDES

Brainstorming

The prekindergarten educator guides are intended to promote the use of museum

resources; therefore, the guides should be based on the exhibits displayed in the museum. The

Florida Museum of Natural History has four permanent exhibit halls: Northwest Florida:

Waterways and Wildlife; South Florida People and Environments; Florida Fossils: The

Evolution of Life and Land; and the Butterfly Rainforest. Because these exhibits cover a variety

of natural history topics, choosing a theme for the educator guides entailed sifting through the

content information for each exhibit, as well as selecting topics that would appeal to young

children and be at an appropriate educational level.

To determine what topics would be interesting and appropriate to a prekindergarten

audience, Jamie Creola arranged a meeting with Andi Lybrand, a member of the Alachua County

Early Learning Coalition and Jeanne Chamberlin, a staff member in the museum's Head Start

program, Marvelous Explorations through Science and Stories (MESS). At the meeting, several

ideas for themes were presented for feedback. One theme proposed was "homes and habitats."

Lybrand and Chamberlin suggested that having lessons covering both concepts was too

complicated for prekindergarten students, but that the concepts of home and habitat are ones that

young children would understand. Following this suggestion, two guides were created; one

focusing on animal homes and the other focusing on animal habitats. Since an animal's habitat is

an extension of its home, the guides are designed for one to build upon the other.

After providing feedback on themes, Lybrand and Chamberlin provided some general

suggestions for the organization of and the activities in the guides. First, they recommended that

the guides begin with a process activity. In this type of activity, basic science skills such as









observation, communication, comparison, making predictions are introduced to the students. By

learning and practicing these skills at the outset, children will apply them to other activities that

follow. For the museum tour, Lybrand and Chamberlin suggested incorporating a scavenger

hunt-type activity in which the children are asked to find specific things or see how many things

they can find. They explained that this type of activity encouraged active participation in young

children and would keep them focused. Finally, Lybrand and Chamberlin recommended that a

hands-on activity follow the museum visit. In this post-activity, the children would use what

they had learned in previous lessons and what they had seen in the museum to create their own

version of an animal home or habitat.



Applying Theory to the Guides

The lessons and activities in the prekindergarten educator guides incorporate suggestions

from Lybrand and Chamberlin, as well as the educational theory reviewed earlier. The guides'

organizational structure follows Bredekamp and Rosegrant's learning cycle (1992), while the

activities are based on Lind's three types of learning experiences (2000). Each section of the

guides corresponds to a different stage in the learning cycle and the three types of learning

experiences are distributed throughout the guides to provide a variety of activities in each

section.

Part One of the prekindergarten educator guides is the pre-visit section of the guide. In

this section, the awareness stage of the learning cycle is initiated through the reading of one of

the suggested books. After the teacher reads the book to the class, the children further their

awareness of the topic through guided discussion with the teacher. The second activity in the

pre-visit section moves children into the exploration stage. For example, the second activity in









the Animal Homes guide asks children to identify what animals might live in a picture held up by

their teacher (Appendix B). After identifying the animals, the children are encouraged to role-

play as the animals and imagine what their animal home might be like. In this activity, the

children are engaging in many of the actions described in the exploration stage of the learning

cycle; they collect information, create, discover and construct their own meaning through

creative play.

In Part Two of the guides, the educator leads the children on a tour of the Florida

Museum following a list of possible stops and associated discussion questions provided in the

guide. The museum tour replicates the inquiry stage of Bredekamp and Rosegrant's learning

cycle through focused discussion questions that help the children clarify and solidify their

understanding of the theme. At each stop on the tour, the children are given the opportunity to

explore the museum exhibit. Then the teacher can use the provided questions to focus the

children's interest on different aspects of the exhibit and help them better understand what they

are seeing.

Part Three of the prekindergarten educator guides includes post-visit activities which

correspond to the final stage of the learning cycle. In the utilization stage, children must

implement their learning in different ways. By applying their learning to new situations, children

in the utilization stage generate new ideas and then being the cycle again. For example, in Part

Three of the Animal Habitats guide, the children utilize their learning in a new situation by

creating their own animal habitat (Appendix C). This activity requires the children to translate

what they have learned into a different situation; instead of observing functional habitats, they

must create their own.









While following the learning cycle, the prekindergarten educator guides were designed

with variety of activities that allow children to engage in the three different types of learning

experiences outlined by Lind. Naturalistic learning activities, such as the creative play activity

"Living in different homes" in Part One of the Animal Homes guide (Appendix B), allow the

children to steer their own learning through creative exploration. In this activity, the children are

asked to pretend they are living in an animal home and act out what they might do in that home.

Other activities follow the informal learning experience model by allowing the child to direct the

experience, while providing questions for the teacher to use to further support and extend the

learning experience. For instance, the tour portions of each guide prompt informal learning

experiences by having the children explore the exhibit spaces, while providing supporting

questions for the teacher to extend the learning experiences. Finally, some activities fall into the

category of structured learning experiences. An example from the prekindergarten educator

guides is when the teacher is prompted to directly explain a concept to the children, as in the first

activity of Animal Habitat guide (Appendix C), when the teacher explains that there are four

essential components of a habitat: food, water, shelter and space.



Implications for the Prekindergarten Educator Guides

The prekindergarten educator guides are based on the ranges of abilities in children ages

3-5 and take an integrated approach to learning. The activities in each of the guides follow

Bredekamp and Rosegrant's learning cycle, while providing plenty of opportunities for teachers

and their students to explore on their own. Using these guides, teachers can lead their students

through a variety of meaningful learning experiences based on the permanent exhibits at the

Florida Museum of Natural History. Just like the development of children's understanding, the









concepts in these guides build on one another, starting with simple lessons and building to more

complex concepts and ideas. The guides themselves are designed to build on one another, with

the Animal Homes guide preceding the Animal Habitats guide. If taken in order, the guides

provide a tiered outline of learning science and natural history concepts, introducing the students

to the concept of an animal home first and then expanding the concept to include the surrounding

habitat, which includes the animal's home and other essential components.









CHAPTER 4
FINAL THOUGHTS


Evaluation and Assessment

Evaluating the prekindergarten educator guides will help museum staff understand where

they need to be improved or how they can be expanded. While the guides include a visit to the

museum as a major component, they will be available for download through the museum's

website and there is no guarantee that educators using the guides will bring their classes to the

museum; therefore, it will be difficult to interview teachers directly about the guides. Instead, I

recommend an evaluation method similar to the one being used to evaluate the guides that are

already available on the museum's website. When a teacher downloads a guide, they will be

asked to fill out a short survey. On this survey, teachers will indicate when they plan to use the

guides and provide an e-mail address. Based on this information, the museum will send a post-

usage, online survey for the teachers to provide feedback on the guides. This survey should

include questions about the effectiveness of the activities, the ease of usage, age appropriateness

of questions and interest of students.

Additionally, the museum can track the number of times the guides are downloaded or

ask prekindergarten groups visiting the museum if they have used the guides. While these

numbers won't provide any direct feedback on the effectiveness of the guides, it will give a

better understanding of how many prekindergarten teachers are accessing and utilizing the

guides. The museum's goal is to provide easily accessible resources to educators, so if the

guides are not being downloaded, this indicates that teachers are either unaware of the guides or

unable to find them. Such feedback will allow the museum to make adjustments in order to

improve accessibility.









Along with this evaluation of ease of use and accessibility, the guides should be evaluated

as learning tools. By implementing a learning assessment for the guides, the museum staff can

have a better understanding of what aspects of the guides help young children learn the science

concepts presented in the guide. To implement this assessment, the museum staff would need to

determine which science concepts they expected the students to learn from the activities in the

guides and then evaluate the students' knowledge of the concepts before and after the teacher

uses the guides. As with the evaluation of the guides, this could be difficult since teachers can

access the guides online. Therefore, I suggest a similar solution: along with the online

evaluation emailed to the teachers, send an online assessment survey before the date of usage and

another survey after the date of usage. Alternatively, the museum could ask the teachers to

indicate their willingness to participate in a learning assessment when they visit the museum.

Then, during the museum visit, museum staff could spend some time with the teachers and

students and perform a learning assessment themselves. With either method, the information

gathered in a learning assessment can help the museum improve the educational content in the

prekindergarten educator guides and make them a better resource for teachers.



Conclusion

The Florida Museum of Natural History provides many educational programs for the

community, but most of these programs target either school-aged children or adult audiences.

The prekindergarten educator guides are designed for teachers working with younger children in

prekindergarten classrooms. With their emphasis on a museum visit, these guides provide

opportunities for teachers and their students to utilize the museum as an educational space.

Science education is an important aspect of a well-rounded early education program, and as the









amount of children enrolled in prekindergarten classes in Florida increases due to the Voluntary

Prekindergarten program, these guides will serve as a good resource for educators who may not

have a strong science background. By providing age specific lessons based on FLMNH's

permanent exhibits, these guides give educators the tools they need in the classroom.

Furthermore, the guides are the first step in creating a teacher enrichment program at FLMNH

which will help prekindergarten teachers plan effective and successful science lessons based on

the resources provided by the museum. It is my hope that the educator guides will also pave the

way for the creation of new museum programming targeting a prekindergarten audience. Using

these guides as a starting point, FLMNH can apply for another IMLS grant similar to the one

already supported the creation of the K-12 teacher enrichment programming. With this new

grant, the museum can create a teacher enrichment program for prekindergarten teachers and

provide them with the same resources and tools that are available for K-12 teachers.









APPENDIX A
INTRODUCTORY GUIDE


How to Use these Guides

Children ages 3-5 are naturally curious about the world and this curiosity makes them natural
scientists. Therefore, teaching science in an early education classroom is less about formal
lessons and more about informal exploration and discovery of science concepts. A young child
will stumble upon basic science concepts without realizing what they have discovered. A
teacher, then, must help guide the child's exploration and help the child grasp science concepts.

This idea is emphasized in Florida's Voluntary Prekindergarten Education Standards, which
outline what children in prekindergarten need to know before they graduate into formal school.
The Cognitive Development and General Knowledge domain has three standards in the
Scientific Thinking section:
1. Asks questions and uses senses to observe and explore materials and natural
phenomena
2. Uses simple tools and equipment for investigation
3. Makes comparisons among objects
All three of these standards reflect the basic idea that children should be encouraged in their
natural exploration of the world. These teacher guides also follow that basic precept.


The lessons in this guide are based on Karen Lind's three types of learning experiences:
Naturalistic learning what children do on their own when they explore and play.
Teachers should not take an active role in these learning experiences, but rather provide a
rich environment for the child to explore on their own.
Informal learning the teacher notes the child's experience and then takes advantage of
this "teachable moment" to guide the child to a better understanding of the experience.
Structured learning initiated by the teacher. Lessons are lead by a teacher and designed
for a specific educational purpose.

Teachers are encouraged to move beyond a strictly structured learning environment and allow
their students time and space to engage in naturalistic learning, while occasionally assisting the
child in an informal learning experience. All three leaning experiences equally important and
none should be given precedence.


Each Prekindergarten Educator Guide is organized into three separate sections. The sections
correspond to the stages in Bredekamp and Rosegrant's learning cycle.
1. Awareness and Exploration stage: Introduction of the central theme through pre-visit
activities and discussion.
2. Inquiry stage: Guided questions and suggestions for exploration and expansion of the
theme during the museum visit.









3. Utilization Stage: Post-visit activities and discussion to reinforce learning and
connection of the theme to the child's daily life and interests.

The Prekindergarten Educator Guides are meant as a starting point in developing the concepts
and ideas presented. Teachers are invited and encouraged to expand on the lessons and activities
provided.



Teacher Resources
Bredekamp, Sue and Carol Copple, eds. 1997 "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early
Childhood Programs." National Association for the Education of Young Children,
Washington, D.C.

Bredekamp, Sue and Teresa Rosegrant, eds. 1992 "Reaching Potentials: Appropriate Cur-
riculum and Assessment for Young Children, Vol. 1." National Association for the Edu-
cation of Young Children, Washington, D.C.

Lind, Karen K. 2000 "Exploring Science in Early Childhood Education: A Developmental Ap-
proach." 3rd ed. Thomson Learning, New York.

Voluntary Prekindergarten Education Standards. 2008. Available at http://www.fldoe.org/
earlvlearning/perform.asp









APPENDIX B
ANIMAL HOMES GUIDE

Animal Homes

Background Information
The concept of home is easy for young children to relate to since they have a home and everyone
they know has a home. Just as most people have a home, most animals also have homes. While
people do many things in their homes, the basic purpose of a home is to provide a place to live, a
residence. Similarly, an animal's home provides it with a place of shelter or protection.

Animals have homes of all different shapes and sizes. Some animals build their homes from
materials they collect, such as bird nests. Other animals make their home in places they find,
like bears living in a cave. Whether an animal lives in a nest in a tree or a hole in the ground, its
home is where the animal sleeps, raises its young and retreats to when injured or threatened.


Objectives
Students will be able to:
Identify a home
Identify the differences between animal homes with human homes
Use their senses to make observations about homes



Part One Pre Museum Visit Activities
Materials
Paper
Drawing materials; crayons, pencils, or markers
Landscape pictures from magazines, newspapers, etc.

Resources
At least one of these books:
o "A House for Hermit Crab" by Eric Carle
o "Who Lives Here?" by Maggie Silver
o "Who's at Home?" by Maggie Silver
o "Animal Homes" by Hillary Hockman
Provided Images of Museum


Activities
What is a home?
1. Begin the discussion by asking children to define a home. Write their definitions on a
large piece of paper. Encourage the children to describe their homes with all five of their
senses. Ask them about what they do in their home, as well as what they have in their
home.









2. Introduce the concept of animal homes by reading one of the books listed.
3. After reading the book, return to the definitions of homes you already collected.
4. Compare the home described in the book to the children's homes. Ask the children
"What is the same?" and "What is different?"
5. Talk to the children about the main purpose of a home: to provide shelter.
6. Have the children draw pictures of their homes and what they have described in them.
7. Ask the children to present their pictures to the class or in small groups and record what
they say. The pictures and their descriptions can be made into a class book.

Living in different homes
1. Show the children the different landscape pictures.
2. Have the children identify what kind of animals might live in the pictures.
3. Ask the children to pretend they are the animals they listed and describe what their home
is like. Have them act out the part of the animals living in their homes.
4. Encourage them to use all their senses to describe their home. Is it cold or hot? Dark or
light? Soft or hard? What does it smell like? What kinds of noises can they hear?

Introduction to the Florida Museum of Natural History
1. Familiarize the children with the Florida Museum through the provided pictures. This is
what they will be seeing at the museum.
2. Describe the experience. They will be walking through exhibits, looking at different
types of animal homes.
3. Talk about appropriate museum behavior. They have to use quiet, indoor voices. They
can't run or shout. They can only touch specific parts of the exhibits.



Part Two Museum Visit
The museum has four permanent exhibits and the suggested tour visits three exhibits. A
description of each stop, as well as questions or activities for each stop is provided.

The museum tour is meant to be an interactive learning experience, so these questions and
activities are just suggestions.

Northwest Florida
1. Go into the first room of the exhibit and follow the pathway to the left side.
2. Stop in front of the three logs along the side of the path.
3. In each log, there are sections that can be lifted, pulled out or flipped over. Help the
children find all the sections to look at. There are some insects, frogs and lizards in the
logs.
4. Ask the children if these are animal homes. Why or why not? Do they provide shelter
for the animals?
5. You can either continue through the exhibit and look at some of the other displays or go
back out the way you came in and head across the main hall to the South Florida exhibit.

South Florida









6. Stop in the entrance way, before going up the ramp, and look at the tree and the animals
around the tree.
7. Look at the large tree in the front display case.
8. Ask the children how many animals make their home in this tree. Where are the homes
in the tree?
9. Continue up the ramp into the exhibit. Go to the boardwalk display in the center of the
exhibit.
10. Ask the children to look around the room and find animal homes. There are several
homes to be found in this area: bird nests, crabs living under leaves or in holes, and part
of a human home.
11. Move around the corner, further into the exhibit, and look at the tree filled with bird
nests.
12. Have the children point to and count all the bird nests they see.
13. Ask the children if these nests are animal homes. Do they provide shelter or protection?
Explain that protection doesn't have to be a roof over your head. It can be a place that is
safe, away from dangers.

Butterfly Rainforest (optional)
14. Walk through the entire Rainforest.
15. Ask the children where they think the butterflies' homes are.
16. Look at the butterflies sitting on trees or leaves. See if you can find any handing upside
down under leaves. Ask if the children think this is the butterfly's home. Is the butterfly
safe here?



Part Three Post Museum Visit Activities
Materials
Old magazines with nature pictures
Glue
Paper
Drawing materials

Resources
Provided images of museum

Activities
Remembering the visit
1. Talk through the field trip experience with the children.
2. Ask them what they saw, what they liked, what they thought was interesting.
3. Remind them about the different animal homes they saw. Use the pictures to help them
remember.

Make your dream home!
1. Ask the children to make a picture of an animal home by drawing on a piece of paper or
gluing on pictures from the magazines.









2. Have the children do a show and tell with their pictures, describing the homes they
created.
Expansion Activity
Resources
Animal Home Log (included)

Activities
1. Print out the provided Animal Home Log and hand it out.
2. Ask the children to go on an animal home hunt with their parents around their house or
neighborhood.
3. Tell the children to write down what kind of animal they saw and then draw a picture of
the animal's home.
4. Remind them they can only look and draw a picture. They can't touch the animal homes.







Animal Home Log

What animal did you see?

Where did you see it?

What did its home look like? Draw a picture of what you saw:









APPENDIX C
ANIMAL HABITATS GUIDE

Animal Habitats

Background Information
An animal's habitat is the area surrounding an animal's home. The habitat fulfills an animal's
basic needs of food, water, shelter and space. These four needs are the four essential components
of a habitat. Shelter, or an animal's home, provides a safe space for the animal. Food and water
are necessary to sustain life, while space is necessary because each animal needs a certain
amount of space to survive. Without sufficient space, an animal may not have enough food or
water to live.

An animal's habitat is shared by many different organisms. An organism is any form of
individual life, such as animals, plants, fungus, bacteria, etc. In many ways, animal habitats are
similar to human neighborhoods. Sometimes organisms that share a habitat compete for
resources and sometimes they can live side by side without conflict. Most habitats are composed
of many different organisms sharing food, water, shelter and space.


Objectives
Students will be able to:
Identify a habitat
Identify parts of habitats as food, water, shelter, or space
Use their senses to observe animal habitats
Define the terms habitat and shelter



Part One Pre Museum Visit Activities
Materials
Large piece of paper
Pencils

Resources
One of the following books:
o "In the Small, Small Pond" by Denise Fleming
o "In the Tall, Tall Grass" by Denise Fleming
o "Rabbits and Raindrops" by Jim Arnosky
o "Who's Been Here" series by Lindsay George
Provided images of museum

Activities
What is a habitat?
1. Begin the discussion by asking children to describe their neighborhood. Write their
responses on a large piece of paper. Ask them questions about where they get their food,









where they sleep at night, where they play during the day. Perhaps the local grocery store
provides food and water, their house provides shelter and the streets in their
neighborhood provide space.
2. Introduce the concept of a habitat by reading one of the books listed.
3. After reading, return to the responses the children gave earlier. Ask the children if the
animal's habitats have the same things as their neighborhoods.
4. Explain the four essential components of a habitat: food, water, shelter, and space.
5. Review the things that the children listed and sort them into these four categories.

Exploring the habitat
1. Go outside and explore the area around the school.
2. Find an animal's home and have the children observe the area around the animal home.
Explain that the area around the animal's home is the animal's habitat.
3. Ask the children sit quietly and observe the area around them using their senses. Ask
them to describe what they see, hear, smell, and feel in the habitat?
4. After discussing what they observe, find another animal home.
5. Divide a piece of paper into four sections and label them Food, Water, Shelter and Space.
6. This time, have the children observe the habitat and record what they observe in the
appropriate category.
7. After everyone is finished, return to the classroom and display the paper with the
children's observations in the room.

Introduction to the Florida Museum of Natural History
1. Familiarize the children with the Florida Museum through the provided pictures. This is
what they will be seeing at the museum.
2. Describe the experience. They will be walking through exhibits, looking at different
types of animal habitats.
3. Talk about appropriate museum behavior. They have to use quiet, indoor voices. They
can't run or shout. They can only touch specific parts of the exhibits.



Part Two Museum Visit
The museum has four permanent exhibits and the suggested tour visits three of these. A
description of each stop, as well as questions or activities for each stop is provided.

The museum tour is meant to be an interactive learning experience, so these questions and
activities are just suggestions.

Northwest Florida
1. Go into the first room of the exhibit and follow the path to the middle of the forest
display.
2. Stop in the middle of the room and tell the children this room is a forest animal habitat.
3. Ask the children to find as many animals as they can in the habitat.
a. There are 24 total animals.









b. The animals are listed, with pictures, in the flip book on the "Field Guide to
Northwest Florida" text panel across from the entrance. (This information is also
on the museum's website)
4. Ask the children to explain how all these animals can live in the same habitat. Do all the
different animals have access to the four components of food, water, shelter and space?
5. Go to the last room of the exhibit, the beach habitat, by either walking through the exhibit
or exiting and going down the hallway to the end.
6. Explain that this is a beach animal habitat.
7. Ask the children if they think there are many animals that live at the beach. Ask them to
find the animals that live in the beach habitat.
a. How many beach animals can you find?
i. There are 8 total animals.
ii. The animals are listed in another "Field Guide to Northwest Florida"
panel.
8. Reinforce the idea over the four different habitat components. Ask the children if all of
the animals they found have access to food, water, shelter and space.

South Florida
9. Walk through the exhibit to the large underwater display, just past the boardwalk.
10. Stop in the middle of the underwater display and explain to the children that this is a
pretend display. These animals look a lot bigger than they really are, which makes them
easier to see.
11. Ask the children to pretend they live underwater like these animals. What kind of
underwater animal would they like to be?
12. After the children have taken on the role of an underwater animal, ask them to find where
their home would be, where their food might be. Do they think there is enough space for
all of them?

Butterfly Rainforest (optional)
13. Walk through the entire Rainforest.
14. Ask the children to observe the habitat. Explain that this is a living habitat. The
butterflies have everything they need here to live.
15. Have the children see if they can find the other animals that share the butterflies' habitat.
There are several types of small birds and fish that live in the Butterfly Rainforest.



Part Three- Post Museum Visit Activities
Materials
Animal habitat pictures (Forest, River, Beach) from magazines, newspapers, etc
Shoeboxes
Paint
Glue
Found objects from walk

Resources









* Provided images of museum


Activities
Remembering the visit
1. Talk through the field trip experience with the children.
2. Ask them what they saw, what they liked, what they thought was interesting.
3. Remind them about the different animal homes they saw. Use the pictures to help them
remember.

Hide and Seek Habitats
1. Divide the children into small groups.
2. Give each group one of the habitat pictures.
3. Ask the children to look at the pictures and find the four different components in each
habitat.
4. Have each group report what they found to the class and record their observations on a
large piece of paper or blackboard.
5. Ask the children to compare the lists they have created. Is there anything similar? What
is different?

Create a Habitat
1. Take the children for a walk outside, around the school building or in the park.
2. Ask the children to collect materials to make their own habitat.
3. After collecting materials, return to the classroom.
4. Divide the children into small groups and give them center time.
5. During center time, have each group join you at the "habitat table." Give each group a
shoebox.
6. Using the paint, glue and collected materials have each group create their own habitat in
the shoebox. Remind them that each habitat needs to include food, water, shelter and
space.
7. Display the together in the classroom as the "animal neighborhood."



Expansion Activity
Materials
Animal Habitat Log


Activity
1. Print out the provided Animal Habitat Log and hand it out.
2. Ask the children to go home and observe the animal habitats near their home with their
parents. Have the parents record the four components in the different sections on their
papers.









3. Suggest that they go to a different habitat than the one the found animal homes in before.
They could take a family trip to Payne's Prairie or Devil's Millhopper to look at different
habitats.



Animal Habitat Log

What animal did you see?

Where did you see it?

What did you see in the animal's habitat? Draw a picture of what you saw:


Food Water















Shelter Space









REFERENCE LIST


Bredekamp, Sue and Carol Copple, eds. 1997 "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early
Childhood Programs." National Association for the Education of Young Children, Wash-
ington, D.C.

Bredekamp, Sue and Teresa Rosegrant, eds. 1992 "Reaching Potentials: Appropriate Cur-
riculum and Assessment for Young Children, Vol. 1." National Association for the Edu-
cation of Young Children, Washington, D.C.

Bredekamp, Sue and Teresa Rosegrant, eds. 1995 "Reaching Potentials: Transforming Early
Childhood Curriculum and Assessment, Vol. 2." National Association for the Education
of Young Children, Washington D.C.

Crane, Valerie. 1994 "An Introduction to Informal Science Learning and Research." In Inform-
al Science Learning. Science Press, Pennsylvania.

Harlan, Jean D. and Mary S. Rivkin, 2004 "Science Experiences for the Early Childhood Years:
An Integrated Affective Approach." 8th ed. Pearson, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Florida Department of Education, Office of Early Learning. 2008 "VPK Fact Sheet" Available
at http://www.fldoe.org/earlylearning/publications.asp

Florida Museum of Natural History. 2008 "Function and Purpose." Available at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/museum/function.htm

Florida Museum of Natural History. 2008 "2006-2007 Annual Report." Available at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/resources/resources.htm#pubs

Lind, Karen K. 2000 "Exploring Science in Early Childhood Education: A Developmental Ap-
proach." 3rd ed. Thomson Learning, New York.

Stipek, Deborah, Denise Daniels, Darlene Galluzzo, and Sharon Milburn. 1992 "Characterizing
Early Childhood Education Programs for Poor and Middle-class Children." in Early
Childhood Research Quarterly 7(1).

Voluntary Prekindergarten Education Standards. 2008. Available at http://www.fldoe.org/
earlvlearning/oerform.asp









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Elizabeth Davis Coker (nee Keegstra) was born on June 20, 1983 in Flint, Michigan. Her

family moved several times while she was growing up, so she lived in four states before moving

to a fifth to attend college. Elizabeth started studying the arts early, taking music lessons

throughout middle and high school. During her junior and senior years of high school, she stud-

ied at the South Carolina Governor's School for the Arts and Humanities. It was here that her in-

terest in art history started after a roommate at the school began sharing her art history lessons at

night in their room.

Her interest in art history continued into college, where Elizabeth majored in Art History

at Oberlin College. After graduating in 2005, she moved to Gainesville, FL. Wanting to com-

bine her knowledge of art with education, she looked forjobs at museums and was accepted for

an internship position at the Ham Museum of Art. While working at the Harn, Elizabeth learned

about the Museum Studies Master's program at the University of Florida. Upon the recommend-

ation of her supervisor at the museum, she applied and was accepted to the program.

As a graduate student at the University of Florida, Elizabeth worked on a disciplinary fo-

cus of education within the Museum Studies program. Also during this time, she interned, then

worked at the Florida Museum of Natural History in order to expand her knowledge beyond art

history and art museums. Her experiences at FLMNH provided the inspiration and support for

her Master's thesis project, for which she is truly grateful.









1 cortly that I have read this document and that m my opinon it conlorms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a project in lieu
of these for the degree of Master of the Arts.


Glenn Willumson, Chair
Director of the Graduate Program in Museum Studies


I certify that I have read this document and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a project in lieu
of these for the degree of Master of the Arts.


Jamie Creola
Adjunct d Program Director of Education, FLMNH



1 certify that I have read this document and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a project in lieu
of these for the degree of Master of the Arts.


Michelle Tillander
Assistant Professor of Art Education


This project in liue of thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Fine
Arts and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of the
Arts.

December 2008
Elizabeth Coker


S Ama Calluori Hlcombe'
Director, School of Art & Art History



-, C e of ucinda Lavelli
Dean, College of Fine Arts









GRANT OF PERMISSION
In reference to the following titless:



I, E!, --i h,4- S. (,a j-.- as copyright holder or licensee with the
authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned titless, hereby authorize
the University of Florida, acting on behalf of the Board of Trustees of the University of
Florida, to digitize, distribute, and archive the titles) for nonprofit, educational purposes
via the Internet or successive technologies.
This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite
term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either, for educational uses, with the terms of U.S.
copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Florida, with the
maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of
Florida to generate image- and text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and
enhance access using search software.
This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or
profit.


Signdlure of Copyright Holder
I.1; 2, ".i- i L Cic.___
Printed or Typed Name of Copyright Holder
1- 3"- o'r
Date of Signature

Attention:
Digital Library Center
Smathers Libraries
University of Florida
P.O. Box 117003
Gainesville, FL32611-7003
P: 352.273.2900
DLC@uflib.ufl.edu




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs