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 Title Page
 Copyright
 Acknowledgement
 List of Figures
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 An introduction to the topic: religion,...
 Preliminary stages of an exhib...
 Justification of object select...
 Final products: lights, camera,...
 List and images of objects for...
 First and final drafts of exhibition...
 Annotated bibliography of select...
 Reference
 Signature page
 Grant of permissions














Title: Evoking the spiritual
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091759/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evoking the spiritual
Series Title: Evoking the spiritual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Aiken, Jessica Gabrielle.
Publication Date: 2006
 Notes
General Note: Museum Studies terminal project
General Note: Project in lieu of thesis
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Bibliographic ID: UF00091759
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Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 003625247
oclc - 71437417

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Abstract
        Page vi
        Page vii
    An introduction to the topic: religion, spirituality, art and museums
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Preliminary stages of an exhibition
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Justification of object selection
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Final products: lights, camera, and action!
        Page 31
        Page 32
    List and images of objects for exhibition "evoking the spiritual"
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    First and final drafts of exhibition label copy
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 72
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        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Annotated bibliography of select works
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Reference
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Signature page
        Page 83
    Grant of permissions
        Page 84
Full Text











EVOKING THE SPIRITUAL:
CREATING A RELIGIOUS-BASED EXHIBITION FOR TODAY'S ART MUSEUMS














By

JESSICA GABRIELLE AIKEN


A SUMMARY OF PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

























Copyright 2006

By

Jessica Gabrielle Aiken














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank my family for their support. Throughout the length of this project, I
also had the unending help from the staff at the Appleton Museum of Art, including Dr.
Leslie Hammond, Barbara Chamberlain, and Paul Arthur. I would also like to thank my
advisors, Dr. Glenn Willumson and Dr. Elizabeth Ross, for their guidance.














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Artist. Title (Date) Page

1 Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata (date unknown) 4

2 Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure (date unknown) 6

3 I. Cimentepe, Darya Inci, Hereke Style Prayer Rug (1984-1987) 6

4 Mary Balomenos, Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. (1989) 7

5 World War One Sword (1900-1920) 8

6 Detail: World War One Sword 8

7 View of "Evoking the Spiritual" from the lobby 16

8 Front view of case with spiritual objects 18

9 Anterior view of case with spiritual objects 20

10 Front view of case with secular objects with
religious connotations 24

11 Anterior view of case with secular objects with
religious connotations 26

12 View of east wall, north side, of gallery 26

13 View of east wall, south side, of gallery 28

14 View of south wall of gallery 28












TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii

LIST OF FIGURES iv

ABSTRACT vi

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC: RELIGION,
SPIRITUALITY, ART AND MUSEUMS 1
Religion and Spirituality: Working toward a definition 1
The Categories 3
Religious Objects 3
Spiritual Objects 5
Secular Objects with Spiritual and/or
Religious Connotations 7
Religion, Spirituality and Museums 8

PRELIMINARY STAGES OF AN EXHIBITION 10

JUSTIFICATION OF OBJECT SELECTION 17
Objects Directly Associated with Religions 17
Objects Indirectly Related to Religion or Spirituality 22
Spirituality in Contemporary Art 26

FINAL PRODUCTS: LIGHTS, CAMERA, AND ACTION! 31

APPENDIX
A. List and images of objects for exhibition
"Evoking the Spiritual" 33
B. First and final drafts of object labels 39
C. Annotated bibliography of select works 77

REFERENCES 80



















Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Master of Arts

EVOKING THE SPIRITUAL: CREATING A RELIGIOUS-BASED EXHIBITION
FOR TODAY'S ART MUSEUMS

By

Jessica Gabrielle Aiken

August 2006

Chair: Glenn Willumson
Major Department: Art and Art History

Creating exhibitions is one of the main goals of museums. Through exhibitions,

museums create trust within a community and maintain relevancy in society by

addressing and interpreting contemporary and/or historic issues. While some topics may

be controversial, it is important for museums to remain objective when interpreting

sensitive issues. Religious and spiritual values have been a controversial topic

throughout the history of humankind. Museums that choose to interpret religion and

spirituality must do so after careful research in order to create a unifying experience

within the community, as opposed to a divisive experience.

Exhibiting has become a much more involved process including more outreach to

communities, and more engagement with visitors within museum walls. This can be








accomplished through educational programs and gallery installations, including physical

layout of an exhibition and label writing.

"Evoking the Spiritual" (Appleton Museum of Art, Ocala, Florida; April 6-

August 27, 2006) examines the differences, the similarities, and the obscure areas

between spirituality and religion in contemporary society. The exhibition invites visitors

to participate in a religious and spiritual discussion initiated through each artwork's

interpretive label. The theme of religion and spirituality encourages new interests in

museum guests, allows the exhibition to display unfamiliar artifacts, and exemplifies the

many versions of spirituality and religion from around the world and from different time

periods.














CHAPTER ONE:
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC:
RELIGION, SPIRITUALITY, ART AND MUSEUMS


"Evoking the Spiritual" is an exhibition based on the concepts of religion and

spirituality. In order to achieve this goal, "religion" and "spirituality" must be given

parameters within which the exhibition will function.


Religion and Spirituality: Working toward a definition

Religion and spirituality are similar in that they are faith-based concepts valued

by the majority of individuals in the world. Although these terms share several

similarities, they also have vast differences. The term religion has various definitions, but

is used in this instance to refer to an institutionalized belief system based on the teachings

of a specific leader or literature. Conversely, spirituality, in this paper refers to a belief

system that is not institutionalized. Whereas religion can be considered very exclusive in

that one must conform to a standard, spirituality is very inclusive, subjective, and based

on personal experience.

Religion affects everything from politics to etiquette, and from fashion to food.

Prominent examples of religions include Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism.

Within these groups, as well as other religions, various visual standards have been









established through tradition to convey the principles of their beliefs.' The transference

of this information by the image is done through the learned familiarity of the worshipper

and elements of narration within the object or image.2

Spirituality also affects everything from politics to etiquette, and from fashion to

food. Basically, it is a sense of spirit inferred by the believer from animate or inanimate

objects.3 Spiritual images tend not to be dogmatic, but rely on viewers to infer a personal

spiritual significance from the works. These images may not be commonly recognized by

society (as religious images are), because different objects receive different spiritual

worth from different individuals. Examples of art subjects that are more readily

interpreted as "spiritual," such as Takao Tanabe's Columbian Plateau and Mary

Balomenos' Identical Twins, Roselle N.J., are landscape and/or non-figural paintings.

Although I have tried to give boundaries to the terms "religion" and "spirituality,"

overlap between the concepts is inevitable. The lack of thorough, clear and universally

understood definitions for these words leaves them in murky territory, and claiming an

absolute definition to either word is dangerous and liable to find exception.4 The vast and

sometimes arbitrary nature of these two main ideas helped form the three categories that





' A Cross-Cultural Reader: Religion, Art and Visual Culture addresses the standards of visual culture in
Christianity, Islam, Zen, Hindu and Judaism. Religion, Art and Visual Culture: A Cross-Cultural Reader,
eds. by S. Brent Plate, eds. (New York: Palgrave, 2002).
2 The psychological attachment to an image because of these learned conditions is one type of power that
specifically religious objects hold. This idea is addressed further in the chapter. This is a topic largely
covered in David Freedberg's The Power of Images. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989).
3 In Religion, Art and Visual Culture: A Cross-Cultural Reader, Plate describes this as "religious seeing (p.
11)." To Plate, religious seeing is an action, which is more than merely using one's eyes. It is an activity
that takes place in "an environment conducive to belief, devotion, and transformation." This environment
must be established as such by every individual based on personal perception and experience.
4 An example of this is one of the topics I had considered for the exhibition: juxtaposing secular and
religious art. I came upon problems almost immediately as I attempted to define the terms. Even when I
created my own "definitions" for them, almost every artwork I considered proved to be an exception to
these rules, based on one perspective or another.








would further elucidate the intent of the exhibition. These categories will be discussed at

length later in this chapter.

While attempting to give parameters to the terms "religion" and "spirituality," the

title of the exhibition, "Evoking the Spiritual" merits discussion as well, before

explaining the processes of creating the display. The verb "evoke" means to suggest, to

draw forth, to elicit. The tense of this word used in the title suggests that this is an action

that is taking place now, in the current moment. In the "current moment," the spiritual

sense of artworks and artifacts included in the display is being evoked. The concise and

suggestive wording allows visitors to prepare for the broad theme of the exhibition,

without drawing any specific conclusions. The title remains intentionally vague as to

whether it is the artwork that evokes the spiritual impression or the viewer who evokes

the spiritual sense from within him- or her-self.

The Categories

Through the development of the exhibition, the selected artifacts were disbursed

into three categories: religious objects, spiritual objects, and secular objects with religious

and/or spiritual connotations. 5

Religious Objects

Religious objects have several functions, but one common purpose as aids to the

journeys of their religions' adherents. However, the way (their function) they assist

worshippers varies according to tradition, faith, and physical composition. Their function

can vary as a visual stimulant for meditation without much physical interaction with that




5 This paper will further examine the process of creating and executing an exhibition, including the
selection of artifacts for display. For issues of authenticity and attribution for each artifact, I relied on the
information provided in the object files from the Appleton Museum of Art's curatorial offices.








object, an object of devotion especially relying on physical interaction, and a strictly

utilitarian object for the development of one's faith.

Some artifacts serve to remind the faithful of values upheld by their religion; their

presence is used as a visual reminder from afar and they are not typically physically

handled. For example, Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata (fig. 1) is a representation

of Jesus Christ as he is nailed on the cross.6 This image would hang on a wall a

reverential distance away from worshippers. Through its presence, it would remind

Christians of the sacrifice made by their leader and inaudibly beckon to them to follow

his example of sacrifice. This particular example also serves to remind worshippers of the

main tenant of Christianity: that Christ died by crucifixion for humanities' sins. This

carving's purpose is to represent, not substitute, Christ on the cross.







1. Ivory Carving of Christ with
Stigmata (date unknown). Ocala,
Appleton Museum of Art. Photo: Paul
Arthur


The second main function of the religious objects illustrated in the exhibition is to

take the place of another object or concept. The objects are themselves venerated (as

opposed to the function discussed above of objects as representations) and physically

interacted with on a regular basis. An example to further explain this point is the Male

Ere Ibeji Twin Figure (fig. 2) from the Yoruba people in Africa. Ere ibeji carvings are


6 The image of Christ on the cross is a traditional image associated with Christianity. This is one example
of visual standards and common recognition in religion. For further reading see Religion, Art and Visual
Culture: A Cross-Cultural Reader, eds. by S. Brent Plate, eds. (New York: Palgrave, 2002).








made when a twin dies. Twin births occur more often in the Yoruba culture than any

other culture. Yoruba believe that twins share one soul. When one twin dies, a carving is

made with physical characteristics similar to the deceased twin. The carving is clothed,

"fed," bathed and put to bed as if it were the actual human being it symbolizes.7 This is

done due to the belief that the carving houses the soul of the deceased twin. The soul

lives in the carving as it had once lived in human form. The statuette is also worshipped

on the house altar of the family. The Yoruba people assign equal importance to the spirit

world and the physical world in an attempt to treat both with respect.

The final function of religious objects addressed in this paper is utilitarian objects

for the purpose of worship. One example of this function is found in the Islamic prayer

rug displayed in the exhibition (fig. 3). The rug is too small to cover a significant portion

of floor area as it measures roughly two feet by three feet. Instead of use as a common

household carpet, one individual would use it specifically at times of worship. Muslims

use their prayer rugs when they worship five times a day, separating it from daily rugs as

a clean and reverent surface to conduct their religious services.

Spiritual Objects

Spiritual objects have few direct links to specific religious allusions. There are many

theories about what is considered spiritual and how people infer spiritual importance in

objects.8 Wassily Kandinsky, Russian painter and theorist, put forth the argument that

there are two effects to what the eye beholds: the physical response and the


7 There are many sources for this information. The website "Beauty, Ritual and Culture: West African Art
in Context" is very direct and offers interesting information on several West African art objects.
http://www.muhlenberg.edu/cultural/gallery/african/voruba.html accessed 3/10/2006. Another excellent
source is George Chemeche's Ibeji: the Cult of Yoruba Twins. Milan: Five Continents Editions. 2003).
8 David Freedberg. The Power of Images: Studies in the history and theory of Response.
(Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989). See also James Elkins. On the Strange Place of
Religious Contemporary Art. (New York: Routledge, 2004).
























inner response. The eye beholds images, which give pleasure to the mind. This is the

physical effect of art. The inner impression occurs when the pleasure caused by vision

resonates within one's soul, and makes a lasting impact.9 When applying the theory to

Identical Twins, Roselle N.J., by Diane Farris (fig. 4), one notices that the streaks of blue,

red, black, green, yellow and orange with mixed media do not encourage any type of

figuration by the viewer, but instead send the mind into swirls of activity, brought on by

the action inherent in the painting. The inner resonance caused by this visual stimulant

could affect one to such a degree that it stirs their spiritual sensibilities. In this way,

vision is connected to, and can even inspire and nourish, one's sense of spirituality.


4. Mary Balomenos,
Identical Twins, Roselle
N.J. (1989). Ocala,
Appleton Museum of Art.
Photo: Paul Arthur.




9 Kandinsky is one of the premier artists who elaborates on spirituality in art. However, assigning his
philosophies to Balomenos' work is problematic, because of the time separating the two artists (Kandinsky
worked in the late 19' and early 20t centuries, while Balomenos is a 21" century artist). Another factor to
take into account when assigning a style to Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. are the artistic influences and
school of thought that the artist follows. Further reading on Kandinsky's theories of seeing can be found in
his literary work: Concerning the Spiritual. (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1977).


2. Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure
(date unknown). Ocala,
Appleton Museum of Art.

3. I. Cimentepe, Ayse Kiyak,
Hereke Style Prayer Rug
(1984-1987). Ocala, Appleton
Museum of Art. Photo: Paul
Arthur.









Secular Objects with Spiritual and/or Religious Connotations

Artifacts with practical functions can also be infused with spiritual or religious

meaning, depending on the purpose or intent of their use.10 Just one of several examples

of this in the exhibition is a German sword from World War One (fig. 5). The sword has

its serial number and maker stamped on it, and has wear along its blade. The sword has a

very distinct function. However, its owner gave it another purpose and it became a tool

for loyalty, righteousness, and faith. Much like the prayer rug discussed above, the sword

became a tool for the owner's causes. What changed the purpose of this weapon so

drastically? Along the tine of the blade is an inscription in German, which translates:

"With God for Emperor and Realm (fig. 6)." 1 This engraving provides a clue as to the

motivation behind the use of the sword: its original owner was religious, loyal and

patriotic. It can be claimed that this sword encouraged its owner to mentally elevate

himself to a higher plane, while his physical actions were purely mortal, due to the

inspiration he may have drawn from the weapon.









10 James Elkins wrote an interesting book about the role of religion in contemporary art. He summarized
that there are five categories of religious type art, each with unique connotations as complex as
contemporary religion. In my address of functional art with spiritual or religious connotations, I follow his
argument for inferring meaning (specifically religious) through intent of the maker/commissioner. James
Elkins. On the Strange Place of Religious Contemporary Art. (New York: Routledge, 2004).
David Freedberg also presents the argument that not only great art can cause great response. In western
cultures, art has been ranked to assist in its critical analysis, but this ranking has instead limited the socially
acceptable responses to the image. Therefore, his argument is in favor of recognizing the possibility of
response and also power to common images. David Freedberg, The Power of Images. (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1989): 433.
" The original inscription reads: "Mit Gott fur Kaiser und Reich." Also of historical interest is a figure of
an eagle with a crown upon its head, to the right of the inscription. This is the emblem adopted by the
German royalty. In fact, Kaiser Wilhelm II was the last German king. He abdicated in 1918 and was sent
into exile after WWI.








Religion, Spirituality, and Museums

Some may consider that exhibiting religion and spirituality for interpretation by

the public is not the proper role of a museum. Western cultures, and especially

Americans, have a strong, if volatile, sense of "separation of church and state,"






5. World War One
Sword (ca. 1900-1920).
Ocala, Appleton
Museum of Art. Photo:
Paul Arthur.

6. Detail, World War
One Sword.



the museum being "state." Unless referring to religion or spirituality in distant history, or

in non-western cultures, those themes are handled very cautiously by western museums.12

Religion, viewed from this "outside" perspective, is more easily dissected for an

objective analysis. That being said, current global events are such that religion is a very

kinetic, potentially divisive, and even possibly dangerous topic. In order not to isolate any

faction of a community, museums must address these topics carefully. Due to its

volatility, it is common for museums not to include exhibitions about modern religion,

unless the exhibition is carefully crafted to be respectful of all aspects of this topic. Why

should museums avoid contemporary religious and spiritual issues?

Museums have always inherently conveyed the temperament of their community:

local, national, and perhaps global. It is the goal of museums to be meaningful to their

12 From this point forward, "museums" will in general refer to art museums, unless specified.








constituents, and without doing this museums lose their community's support and trust.

In order to adapt to social changes, museums must find innovative ways of connecting

people, and building new relationships with specific communities.13 It is impossible to be

meaningful to society and to connect with the many various aspects of it without

addressing spiritual or religious needs.14 In answer to the question above, museums

should not avoid difficult subjects such as religion and spirituality, although they should

remain sensitive to the needs of the community.15






























13 Museums are expected to do "more" by their constituents to create a greater and more meaningful
experience for visitors. "Cultivating Community Connections" by Kinshasha Conwill and Alexandra
Roosa. Museum News (2003): 41-46 gives a good overview of the importance of civic engagement for
museums.
14 Stephen Weil calls museums disseminators of information, values, experiences, stimulation and
empowerment ("The Proper Business of the Museum: Ideas or Things?" Muse. (1989): 30). Religion is
merely one topic in which museums can fulfill this responsibility.
15 Museums must be careful not to stray into the domain of religious institutions by providing any type of
religious instruction. The role of museums as secular institutions is to educate, and promote enlightenment
and understanding, within a community.














CHAPTER TWO:
PRELIMINARY STAGES OF AN EXHIBITION

"I think museums are in a marvelously interesting place in American society now.
The largest issues that are in life center around values that have to do with things like
tolerance, diversity, and freedom of expression which museums can translate against our
own history." -Edmund B. Gaither, Museum of the National Center of Afro-American
Artists


One of museums' roles is to interpret and disseminate cultural issues. Creating

exhibitions is one of the main ways museums facilitate this purpose. This chapter will

discuss how "Evoking the Spiritual" was created, and in what ways it addresses the

community.

In order to create a thematic exhibit intended to educate a museum audience and

promote values in the museum's community, several issues must be studied and

addressed. Each museum must recognize who its audience is, and/or what audience the

museum would like to address. What groups of people come to the museum? Is there an

audience type that does not come to the museum, and from whom the museum would like

to encourage participation? A curator must take this into account when he or she

determines what kind of exhibit, or what topic or theme for exhibit, they want to create.

Once the audience is determined, a topic is selected. The topic should be

compatible with the museum audience, but more importantly with the mission of the

museum. The exhibition and its message should comply with the mission and image of

the museum. A museum's mission statement should provide a structure within which to

develop topics. Once the mission is satisfied, it is the duty of the curator to select a topic








that is sensitive to the needs and interests of the community. A museum would not be

fulfilling its civic duties if the community's needs were not addressed. If the public trust

held by museums is compromised, this calls into question the ethics of the museum field

and can ruin the credibility of the institutions. Neither the public, nor the museum is

served when this occurs.

After determining a topic for exhibition, objects must be selected to illustrate the

project. This requires further research on the topic itself, and also research on specific

objects tentatively chosen for the exhibit. Many working lists will be made in the creating

of an exhibit and will be culled into a final list. Research for the historical or topical

relevance of the object to the exhibit is necessary, as is consideration of available space,

installation needs, and condition of the object. Especially large artifacts, or artifacts with

special installation needs, must be carefully considered, because of inherent limitations of

the intended exhibition space. Also, if an object needs restoration or conservation, it may

not be the best visual aide to illustrate the topic.

This procedure was followed when creating the exhibit "Evoking the Spiritual"

(April 4- August 27, 2006) at the Appleton Museum of Art in Ocala, Florida. The

Appleton Museum has a broad variety of holdings, including objects that range from

African, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian, to 19th century

European and American, and modem art.

I began by asking the Appleton Museum for permission to create an exhibit there

in March 2005. The staff welcomed to the idea, and indicated their support of the project.

They gave me permission to access the object files and the museum's database system,

and to browse in the object storage rooms with their supervision. Before researching any








objects, I began by researching the audience. I did this by visiting the museum on several

occasions at various times, attending a few lectures and educational programs, and also

speaking with staff members. It was determined that the average demographic for

museum visitors is generally of an older age bracket and of Caucasian descent. One

lecture about the foundation of the Christian church as it is known today was particularly

well attended. With this in mind, I began to generate potential themes for the exhibit.

To create a theme I took into account my own interests, what arguments or

themes the collection could support, and what the audience may find valuable,

educational and entertaining. Topic ideas ranged from juxtaposing spiritual and secular

art, to questioning "what is art," and finally to illustrating how art museums operate in

their art-collecting function. Eventually, I had several themes I thought could be

interesting to museum visitors.

Through research of the objects and further consideration about the three potential

themes listed above, I decided not to use any of them and instead chose the theme

"Evoking the Spiritual," which would become (through research and selection of an

objects list) a survey of religious and spiritual art and an examination of religion and

spirituality in contemporary times. The eliminated topics were interesting to me, but also

had several strong deterrents. While researching secular and religious art and finding

examples in the Appleton Museum's storage rooms, I realized that it is impossible to

define art as strictly secular or religious. For example, it is argued among modem

scholars that even a pious figure of Christ has a sexual (and secular) allure to it. I decided

against the topic of questioning what is art, because this too is an indefinable concept.

Also, an exhibition of this theme would be difficult to support sufficiently with the








resources available in the museum., The last theme considered was explaining in

exhibition form, how art museums function and why curtain aesthetic choices are made in

museums. I found this topic very interesting, but decided against it for several reasons.

Art museums are very complex in their functioning and rationale. One deterrent was the

extensive work, exhibition space and resources needed to successfully achieve the theme.

Another strike against this idea was that a local museum was currently displaying a

similar exhibition.

Once the topic was determined, I had several goals that I wanted to accomplish

when selecting objects to fill the available space. The objects had to create visual interest;

include a variety of cultures and time periods; and demonstrate the breadth of the

Appleton Museum's collections.

Not only did I want to accurately illustrate the topic, but I also wanted to show

what other kinds of artifacts the Appleton Museum has, but that are not often displayed.

In almost any museum, only a fraction of its objects are on display at one given time.

This can be due to a number of factors, including improper or insufficient research on an

object, condition of the object, lack of historical importance, exhibition space available,

storage and/or installation needs. For example, there was a particular Buddha statue that I

wanted to use, but there was insufficient information about the artifact and it could not be

properly identified. Also, it had a small but noticeable amount of damage on an important

symbolic portion of the figure. This figure was not selected for exhibit. I wanted to

choose important objects that would visually support my topic, but that were unfamiliar

to museum visitors. This, I hoped, would generate interest not only in my exhibit, but

also renew interest in the holdings at the museum.








Finding the appropriate objects was difficult and took much research. It took

several weeks of reviewing the Appleton Museum's collection and selecting art that met

requirements of being available, in good condition and also being able to support the

theme. After several preliminary object lists were created and changed, improved and

culled, a master list was finally established.16 During the list-making process, ongoing

research occurred to ensure that the selected objects were authentic and had enough

information to properly identify them. The research was then used for writing exhibition

labels.

Because the theme of the exhibition occasionally seemed inapplicable to some of

the objects chosen for display, an interpretive label was written to explain fully the links

connecting the two. Each artifact received a label explaining one possible point of view,

justifying one way that the object might be connected to the theme.17 These texts began

with basic identifying information about the artwork. The format of this section followed

the format adopted by the Appleton Museum, to achieve consistency throughout the

entire museum. After this, each label had a limit of 250 words in order to avoid

unnecessary lengthiness and still be able to supply a concise description to the reader.

Explained first in the text was a possible spiritual or religious interpretation of the object,

followed by facts and information about it. The final element of the labels (at the bottom

of the text, and included in the 250 word limit) was a section entitled "For Further

Consideration." This section asked several questions about the object and about the

readers own interpretation and perspective of what they saw on display. This questioning

16 See "Chapter Three: The Objects" for a complete list of objects displayed in the exhibitions, and
justifications for their use. To read the interpretive object labels, see Appendix B.
17 The labels were written under the guidelines of Beverly Serrell's book, Exhibit Labels. Serrell offers
comprehensive information about different types of museum labels and how to effectively write a museum
label. Serrell, Beverly, Exhibit Labels: An Interpretive Approach. (New York: Altamira Press, 1996).








was done to encourage viewers to discuss the object, exhibition as a whole, the activities

and roles of the museum, and also spirituality and religion in their daily lives.

Once the artifacts were selected and labels written for each of them, it was

necessary to write a large didactic text to explain the "big idea" of the exhibition. This

was not a simple task because "Evoking the Spiritual" addresses sensitive topics. To

introduce the concepts involved in the exhibition, I chose to discuss art and religion from

a chronological perspective, pointing out how religion has affected art in the past, and

how spirituality is a more prevalent theme in art. The nature of time, art, and religion is

very interesting to me, and I thought this tactic would make the topic more applicable for

modem museum visitors. The didactic text describes the exhibition as a survey of

cultures and periods through art and artifacts, based on the themes of religion and

spirituality. It explains that the exhibition is roughly divided into three categories: art

directly related to religion; functional objects with religious or spiritual connotations; and

spirituality found in contemporary art. The last paragraph, like the last section of the

object labels, ends with a question: "Can you think of anything else in your life that

evokes a spiritual response?"

Planning the layout of the gallery is the last task of creating an exhibition. For

"Evoking the Spiritual," three categories were grouped together in five freestanding

display cases or hung on adjoining walls (fig.7).'8 The contemporary spiritual artwork is

mainly two dimensional, and requires the use of the two available walls, while the

remaining artifacts were displayed in vitrines. The three largest cases were arranged in


18 Initially, two cases that were built into the walls were to be used to house two of the three groups. At the
time of installation, these cases were not prepared to hold any objects, so an impromptu setup was
designed. This second arrangement of the objects was personally much more satisfactory as the floor space
of the gallery was more fully utilized and left less unused and empty space. This turn of events taught me
the need to be flexible in exhibition planning.








"V" formation in front of the gallery's entranceway, with the large Shakyamuni Buddha

placed in the center of the gallery, directly in front of the large vinyl text displaying the

title of the exhibition. Once visitors approached the gallery to view this artwork, the other

cases and artifacts flanking this central vitrine would emerge and visually draw them into

room.19 Two of the large vitrines were designed to be viewed in the round, with objects

facing two directions. Two other cases, which hold one artifact each, are in covers of the

gallery. The artifacts contained in these cases only have one "active" side that is facing

the gallery. The Buddha figure also only has one engaging side, but this figure and its

case is centered in the gallery, as it is one of the largest and more visually prominent

pieces in the exhibition.


7. View of
"Evoking the
Spiritual" from
the lobby.
Photo: Paul
Arthur




















19 A further explanation of why each object chosen for "Evoking the Spiritual" was selected can be found in
Chapter Three: Justifying the Objects in the Exhibition.














CHAPTER THREE:
JUSTIFICATION OF OBJECT SELECTION


Curators are committed to the research and display of artifacts. As such, object-

oriented exhibitions require investigation of each artwork considered for display.

However, displaying objects that fit the theme of spirituality and religion in art was only

one goal of the exhibition. Another goal was to display works from a variety of cultural

backgrounds and time periods. It also was important to display art and artifacts that were

new and unfamiliar to the public, in order to show the public the diversity of the

museum's collection.20 The justifications of the objects selected for the exhibition are

provided in this chapter in context of the categories they illustrate.21

Objects directly associated with religions

The first category illustrated in the exhibition is religious objects-items that are

directly related to a specific religion. These objects are primarily grouped together in one

large, waist-high vitrine, as they are fairly small (fig. 8). This configuration also lends

strength to the topic by their physical proximity to one another. These particular artifacts

represent some of the most influential religions of the world. They are also a good cross-

section of strengths of the collection.





20 All of the artifacts selected for this exhibition were taken from storage. Some had not yet been displayed
at the Appleton Museum of Art.
21 Images and a complete list of objects can be seen in Appendix A. The first and final drafts of exhibition
labels for these objects can be found in Appendix B.































8. Front view of case with religious objects. Photo: Paul Arthur.


Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata is an iconic example of a crucifix and a

direct reference to Christianity. Christians believe the historical figure of Jesus is the

Christ and son of God, and that he died on a wooden cross in order to spiritually atone for

humankind's transgressions. Crucifixes, images of Jesus on the cross, are important

symbols in the Christian faith. The starkly contrasting the pale ivory "skin" of the

weakened man with the vivid red wounds on his palms, tops of his feet, and also just

below his heart on his chest. The opposing colors cause the already sympathetic faithful

to focus on Jesus' suffering and sacrifice. This particular crucifix (it shows Christ as if he








were stretched on the cross, but there is no cross with the Appleton crucifix) was

probably made in Spain, although the exact location and date are unknown.22

Next to this object in the vitrine is a male ere ibeji twin figure.23 Its presence in

the exhibition serves to represent the Yoruba cult of twins. The wooden carving is

dedicated to the god of twins, Ibeji, and functions as a home for the soul of a deceased

male twin. It is important to note why this particular figure was chosen for the exhibition.

24 The Appleton Museum has a large and diverse African collection with many wood

figures, including several ere ibeji carvings. This figure was chosen due to its particularly

interesting aesthetic qualities. The carving itself is very carefully rendered and the wood

and cloth material are in good condition, having been tended and cared for as a human

itself. It is wearing a "shirt" of blue cloth lined on the outside with cowry shells. Cowry

shells were the monetary currency of African cultures, and the great quantity

incorporated into this figure's clothing indicates that it once belonged to a wealthy

family.

A statuette of Osiris completes this side of the vitrine. This figure is just over four

inches high, yet it represents one of the most powerful gods of ancient Egypt. It was

selected for the exhibition to demonstrate that religion-in the sense of an

institutionalized faith versus any single denomination-is very old. In fact, this object is

among the oldest of the Appleton Museum's collection, dating from the 26h Dynasty in


22 Information for this ivory collected from the Appleton Museum's object file. Biblical references to the
wounds of Christ can be found in the New Testament books of the Bible: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
The wound in Jesus' side is noted in John 19: 34.
23 The italicized title refers to the artifact at the Appleton Museum of Art. Un-italicized names (i.e. ere
ibeji) refer to a type of artifact, and not the specific object found in the exhibition.
24 See page 4 for further explanation of the religious meaning of ere ibeji figures. For suggested reading,
see: George Chemeche. Ibeji: The cult of Yoruba twins. (Milan: Five Continents Editions,
2003).








Egypt, more specifically circa 664-525 B.C.E. It is complete despite its age. This small

statuette was probably for private use on a personal or home altar. Osiris is the Egyptian

god most associated with the afterlife to ancient Egyptians due to an ancient myth.

According to the myth, after a grueling feud with his brother, the god Set, Osiris was

murdered by Set and his body cleaved into pieces. Osiris' wife Isis, also an Egyptian

deity, bound his body together again, thus creating the first mummy. Subsequently,

funerary rites for were dedicated to Osiris, so that he would judge in favor of the

deceased and send them to paradise in their afterlife.25 The green patina of its bronze

material implies the rotting flesh of a mummy.


I 1


SRichard Hooker. "Osiris," (Washington State University, 1999),
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/-dee/EGYPT/OSIRIS.HTM (accessed on November 14,2005).


9. Anterior view of case with religious objects. Photo: Paul Arthur.








The remaining two figures in this display case are a figure of Parvati, a Hindu

goddess, and also an African hogon figure (fig. 9). Parvati is a bronze figure dating from

the 17 to the 19 centuries. In Hinduism, Parvati is an important goddess married to the

fierce god Shiva. She is honored for her physical perfection, her mental prowess, and her

nurturing nature. She is also identified with many virtues including fertility, devotion to

one's spouse, and power.26 This statuette is a classic example of the voluptuous female

figures found in Indian art. Because Parvati is considered the perfect woman, this figure

stands in a very sensuous pose, called tribhanga, which incorporates bends in the figure's

body to give a lively, active impression.

The Mali hogon figure on a horse is also a very religious object. Hogons are

military and political leaders in west African cultures charged with cultish duties of

ensuring the fertility of the earth and protecting the Dogon society. Hogons are also

healers in their communities and are respected for their magical powers. The wooden

representations were carried with the hogons to lend a magical wisdom to their

leadership. The horse is a very significant element of the carving, representing wealth and

prestige. Horses also have cosmological value, as they were believed to have helped

create the world by carrying an ark bearing the first eight ancestors to earth.27

The next object in this category is not located in the vitrine due to space

limitations. It hangs on the east wall of the gallery. 28 The Hereke Style Prayer Rug is

used in the Islam religion as a clean surface for kneeling in prayer. This rug is significant

to the faith. Some prayer rugs have Islamic tenants embroidered along the edges, and

26 Roy C. Craven. A Concise History of Indian Art (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).
27 Information found at the Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York website:
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/sfw/hod 1979.206.173a-c.htm. Accessed 3/10/2006.
28 East is a significant direction as it points toward Mecca, and would be the directional setting of the rug if
it were to be used in prayer. See pages 4-6 for further information about this prayer rug.








have forms that represent architectural elements of mosques.2 It is made of silk knots

hand-tied onto a silk weft, and is of exceptional quality as the 1600 knots per square inch

attest. The colors and details found in this prayer rug are remarkable. The religion it

represents, Islam, is the second largest religion in the world and should be included from

a survey-type exhibition of religions.

The last object of this group is a bronze statue of Buddha located in the center of

the gallery. The Shakyamuni Buddha is an exceptional piece from the Appleton

Museum's collection, because of its large size (about three feet high by two feet wide),

and aesthetic quality. The bronze maintains its yellow luster, with dark lines incised to

indicate patterns on the statues "clothing." Buddha sits in a pose of meditation with his

legs crossed and eyes closed. One hand rests in his lap while the other gently touches the

ground. The statue sits upon an accompanying bronze base in the shape of a lotus

blossom. Several significant symbols of Buddhism are present in this sculpture, making it

a good example of typical Buddha sculptures. Some of the symbolic elements in this

figure include blue hair swirled in snail-shell shaped forms, and the hair between the

statue's eyes that represents enlightenment.30

Objects indirectly related to religion or spirituality

The next category of the exhibition is the practice of assigning functional objects

spiritual or religious meanings. These objects are grouped together in a separate vitrine,

except for one object too large to be included (fig. 10). These objects have common, non-

religious functions, but their purposes have strong spiritual significance.


29 Helen Gardner. Gardner's Art Through the Ages (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001).
30 For more information about this statue, Shakyamuni Buddha, and its links to Buddhism, see its object
label in Appendix B. Further general information about Buddhist art can be found at: Helen Gardner.
Gardner's Art Through the Ages (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001).








The first example of this in "Evoking the Spiritual" is a group of three ancient

coins: a Sicilian dekadrachm, a Macedonian tetradrachm, and a Roman aureus.31 These

coins in particular were chosen for the exhibition for their quality, the luster and the

clarity of the stamps on them. The stamps on them are also unique and strongly

connected to the originating area's religious temperament and regional identity. Coins

have the practical function of being currency; however, in order to identify the coins, they

must bear a unique mark. The Sicilian dekadrachm shows an image of the sea nymph

Arethusa, an appropriate choice for the island state. The Macedonian tetradrachm bears

the goddess Athena in military garb as reference to the military victories of the leader

Antigonus III Doson, whose name is also stamped on the coin because he was in power

when this coin was minted. In contrast to the coins of these smaller domains, which

display local deities and regional traits, the Roman aureus displays the emperor of Rome

on one side of the coin and the image of a seated Jupiter fills the other. No more local

deities fill the sides of the coins, but a man who equates himself to the king of the gods.

These coins do not necessarily inspire spirituality, but they attest to the religious beliefs

of these ancient cultures.

The next figures in this case are three pre-Columbian whistles: Mayan Bird and

Deer whistles, and a Figural whistle from Vera Cruz. There are several whistles on

permanent display in the galleries of the Appleton Museum, but they are not explained in

context of their purpose. Their function as musical instruments is apparent, but their

purpose as tools of meditation was only discovered thorough research. Recent discoveries



31 David M. Schaps. The invention of coinage and the monetization of Ancient Greece (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 2004). See also Coinage and Identity in the Roman provinces (Oxford; New
York: Oxford University Press, 2005).









10. Front view of
case with secular
objects with
spiritual
connotations.
Photo: Paul
Arthur.











have revealed that the Mayan whistles are intricate musical instruments that could

achieve up to five notes. The complex musical sound emanating from the Mayan

instruments was believed to elevate the mind of listeners to a higher plane of

consciousness. This tool for mental elevation would have been used in religious rituals

such as special ceremonies and funerary rites.32

Some would say the German World War One Sword is a curious addition to an

exhibition about religion and spirituality. I planned to include a weapon in the display,

based on the principle of fighting for one's beliefs or honor, if an adequate example was

found. This sword was noticed due to a foreign inscription noted in the museum database,

but its meaning was as yet unknown. After researching the language, I discovered that the

inscription meant "With God for Emperor and Realm." Another inscription revealed

another interesting fact about it. A German royal arms manufacturer in Berlin made the

sword during the period of World War One. The inscription of the sword guides viewers

32 In an article on Mayan whistles New York Times (March 29, 1988) William J. Broad explains how
discoveries in recent excavations suggest that these instruments played a key role in Maya life. See also
Maya: Treasures of an ancient civilization (New York: H. N. Abrams in association with the Albuquerque
Museum, 1985).








to one possible purpose of this weapon's making: to demonstrate faith in God through

honor of leader and state. Because of these reasons and the direct referral to faith, the

sword was an ideal candidate for the category of functional objects with religious or

spiritual connotations.33

The final objects to be included in the case are two Mexican pageant masks (fig.

11). One mask is a color representation of a butterfly, and the other mask is a large. male

head with a beard and horns. These masks were used to transform their wearers into the

characters depicted on the masks. Their purpose, however, was to teach the communities

moral lessons brought overseas by the Spanish missionaries. In the 1600's when the

Spanish conquistadors suppressed the local Central American cultures, they found the

native inhabitants using masks in pageants. The Spanish missionaries transformed those

pageants into Passion plays and other re-enactments taken from the Bible as a means to

convert the villagers to Christianity. The result is a blend of faiths of animism, the belief

of spirits in the natural world, and Christianity. The butterfly mask reflects the hints of

animism still prevalent in contemporary Mexican culture, while the devil mask ("el

Diablo") was used for the Christian pageants.34 These two masks were recently acquired

in Mexico and donated to the museum. They are contemporary examples of an ancient

practice, which still exists today.










33 For more discussion on the spiritual nature of the sword and its inscription, see page 8.
34 Barbara Mauldin. Masks of Mexico: tigers, devils and the dance of life (Santa Fe, Museum of New
Mexico Press, 1999).









11. Anterior view of
case with secular
objects with
religious
connotations. Photo:
Paul Arthur






The final object in this category is an African drum from the Baule culture of west

Africa displayed in a corner vitrine (fig. 12). The drum's function is to make a musical

sound for ceremonies or for communication. However, the purpose of the drum is very

similar to the Mesoamerican whistles as it was used in various religious and spiritual

ceremonies. Its rhythm, along with the swirl of dancing, transported the viewer, listener

and participant to a higher level of spiritual awareness. The Baule have a strong belief in

the spiritual world, and adhere to both animism and ancestor worship, which are reflected

in the carvings on the drum. At the center of the drum cylinder is a carving of two people

standing on what appears to be a cow. The people and the animal both indicate the types

of beliefs held by the Baule people.35

12. View of east wall,
north side, of gallery.
Photo: Paul Arthur.










35 Main information for this artifact gathered from research of the Victor Du Bois Collection of Appleton
Museum of Art by scholars. For further information, see also Susan Vogel. African art, Western eyes (New
Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997).








Spirituality in Contemporary Art

It can be argued that all religious objects hold some sense of spirituality, as they

touch the human soul, or human spirit. The category of spirituality in contemporary art

attempts to push the "definition" of spirituality to new dimensions as applied to this

exhibition. I felt it was necessary to address the possibilities of spiritual content found

and inferred in contemporary artworks, because much of contemporary art goes beyond

"art for art's sake" and strives to address issues effecting humanity.

The artifacts in the spiritual category of the exhibition have been gathered along

two adjoining walls (figs. 13 and 14). The first painting of this category that visitors see

upon entering the exhibition is Takao Tanabe's (b. 1926) Columbian Plateau.36 This

painting shows an expansive blue sky blanketing an equally expansive brown and green

plateau. There are no man-made structures in the painting. The only indication of

humanity is the understood invisible presence of the artist recording this scene on the

canvas. In addition to the soul-searching isolation captured in the painting, the artist

himself has stated that he seeks these remote locations, because he gains spiritual

perspective from the uninhabited landscape.37

Next to Tanabe's painting is a wood sculpture by artist Ralph Hurst (b. 1947)

called Girl Washing her Hair. Hurst has said that he derives pleasure from the simple

forms rendered in his sculptures and from working with the material.38 This pleasure is a

sensation experienced though spiritual satisfaction. The simple forms of the sculpture


36 The label for this piece likens the painting Columbian Plateau to those associated with Romanticism, the
19"t century movement in which nature is attributed with human-like characteristics. This comparison is
problematic due to an uncertainty of the degree of Romanticism's influence on Takao Tanabe's artistic
expression.
37 Tanabe has been quoted in several of his exhibition catalogues, including those published by the Mira
Godard Gallery (Ontario, Canada) and the Vancouver Art Gallery (British Columbia, Canada).
38 Hurst is included in the Florida Department of State Art Collection.








understate the delicacy and detail of the female body, and show her in a vulnerable, yet

very beautiful, pose. Not only does this artwork refer a spiritual satisfaction the artist

achieves when fulfilling his creative passion, but another element of spirituality is

addressed, which is the reverence and mystery of form, specifically the female form.

13. View of east
wall, south side, of
gallery with
S i t' contemporary
spiritual artworks.
n. , Photo: Paul
Arthur.







14. View of south
wall of gallery
with contemporary
spiritual artworks.
Photo: Paul
Arthur.





There are many spiritual qualities associated with the female form: nurture, mysticism

and craftiness, among others.39

Another female representation in "Evoking the Spiritual" is Marilyn Monroe, as

photographed by famous artist Bert Stemrn. Marilyn Monroe is an icon of Hollywood, and

still recognized today as an American sex symbol. This particular photograph has an

intriguing history, as it was among the last photos taken of Monroe before her untimely


39 Betty Friedman counters some of these stereotypes in The Feminine Mystique (New York: Norton,
1983).








death. This. photograph was chosen, for the exhibition, because of the god-like status of

celebrities in today's society, and Monroe's position in the upper echelon of the

Hollywood culture. By considering public figures through the perspective of spirituality,

the simple ideas of adoration and "role model" transform into obsession, even to the

extreme degree of worship. In this sense, memorabilia of esteemed contemporary figures

become icons for obsessive devotion.40

Mary Balomenos' work Identical Twins, Roselle N.J. was selected for the

exhibition based on its abstract, and therefore subjective, nature. This type of artwork was

chosen for several reasons, including reminding viewers that they do not have to

understand the intent of the artist in order to respond to art. Many museum visitors do not

like non-figural modem art because it is not as easily understood as art with recognizable

figures. This specific artwork was chosen to encourage them to respond, look and

question, thus allowing the painting to have meaning to them. As previously discussed,

art, when allowed to resonate within a person, can help one elevate to a spiritual plain of

consciousness.41

The final work of art in this category is Untitled by Keith Crown, a California

watercolorist.42 This is also an abstract work, although it does have familiar figures in it.

There are dark shapes in the background, suggesting mountains, and in the center of them

are three roughly outlined church steeples, with their crosses outlined in white against the

darkness behind them. Above the mountain shapes are several red splashes, bringing to

mind the night effects of the aura borealis. This painting is intriguing, because it makes

40 A search on www.google.com for "Marilyn Monroe" finds 17,900,000 websites in 0.04 seconds with
those words included. Much of the research for this photograph's label comes from "Marilyn Monroe
Official Website" http://www.marilynmonroe.com/index.php (accessed on November 14, 2005).
41 For further discussion, see page 6.
42 Sheldon Reich. Keith Crown: Watercolors (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1986).








one question if it is spiritual due to the natural surroundings of the buildings, or because

the buildings are churches. Should the viewer marvel at the impressive landscape, or be

inspired by the humble steeples?

These selected artworks and artifacts show the religious and spiritual theme of the

exhibition, although at first glance they may seem disjointed and unrelated. When placed

together in an exhibition space and sufficiently interpreted to guide museum visitors to a

conclusion, they compliment each other and provide interesting and unique visual

relationships with one another. Although they differ in culture, media, and time period,

together these artifacts provide a unified exhibition, and encourage discussion and

interaction between the museum and its community.














CHAPTER FOUR:
FINAL PRODUCTS: LIGHTS, CAMERA, AND ACTION!



The "life" of an exhibition does not end after its installation. After completing the

installation of "Evoking the Spiritual," a docent tour and lecture was scheduled to

familiarize them with the topic of the exhibition. The insight gained from this program

would help the docents convey the intent of the exhibition more thoroughly to museum

visitors. In order to assist them on their tours, I suggested discussion questions and

further explained in detail my intent for the exhibition. I encouraged them to ask many

questions to encourage museum visitor participation, in the hopes that this would have a

more lasting impact on visitors than lecturing and citing facts without discussion.

A public lecture was also scheduled as part of the educational programming

surrounding the exhibition. The lecture outlined the purpose of the exhibition, explained

select objects within the display, and also discussed the role of museums concerning

religion and spirituality. This speech differed from the docent talk, as I chose to discuss

different points, like the role of museums in communities.

Several products were created by the museum in preparation for the exhibition,

including a magazine advertisement, press release, and informational bulletins that

advertised the exhibition. It was reported in two newspapers, and a video news clip for a

local closed network news channel was created with interviews of the Appleton Museum

of Art Director, Robin Muse McClea, and myself.








In creating this exhibition, I learned that it is not possible to simply do something

without thoroughly considering all facets involved- such as publications and educational

programs. At a small to mid-sized museum, a curator must wear many hats. She or he

must understand the needs and interests of the local communities and address those with

sensitivity and enthusiasm. She must also be familiar with the museum collection and

resources. Skills such as writing, speaking, and visualizing space are critical for

successful exhibitions. Collaboration with fellow museum staff, like educators and public

relations officers, is also necessary in order to communicate effectively with the public

outside of the museum and away from the exhibition. The success of the exhibition was

due to the cooperation of several departments, including the collections' management and

education departments.

Through this experience, I have gained new skills and am knowledgeable about

the full process of creating an exhibition, from initial concept to de-installation. I have

acquired a new respect for all museum staff and their interconnected roles in the

institution. Finally and most importantly, I have learned how valuable a community is to

its museum, and how important a museum is for society's interpretation, education,

preservation of history, and spiritual well being.





33







APPENDIX A
LIST AND IMAGES OF OBJECTS FOR EXHIBITION
"EVOKING THE SPIRITUAL"








1. Artist unknown
Spanish, artist's dates unknown
Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata, date
unknown
Ivory and pigment
AL3363




2. Artist unknown
Nigerian. artist'. date, unknown
Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure. date unknown n
Wood, shells and fabric
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL3563



3. Artist unknown
Egyptian, artist's dates unknown
Osiris, 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC
Bronze
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G12615





4. Artist unknown
Indian, artist's dates unknown
Statuette of Parvati, 17th- 19th Century
Bronze
Gift of Dr. Duain and Donna Vierow
G25003









5. Artist unknown
Malinese, artist's dates unknown
Hogon Figure on a Horse, dates unknown
Wood
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1077




6. I. Cimentepe (Designer), Ayse Kiyak (Weaver)
Turkish, artists' dates unknown
Hereke Style Prayer Rug, 20th Century
Silk on Silk
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL2378





7. Artist unknown
Sino-Tibetan, artist's dates unknown
Shakyamuni Buddha, ca. 19th Century
Bronze, gold, and pigment
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G16001.1-.5



8. Artist unknown
Sicilian, artist's dates unknown
Dekadrachm, 405-400 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21080


9. Artist unknown
Macedonian, artist's dates unknown
Tetradrachm, 229-220 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21110








10. Artist unknown
Roman, artist's dates unknown
Aureus, 64-68 A.D.
Gold
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21082


11. Artist unknown
Mayan, artist's dates unknown
Bird Whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL405



12. Artist unknown
Mayan, artist's dates unknown
Figural Whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL3870


4 *


13. Artist unknown
Veracruz, artist's dates unknown
Deer Whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL470


14. J. Robrecht
German, artist's dates unknown
World War I Sword, ca. 1900-1920
Steel
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL 3689








15. Artist unknown
Mexican, artist's dates unknown
Male with Spoon-shaped earrings, 19t-20t century
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleveland Scarbrough
G20037




16. Artist unknown
Mexican, artist's dates unknown
Butterfly Mask with Face, 19t-20t century
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleveland Scarbrough
G20038


17. Artist unknown
Ivory Coast, artist's dates unknown
Drum, date unknown
Wood, animal skin, and cord
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1108




18. Takao Tanabe
Canadian, born 1926
Columbian Plateau, 1996
Acrylic on canvas
Gift of Anona Thorne
G21020

19. Ralph Hurst
American, 1918-2003
Girl Washing her Hair, 1947
Mahogany wood
Gift of Ralph N. Hurst
G21025


ZI_______








20. Bert Stem
American, born 1929
Marilyn Monroe: The Last Sitting, 1962
Photograph
Museum Purchase
P20334.2



21. Mary Balomenos
Canadian, artist's dates unknown
Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. (Diane Arbus
Series),1989
Mixed media and acrylic on paper
Gift of Diane Farris
G22403

22. Keith Crown
American, born 1918
Untitled, 1979
Watercolor
Gift of Ellen S. Dryer
G19001





39






APPENDIX B
FIRST AND FINAL DRAFTS OF EXHIBITION LABEL COPY








Exhibition Introductory Text
Draft 1 out of 20

Recent art interpretation has neglected a very human aspect within the creating of art: the

spiritual. Evoking the Spiritual strives to address this negligence in the context of the

Appleton Museum's permanent collection and more rarely seen objects. The continuous

struggle between art and religion has brought the modem museum to regard western

religious or spiritual art as taboo and borderline unacceptable for public display. While

this stricture is evident for western art, non-western art remains immune to this spiritual

prejudice, as those cultures appear more sincere and less critical toward the spiritual.

This exhibition attempts to demonstrate various spiritual forces that would unify the

spiritual intent of western and non-western artists in regard to their work.

Exhibition Introductory Text
Draft 20 out of 20

Religion and art have a long history together. Religious art usually depicts a traditional

religious scene or symbol that represents a moral ideal. These images are meant to

inspire an internal reaction in their viewers, and encourage them to pursue righteous

behavior. In Western culture, religious art and themes are most apparent before the

1700's, when the Christian church was at its height of influence. In modern times, art

assumes a more secular function, and spirituality in art-art that emphasizes personal

enlightenment without alluding to specific religious beliefs-is more prevalent. Evoking

the Spiritual explores religion and spirituality in art through objects from the permanent

collection of and on long-term loan to the Appleton Museum of Art.








The exhibit invites you to participate in a "conversation" that goes beyond the physical

appearance of the objects on display. These artifacts and artworks were selected from

different cultures and time periods based upon their potential to draw attention to the

religious or spiritual values in art. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways:

through the artworks' creators' intention; the context in which the artwork or artifact was

used; or through your own individual perspective. One display case shows examples of

historic religious objects used for worship, while the other case exhibits non-religious

artifacts used everyday, but have religious references. In the contemporary art, allusions

to specific religious symbols and traditions may be absent, but its spirituality can be

inferred, either in the artist's intention or in the viewer's interpretation of the piece.



Evoking the Spiritual illustrates many versions of spirituality.

Can you think of anything else in your life that evokes a spiritual response?

Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata
Draft 1 out of 8

Unknown
Sant Jordi, Barcelona, Spain
Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata
Ivory and pigment
AL3363

Crucifixes, or the image of the Jesus on the cross, are important symbols in the Christian

faith. Christians believe that Jesus is the Christ and son of God. Representations of the

crucifix remind believers of the sacrifice made by their god to atone for their sins. This

ivory shows Jesus as he would appear nailed on a cross. There are wounds on his hands

and feet to indicate the nails that affixed him to the wood. A gash on his left side is also

visible. This represents the wound inflicted by a guard who lanced Jesus to determine if








he was still alive. Some Christians believe that wine flowed from this fifth wound,

although the Book of John states that blood and water poured out.



Crosses and crucifixes are generally found above altars in Christian churches. Their

central position in the church reminds believers of the ultimate sacrifice of their god, and

their duty to honor and obey his laws.

Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata
Draft 8 out of 8

Artist unknown
Spanish, artist's dates unknown
Ivory Carving of Christ with Stigmata, date unknown
Ivory and pigment
AL3363

Christians believe the historical figure of Jesus is the Christ and son of God, and that he

died on a wooden cross in order to spiritually atone for humankind's transgressions.

Crucifixes, images of Jesus on the cross, are important symbols in the Christian faith.

This ivory shows Jesus as he would appear nailed on a cross. The Five Sacred Wounds of

Christ, also known as stigmata, appear on his feet, hands and side. The wounds on his

hands and feet indicate the nails that affixed him to the wood. A gash in his left side is

also visible representing the wound inflicted by a guard who lanced Jesus to determine if

he was still alive. Some Christians believe that wine flowed from this fifth wound,

although the Book of John in the Bible states that blood and water poured out.



In churches today, crosses and crucifixes usually adorn altars or other commanding

locations. Their central position in these buildings serves as a constant reminder of the

faith and responsibilities upheld by Christians.









For Further Consideration:

Crosses are a traditional Christian symbol used to represent the death of Jesus. Can you

think of any traditional symbols or forms used by other religions?

Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure
Draft 1 out of 6

Nigeria, Yoruba Peoples
Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure
Wood, shells and fabric
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL3563


The Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure is a wooden carving dedicated to the god Ibeji, and

functions as a home for the soul of a deceased male twin. Because the Yoruba peoples of

Nigeria have the highest rate of twinning in the world, they hold twins in high regard. If

a twin dies, an ere ibeji is made. This figure is then fed, clothed and nurtured by the

mother or surviving twin as if it were alive. The cloak worn by this ere ibeji is lined with

cowry shells, which denote wealth and kingly status. The wooden carving has an

enlarged head, because this was considered the seat of wisdom, and therefore the most

important part of the body. The wide eyes illustrate the belief that through the eyes the

spirit is invoked and one can communicate with the soul.








Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure
Draft 6 out of 6

Artist unknown
Nigerian, artist's dates unknown
Male Ere Ibeji Twin Figure, date unknown
Wood, shells and fabric
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL3563

This wooden carving is dedicated to the god of twins, Ibeji, and functions as a home for

the soul of a deceased male twin. As the Yoruba peoples of Nigeria, Africa, have the

highest rate of twin births in the world, they hold twins in high regard. An ere ibeji is

made whenever a twin dies. This figure is then fed, clothed and nurtured by the mother or

surviving twin as if it were alive. The cloak worn by this ere ibeji is lined with cowry

shells, which denote wealth and kingly status, suggesting that the deceased child was the

first born of the twins, or that the family was very wealthy and important in society. The

wooden carving has an enlarged head, because it was considered to be the seat of

wisdom, and therefore the most important part of the body. The wide eyes manifest the

belief that through them the spirit is invoked and one can communicate with the soul.



For Further Consideration:

Do you or your family own an object or a painting that you hold dear because it reminds

you of a past loved one? Why do you think it is important to honor our ancestors?








Osiris
Draft 1 out of 6

Unknown
Egyptian
Osiris, 26h Dynasty, 664-525 BC
Bronze
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G12615

Osiris is the Egyptian god of death and the underworld. The statue on display includes

the god's traditional accessories: the atef crown, the flail and the crook. Osiris was

considered the first pharaoh in Egypt, so his possessions symbolize the power and

authority associated with ruling the country. The atef crown is a crown with two feathers

on either side. This type of crown represents the upper Nile region, and the two feathers

symbolize the town of Busiris, where Osiris is supposedly buried. The flail and crook,

the scepters crossed at Osiris' chest, are pharaonic symbols, which represent kingship and

dominion. It is believed that these types of scepters were derived from shepherds'

crooks.



In the Osiris myth, he became king and judge of the dead after his brother Set killed him,

cut up his body, and threw the pieces in to the Nile River. Osiris' wife Isis found all of

the pieces and bandaged his body together again, making the first mummy. At this point,

Osiris traveled to the underworld to reign. Osiris became a very important god in the

religious practices of Egyptians, as all of the deceased were to be judged before him. At

first he was only associated with the funerary rites of the Egyptian monarch, but later his

cult practices spread to the general population.








For Further Consideration:

Although separate by great amounts of distance and time, many cultures have similar

legends and myths. Can you think of any stories similar to the Osiris myth?

Osiris
Draft 6 out of 6

Artist unknown
Egyptian, artist's dates unknown
Osiris, 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC
Bronze
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G12615

Osiris is the Egyptian god of death and the underworld. This statue includes the god's

traditional accessories: the atef crown, flail and crook. Osiris was the first pharaoh in

Egypt, so his possessions symbolize the power and authority associated with ruling the

country. The atef crown represents southern kingdom in Egypt, and the two feathers

symbolize the town of Busiris, where Osiris is supposedly buried. The flail and crook

held at his chest are symbols representing kingship and dominion, and are also typically

seen in other pharaoh statues.



In the Osiris myth, he became king and judge of the dead after his brother Set killed him,

cut up his body, and threw the pieces in to the Nile River. Osiris' wife, Isis, found all of

the pieces and bandaged his body together again, making the first mummy. Osiris then

traveled to the underworld to reign. Osiris became a very important god in the religious

practices of Egyptians, as all deceased would be judged before him. At first he was only

associated with the funerary rites of the Egyptian monarch, but later his cult practices

spread to the general population.










For Further Consideration:

Although separated by great amounts of distance and time, many cultures have similar

legends and myths. Can you think of any stories similar to the Osiris myth?

Parvati
Draft 1 out of 12

Unknown, Indian?
Statuette of Pavathi (Parvati/Parvathi?)
17t- 19th Century
Bronze
Gift of Dr. Duain and Donna Vierow
G25003

The Hindu religion is one of the oldest religions currently practiced, with a following of

up to 1 billion people worldwide. Hinduism has several schools of thought, but all

promote the idea of a Universal Soul; one soul unifying all of creation. The many gods

and goddesses associated with Hinduism are manifestations of the different

characteristics of the Supreme Brahman; thus still complying with the Universal Soul.



This statue represents Hindu goddess Parvati; a goddess identified with many virtues

including fertility, devotion to one's spouse, and power. She came to symbolize these

qualities after a complex myth involving the seduction of her husband, the powerful god

Shiva. The statue stands in a traditional pose known as tribhanga, a pose in which the

body curves in an "S" shape incorporating knees, waist and neck. This position is both

ritualistic and performative, as her right hand extends to hold a flower and her left hand

and arm perform a dance gesture. Although she is very beautiful, her physical








appearance, with voluptuous curves and intricate decoration, also alludes to her spiritual

perfection.

Parvati
Draft 12 out of 12

Artist unknown
Indian, artist's dates unknown
Statuette of Parvati, 17th- 19th Century
Bronze
Gift of Dr. Duain and Donna Vierow
G25003

This statue represents the goddess Parvati: a Hindu goddess identified with many virtues

including fertility, devotion to one's spouse, and power. She came to symbolize these

qualities after a complex myth involving the seduction of her husband Shiva, the

powerful god and ascetic. The statue stands in a traditional pose known as tribhanga, in

which the body curves in an "S" shape incorporating bends at the knees, waist and neck.

This position is both ritualistic and performative, as her right hand extends to hold a

flower and her left hand and arm perform a dance gesture, to seduce her husband. The

outward beauty of the goddess-indicated by the voluptuous curves and intricate costume

decoration of this statue-is meant to symbolize her inner spiritual perfection and

separate her as the ideal model of womanhood.



Although often confused as being a polytheistic religion (having multiple gods), the

many gods and goddesses associated with Hinduism are actually manifestations of the

different characteristics of the one Supreme Brahman. The Supreme Brahman is the

Hindu concept of an infinite, transcendent reality also known as the "world soul."








For Further Consideration:

The concept of one's appearance symbolizing their personality is very common. Can you

think of any stories in which this is true? Do you think this is always the case in real life?

Can you think of a story in which the good character is not handsome or beautiful?

Hogon Figure on a Horse
Draft 1 out of 7

Mali, Dogon Peoples
Hogon Figure on a Horse
Wood
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1077


The Hogon Figure on a Horse shows an enlarged hogon, a semi-divine leader of great

wisdom, riding on a horse. Horses had a very important role in Dogon societies. Not

only were they a symbol of military and political conquests, but they were also strongly

associated with Dogon creation beliefs. The carved hogon figures were believed to bring

honor to one's ancestors, the current leadership, and the owner of the sculpture. This

particular carving is covered with a heavy encrustation, believed to be due to numerous

sacrifices.

Hogon Figure on a Horse
Draft 7 out of 7

Artist unknown
Malinese, artist's dates unknown
Hogon Figure on a Horse, dates unknown
Wood
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1077

This figure is an enlarged representation of semi-divine leader, called a hogon, riding a

horse. The Dogon peoples of Mali, Africa, considered hogons military and spiritual








leaders and revered them for their wisdom. Some depictions of hogons demonstrate more

of a military persona than this particular example by holding a spear in a hand raised next

to their heads. Horses also play a very important role for the Dogon people, because they

are strongly associated with Dogon creation beliefs. Their images symbolize the military

and political conquests of their riders. Carved equestrian hogon figures like this one were

believed to bring honor to one's ancestors, the current leadership, and their owners.



For Further Consideration:

Animals play a role in the creation myths of many different cultures. Why do you think

humans have endowed animals with this kind of spiritual significance?

Hereke Style Prayer Rug
Draft 1 out of 10

I. Cimentepe, Darya Inci
Turkish
Hereke Style Prayer Rug, 1984-1987
Silk on Silk
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL2377

Prayer rugs are accessories to the Muslim religion. They are used for a clean area to

kneel and pray during the five prayers a devout Muslim performs a day. Prayers rugs are

generally have a dimension of three feet by five feet, and have a mihrab, or a stylized

arch, at one end of the design. The mihrab design represents an architectural feature by

the same name found in mosques, which in turn symbolize the gateway to heaven. The

prayer rug displayed here has a mihrab, which the worshipper would point the arch

toward Mecca, and kneel with his or her head there. This particular rug also has script

woven into the border, which would help the worshipper meditate.








Hereke Style Prayer Rug
Draft 10 out of 10

I. Cimentepe (Designer), Ayse Kiyak (Weaver)
Turkish, artists' dates unknown
Hereke Style Prayer Rug, 20th Century
Silk on Silk
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL2378

Rugs are used in the Islamic religion as a clean surface for kneeling during daily prayers.

Not only do prayer rugs have a specific function, but the designs incorporated into their

weavings can also be a means of spiritual enlightenment. A stylized representation of a

mihrab is found in the center of this rug. A mihrab is an architectural niche found in

mosques. These niche point toward Mecca, the Muslim religious capital. When praying,

the faithful will kneel in the direction of this city. The mihrab's appears on prayer rugs to

remind worshippers of his or her spiritual goals during prayers.



Historically, Hereke, Turkey has produced some of the world's finest hand knotted

carpets, and represents the pinnacle of the Turkish carpet weaving tradition. The carpet

designs exemplify traditional Turkish patterns, as well as influences from Persia, which

include the curvilinear patterns you see in this rug.



For Further Consideration:

Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire (for more background, see the World War I

sword label) appreciated Hereke rugs to the extent of donating scientific equipment in

1894 to help encourage the rug industry there. What about the Hereke rugs do you think








appealed to Kaiser Wilhelm? Although he was not Muslim, do you think he could have

inferred a spiritual connection through the rugs?

Shakyamuni Buddha
Draft 1 out of 5

Unknown
Thai, 15th century
Thai Bronze Figure of Buddha, Chien Sen
Bronze
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G6045

(Chiang Saen, town in Thailand)

The word "Buddha" means "one who is awake" or "one who knows". A Buddha is a

human being who has, through his or her own efforts and wisdom, awoken to the Truth

(Dharma) behind appearance, having abandoned and overcome anger, desire and

ignorance, and has attained a state of bliss and inner peace called Nirvana, or

enlightenment. Buddha is a term given to many people, but most often, it refers to

Siddhartha Gautama (623B.C. -543 B.C.), a prince who gave up his luxurious life and

achieved Nirvana after a period of deep meditation.



This statue depicts a Buddha in a meditation pose called bhumisparasa (Calling Earth to

Witness). In this position Buddha sits with his legs crossed, one hand pointing to the

earth and his other hand lying on his lap, palm up. The heavy-lidded eyes also indicate

the state of meditation. There are thirty-two marks of Buddha, which this statue

embodies. Among those marks exhibited include the proportions of his hands and feet,

the curls of his hair, and shape of his body.








For Further Consideration:

Many times the position and hand gestures of images indicate symbolize an action, which

occurred in that individual's life. Depictions of Christ and various Popes show the

figures holding their thumb and ring finger together. Can you guess what this gesture is

meant to indicate?

Shakyamuni Buddha
Draft 5 out of 5

Artist unknown
Sino-Tibetan, artist's dates unknown
Shakyamuni Buddha, ca. 19th Century
Bronze, gold, and pigment
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G16001.1-.5

This statue depicts a Buddha in a meditation pose called bhumisparasa (Calling Earth to

Witness). This position captures the moment immediately after Buddha's enlightenment.

The hand pointing downward indicates Buddha calling the earth to witness the historical

moment, while the rest of his body remains in a position of meditation. His left hand

holds a lotus blossom, one of the most significant symbols in Buddhism representing

enlightenment and purity. The heavy-lidded eyes suggest that Buddha is still in a stage of

meditation. The wheel pattern on the statue's robes symbolizes Buddha's teachings,

known as the Buddhist Law.



Buddha is a term given to many people who have achieved enlightenment, but most often

it refers to Siddhartha Gautama (623 B.C.-543 B.C.). He was a prince of the Shakya

kingdom who gave up his luxurious life and achieved enlightenment after a period of

deep meditation. The gold complexion, the blue hair curled to the right on his head, and








the single hair on the center of the statue's forehead are examples of the thirty-two

characteristic marks of Shakyamuni Buddha.



For Further Consideration:

The position and hand gestures of images often symbolize an action or an event, which

occurred in that individual's life. Can you think of any poses that have a specific

meaning?

Coins
Draft 1 out of 11

Unknown, Syracuse, Sicily
Dekadrachm
405-400 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21080

Unknown, Macedonian
Tetradrachm
229-220 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21110

Unknown, Roman, Imperial
Aureus
64-68 A.D.
Gold
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21082

Currency is essential to economics. Currency is valued as a direct relation to the worth of

goods and products. Without it, civilizations have-- and would-- collapse. Each

civilization has marked its currency with images to represent the nation itself, by

displaying symbols of its beliefs, geography, or historic figures. In essence, currency can








be considered as a terrific vehicle for propaganda. The three coins on display

demonstrate three different ideas and persona. The two earlier coins (the dekadrach and

the tetradrachm) show deities, or mythological figures, representing resources or

characteristics found in the area from where the coins originate. During this earlier

period in history, the Mediterranean area was made of many city-states with little

unification. The aureus, which was created during the reign of Roman emperor Nero,

shows his bust. At this point in time, Rome had begun to impose a civil religion where

the emperor was perceived as head of the state and virtually a holy figure.

For Further Consideration:

How does currency reflect the individuality of countries today? Many countries in the

United Nations have switched currency from their regional types of money to the Euro, a

currency used by multiple counties and able to cross borders. Do you think this reduces

the significance of the individuality of the countries participating in this program, or

symbolizes the unity and cooperation of the countries?

Coins
Draft 11 out of 11

From top to bottom:
Artist unknown
Sicilian, artist's dates unknown
Dekadrachm, 405-400 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21080

Artist unknown
Macedonian, artist's dates unknown
Tetradrachm, 229-220 B.C.
Silver
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21110








Artist unknown
Roman, artist's dates unknown
Aureus, 64-68 A.D.
Gold
Gift of Arthur I. Appleton
G21082

Each civilization marks its currency with images that represent it, such as displaying

symbols of its beliefs, geography, or significant figures. The Sicilian dekadrachm and

the Macedonian tetradrachm show local deities representing characteristics of the

regions from which the coins originate. The dekadrachm portrays the sea nymph

Arethusa surrounded by four dolphins. This allusion to water found on the coin refers to

Sicily's dependence on the Mediterranean Sea. The Macedonian tetradrachm shows a

standing Athena Alkis, the goddess of war, holding a shield and throwing a lightening

bolt. Athena, the shield, and lightening bolt symbolize Macedonia's military victories

while under the reign of Antigonus III Doson (reigned 229 B.C. 221 B.C.).



Created at a later date, the Roman aureus reflects how Roman emperors began to see

themselves as deities, or having god-like status in society. Instead of showing a

mythological figure representing the region like the other coins, this coin shows the bust

of Roman Emperor Nero. To further support the idea that Nero desired god-like status,

the reverse side of the coin shows an enthroned Jupiter, king of the gods, holding a

lightening bolt and staff, symbols of military and civic power.








For Further Consideration:

Contemporary currencies still reflect the predominant religious beliefs of some countries.

Do you think it is important for nations to recognize their religious heritage on their

currency?

Whistles
Draft 1 out of 11

Unknown
Mayan, dates
Bird whistle, date
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 405

Unknown
Mayan, dates
Deer whistle, date
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 470

Unknown
Mayan, dates
Figural whistle, date
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 3870

The Mayan Indians lived in Central America, until the Spanish conquistadors subdued

their civilizations in the mid-1600s. Modem excavations of their towns and temples have

revealed many clues about their way of life and religious beliefs. Through these

discoveries, it has been found that clay was very special to the Mayan Indians. They

believed that the world had been created four times, and that one of those times,

humankind was made from clay. The re-creation of the world was reenacted in the

making of clay figurines and musical instruments. Like humankind, these figures are








created from the formless clay, and given life by the fires of the kiln. It is believed that

these whistles hold other spiritual properties. Whistles such as these have been found at

various burial sites as objects that either the deceased would require in their afterlife, or

musicians would have used for the funeral rituals. It has been found that each whistle has

a specific tone, and some can be quite complex with a musical scale of up to five notes.

Some modem scholars believe that these special musical qualities made the whistles

important elements in religious rituals.



Many of these figures are animals. Why do you think this is? Could it have to do with

the locations that the Mayan Indians settled? Do you think these animals could have

other meanings? What do animals mean to you and your society?

Whistles
Draft 10 out of 10

Unknown
Mayan, artist's dates unknown
Bird whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 405

Unknown
Veracruz, artist's dates unknown
Deer whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 470

Unknown
Mayan, artist's dates unknown
Figural whistle, date unknown
Ceramic
On loan fro Arthur I. Appleton
AL 3870








The Mayan Indians lived in Central America until the Spanish conquistadors subdued their

civilizations in the mid-1600s. Modem excavations of their towns and temples have revealed

many clues about their ways of life and religious belief. These discoveries have revealed that

clay was very special to the Mayan Indians. They believed the world was created four times, and

during one of those times, humankind was made from clay. Creating objects out of clay was

likened to one of these creation myths. Like humans in the legend, these figurines were created

from the formless clay. In particular, clay whistles have been found at various burial sites as

objects that either the deceased would require in their afterlife, or that musicians would have

used for various funeral rituals. Each whistle has a specific tone, and some can be quite complex

with a musical scale of up to five notes. Some modem scholars believe these special musical

qualities made the whistles important elements in religious rituals by elevating spiritual

consciousness.



For Further Consideration:

Do you have a favorite kind of musical instrument that you like to listen to? What feelings do

you have when you listen to music by this instrument or song? Do you think this music can

make you more spiritually aware?

World War I Sword
Draft 1 out of 8

J. Robrecht, German
World War I Sword
Ca. 1900-1920
Unknown
On loan from A.I. Appleton
AL 3689








This German sword was probably used during World War I. The inscription on the blade

reads: "8707", "J. Robrecht", "HOFLIEFERANT", "Berlin", and "Mit Gott fur Kaiser

und Reich". "8707" refers to the model number of the sword, while "Hoflieferant",

"J.Robretch" and "Berlin" mean that it was made in Berlin, Germany, by royal arms

supplier J. Robrecht. "Mit Gott for Kaiser und Reich" was a popular saying that means,

"With God for Emperor and Realm". The blade has several scars along the sharpened

edge, suggesting it was moderately used. World War I, or the Great War as it was

known, was caused by a chain reaction from European nations due to the mobilization of

Russia. Kaiser Wilhelm II, through political inconsistencies and eventually a catastrophic

defeat in the war, was forced to abdicate his throne, and thus became the last German

Emperor.



Battles, wars and duels are all fought due to differences of heartfelt convictions, be they

spiritual, or economic, or political. Though there are various reasons for violence, many

of the men and women in combat rely on a high power to protect and guide them,

physically and spiritually. This may not be a strictly religious power, but could be the

influence of patriotism over the combatant. Love and devotion to one's nation is a strong

force, leading individuals to bold actions.

For Further Consideration:

Most religions advocate peace. When, if ever, do you consider violence an acceptable

avenue for defense?

Church arson in Alabama, suicide bombings in the Middle East. At what point does it

become offensive, not defensive?










Have you met anyone who has fought in a war, or been caught up in a battle? What

spiritual or moral strength did they rely on to see them through?



Does the American national anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner" evoke any feelings in

you? Do you feel pride, honor or courage when you listen to the lyrics? Were you in the

military? Do the patriotic hymns of the divisions of the military lend inspiration?

World War I Sword
Draft 8 out of 8

J. Robrecht
German, artist's dates unknown
World War I Sword, ca. 1900-1920
Steel
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL 3689

The inscription on this sword of "Mit Gott fur Kaiser und Reich" ("With God for

Emperor and Realm") demonstrates the strong sense of patriotism the German soldier

bearing it embodied. For soldiers, patriotism, or the love of one's country, means

defending or advancing the causes of one's country through violence and mortal peril.

When faced with fatal battles, often this love is what encourages many fighters to keep

faith in their cause. The strong influence patriotism has upon soldiers is a spiritual force

relating to a specific location: their home.



This sword was probably used during World War I. The war was caused by a chain

reaction of European nations due to the mobilization of Russia. The blade has several

engraved inscriptions which read: "8707," "J. Robrecht," "HOFLIEFERANT," "Berlin,"








and "Mit Gott fur Kaiser und Reich." "8707" refers to the model number of the sword,

while "Hoflieferant," "J.Robretch" and "Berlin" mean it was made in Berlin, Germany,

by royal arms supplier J. Robrecht. Although the sword illustrates the devotion of the

soldier to his country and leader, Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Kaiser, through devastating

political inconsistencies and eventually a catastrophic defeat in World War I, was forced

to abdicate his throne, and consequently was the last German Emperor.



For Further Consideration:

Have you, or anyone you know, fought in a war, or been caught up in a battle? What

spiritual or moral strength did they rely on to see them through?



Does the American national anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner" evoke any feelings in

you? Do you feel pride, honor or courage when you listen to the lyrics? Were you in the

military? Did the patriotic hymns of the divisions of the military lend inspiration?

Masks
Draft 1 out of 8

Unknown
Mexican
Male with Spoon-shaped Earrings
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleve Scarbrough
G20037

Unknown
Mexican
Butterfly Mask with Face
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleve Scarbrough
G20038








Unknown
Mexican
Mask of a Bearded Male with Two Snakes
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleve Scarbrough
G20049

Masks are used as disguises, to hide the one who wears them. When they are used in a

ritual procession or festival, such as these Mexican masks were used, they bestow upon

their wearer a new personality and character. In some ways, the masks permit their

wearer to exchange his or her soul for another. The wearers used these masks to pass on

lessons and legends to the community.



After the Spanish conquest of Mexico in 1521, the Europeans began converting the native

inhabitants to Christianity. Masks, which were already incorporated in the Indian

cultures, were useful vehicles to teach the new religion. One of the more important

dramas used to teach Christianity was the Moor and Christian Dance Drama. This re-

enacted the battles between the Islamic Moors and the Spaniards in the late fifteenth

century. It demonstrated the defeat of the Moors and their conversion to Christianity.

The Indian groups in Mexico participated in this drama, and it was taken as a symbol of

their defeat and adoption of a new religion. The most common types of masks were

characters used in pageants such as in the Moor and Christian Dance Drama, and animals.



For Further Consideration:

Are there certain holidays or celebrations when you where a mask? When are those

times, and what is the purpose of wearing a mask at that time?








Masks
Draft 8 out of 8

Artist unknown
Mexican, artist's dates unknown
Male with Spoon-shaped earrings, 19h-20th century
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleveland Scarbrough
G20037

Artist unknown
Mexican, artist's dates unknown
Butterfly Mask with Face, 19th-20h century
Copper, pigment and cloth
Gift of Cleveland Scarbrough
G20038

Masks disguise the one who wears them. When they are used in a ritual procession or

festival, as were these Mexican masks, they bestow a new personality and character upon

their wearer. In some ways, the masks permit their wearer to exchange his or her soul for

another. The wearers use them to pass on lessons and legends to the community.



After the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Europeans began converting the native

populace to Christianity. Masks, which were already incorporated in the native cultures,

were useful vehicles to teach the new religion. One of the more important masked dramas

used to teach Christianity was the "Moor and Christian Dance Drama." This drama re-

enacts the defeat of the Islamic Moors to the Spaniards in the late fifteenth century, and

their conversion to Christianity. When the native groups participated in this drama, it was

taken as a symbol of their defeat and subsequent adoption of a new religion. The Male

with Spoon-shaped Earrings mask may have been used in this drama to represent el

Diablo, the devil. Animal and character portrayals are the most common types of masks.








For Further Consideration:

Why do you think it is important for people to wear masks during some ceremonies?

What is the significance for those who watch the ceremonies? What is the significance

for those who participate and wear the masks?

Drum
Draft 1 out of 6

Ivory Coast, peoples unknown
Drum
Wood, animal skin, and cord
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1108

This is a village ceremonial drum. It is made of wood and has animal skin stretched

across the drum's top and secured by cords. There are four horizontal bands near the top

interspersed with masks depicting human heads. In the center of the drum cylinder are

two male figures positioned with their hands on their hips. They are standing on what

appears to be a cow. The masks probably represent the Baule (BOUGH- Lay) people's

masks that would have been worn during a dance or ceremony where the drum would

have been played. Only men were allowed to wear masks in these ceremonies. The

Baule believe in both ancestor worship and also a hierarchy of nature gods. To honor

their ancestors and deities, Baule communities host intricate dances and performances

using special musical instruments and various ceremonial masks.








Drum
Draft 6 out of 6

Artist unknown
Ivory Coast, artist's dates unknown
Drum
Wood, animal skin, and cord
On loan from Arthur I. Appleton
AL1108


This drum was used for village ceremonies, most likely by the Baule (BAUGH- Lay)

people of Ivory Coast, Africa. To honor their ancestors and deities, Baule communities

host intricate dances and performances using special musical instruments and various

ceremonial masks. The carved figures on the drum indicate that it was probably used for

ceremonies and illustrate the Baule's beliefs in ancestor worship and animism (the

worship of nature gods). The spirits of ancestors are believed to be intermediaries

between the living and divine. They also play important roles in initiation rites. It is likely

that the figures on this drum represent both beliefs, animism and ancestor worship,

through the representation of two male figures and a cow-like animal.



The drum is made of wood and has animal skin stretched across the top, secured by

cords. There are four horizontal bands near the top interspersed with masks of human

heads, similar to those, which would have been worn by dancers while the drum was

played.








For Further Consideration:

Do you participate in, or have you participated in any type of ceremony? If so, what role

does music play in those ceremonies? Does one particular instrument stand out, and if

so, why is it significant?

Columbian Plateau
Draft 1 out of 8

Takao Tanabe, Canadian, born 1926
Columbian Plateau
1996
Acrylic on canvas
Gift of Anona Thorne
G21020

Takao Tanabe has had a varied career as a painter. His early works exhibit an abstract

geometric style with vibrant colors, which later evolved to landscape paintings inspired

by his home region in western Canada and his travels abroad. Columbian Plateau is one

of his later paintings in a series of landscapes. The stark prairie shows a dirt road

winding away from the viewer into the obscured hills in the background. The subdued

coloring lends a sense of mysticism, and begs the viewer to wonder what lies beyond the

horizon. The strong sense of location in Tanabe's paintings suggests the painter's search

to belong to a stretch of land. "It's lonely, it's mysterious, it has wonderful appeal to me.

I feel great kinship with it."



Since the late 18th century in Europe and America, landscape painting has been

associated with spirituality and strength of the individual. Painters strove to translate the

feelings of power, awe and wonder found in nature to canvas. Farming scenes and

isolated cottages, majestic vistas and lonely locales were all popular themes. This return








to nature and creating a relationship with the natural environment was also utilized in

many famous novels produced at the time, including such well-known titles as: Moby

Dick, Frankenstein, and Leatherstockings.

Columbian Plateau
Draft 8 out of 8

Takao Tanabe
Canadian, born 1926
Columbian Plateau, 1996
Acrylic on canvas
Gift of Anona Thorne
G21020

The stark prairie in Columbian Plateau shows a dirt road winding away from the viewer

into the obscured hills in the background. This composition lends a feeling of mysticism,

and begs the viewer to wonder what lies beyond the horizon. The strong sense of location

in Tanabe's paintings suggests the painter's yearning to belong to a stretch of land. Of

nature and the land, he says: "It's lonely, it's mysterious, it has wonderful appeal to me. I

feel great kinship with it."



Tanabe's attitude toward the land and his representation of it is reminiscent of

characteristics from the Romance period in late 18th Century Europe, when landscape

paintings were claimed to capture the awe, power and sometimes brutality of the natural

world. Through visual metaphors, landscape paintings were associated with spirituality

and strength of the individual. The Romantic movement included not only various

landscapes, but also farming scenes and isolated cottages, majestic vistas and lonely

locales. The pastoral and uncomplicated life associated with this awe of nature inferred

that one possessed stronger personal morals and righteous individuality.










For Further Consideration:

Why do you think nature has such a resounding effect on the human soul? Can you

remember a particular vista or view that greatly affected you?

Girl Washing her Hair
Draft 1 out of 11

Ralph Hurst, American, 1918-2003
Girl Washing her Hair
Mahogany wood
Gift of Ralph N. Hurst
G21025

Ralph Hurst has said, "We live in a world of forms". He demonstrates his belief of the

simple and abstract in his artwork, Girl Washing her Hair. As an artist, Hurst must find

inspiration for himself in order to create artwork. One of the ways in which he does this

is by compiling a storehouse of observations and sensations. In his art, he seeks to have

qualities that uplift the spirit and invoke warmth and elegance. Ultimately, he wants it

express his own feelings and invite the viewer to feel what he had so joyously felt while

carving it. The inspiration of the artist is essential in producing an affective creation.



The polished wood reveals a crouching woman, simply rendered, combing her hair. This

form and action of this girl recalls several other famous women, especially that of the

Greek goddess Venus. Venus was born from water and, according to myth, participates

in ritual bathing. The female form has often been a source of inspiration.








Girl Washing her Hair
Draft 11 out of 11

Ralph Hurst
American, 1918-2003
Girl Washing her Hair, 1947
Mahogany wood
Gift of Ralph N. Hurst
G21025

The female form is considered to be a source for artistic inspiration and wonder. This

view is often due to the allure of the female mystique-the intangible qualities of beauty,

motherhood and mystery embodied by women. The position and action of this sculpture

recalls a woman who is famous for her beauty and mystery: the Roman goddess of love,

Venus. In Roman mythology, Venus was born from water and participates in ritual

bathing. The crouching position of Girl Washing her Hair mimics what Venus might

have looked like while she was bathing.



Ralph Hurst said, "We live in a world of forms." He demonstrates his belief in simple

and abstract forms in this statue. Hurst sought to have qualities in his art that uplift the

spirit and invoke warmth and elegance. Ultimately, he wanted his works to express his

own feelings and invite the viewer to feel what he so joyously felt while carving it.



For Further Consideration:

Looking at this statue, what kinds of emotions do you think Ralph Hurst experienced

when he made Girl Washing her Hair? Do you think he succeeded in transferring those

emotions to you as you look at the statue?








Marilyn Monroe: The Last Sitting
Draft 1 out of 9

P20334.1, .2- Bert Stern, Marilyn Monroe photographs

Marilyn Monroe (1926- 1962), actress, singer, and modem American goddess,

has been established in American culture as the ultimate female figure. Her untimely

death at the age of 36 has only served to cement her as a fixture in American mythology.

Bert Stem captured Marilyn in photographs just months prior to her death, in what has

been called the "Last Sitting"-the last photo shoot that Marilyn appeared in before she

died. These photographs are two from among the 2,500 taken by Stem at that sitting.

Marilyn Monroe's rise to icon status began during her life as she was often

idolized by men and women for her appeal, both sexually and for her acting talent. A

phenomenon called "celebrity worship" has further launched her into legend since her

death. Celebrity worship is the creating of an illusory relationship, including love and

affection, for people not personally known, but seen from afar, such as photos and films.

Memorabilia, like these two photos of Marilyn Monroe, serve to perpetuate the

celebrity's legendary status long after death.

Marilyn Monroe: The Last Sitting
Draft 9 out of 9

Bert Ster
American, born 1929
Marilyn Monroe: The Last Sitting, 1962
Photograph
Museum Purchase
P20334.2

Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962), actress and singer, has been established in American

culture as a classic female pop icon. A phenomenon called "celebrity worship" further

launched her into legend since her death. Celebrity worship is the creating of an illusory








relationship, including love and affection, for people not known personally, but seen from

afar, in photos and films. Memorabilia, like photos of Marilyn Monroe, serve to

perpetuate the celebrity's legendary status long after death. Often this memorabilia

assumes a similar function to those of a religious icon. Admiration and devotion

perpetuated by memorabilia can cause some fans to attempt to imitate the celebrity's

looks and lifestyle, as would a religious icon.



Bert Stem photographed Marilyn just months prior to her death, in her final photo shoot

called the "Last Sitting." Interestingly, Marilyn marked out half of the photos taken

during the session with red lipstick. Although she was her own worst critic, those marred

photos are among the most famous from this series.

For Further Consideration:

Do you think photographs have an influence or power over those who view them? What

do you think causes the "celebrity worship" phenomenon?

Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J.
Draft 1 out of 9

Mary Balomenos, Canadian
Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. (Diane Arbus Series)
1989
Mixed media and acrylic on paper
Gift of Diane Farris
G22403

This painting is called Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J., although visually it makes no

allusion to people or location. The artist has vastly distorted reality to the point of

unfamiliarity in order to evoke an emotional effect. Famous expressionist artist, Wassily

Kandinsky, describes it as the artist's job to lead others to the peak of their spiritual life








through that artist's work. This is done through the pleasure caused through the eye

seeing a work of art, and also through the impression and resonance this vision has on the

soul. Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. uses the blending of color and media to engage the

eye of the viewer and encourage this sort of spiritual interaction.



Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. is a contemporary example of abstract expressionism.

The abstract Expressionist movement began in America after World War II. It combines

the emotional intensity and self-expression of German Expressionism with the anti-

figurative qualities of European abstraction. As a result, we see paintings in the abstract

expressionism movement tend to treat all areas of the painting surface with equal

importance, emphasize the flatness of the canvas, and use larger surfaces, all to illustrate

the artistic expression of the creator.

For Further Consideration:

What do you see in this painting? Can you find any identical twins in the image? Using

your imagination, what do you see? Do you like art that has familiar forms in it, or do

you prefer to use your imagination for non-figural works?

Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J.
Draft 9 out of 9

Mary Balomenos
Canadian, artist's dates unknown
Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. (Diane Arbus Series),1989
Mixed media and acrylic on paper
Gift of Diane Farris
G22403


Although called Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J., visually this painting makes no allusion

to people or location. The artist vastly distorted reality to the point of unfamiliarity to








evoke an emotional affect. Some artist use their art to elicit a spiritual response in others.

One theory claims this response is accomplished through pleasure evoked when the eye

sees a work of art that resonates within the soul. Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. blends

color and media to engage the eye of the viewer and encourage spiritual interaction.



Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. is a contemporary example of Abstract Expressionism.

The Abstract Expressionist movement began in America after World War II. It combines

the emotional intensity and self-expression of German expressionism with the anti-

figurative qualities of European abstraction. As a result, paintings in the Abstract

Expressionist movement tend to use larger canvases, treat all areas with equal

importance, and use materials that emphasize the flatness of the surface.



For Further Consideration:

Do you believe it is the artist's role to guide the spiritual growth of those who view their

artwork? How do you think an artist can do this?

Untitled
Draft 1 out of 12

Keith Crown, American, born 1918
Untitled
1979
Watercolor
Gift of Ellen S. Dryer
G19001

Crown migrated to southern California from the Mid-West, after serving in World War II

as a field artist. From 1946 until his retirement in 1983, he was Professor of Painting and

Drawing at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. During his time in








California, abstract watercolor began to receive acceptance on the West Coast, and

Crown's work gained in popularity. His style incorporates a recognizable subject in a

highly abstract composition. Crown says: "My problem is to bring together in a painting

two seemingly conflicting, impossibly unmixable ideas. One is that the finished work

shall evoke a sense of recognition, of the mysteriously familiar... the other is that in order

to do the first I must deeply know my subject...."



Untitled is an abstract work with recognizable features. Three church steeples are

outlined and separated from a highly stylized background. The strong, almost

overwhelming, presence of the black mountains in the background, and the splashes of

color above them, suggest that the location of the churches may provide more inspiration

and awe than the buildings themselves.

Untitled
Draft 12 out of 12

Keith Crown
American, born 1918
Untitled, 1979
Watercolor
Gift of Ellen S. Dryer
G19001

Untitled can be considered a spiritual work of art due to its subject matter and to the

unique way the artist Keith Crown regarded his painting materials. His style incorporates

a recognizable subject in a highly abstract composition. In viewing this painting, the three

church steeples and dark mountainous background refer strongly to a sense of spirituality

based on location. It is difficult to determine if the steeples or the mountains are the

source of the spirituality found in this painting.










In the painting, not only do the outlined church steeples against the powerful dark

mountain background cause reflection, but Crown also found inspiration and spirituality

in the painting materials themselves. He "has always been interested in exploring the

inherent nature of watercolor paint, inventing ways to use the paint for its own beautiful

effect. (Keith Crown: Water Colors, page 9)"

For Further Consideration:

Crown seems to place importance in both the location of the churches and the church

steeples. Which do you think is source of the spirituality in the painting-the church

steeples, the mountains, or perhaps the interplay of the two?



Have you ever written a poem or painted a picture because you enjoyed the process, or

the materials you were working with, and not because you interested in the final product?














APPENDIX C
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECT WORKS

Art, Creativity and the Sacred: an anthology in Religion and Art, eds. Diane Apostolos-
Cappadona. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1995.

This book is comprised of five main parts that include: intent of artist; art historians'
interpretations; historians of religion (how religions use art); philosophers and
theologians arguments on art in religion; and interdisciplinary vision of art and religion.

Art as Religious Studies, eds. Doug Adams and Diane Apoistolos-Cappadona.
Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1987.

Reflects more specifically on visual arts in Judaism and Christianity. This work also
focuses on art in religious practice.

Coleman, Earle J. Creativity and Spirituality: Bonds between Art and Religion.
New York: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Author tries to uncover connections between concepts of "art", "beauty" and "creativity"
and "spiritual categories", "as when he relates aesthetic bliss to 'the peace that passes all
understanding.'" Considers aesthetic versus spiritual.

Elkins, James. On the Strange Place of Religious Contemporary Art. New York:
Routledge, 2004.

Short book outlining various situations of religion and spirituality in art-i.e.: art with
religious image, but not religious; art without religious image but very religious, etc.

-----. Visual Studies: A Skeptical Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2003.

What does "visual studies" mean? Fluctuating definitions, purposes and uses.

Faith: the impact of Judeo-Christian Religion on Art at the Millenium, an exhibit
catalogue and symposium at the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art. NYC:
Quebecor Printing, 2000.

An exhibit catalogue with transcription of accompanying symposium. Topics include:
internalizing the sacred: the interrogative artwork as a site of transubstantiation; art
between heaven and earth; art to art, life to life; and, contexts: Jews and art at the end of
the millennium.








Fingesten, Peter. "Toward a New Definition of Religious Art", College Art Journal
10: 2 (1951): 131- 146.

This article attempts to define religious art.

Godly Things: Museums, Objects and Religion, ed. by Crispin Paine. London: Leicester
University Press, 2000.

Addresses how museums treat religion. "Although museums and art galleries are often
compared in role and function to shrines or temples, religion itself has until recently been
largely ignored in museums, even in art galleries that display pictures originally painted
for a purely religious purpose."

Laeuchli, Samuel. Religion and Art in Conflict: Introduction to a Cross-Disciplinary
Task. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.

Laeuchli confronts problems of reading religion into art, also, placing art in religious
context.

Martland, T. R. Religion as Art: An Interpretation. Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1981.

Argues that what art does, religion does. -not sure I like this book. Topics are:
fascination, innocence, distance, craft and magic, coalescence, truth-to, verification, and
reprise.

Religion, Art and Visual Culture: A Cross-Cultural Reader, ed. by S. Brent Plate. New
York: Palgrave, 2002.

Goes through major religious and explains through select essays the connection between
art and the particular religion. Example: Calligraphy and Islamic culture.


The Visual Culture of America Religions, ed. by David Morgan and Sally M. Promey.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

-----, Exhibiting the Visual Culture of American Religions. Published in conjunction with
The Visual Culture of American Religions. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2001.

Book and catalogue of accompanying exhibition on visual culture of American religions.
Interesting, but deals more with religion than spirituality.





79


Wilson, Frank Avray. Art as Revelation: The role of art in human existence.
Sussex: Centaur Press LTD, 1981.

Examines process of an aesthetic experience. Also, application of art into society and
politics.








REFERENCES

Art, Creativity and the Sacred: an anthology in Religion and Art, eds. Diane Apostolos-
Cappadona. New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1995.

Art as Religious Studies, eds. Doug Adams and Diane Apoistolos-Cappadona.
Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1987.

Chemeche, George. Ibeji: The cult of Yoruba twins. Milan: Five Continents Editions,
2003.

Coinage and Identity in the Roman provinces. Oxford; New York: Oxford University
Press, 2005.

Coleman, Earle J. Creativity and Spirituality: Bonds between Art and Religion.
New York: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Conwill, Kinshasha and Alexandra Roosa. "Cultivating Community Connections",
Museum News, (2003): 41- 46.

Craven, Roy C. A Concise History of Indian Art. New York: Oxford University Press,
1976.

Duncan, Carol. Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums. New York: Routledge,
1995.

Edson, Gary and David Dean. The Handbook for Museums. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Elkins, James. On the Strange Place of Religious Contemporary Art. New York:
Routledge, 2004.

-----. Visual Studies: A Skeptical Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Faith: the impact of Judeo-Christian Religion on Art at the Millenium, an exhibit
catalogue and symposium at the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art. NYC:
Quebecor Printing, 2000.

Fingesten, Peter. "Toward a New Definition of Religious Art", College Art Journal
10:2 (1951): 131- 146.

Freedberg, David. The Power of Images: Studies in the history and theory of Response.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Friedman, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton, 1983.









Gardner, Helen. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College
Publishers, 2001.

Godly Things: Museums, Objects and Religion, ed. by Crispin Paine. London: Leicester
University Press, 2000.

Hooker, Richard. "Osiris," (Washington State University, 1999),
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/-dee/EGYPT/OSIRIS.HTM (accessed on November
14,2005).

Laeuchli, Samuel. Religion and Art in Conflict: Introduction to a Cross-Disciplinary
Task. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.

Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10
134198673226048&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICE%3C%3Ecnt_id=101341986732
26048&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500817&bmUID=1151260265
638&bmLocale=en (accessed: March 10, 2006).

Martland, T. R. Religion as Art: An Interpretation. Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1981.

"Marilyn Monroe Official Website" http://www.marilynmonroe.com/index.php (accessed
November 14, 2005).

Mauldin, Barbara. Masks of Mexico: tigers, devils and the dance of life. Santa Fe,
Museum of New Mexico Press, 1999.

Maya: Treasures of an ancient civilization. New York: H. N. Abrams in association with
the Albuquerque Museum, 1985.

Metropolitan Museum, NYC, New York.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/sfw/hod 1979.206.173a-c.htm (accessed
March 10, 2006).

Reich, Sheldon. Keith Crown: Watercolors. Columbia: University of Missouri Press,
1986.

Religion, Art and Visual Culture: A Cross-Cultural Reader, ed. by S. Brent Plate. New
York: Palgrave, 2002.




Schaps, David M. The invention of coinage and the monetization of Ancient Greece. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.








Serrell, Beverly. Exhibition Labels: An interpretive approach. New York: Altamira Press,
1996.

Shiner, Larry E. "Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space", Journal of the American
Academy of Religion 40: 4 (1972): 425-436.

The Visual Culture of America Religions, ed. by David Morgan and Sally M. Promey.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

-----, Exhibiting the Visual Culture of American Religions. Published in conjunction with
The Visual Culture of American Religions. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2001.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Face of the gods: art and altars of Africa and the African
Americas. New York: Museum of African Art; Munich: Prestel, 1993.

Susan Vogel. African art, Western eyes. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.

Weil, Stephen. "The Proper Business of Things: Ideas or Things?" Muse (1989):
28-32.

Wilson, Frank Avray. Art as Revelation: The role of art in human existence.
Sussex: Centaur Press LTD, 1981.










I certify that I have read this document and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a project in lieu of thesis for the degree of Master of Arts.


( Glenn Willumson, Chair
Associate Professor of Art History
Director, Graduate Program in Museum Studies



I certify that I have read this document and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a project in lieu of thesis for the degree of Master of Arts.


Elizabeth Ross
Assistant Professor of Art




This project in lieu of thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Fine Arts and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts.

August 2006 -

arcia J. Isaacson
Director, School of Art & Art History




a Lucinda Lavelli
Dean, College of Fine Arts









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