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African studies quarterly
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091747/00026
 Material Information
Title: African studies quarterly
Series Title: Gale Group
Uniform Title: African studies quarterly (Online)
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Publisher: University of Florida, Center for African Studies,
University of Florida, Center for African Studies
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: Spring 2006
Copyright Date: 2010
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Electronic journals
Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Gainesville (Fla.)
Florida
African studies -- Periodicals
Genre: Electronic journals   ( lcsh )
Electronic journals.
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Abstract: Presents "African Studies Quarterly," an electronic journal published quarterly by the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Posts contact information for the editorial office via street address, telephone number, and e-mail. Lists advisory board and staff members. Offers access to the current issue, as well as to previous issues. Contains articles and related book reviews. Provides information on submissions and links to "African Anthropology."
Restriction: Licensed for access by authorized UF users (current UF students, faculty and staff -- and others within a UF Library.) Some e-journal service providers may offer only selected articles.
System Details: Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, issue 1 (May 1997)-
General Note: Title from title screen (viewed Aug. 6, 1999).
General Note: An online journal of African studies.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 7, issue 4 (spring 2004) (viewed at publisher's Web site, Aug. 19, 2004).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 003331589
oclc - 40217685
issn - 2152-2448
lccn - 99030079
lccn - sn 99030079
Classification: lcc - DT19.8
ddc - 960.0705
System ID: UF00091747:00026

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M el i nda A da m s i s an as s i s t an t p ro f es s o r o f p o l i t i cal s c i en ce at J am es Mad i s o n U n i v ers i t y H er res e arch fo cu s es o n w o men s p o l i t i cal act i o n i n d o m es t i c an d i n t ern at i o n al ar en as A cu rren t res ea rch p ro j ect fo cu s es o n g en d er eq u i t y p o l i ci es i n t h e A f ri can U n i o n A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 C ol on i a l P o l i c i e s an d Wom e n s P a r ti c i p at i on i n P u b l i c Li fe : Th e C as e of B r i t i s h S ou th e r n C am e r oon s M E L I N D A A D A M S A bs tra c t: Mu ch o f t h e l i t erat u re o n co l o n i al p o l i ci es t o w a rd s w o men h as h i g h l i g h t ed t h e w ay s t h at t h es e p o l i ci es s p read W es t e rn n o t i o n s o f d o m es t i ci t y an d n a rro w ed t h e s p ac e av ai l ab l e fo r A f ri can w o men t o p art i ci p at e i n p u b l i c l i fe. D r a w i n g fr o m t h e cas e o f Bri t i s h So u t h ern Ca mero o n s t h i s p ap er arg u es t h at co l o n i al p o l i ci es an d en co u n t ers w ere i n f act mo re co mp l ex W h i l e cert ai n p o l i ci es d i d s eek t o p ro p ag at e E u ro p ean n o t i o n s o f d o mes t i ci t y an d t o co n fi n e A f ri can w o men t o t h e p ri v at e s p ac e o f t h e h o me o t h ers o p en ed n e w o p p o rt u n i t i es fo r ed u cat i o n s al ari ed e mp l o y men t an d p art i ci p at i o n i n w o m en s o rg an i zat i o n s T h e p ap er s t res s es t h at co l o n i al en co u n t ers o ft en h ad mu l t i p l e, an d ev en co n t ra d i ct o ry ef fect s an d t h at A f ri can w o m en w e re n o t me rel y p as s i v e s u b j ect s b u t ag en t s cap ab l e o f rej ect i n g an d t ran s fo r mi n g co l o n i al p o l i ci es an d i d eo l o g i es t h at d i d n o t m eet t h ei r n eed s I N T R O D U C T I O N C ol oni a l e nc ount e r s i n S out he r n C a m e r oons a f f e c t e d w om e n i n c om pl e x a nd c ont r a di c t or y w a ys A s m ul t i pl e s c hol a r s ha ve de m ons t r a t e d, m a ny c ol oni a l pol i c i e s s pr e a d W e s t e r n not i ons of dom e s t i c i t y, c ons t r i c t i ng t he s pa c e a va i l a bl e f or w om e n t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n publ i c l i f e 1 O t he r pol i c i e s how e ve r ope ne d ne w oppor t uni t i e s t o w o m e n f or e duc a t i on, s a l a r i e d e m pl oy m e nt t r a v e l a br oa d, a nd a c t i vi s m i n l oc a l a nd i nt e r na t i on a l or ga ni z a t i ons I n t hi s pa pe r I us e t he c a s e of S out he r n C a m e r oons t o de m ons t r a t e t ha t B r i t i s h c ol oni a l a nd m i s s i ona r y pol i c i e s di d not s e e k s ol e l y t o dom e s t i c a t e A f r i c a n w om e n. A l t hough c e r t a i n c ol oni a l p r oj e c t s di d a i m t o c r e a t e good C hr i s t i a n w i ve s a nd m ot he r s f o r e duc a t e d A f r i c a n m e n, ot he r s pa r t i c ul a r l y dur i ng t he l a s t de c a de of c ol oni a l r u l e s ought t o p r om ot e w o m e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n publ i c l i f e T hi s c a s e s t udy s uppor t s a nd e xt e nds r e c e nt nua nc e d w or k o n c ol oni a l e nc ount e r s t ha t c om p l i c a t e s r e l a t i ons be t w e e n E ur ope a ns a nd A f r i c a ns de m on s t r a t i ng t ha t A f r i c a n w om e n w e r e f r e que nt l y a c t i ve a ge nt s r e j e c t i ng a nd t r a ns f or m i ng c ol oni a l i de ol ogi e s t ha t di d not m e e t t he i r ne e ds 2

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2 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 D O M E S T I C I T Y : O N E G O A L A M O N G M A N Y C ol oni a l e nc ount e r s be t w e e n A f r i c a n a nd E ur ope a n w om e n ha ve f r e que nt l y be e n s t udi e d t hr ough t he l e ns of dom e s t i c i t y. T h i s pe r s pe c t i ve e m pha s i z e s t ha t c ol oni a l a nd m i s s i ona r y i ns t i t ut i ons pl a ye d a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n di f f us i ng C hr i s t i a ni t y, E ur ope a n l a ngua ge s a nd W e s t e r n nor m s t hr oughout A f r i c a T h i s f oc us on dom e s t i c i t y a l s o e m pha s i z e s t he r ol e t ha t c ol oni a l a nd m i s s i on pol i c i e s pl a ye d i n s oc i a l i z i ng A f r i c a n w om e n i nt o E ur ope a n ge nde r nor m s a nd a ppr opr i a t e f or m s o f s oc i a l or ga ni z a t i on I n ge ne r a l t h i s l i t e r a t ur e a r gue s t ha t E ur ope a n i nf l ue nc e s i nc l udi ng c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i ons m i s s i ons a nd i nf or m a l o r ga ni z a t i ons na r r ow e d w om e n s s phe r e of a c t i vi t i e s a nd i nc r e a s i ngl y c onf i ne d t he m t o t he hom e a nd f a m i l y. 3 T he s e i nf l ue nc e s pr opa ga t e d a n i de ol ogy of f e m a l e dom e s t i c i t y t ha t l a i d s t r e s s on w om e n s r e pr oduc t i ve a nd nu r t ur i n g r ol e s a bove t he i r a ut onom y a nd pr oduc t i vi t y 4 T he m a j o r f oc us of t hi s l i t e r a t ur e i s on how t he c ol oni a l s t a t e a nd C hr i s t i a n m i s s i ons c ont r i but e d t o t he hous e w i f i s a t i on of A f r i c a n w om e n. 5 N a nc y R os e H unt f or e xa m pl e e xa m i ne s t he l i nks be t w e e n ge nde r a nd dom e s t i c i t y i n t he B e l gi a n C ongo. D e s c r i bi ng t he f oy e r s s oc i aux e s t a bl i s he d b y m i s s i ona r i e s s oc i a l s e r vi c e a ge nc i e s a nd c ol oni a l w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons w i t h t he s uppor t of t he B e l gi a n c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on, H unt a r gue s t ha t t he y a r e a ke y c o m pone nt i n a B e l gi a n c ol oni a l pr oj e c t t o r e f a s hi on ge nde r r ol e s a nd i ns t i l l a W e s t e r n f a m i l y i de ol ogy i nt o A f r i c a n ur ba n l i f e 6 W i t hi n t he f oy e r s s oc i aux w om e n pa r t i c i pa t e d i n c l a s s e s on s e w i ng, c ooki ng, hous e ke e pi ng, a nd m a t e r na l hygi e ne T he y a l s o t ook p a r t i n hom e vi s i t s de c or a t i ng c ont e s t s gr a dua t i on c e r e m oni e s a nd ot he r publ i c r i t ua l s a l l of w hi c h, a c c or di ng t o H un t a t t e m pt e d t o r e de f i ne ge nde r r ol e s a nd dom e s t i c a t e A f r i c a n w om e n. S i m i l a r l y, D e bor a h G a i t s ke l l ha s e xa m i ne d t he di f f us i on of i de ol ogi e s of dom e s t i c i t y t h r ough c ol oni a l a nd m i s s i on i ns t i t ut i ons i n S out he r n A f r i c a 7 S pe c i f i c a l l y, s he ha s e xa m i ne d hos t e l s f o r A f r i c a n w om e n e s t a bl i s he d i n J oha nne s bur g by t he A ngl i c a n a nd M e t hodi s t c hur c he s a nd t he A m e r i c a n B oa r d M i s s i on. G a i t s ke l l a r gue s t ha t t he s e m i s s i on r un hos t e l s s ought t o c ont r ol A f r i c a n w om e n s s e xua l i t y, pr ot e c t t he m f r o m t he da nge r s of c i t y l i f e a nd e ns ur e a s uppl y of f e m a l e dom e s t i c w or ke r s a s t he m e n w ho pr e vi ous l y f i l l e d t he s e pos i t i ons t ur ne d t o w or k i n t he m i ne s Y e t ot he r w or k f oc us i ng on di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s f i n ds t ha t c ol oni a l a nd m i s s i on i nf l ue nc e s on w om e n a r e m or e c om pl e x, p r ovi di ng A f r i c a n w om e n w i t h bot h oppor t uni t i e s a nd c ons t r a i nt s E xa m i ni ng c ol oni a l f e m a l e e duc a t i on i n M oz a m bi que K a t hl e e n S he l don f i nds t ha t de s pi t e t he l i m i t a t i ons of t he dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c ur r i c ul um e m pha s i z e d a t s uc h s c hool s gi r l s a nd w om e n ga i ne d s om e va l ua bl e s ki l l s t hr ough t he s e s c hool s 8 S he a r gue s t ha t [ c ] r i t i c i s m of t he ge nde r bi a s of [ dom e s t i c s c i e nc e ] pr og r a m s i gnor e s t ha t s om e w om e n w e r e a bl e t o us e t ha t e duc a t i on t o e nt e r i nt o ne w a r e na s of w or k dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he c ol oni a l e r a 9 T hr ough t he s e pr ogr a m s s om e w om e n be c a m e l i t e r a t e ga i ne d f l ue nc y i n P or t ugu e s e a nd l e a r ne d ot he r s ki l l s t ha t he l pe d t he m s ur vi ve i n t he c ol oni a l e c onom y. S he l don c onc l ude s : I t ha s be e n e a s y t o c r i t i que t he P or t ugue s e c ol oni a l e duc a t i on s ys t e m f or i t s r a c i s m a nd s e xi s m i de ol ogi e s t ha t w e r e c e nt r a l t o t he ove r a l l or ga ni z a t i on of t he m i s s i on s c hool s ys t e m Y e t a hi s t or y of t ha t s ys t e m s houl d a l s o i nc l ude t he e xp e r i e nc e of a s m a l l num be r o f M oz a m bi c a n gi r l s w ho de s i r e d t o a t t e nd t he m i s s i on s c hool s a nd w ho l a t e r f ound s uc c e s s a s w or ke r s a nd pr of e s s i ona l s 1 0 H e r f i n di ngs c om pl i c a t e ou r unde r s t a ndi ngs of c ol oni a l m i s s i on a c t i vi t i e s de m ons t r a t i ng t ha t w hi l e c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of c ur r i c ul um s e r ve d t o di f f u s e W e s t e r n ge nde r nor m s a nd c onf i ne w om e n

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t o t he dom e s t i c s phe r e ot he r s pr ovi de d w om e n w i t h va l ua bl e s ki l l s t ha t ope n e d ne w e c onom i c oppor t uni t i e s O t he r s c hol a r s m a ke s i m i l a r c l a i m s de m ons t r a t i ng t ha t c ol oni a l i de ol ogi e s s e r ve d bot h t o l i m i t a nd t o e m pow e r w o m e n. I n hi s s t udy of t he F r i e nds A f r i c a M i s s i on i n K e nya S a m ue l S T hom a s a r gue s t ha t f e m a l e s t ude nt s s ubve r t e d t he i de ol ogy of dom e s t i c i t y di s s e m i na t e d a t t he m i s s i on s c hool 1 1 T he s e s t ude nt s s t r a t e gi c a l l y us e d t he s c hool t o de l a y m a r r i a ge s a nd c ont r ol t he i r c hoi c e of pa r t ne r s a nd t o m ove be yond t he d om e s t i c s phe r e a s t he y us e d t he s ki l l s t he y l e a r ne d i n dr e s s m a ki ng, ne e dl e w or k a nd c ooki ng t o pr ovi de a n i nde pe nde nt s our c e of i nc om e 1 2 B a r ba r a M os s i n a s t udy of t he B r i t i s h W e s l e ya n M e t hodi s t M i s s i on a r y S oc i e t y ( W M M S ) i n R hode s i a s i m i l a r l y f ound t ha t w om e n t r a ns f or m e d t he i r w om e n s pr a ye r uni on t o be t t e r m e e t t he i r ne e ds M os s a r gue s t ha t t he s e w om e n r e j e c t e d t he de pe nde nt i m a ge t ha t C hr i s t i a n m i s s i ona r i e s a nd c ol oni a l a ut hor i t i e s c onc oc t e d a nd c r e a t e d a n or ga ni z a t i on t ha t e na bl e d t he m t o he l p t he m s e l ve s a nd ot he r w om e n i n t he c om m u ni t y [ b] y c ont r i but i ng l a bor a nd pool i ng t he i r r e s our c e s 1 3 T hus A f r i c a n w om e n w e r e not j us t p a s s i ve r e c i pi e nt s of m i s s i ona r y a nd c ol oni a l doc t r i ne t he y w e r e a l s o a c t i ve a ge nt s w ho r e i nt e r p r e t e d a nd r e s ha pe d t he s e m e s s a ge s R e c e nt s c hol a r s hi p ha s a l s o di r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i on t o c ol oni a l w om e n, e m pha s i z i ng t he di ve r s i t y of w om e n i nvol ve d. 1 4 K um a r i J a ya w a r de na f o r e xa m pl e ha s a r gue d t ha t w e s t e r n w om e n s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h pa t r i a r c hy i n t h e i r ow n s oc i e t i e s l e d s om e t o f i ght f o r w om e n s l i be r a t i on i n S out h A s i a M a ny of t he w om e n w ho t r a ve l e d t o A f r i c a a s m i s s i ona r i e s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of i nt e r na t i ona l w om e n s or ga ni z a t i ons a nd e ve n a s c ol oni a l a dm i n i s t r a t or s w e r e i c onoc l a s t s w i t hi n t he i r ow n s oc i e t i e s a nd vi e w e d dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c our s e s not a s t he goa l o f e duc a t i on but a s a l a unc hi ng pa d f or ot he r w or k. 1 5 E xa m i ni ng t he w or k o f t he W or l d Y W C A i n A f r i c a N a nc y B oyd de s c r i be s how C e l e s t i ne S m i t h, a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n w ho br i e f l y w or ke d f or t he W or l d Y W C A i n L a gos N i ge r i a f r om D e c e m be r 1934 t o J une 1935, f e l t a bout t he Y W C A s w or k i n N i ge r i a : W hi l e a dm i t t i ng t ha t t o he r s ur pr i s e s he ha d e nj o ye d pa t c hi ng a nd da r ni ng he m m i ng ba by c l ot he s c ove r i ng l a m ps ha de s ba ki ng c a ke s f or t he B i s hop s t e a pa r t i e s a nd ot he r una c c us t om e d c hor e s C e l e s t i ne S m i t h w a s a ppa l l e d by M i s s B e nt a l l s s ugge s t i on t ha t he r s uc c e s s or be a t e a c he r of dr e s s m a ki ng a nd hom e e c onom i c s P oi n t i ng out t ha t no one i n N i ge r i a w i l l f r e e z e i f s he ne ve r w e a r s a dr e s s s he a dvi s e s he r t o c hoos e t he m os t i nt e l l i ge nt C hr i s t i an Y W C A S e c r e t a r y or s oc i a l w or ke r w hom you c a n f i nd 1 6 S m i t h r e c ogni z e d t ha t w hi l e e nj oya bl e a nd s om e t i m e s us e f ul dom e s t i c s c i e nc e s houl d not be t he s ol e or e ve n t he p r i m a r y f oc us o f t he Y W C A i n N i ge r i a E u r ope a n w om e n di d not a l w a ys pus h dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c l a s s e s on A f r i c a n w om e n. I n s o m e c a s e s t he y r e s ponde d t o A f r i c a ns de s i r e t o l e a r n s om e o f t he s e s ki l l s T hough ne a r l y a l l m i s s i ons a nd c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt s di f f us e d dom e s t i c i de ol ogi e s t he s e i de ol ogi e s va r i e d i n s i gni f i c a nc e a nd a f f e c t e d w om e n di f f e r e nt l y C l a s s c ont e xt r e l i gi on a nd t he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on w e r e a l l i m po r t a nt va r i a bl e s t ha t i nf l ue nc e d how t he s e i de ol ogi e s a f f e c t e d s pe c i f i c w om e n. I n c e r t a i n c ont e xt s i de ol ogi e s of dom e s t i c i t y w e r e t e m pe r e d by o t he r pol i c i e s t ha t e xpl i c i t l y s ought t o i nc r e a s e w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he pub l i c r e a l m M or e ove r A f r i c a n w om e n f r e que nt l y s ubve r t e d t he s e dom e s t i c i de ol ogi e s t a ki ng w ha t w a s us e f ul a nd l e a vi ng t he r e s t be hi nd B R I T I S H C O L O N I A L P O L I C I E S O N W O M E N I N S O U T H E R N C A M E R O O N M ovi ng f r om ge ne r a l f i ndi ngs t o a s pe c i f i c c a s e t h i s s e c t i on e xa m i ne s how c ol oni a l pol i c i e s

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4 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 a f f e c t e d w om e n i n B r i t i s h S out he r n C a m e r oons S out he r n C a m e r oons w hi c h t he B r i t i s h c ont r ol l e d f r om 1922 t o 1961 w e r e c om pr i s e d of w ha t a r e t oda y t he N or t hw e s t a nd S ou t hw e s t pr ovi nc e s of C a m e r oon. S pe c i f i c a l l y t he pa pe r f oc us e s on t he l a s t de c a de of c ol oni a l r ul e f r om 1950 t o 1961 w hi c h d i f f e r e d i n i m por t a nt w a ys f r om e a r l i e r pe r i ods C ol oni a l r e c or ds pr ovi de e vi de nc e t ha t B r i t i s h a dm i ni s t r a t or s s t r ove t o i ns t i l l W e s t e r n ge nde r nor m s i n A f r i c a n w om e n a nd t o m ol d s ui t a bl e w i ve s f or e duc a t e d, C hr i s t i a n m e n. B ut t he r e c or ds a l s o s uppor t t he c l a i m t ha t t he B r i t i s h a dm i n i s t r a t i on a t l e a s t i n t he t e r m i na l c ol oni a l pe r i od s ought t o i nc or po r a t e w om e n m or e f u l l y i nt o publ i c l i f e by p r ovi di ng c e r t a i n A f r i c a n w om e n w i t h oppor t uni t i e s f or e duc a t i on, t r a ve l a b r oa d, a nd s a l a r i e d e m pl oym e nt S t i l l i t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t s i gni f i c a nt di s pa r i t i e s c ont i nue d t o e xi s t i n t he ki nd a nd l e ngt h of e duc a t i on of gi r l s a s oppos e d t o boys A ddi t i ona l l y, w om e n w e r e r e c r ui t e d f o r a na r r ow r a nge of pos i t i ons w i t hi n t he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on, a nd w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons w e r e c ons t r uc t e d a s i nhe r e nt l y non pol i t i c a l bodi e s T he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on i nt e r p r e t e d a c t i vi t i e s t ha t di d not c ha l l e nge B r i t i s h c ol oni a l r ul e a nd c a pi t a l i s t i de a l s a s non pol i t i c a l A ny a c t i vi t y t ha t ove r s t e ppe d t he s e bounda r i e s w a s de e m e d pol i t i c a l a nd, t he r e f or e s us pe c t E duc at i on W hi l e e a r l y c ol oni a l po l i c i e s r e f l e c t e d t he bi a s e s of t he ove r w he l m i ng l y m a l e c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t or s a f t e r W or l d W a r I I t he B r i t i s h c ol o ni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on f oc us e d gr e a t e r a t t e nt i on on t he e duc a t i on of gi r l s a nd w om e n. 1 7 T hi s i nc r e a s e d a t t e nt i on t o gi r l s a nd w om e n s e duc a t i on w a s l i nke d t o t he g r ow t h i n t he num be r of f e m a l e c ol oni a l of f i c e r s i n t he B r i t i s h a dm i ni s t r a t i on T he s uc c e s s of t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s c a n be pa r t i a l l y ga uge d t hr ough s c hool e nr o l l m e nt a nd a t t e nda nc e f i gur e s f or gi r l s a nd w om e n i n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons T he c om pl e x na t ur e o f t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i n t he t e r r i t or y, w hi c h i nc l ude d gove r nm e nt na t i ve a ut ho r i t y, a nd m i s s i on s c hool s pr e s e nt s s om e di f f i c ul t y i n ga t he r i ng t ot a l s c hool e nr ol l m e nt a nd a t t e nda nc e f i gur e s N e ve r t he l e s s B r i t i s h r e por t s t o t he L e a gue o f N a t i ons a nd l a t e r t o t he U ni t e d N a t i ons pr ovi de ge ne r a l da t a on gi r l s s c hool a t t e nda nc e r a t e s i n S o ut he r n C a m e r oons w hi c h i ndi c a t e t ha t t he y i nc r e a s e d ove r t he c our s e of B r i t i s h c ol oni a l r ul e N a r r a t i ve r e por t s a l s o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he s e ga i ns w e r e not a c c i de nt a l but r a t h e r a pa r t of a c ons c i ous e f f or t t o i nc r e a s e gi r l s a nd w om e n s a c c e s s t o e duc a t i on. T he 1954 r e por t not e s f or e xa m pl e : P r e j udi c e a ga i ns t t he e duc a t i on of w om e n di e s ha r d, but t he num be r a t t e ndi ng s c hool i s i nc r e a s i ng gr a dua l l y t hr oughout t he t e r r i t or y 1 8 D e s c r i bi ng i nc r e a s e s i n gi r l s pr i m a r y e nr o l l m e nt r a t e s be t w e e n 1950 a nd 1980 i n s ub S a ha r a n A f r i c a C l a i r e R obe r t s on not e s : T he s e f i g ur e s i ndi c a t e a s t r ong c om m i t m e nt t o i nc r e a s i ng gi r l s e duc a t i on, bot h be f o r e a nd a f t e r i nde pe nde nc e but ge ne r a l l y hi ghe r pr e i nde pe nde nc e gr ow t h r a t e s 1 9 I n pa r t r a pi d gr o w t h r a t e s dur i ng t he 19 50s r e f l e c t e d t he l ow l e ve l s of gi r l s pr i m a r y s c hool e nr ol l m e nt be f or e t h i s pe r i od. T he y a l s o, how e ve r i ndi c a t e d a dm i ni s t r a t i ons gr ow i ng c om m i t m e nt t o gi r l s e du c a t i on dur i ng t he t e r m i na l c ol oni a l pe r i od 2 0 S t i l l e ve n a s gi r l s a t t e nda nc e r a t e s i nc r e a s e d, t he ga i ns oc c ur r e d ove r w he l m i ngl y a t t he pr i m a r y l e ve l m e a ni ng t ha t w om e n w e r e s t i l l g r e a t l y unde r r e pr e s e nt e d i n f i e l ds r e qui r i ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of e duc a t i on. I n 1949 t he gove r nor of N i ge r i a w ho a l s o c ont r ol l e d C a m e r oons e s t a bl i s he d a c om m i s s i on t o e xa m i ne how t o t r a i n N i ge r i a ns ( a nd C a m e r ooni a ns ) t o t a ke on S e ni or S e r vi c e pos t s 2 1 T he s t udy p l a c e d s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on on w om e n, not i ng: I t ha s a l r e a dy be e n r e c om m e nde d t ha t w om e n s houl d be gi ve n e qua l c ons i de r a t i on w i t h m e n f or a ny de pa r t m e nt a l s c hol a r s hi p a nd t r a i ni ng s c he m e s f or w hi c h t he y m a y pos s e s s

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t he ne c e s s a r y e duc a t i ona l qua l i f i c a t i ons but t he C o m m i s s i on c ons i de r s t ha t i n a ddi t i on a s pe c i a l a l l oc a t i on of t hi r t y s c hol a r s hi ps i n a l l s houl d be m a de dur i ng t he t hr e e ye a r pe r i od t o e na bl e w om e n t o obt a i n qua l i f i c a t i ons ove r s e a s f or pos t s s uc h a s nur s i ng s e c r e t a r i a l a nd l i br a r i a n a nd c e r t a i n ot he r s pe c i a l i s t s a ppoi nt m e nt s i n w hi c h a l a r ge r num be r o f s ki l l e d N i ge r i a n w om e n of f i c e r s a r e u r ge nt l y r e qui r e d. 2 2 I n 1949, G r e a t B r i t a i n l a unc he d a s pe c i a l t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m t o i nc r e a s e t he num be r of e duc a t e d A f r i c a n w om e n i n N i ge r i a a nd t he C a m e r oons a nd i n t ha t ye a r t hr e e w om e n f r om C a m e r oon unde r t ook s t udi e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n. 2 3 I n 1950 f i ve w om e n f r om t he C a m e r oons w e r e pu r s ui ng hi ghe r e duc a t i on i n e i t he r N i ge r i a or B r i t a i n due t o t hi s pr ogr a m 2 4 T he s e ga i ns w e r e s m a l l a nd w om e n w e r e l i m i t e d t o a na r r ow r a nge of oc c upa t i ons O ne r e s ponde nt w ho be ne f i t e d f r om t hi s pr ogr a m not e d: O nl y a f e w [ C a m e r ooni a ns ] w e nt t o N i ge r i a f or e duc a t i on on gove r nm e nt s c hol a r s hi ps V e r y f e w gi r l s w e r e s e l e c t e d f or t he s e pl a c e s 2 5 D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t onl y a f e w w om e n be ne f i t e d f r om t he pr ogr a m i t s e xi s t e nc e a t l e a s t i ndi c a t e s t ha t i nc r e m e nt a l c ha nge s w e r e oc c ur r i ng i n c ol oni a l pol i c i e s t ow a r ds w om e n dur i ng t he t e r m i na l c ol oni a l pe r i od. R e por t s t hr oughout t he 1950s s t a t e t ha t t he r e w e r e a g r ow i ng num be r o f w om e n w o r ki ng a s nu r s e s t e a c he r s a nd c l e r ks B y 1958 t he r e w e r e 222 t e a c he r s f i ve nu r s i ng s i s t e r s a nd 55 nur s e s a nd m i dw i ve s a nd a num be r of w om e n [ he l d ] c l e r i c a l pos i t i ons i n t he pub l i c s e r vi c e a nd i n c om m e r c i a l c onc e r ns 2 6 I n t hi s c ont e xt hi ghe r e d uc a t i on pr ovi de d by t he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o a l i m i t e d num be r o f w om e n e na b l e d t he m t o t a ke on ne w r ol e s out s i de t he hom e T he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on a l s o s ought t o e r a di c a t e pr a c t i c e s l i ke pol ygyny a nd br i de w e a l t h t hr ough e duc a t i on. B r i t i s h r e po r t s on t he C a m e r oons e m pha s i z e t ha t l e ga l a ppr oa c he s t o e r a di c a t i ng t he s e c ul t ur a l pr a c t i c e s w e r e l a r ge l y i n e f f e c t i ve a nd di f f i c ul t i f not e nt i r e l y i m pos s i bl e t o e nf or c e R e c ogni z i ng t he l i m i t s of l e ga l s t r a t e gi e s t he doc um e nt s a dvoc a t e e duc a t i on a s t he be s t a ve nue t ow a r d s oc i a l c ha nge T he 1950 r e por t not e s f or e xa m pl e : t he de ve l opm e nt of e duc a t i on, not a bl y o f gi r l s w i l l ha ve a s one of i t s r e s ul t s t he s pr e a di ng of a hi ghe r c onc e pt i on of t he r ol e of w om e n i n s oc i e t yw hi c h w i l l l e a d t he m t o r e s i s t t he r e qui r e m e nt s a nd us a ge s of ol d a nd ha r m f u l c us t o m s 2 7 F r om t h i s pe r s pe c t i ve e xpos ur e t o W e s t e r n nor m s a nd va l ue s di s s e m i na t e d t hr ough s c hool s a nd c e nt e r s w oul d l e a d C a m e r ooni a ns t o c hoos e E ur ope a n ove r A f r i c a n pr a c t i c e s W e s t e r n w om e n, a s c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t or s m i s s i ona r i e s or w i ve s w e r e t o s e r ve a s r ol e m ode l s of f e r i ng A f r i c a n w om e n a l t e r na t i ve s t o t he i r t r a di t i ona l ge nde r r ol e s I t i s i m po r t a nt t o hi ghl i ght t ha t c ol oni a l a ge nt s f r e q ue nt l y ha d onl y a c ur s or y unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s e c ul t ur a l p r a c t i c e s w hi c h i m pe de d t he i r a bi l i t y t o unde r s t a nd t he c om pl e x w a ys t ha t t he s e pr a c t i c e s a f f e c t e d w om e n s pos i t i on i n s oc i e t y. I n he r f i e l dw or k i n C a m e r oon F i ona B ow i e f ound, f or e xa m pl e t ha t [ t ] r a di t i ona l m a r r i a ge w i t h e xc ha nge of br i de w e a l t h gi ve s w om e n s om e s e c ur i t y a s a w om a n s hus ba nd c a nnot di s m i s s he r w i t hout l os i ng hi s i nve s t m e nt 2 8 T hus unde r c e r t a i n c ondi t i ons t he p r ohi bi t i on of c ul t ur a l pr a c t i c e s l i ke t he e xc ha nge of br i de w e a l t h c oul d r e nde r w om e n s s t a t us i n s oc i e t y m or e p r e c a r i ous r a t he r t ha n m or e s e c ur e W hi l e ope ni ng oppor t uni t i e s f or pr of e s s i ona l e m pl oym e nt a nd s e e ki ng t o e r a di c a t e c e r t a i n c ul t ur a l pr a c t i c e s one m us t not ove r e s t i m a t e t he l i be r a t i ng pot e nt i a l o f B r i t i s h e duc a t i ona l pol i c i e s T hr oughout i t s ye a r s i n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons G r e a t B r i t a i n a l s o e m pl oye d dom e s t i c s c i e nc e e duc a t i on t o c r e a t e good w i ve s a nd m ot h e r s I n t hi s c ont e xt c ol oni a l pol i c i e s di d s e e k t o s pr e a d E ur ope a n not i ons of dom e s t i c i t y t o A f r i c a n w om e n. C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng quot a t i on f r om a 1958 c ol oni a l r e por t :

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6 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 T he gi r l s c om e i n s t r a i ght f r om t he hi l l pa ga n vi l l a ge s w i t hout ha vi ng pr e vi ous l y a t t e nde d a ny ki nd of s c hool t o l e a r n s i m pl e c ooke r y ba byc r a f t he a l t h a nd hygi e ne a nd l oc a l c r a f t s A t t he e nd of t he i r t w o ye a r s t he y c a n qua l i f y f o r a H ous e c r a f t C e r t i f i c a t e or i f t he y c a n r e a d a l i t t l e a C e r t i f i c a t e of M e r i t T he gi r l s us ua l l y m a r r y a t onc e on r e t u r ni ng t o t he i r vi l l a ge s a nd t he y m a k e e xc e l l e nt hous e w i ve s 2 9 T he dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c e nt e r s e s t a bl i s he d t hr oughout t he c ol oni a l t e r r i t o r y w e r e a m e a ns t hr ough w hi c h E ur ope a n no r m s of hygi e ne a nd dom e s t i c i t y c oul d be t r a ns f e r r e d t o A f r i c a n w om e n. T he 1950 B r i t i s h r e por t de s c r i be s t he s pr e a d of t he s e c e nt e r s : I n B a m e nda pr ovi nc e t he dom e s t i c s c i e nc e or ga ni s a t i on, w hi c h i s i n c ha r ge o f a w om a n e duc a t i on of f i c e r m a de good pr ogr e s s D u r i ng t he ye a r a t t he r e que s t of t he w i ve s of t he A f r i c a n j uni or s t a f f a w om a n s i ns t i t ut e w a s s t a r t e d i n B a m e nda T he i ns t i t ut e i s m a na ge d by a c om m i t t e e o f w hi c h t he pr e s i de nt i s t he onl y E ur ope a n, a nd i s c onduc t e d on m uc h t he s a m e l i ne s a s a w om e n s i ns t i t ut e i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom A t i t s m e e t i ngs w hi c h t a ke pl a c e onc e a w e e k, t he w om e n l e a r n s e w i ng a nd kni t t i ng pl a y ga m e s a nd do us e f ul w or k f o r t he c om m uni t y s uc h a s m e ndi ng h os pi t a l l i ne n. 3 0 T hi s s c hool a nd ot he r s l i ke i t di d not s e e k t o e nc ou r a ge w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he publ i c s phe r e N e ve r t he l e s s s om e w om e n w e r e a bl e t o be ne f i t f r om dom e s t i c s c i e nc e e duc a t i on. A s t hi s quot a t i on i ndi c a t e s t he s e i ni t i a t i ve s e na bl e d w om e n t o t a ke o n l e a de r s hi p r ol e s w hi c h c oul d a nd of t e n di d, s e r ve a s s t e ppi ng s t one s t o br oa de r i nvol ve m e nt i n publ i c l i f e 3 1 D om e s t i c s c i e nc e e duc a t i on a l s o pr ovi de d s om e w om e n w i t h a n e c onom i c l i ve l i hood a s e nt e r pr i s i ng s t ude nt s us e d s e w i ng a nd ba ki ng s ki l l s l e a r ne d i n t he s e pr og r a m s t o e a r n a n i nc om e or e ve n ope n a s m a l l bus i ne s s 3 2 I n f or m a t i on on hy gi e ne a nd nut r i t i on r e duc e d i n f a nt m o r t a l i t y r a t e s a nd r e s ponde d t o r e a l ne e ds 3 3 I t w oul d be a m i s t a ke t he r e f or e t o be l i e ve t ha t t he A f r i c a n w om e n w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s e dom e s t i c s c i e nc e gr oups a nd c l a s s e s unque s t i oni ngl y a c c e pt e d t he ge nde r e d di s c our s e s of f e r e d by E ur ope a n w om e n. M or e ove r a s not e d pr e vi ous l y, m a ny o f t he E ur ope a n w om e n w ho l e d t he s e dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c l a s s e s ha d a m bi va l e nt f e e l i ngs t ow a r ds t he i r s ubj e c t m a t t e r vi e w i ng t he m a s a j um p i ng of f poi nt i nt o br oa de r s t udi e s E l i z a be t h O K e l l y, f or e xa m pl e us e d c or n m i l l s s oc i e t i e s i n t he N o r t h w e s t gr a s s f i e l ds t o a t t r a c t w om e n t o j oi n w om e n s gr oups but t he n us e d t he gr oups t o a ddr e s s a w i de r a nge of i s s ue s 3 4 I n s um f or s om e w om e n, e duc a t i on ope ne d ne w o ppor t uni t i e s f or t r a ve l a br oa d a nd pr of e s s i ona l e m pl oym e nt P a r t i c ul a r l y dur i ng t he l a s t ye a r s of c ol oni a l i s m t he B r i t i s h a dm i ni s t r a t i on s ought t o i nc or por a t e m o r e w om e n i nt o t he c i vi l s e r vi c e T o do s o, i t ne e de d t o pr om ot e w om e n s e duc a t i on a t t he s e c onda r y a nd uni ve r s i t y l e ve l s F o r ot he r s a nd t hi s i nc l ude s t he va s t m a j or i t y o f A f r i c a n w om e n c ol oni a l e du c a t i ona l oppor t uni t i e s c ons i s t e d e nt i r e l y o f pr i m a r y s c hool a nd dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c our s e s Y e t e ve n w i t hi n t hi s r e s t r i c t e d f r a m e w or k C a m e r ooni a n w om e n w e r e a bl e t o t a ke t he e l e m e n t s of dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c our s e s t ha t w e r e us e f ul t o t he i r l i ve s a nd l e a ve t he r e s t be hi nd. I n s om e c a s e s t he y us e d t he s ki l l s l e a r ne d i n t he s e dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c our s e s t o e nt e r t he publ i c s phe r e a s e nt r e pr e ne ur s t e a c he r s a nd l e a de r s of w om e n s gr oups W om e n s P ar t i c i pat i on i n P ub l i c L i f e

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C e r t a i n c ol oni a l pr a c t i c e s i nt e nt i ona l l y or uni nt e nt i ona l l y, de c r e a s e d w om e n s i nf l ue nc e i n t he publ i c s phe r e by unde r m i n i ng t he i r t r a di t i ona l ba s e s of a ut hor i t y I n p r e c ol oni a l s oc i e t i e s w om e n s a ut hor i t y s t e m m e d f r om bot h t he i r r e p r o duc t i ve a nd pr oduc t i ve r ol e s T he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on s i nt r oduc t i on of c a s h c r op a gr i c ul t ur e a nd i t s p r e f e r e nc e f o r r e c r ui t i ng m e n t o c i vi l s e r vi c e pos t s dur i ng m uc h of t he c ol oni a l pe r i od unde r m i ne d w om e n s s t a t us O t he r pol i c i e s how e ve r e xpl i c i t l y s ought t o i nc r e a s e w o m e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n publ i c l i f e T he 19 54 r e por t t o t he U ni t e d N a t i ons not e s f o r e xa m pl e : I n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons t he r e i s a t r e nd t ow a r ds a n i nc r e a s i ng i nde pe nde nc e f or w o m e n w hi c h ha s t he e nc our a ge m e nt of t he S out he r n C a m e r oons G ove r nm e nt 3 5 T o t r a c k t he s e t r e nds t he B r i t i s h c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on i n S out he r n C a m e r oons c ol l e c t e d da t a on w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i o n i n na t i ve a ut ho r i t i e s s uppor t e d e duc a t i ona l pr ogr a m s t ha t a i m e d t o p r e pa r e w om e n t o t a ke on de c i s i on m a ki ng pos t s a nd s pons or e d f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n r e gi ona l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s T he B r i t i s h c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on i n S out he r n C a m e r oons s ought i nf or m a t i on on w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n na t i ve a ut hor i t i e s a nd c ol l e c t e d da t a on w om e n s r e p r e s e nt a t i on i n l oc a l gove r nm e nt t hr oughout t he t e r r i t or y S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he gove r nm e nt a s ke d a dm i ni s t r a t or s a c r os s t he t e r r i t o r y t o pr ovi de i nf or m a t i on on w he t he r a nd t o w ha t e xt e nt w om e n w e r e pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he na t i ve a ut hor i t i e s 3 6 S ynt he s i z i ng t he da t a t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on f ound t ha t w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s ge ne r a l l y qui t e l ow I n m os t a r e a s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n na t i ve a ut ho r i t i e s w a s l i nke d t o t he pa ym e nt o f t a x S i nc e f e w w om e n pa i d t a xe s w om e n w e r e uns ur pr i s i ngl y, e xc l ude d f r om l e a de r s hi p pos i t i ons a l t hough t he r e w e r e a f e w e x c e pt i ons I n ge ne r a l onl y w om e n w i t h s a l a r i e d pos i t i ons or a not he r f or m of e a s i l y a s s e s s a bl e i nc o m e ( pr i m a r i l y ba r ke e pe r s ) w e r e t he r e f o r e e l i gi bl e t o vot e a nd s e r ve i n l e a de r s hi p pos i t i ons I n a f e w l oc a t i ons one o r t w o w om e n pa r t i c i pa t e d on t he c ounc i l s on a n e qua l c a pa c i t y w i t h m e n. I n ot he r s a r e a s p r ovi s i ons e na bl e d s pe c i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of w om e n s i nt e r e s t s t o pa r t i c i p a t e i n na t i ve a ut ho r i t i e s I n B a m e nda f or e xa m pl e t he S out h W e s t a nd S out h E a s t N a t i ve A ut hor i t i e s a l l ow e d f o r s pe c i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of w om e n s i nt e r e s t s on t he c ounc i l s ( f ou r w om e n pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he f i r s t a nd t hr e e i n t he l a t t e r ) T he s e w om e n s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s how e ve r d i d not ha ve t he s a m e r i ght s a nd p r i vi l e ge s a s m a l e m e m be r s T he y w e r e a bl e t o r e pr e s e nt w om e n i n t he c om m uni t y but not t he c om m uni t y a s a w hol e I n s t i l l i n ot he r c ounc i l s w om e n ha d no r e p r e s e nt a t i on a t a l l I n pa r t i c ul a r w om e n ga i ne d gr e a t e r a c c e s s t o pol i t i c a l r ol e s f ol l ow i ng t he a dopt i on of t he D e c e m be r 1957 S out he r n C a m e r oons E l e c t or a l R e gul a t i ons w hi c h a l l ow e d w om e n t o vot e a nd t o s t a nd f or e l e c t i on w i t hout t he t a xa t i on r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t i m pe de d w om e n s a bi l i t y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n pol i t i c a l a f f a i r s i n t he pa s t A 1957 B r i t i s h r e por t on t he C a m e r oons not e s t ha t a w om a n w a s pr e s e nt on t he S out he r n C a m e r oons H ous e of A s s e m bl y t o r e pr e s e nt i nt e r e s t s of w om e n, a w om a n w a s a ppoi nt e d t o S ou t he r n C a m e r oons S c hol a r s hi p B oa r d, a nd i n V i c t o r i a D i vi s i on e a c h c ounc i l nom i na t e d w om e n c ounc i l or s t o r e p r e s e nt w om e n s i nt e r e s t s on t he c ounc i l a nd one w om a n [ w a s ] a ppoi nt e d a c ou r t m e m be r on t he T i ko C ounc i l 3 7 I n a ddi t i on, t he r e por t i ndi c a t e s t ha t N a t i ve A ut hor i t i e s c ont i nue [ d] t o e m p l oy a n i nc r e a s i ng num be r o f m i dw i ve s f e m a l e t e a c he r s a nd s om e f e m a l e c l e r i c a l s t a f f 3 8 A doc um e nt on t he pa r t i c i pa t i on of w om e n i n na t i ve a ut ho r i t i e s a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t w o m e n w e r e t a ki ng on a b r oa de r r a nge of oc c upa t i ons T he y w e r e be c om i ng t e l e phoni s t s m i dw i ve s nur s e s t e a c he r s c l e r i c s m a c hi ne ope r a t or s w a r dr e s s e s a nd r e c e pt i oni s t s 3 9 A l t houg h w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i nc r e a s e d, i t c ont i nue d t o l a g s i gni f i c a nt l y be hi nd t ha t of m e n. M or e ove r m a ny o f t he w om e n w ho s e r ve d on t he s e c ounc i l s r e pr e s e nt e d w om e n s i nt e r e s t s a n d, t he r e f o r e di d not ha ve e qua l r i ght s w i t h m a l e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s S t i l l t he s e e xa m pl e s poi nt t o s om e pos i t i ve de ve l opm e nt s t ha t r e s ul t e d f r om c ol oni a l pol i c i e s t ha t ha d t he e xpl i c i t i nt e nt i o n of i nc r e a s i ng w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t h e

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8 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 publ i c s phe r e W om e n s O r gani z at i ons P a r t i c ul a r l y a s t he pe r i od o f c ol oni a l r ul e be ga n t o dr a w t o a c l os e G r e a t B r i t a i n r e c ogni z e d t he r ol e s t ha t w om e n a nd w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons c oul d pl a y i n t he t e r r i t o r y. C i r c ul a r 212 / 60 on T he P a r t i c i pa t i on of W om e n i n P ubl i c L i f e f o r e xa m p l e di s c us s e s how w om e n w e r e i nc r e a s i ngl y pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s oc i a l a nd publ i c a f f a i r s o f t he c om m uni t y a nd not e d t ha t t he de ve l opm e nt of w om e n s c l ubs ha s be e n s ym pt om a t i c o f t he ne w m ove m e nt 4 0 B r i t a i n s uppor t e d t he f or m a t i on o f w om e n s g r oups i n S out he r n C a m e r o ons a nd e nc our a ge d t he s e gr oups t o f or m l i nks w i t h i nt e r na t i ona l a s s oc i a t i ons I t s m ot i ve s f or t hi s s uppor t a r e e vi de nt i n t he f ol l ow i ng e xc e r pt : [ M ] uc h va l ua bl e w or k c a n be done t h r ough t he w o r k i n e a c h t e r r i t o r y of w om e n s or ga ni s a t i ons a nd s oc i e t i e s S uc h or ga ni s a t i ons w he r e s uf f i c i e nt l y a dva nc e d, c a n be gr e a t l y he l pe d i n t he i r e duc a t i ve t a s k by a f f i l i a t i on a t t he t e r r i t or i a l l e ve l w i t h a ppr opr i a t e r e s pons i bl e i nt e r na t i ona l w om e n s or ga ni z a t i ons s uc h a s t he I nt e r na t i ona l C ounc i l of W om e n, t he I nt e r na t i ona l A l l i a nc e of W om e n t he A s s oc i a t e d C ount r y W om e n of t he W or l d, a nd ot he r s uc h non pol i t i c a l o r ga ni s a t i ons S uc h a f f i l i a t i on m a y a l s o c ount e r a ny a t t e m pt by c om m uni s t dom i na t e d bodi e s s uc h a s t he W om e n s I nt e r na t i ona l D e m oc r a t i c F e de r a t i on ( W I D F ) t o s e c ur e a l l e gi a nc e of l oc a l w om e n s or ga ni s a t i ons 4 1 T hus w hi l e B r i t a i n s uppor t e d t he f o r m a t i on o f w o m e n s a s s oc i a t i ons i n C a m e r oon a nd t he a f f i l i a t i on o f t he s e gr oups w i t h i nt e r na t i ona l w om e n s or ga ni z a t i ons i t onl y s uppor t e d c e r t a i n ki nds of or ga ni z a t i ons na m e l y non c om m un i s t a n d non pol i t i c a l one s G r e a t B r i t a i n not onl y e nc our a ge d t he f o r m a t i on o f s uc h gr oups but p r ovi de d f undi ng f o r r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of a ppr opr i a t e w om e n s o r ga ni z a t i ons t o a t t e nd i nt e r na t i ona l m e e t i ngs w hi c h e na bl e d C a m e r ooni a n w om e n t o e s t a bl i s h l i nks w i t h w om e n i n o t he r c ount r i e s T he a dm i ni s t r a t i on c hos e M i ne r va M a r t i ns f o r e xa m pl e t o r e pr e s e nt t he S out he r n C a m e r oons a t a U ni t e d N a t i ons R e gi ona l S e m i na r on T he P a r t i c i p a t i on of W om e n i n P ub l i c L i f e i n A ddi s A ba ba i n D e c e m be r 1960. T he c onf e r e nc e pr og r a m a ddr e s s e d s ubj e c t s l i ke w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a l l l e ve l s of gove r nm e nt t he w i de r i m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd t he f a c t or s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d a nd i m pe de d w om e n s a bi l i t y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n publ i c a f f a i r s ( e g e duc a t i ona l e c onom i c s oc i a l a nd l e ga l i s s ue s ) 4 2 A s one of a s e r i e s r e gi ona l c onf e r e nc e s s pons or e d by t he U ni t e d N a t i ons i t w a s pa r t of a g l oba l e f f or t t o i nc r e a s e w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n publ i c l i f e 4 3 A n a bor t i ve c oup i n E t hi opi a w hi c h oc c ur r e d du r i ng t he c onf e r e nc e c r e a t e d unf or e s e e n di f f i c ul t i e s M a r t i ns s pe nt s e ve r a l da ys a t t he B r i t i s h C ons ul i n E t hi opi a p r om pt i n g a n e ndl e s s t r a i l of pa pe r w o r k be t w e e n t he U ni t e d N a t i ons a nd G r e a t B r i t a i n ove r w hi c h a ge nc y s houl d c ove r he r a ddi t i ona l e xpe ns e s 4 4 D e s pi t e t hi s unf or t una t e out c om e t he e xa m pl e de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t he B r i t i s h c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt t ook t a ngi bl e s t e ps t o i nc r e a s e w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n po l i t i c a l l i f e i n t he C a m e r oons by pr ovi di ng f und i ng a nd l og i s t i c a l s uppor t f o r M a r t i ns pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he m e e t i ng M i s s i ona r i e s c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd w i ve s of c ol oni a l a ge nt s a l s o e nc our a ge d t he f or m a t i on o f w om e n s g r oups i n S out he r n C a m e r o ons B r i t i s h c ol oni a l r e por t s l i s t a num be r of w om e n s or ga ni z a t i ons a c t i ve i n t he r e gi on. T he s e i nc l ude t he Y oung L a di e s I m p r ove m e nt S o c i e t y ( V i c t or i a ) t he W om e n s P r ogr e s s i ve S oc i e t y ( K um ba ) T he L a di e s D r a m a t i c S oc i e t y ( B ue a ) t he N dol a B i t u W om e n s F e l l ow s hi p ( B ue a ) a nd t he L a di e s G l e e C l ub ( M a m f e ) 4 5 T he

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 G i r l G ui de s t he f e m a l e e qui va l e nt of t he B oy S c o ut s l i nke d t o t he W or l d A s s oc i a t i on of G i r l G ui de s a nd G i r l S c out s ( W A G G G S ) a l s o ha d a s m a l l but g r ow i ng p r e s e nc e i n S out he r n C a m e r oons A s of 1959 t he r e w e r e 250 r e gi s t e r e d G i r l G ui de s 4 6 O t he r or ga ni z a t i ons i nc l ude d t he R e d C r os s t he M ot he r s U ni on w om e n s s por t s c l ubs w om e n s f a r m c l ubs a nd c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s T he 1950 r e por t t o t he U ni t e d N a t i ons no t e s t ha t a w om e n s i ns t i t ut e w a s e s t a bl i s he d i n B a m e nda a nd f unc t i one d s i m i l a r l y t o W om e n s I ns t i t ut e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n. 4 7 T hough m ode l e d a f t e r a B r i t i s h or ga ni z a t i on, t he w om e n s i ns t i t ut e e na bl e d C a m e r ooni a n w om e n t o t a ke on l e a de r s hi p pos i t i ons T he B a m e nda w om e n s i ns t i t ut e w a s m a na ge d by a c om m i t t e e of w hi c h onl y one m e m be r ( a l be i t t he pr e s i de nt ) w a s E ur ope a n. 4 8 T hus e ve n gr oups pa t t e r ne d a f t e r B r i t i s h or ga ni z a t i ons t ook on a l i f e o f t he i r ow n a nd pr ovi de d w om e n w i t h oppo r t uni t i e s t o t a ke on l e a de r s hi p pos i t i ons E N C O U N T E R S B E T W E E N C A M E R O O N I A N A N D E U R O P E A N W O M E N C or n M i l l Soc i e t i e s W hi l e m e n gr e a t l y ou t num be r e d w om e n i n t he c ol oni a l s e r vi c e B r i t i s h w om e n s e r ve d a s c ol oni a l a ge nt s i n va r i ous c a pa c i t i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y a f t e r W or l d W a r I I S pe c i f i c a l l y t he y t e nde d t o w or k a s nur s e s t e a c he r s a nd pr i nc i pa l s a nd c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t or s 4 9 E l i z a be t h O K e l l y w a s a B r i t i s h c ol oni a l of f i c e r i n S out he r n C a m e r oons f r o m 1950 unt i l 1961. 5 0 U pon he r a r r i va l i n C a m e r oon, O K e l l y w o r ke d a t t he C a m e r oon D e ve l opm e nt C or por a t i on ( C D C ) i n B ue a w he r e s he pl a nne d a nd r a n l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s a nd c our s e s on hi s t or y, ge ogr a phy, a r i t hm e t i c hygi e ne a nd di e t I n O c t obe r 1952 s he be c a m e a w om a n e duc a t i on of f i c e r i n t he B r i t i s h C ol oni a l S e r vi c e a nd w a s a s s i gne d t o B a m e nda P r ovi nc e i n t he N o r t hw e s t gr a s s f i e l ds A f t e r t a l ki ng w i t h P hyl l i s K a be r r y, a n a nt hr opol ogi s t w ho w or ke d i n t he B a m e nda a r e a w ho ha d r e c e nt l y publ i s he d W om e n of t he G r as s f i e l ds O K e l l y l e a r ne d t ha t gr i ndi ng c or n w a s one of w om e n s m os t t i m e c ons um i ng t a s ks S he c r e a t e d a pr og r a m t o pr ovi de gr i ndi ng m a c hi ne s t o gr oups of w om e n B y 1960 t he r e w e r e 200 gr oups e nc om pa s s i ng t hous a nds of w om e n. M os t of t h i s s e c t i on dr a w s o n O K e l l y s pe r c e pt i ons of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s s i nc e t he c ol oni a l a nd e xpa t r i a t e r e c or ds a r e be t t e r pr e s e r ve d t ha n C a m e r ooni a n r e c or ds U nf or t una t e l y, t he r e a r e s c a nt w r i t t e n r e c or ds of t he c o r n m i l l s oc i e t i e s f r om C a m e r ooni a n pe r s pe c t i ve s T he f i r s t c or n m i l l s oc i e t y w a s e s t a bl i s he d i n J ul y 1954. B y O c t obe r of t ha t ye a r e i ght s oc i e t i e s w e r e f unc t i oni ng. G r oups a ve r a ge d a bout 70 m e m be r s a nd e a c h gr oup e s t a bl i s he d r ul e s r e ga r di ng t he us e o f t he c or n m i l l how t he l oa n f o r t he m i l l w oul d be r e pa i d, a nd m e m be r s r e s pons i bi l i t i e s O K e l l y not e s t ha t c hi e f r u l e w a s t ha t m e m be r s hi p w a s ope n t o a ny w om e n r e ga r dl e s s of t r i be or r e l i gi on a nd t ha t t he m ove m e nt w a s non pol i t i c a l 5 1 T o e ns ur e t ha t t he s oc i e t i e s w e r e i nc l us i ve O K e l l y r e f us e d t o pr ovi d e a c or n m i l l unt i l i t w a s c l e a r t ha t a l l w om e n i n t he a r e a ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o j oi n D e s c r i bi ng t hi s r e qui r e m e nt O K e l l y s t a t e s : B e c a us e of t hi s t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s w e r e pe r ha ps t he onl y g r oup i n t he c ount r y w hi c h c oul d c l a i m m e m be r s f r om e ve r y s e c t i on of t he c om m uni t y a nd f r om e ve r y t r i be a nd r e l i gi ous de nom i na t i on. 5 2 W hi l e e a r l i e r or ga ni z a t i ona l f or m s w e r e pr i m a r i l y e m e r ge d a l ong e t hni c l i ne s c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s br ought t oge t he r w om e n of di f f e r e nt e t hni c a nd r e l i gi ous gr oups F or O K e l l y, O ne of t he g r e a t e s t a c hi e ve m e nt s of t he s oc i e t i e s ove r t he ye a r s ha d be e n t he gr a dua l br e a ki ng dow n of t he ba r r i e r s be t w e e n t r i be s s o t ha t t he w o m e n w or ke d a m i c a bl y w i t h e a c h ot he r r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r di f f e r e nt or i g i ns 5 3 T hi s e m pha s i s on nont r i ba l i s m be c a m e e ve n m or e

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1 0 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 c e nt r a l t o w om e n s o r ga ni z a t i ons i n t he i m m e di a t e pos t c ol oni a l pe r i od a s t he C a m e r ooni a n s t a t e s ought t o bui l d a s e ns e of na t i ona l i s m W hi l e t he c or n m i l l s w e r e a n i m por t a nt c om pone nt of t he ne w a s s oc i a t i ons t he y w e r e not t he s ol e r e a s on f or w om e n t o c om e t oge t he r O K e l l y t a r ge t e d gr a s s r oot s w om e n w ho l a c ke d a f or m a l e duc a t i on a nd w e r e pr i m a r i l y e nga ge d i n s u bs i s t e nc e f a r m i ng. D e s c r i bi ng w om e n s a m bi va l e nc e t ow a r ds c ol oni a l e duc a t i ona l i ni t i a t i v e s O K e l l y obs e r ve d: w om e n ha ve ve r y l i t t l e f r e e t i m e a nd s t i l l l e s s i nc l i na t i on t o a t t e nd t he a l r e a dy e s t a bl i s he d dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c e nt r e s w hi c h c a t e r l a r ge l y f or t he w i ve s of t he e duc a t e d A f r i c a ns 5 4 T hi s quot a t i on hi ghl i ght s t he c l a s s di s t i nc t i ons t ha t e m e r ge d i n t he c ol oni a l pe r i od. A t l e a s t i ni t i a l l y, m a ny w om e n i n t he r ur a l a r e a s ha d l i t t l e i nt e r e s t i n dom e s t i c s c i e nc e a nd E ngl i s h c l a s s e s T hus O K e l l y s ought t o us e t he c or n m i l l s t o br i ng w om e n t oge t he r t o a ddr e s s a w i de va r i e t y of i s s ue s S he s t a t e s : [ T ] he m i l l s w e r e r e a l l y a ba i t t o a t t r a c t w om e n t o t he s oc i e t i e s a nd t o c l a s s e s t ha t m i ght he l p t he m i n ot he r w a ys N ow t ha t t he w om e n ha d m or e t i m e f r e e d a s t he y w e r e f r om t he i r m os t t i m e c ons um i ng t a s k, t h e y di d be gi n t o c ons i de r ot he r a c t i vi t i e s T he y e nj oye d t he s oc i a bl i l i t y of ga t he r i ng a r ound t he c o r n m i l l a nd m a ny s oc i e t i e s i ni t i a t e d r e gul a r m e e t i ngs S om e w om e n de c i de d t ha t t he y w i s he d t o l e a r n m o r e a bout c ooki ng a nd m a ki ng s oa p. 5 5 I n a num be r of c a s e s m e m be r s of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s bui l t c om m uni t y ha l l s w he r e t he y c oul d hol d t he s e m e e t i ngs a nd c l a s s e s T he s e bui l di ngs w e r e no s m a l l e nde a vor a s t he y ha d t o be l a r ge e nough t o hol d a hundr e d or m or e w om e n M a ny g r oups e xpa nde d t he i r w o r k t o i nc l ude poul t r y s c he m e s t ha t r e l i e d on t he b r a n f r om t he m i l l e d c o r n t o f e e d t he c hi c ke ns f ue l pl a nt a t i ons w h i c h i nc r e a s e d t he s uppl y of f i r e w ood a va i l a bl e t o w om e n, a nd, i n one c a s e a c oope r a t i ve s hop. B y 1960, a ye a r be f or e O K e l l y l e f t C a m e r oon t he r e w e r e m o r e t ha n 200 c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s c om pr i s i ng ove r 20 000 m e m be r s 5 6 T he ve r y s uc c e s s of t he gr oups c r e a t e d s om e di f f i c ul t i e s A s t he pl e bi s c i t e t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r S out he r n C a m e r oons w oul d j oi n N i ge r i a or C a m e r oon d r e w ne a r m a l e pol i t i c i a ns s ought t o c o opt t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s D e s c r i bi ng t hi s pe r i od O K e l l y s t a t e s : [ f ] e e l i n gs r a n hi gh a nd a s t he l a r ge s t or ga ni s e d body i n t he c ount r y t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s w e r e unde r r e pe a t e d pr e s s ur e t o j oi n one or t he ot he r of t he t w o m a i n po l i t i c a l pa r t i e s a nd c ons t a nt vi gi l a nc e w a s ne c e s s a r y t o e ns ur e t ha t t he i r ne ut r a l i t y w a s not i nf r i nge d. 5 7 I n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y pol i t i c i z e d e nvi r onm e nt t hi s w a s not t he onl y a t t e m pt t o a s s oc i a t e w om e n s a s s oc i a t i on s w i t h pa r t i s a n goa l s E m m a nue l K onde a r gue s t ha t m a l e po l i t i c i a ns s i m i l a r l y a t t e m pt e d t o c o opt a t r a di t i ona l i nf or m a l w om e n s or ga ni z a t i on, anl u i n t he l e a d up t o t he pl e bi s c i t e 5 8 I n t he i m m e di a t e pos t c ol oni a l e r a t he C a m e r oon N a t i ona l U ni on ( C N U ) w hi c h qui c kl y e m e r ge d a s t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt pol i t i c a l p a r t y i n i nde pe nde nt C a m e r oon, a l s o s ought t o br i ng i nde pe nde nt w om e n s g r oups unde r t he um b r e l l a of i t s w om e n s w i ng W hi l e t he a c c om pl i s hm e nt s of t he c o r n m i l l s oc i e t i e s w e r e i m pr e s s i ve a t t i m e s O K e l l y s di s c us s i on of t he m r e f l e c t s t he pa t r oni z i ng a t t i t ude t ow a r ds A f r i c a ns c om m on a m ong c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t or s D e s c r i bi ng how t he s oc i e t i e s w or k e d i n a 1955 a r t i c l e i n A f r i c an W om e n, O K e l l y not e s f o r e xa m pl e : i t m us t be bor ne i n m i nd t ha t a r r a nge m e nt s ha d t o be of t he s i m pl e s t w he n a l l m e m be r s a r e i l l i t e r a t e 5 9 S he c o nc l ude s t he a r t i c l e : w hi l s t gr a dua l l y a s t he w om e n ge t us e d t o t he i de a of m e e t i ng t oge t he r i t s houl d be pos s i bl e t o i nt r oduc e t o t he m a be t t e r know l e dge of c hi l d w e l f a r e a nd hygi e ne a nd ge ne r a l l y r a i s e t he i r s t a nda r d o f l i vi ng T ha t t hi s i s ne c e s s a r y t he r e c a n be no doubt 6 0 T he s e q uot a t i ons r e f l e c t a t op dow n a ppr oa c h t hr ough w hi c h i nf or m a t i on i s t r a ns f e r r e d f r om E ur ope a ns t o A f r i c a ns O K e l l y a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t one

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 11 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 goa l of t he s e a c t i vi t i e s w a s t o e xpl a i n c ol oni a l p r a c t i c e s w hi c h C a m e r ooni a n w om e n o f t e n vi e w e d a s a r bi t r a r y a nd a ut hor i t a r i a n. O K e l l y e xpl a i ns f or i ns t a nc e t ha t w om e n i n t he r e gi on di d not r e s pond f a vor a bl y t o t he i nt r oduc t i on of s a ni t a r y i ns pe c t or s i n l oc a l m a r ke t s T he s e i ns pe c t or s w oul d pa t r ol m a r ke t s a nd de s t r oy w om e n s pr oduc e t ha t d i d not m e e t t he i r f ood s a f e t y r e qui r e m e nt s W hi l e b r i ngi ng a s a ni t a r y i ns pe c t or t o a c or n m i l l s oc i e t y m e e t i ng a s ugge s t i on of f e r e d by O K e l l y w oul d e na bl e w om e n l e a r n m or e a bout t he r e qui r e m e nt s a nd pos s i bl y a voi d t he de s t r uc t i on of t he i r goods i t w oul d not e na bl e t he m t o c ha l l e nge t he ve r y pr e m i s e of ha vi ng a n e xt e r na l a ut hor i t y i m pos e ne w r ul e s on f ood pr o duc t i on. T he l e ga c i e s of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s f o r good a n d ba d, w e r e f a r r e a c hi ng. D u r i ng O K e l l y s t e nur e i n t he g r a s s f i e l ds f r om 1952 t o 1 961, t he c oope r a t i ve s e xpe r i e nc e d i nc r e di bl e gr ow t h, e nc om pa s s i ng t hous a nds of w om e n. T he y br ought w om e n t oge t he r t o a l l e vi a t e one of t he i r m os t t i m e c ons um i ng t a s ks t o l e a r n ne w s ki l l s a nd t o s oc i a l i z e Y e t t he c o r n m i l l s oc i e t i e s a l s o de m ons t r a t e t he pi t f a l l s o f r e l yi ng t oo he a vi l y on a s i ngl e l e a de r a nd on e xt e r na l s our c e s of s uppor t t w o l e s s ons t ha t s t i l l ha ve r e l e va nc e t oda y W hi l e m a ny of t he or ga ni z a t i ons f a i l e d f ol l ow i ng O K e l l y s de pa r t ur e ot he r s w e r e i nt e gr a t e d i nt o p r ogr a m s or ga ni z e d by t he ne w l y i nde pe nde nt s t a t e 6 1 T he f i na l ve r di c t on t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s r e m a i ns a m bi guous D i s c us s i ng c oope r a t i ve m ove m e nt s i n t he N or t hw e s t a nd S out hw e s t pr ovi nc e s M a r k W D e L a nc e y w r i t e s : A r e c e nt r e por t bl a m e s t he f a i l ur e [ of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s ] on t he i na bi l i t y t o i nc r e a s e t he f unc t i ons of t he or ga ni z a t i ons t he l a c k of c oope r a t i ve e duc a t i o n, t he f a i l ur e t o i nc l ude t he w om e n i n pl a nni ng or m a na ge m e nt a nd t he i na bi l i t y of t he m e m be r s t o l oc a t e s pa r e pa r t s f o r t he m i l l s 6 2 A 1977 r e por t publ i s he d by t he U N E c onom i c C om m i s s i on f or A f r i c a ( E C A ) a r gue s t ha t t he f a i l ur e of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s de c r e a s e d w om e n s w i l l i ngne s s t o e nt e r s i m i l a r ve nt u r e s 6 3 C om m uni t y de ve l opm e nt w or ke r s pr ovi de a di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i v e T he y a r gue t ha t t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s ha d be c om e t he hub of t he c oope r a t i ve m ove m e nt i n B a m e nda 6 4 T he s uc c e s s of t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s be t w e e n 1952 a nd 1961 d e m ons t r a t e d t ha t C a m e r ooni a n w om e n c oul d s uc c e s s f ul l y f or m c oope r a t i ve s a nd pr ovi de d e xpe r i e nc e f or t he w om e n i nvol ve d. T he s oc i e t i e s s ubs e que nt f a i l ur e t hough, m a de w om e n m o r e c a ut i ous of e nt e r i ng i nt o s i m i l a r a r r a nge m e nt s i n t he f ut ur e W om e n s C or on a Soc i e t y F ounde d i n 1937 a s a c ount e r pa r t t o t he m a l e C or o na C l ub, t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y w a s a n a s s oc i a t i on of w om e n of a l l r a c e s c onne c t e d i n s o m e w a y e i t he r di r e c t l y or i ndi r e c t l y w i t h B r i t a i n s ove r s e a s s e r vi c e 6 5 T he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y e s t a bl i s he d c l ubs t hr oughout B r i t a i n s c ol oni a l t e r r i t or i e s M e m be r s e nga ge d i n phi l a nt hr opi c a nd s oc i a l w e l f a r e w or k T he or ga ni z a t i on a l s o pr ovi de d s uppor t t o w om e n t r a ve l l i ng t o a nd l i vi ng i n G r e a t B r i t a i n s c ol oni a l t e r r i t or i e s a s w e l l a s w om e n vi s i t i ng E ngl a nd. T w o br a nc he s e xi s t e d i n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons : one i n V i c t or i a ( pr e s e nt da y L i m be ) a nd one i n B ue a 6 6 A f t e r S out he r n a nd N or t he r n C a m e r oons c a m e unde r B r i t i s h r ul e i n 1922 a s a L e a gue of N a t i ons m a nda t e t e r r i t o r y, G r e a t B r i t a i n r ul e d t he s e t e r r i t or i e s a s pa r t of N i ge r i a unt i l 1961. T hus t he C a m e r ooni a n c l ubs w e r e l i nke d w i t h bot h t he C or ona S oc i e t y he a dqua r t e r s i n L ondon a nd b r a nc he s i n N i ge r i a A c c or di ng t o a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by M r s J O F i e l ds t he pr e s i de nt of t he B ue a br a nc h of t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y, t he o r ga ni z a t i on ha d t w o pr i m a r y a i m s : s e r vi c e a nd f r i e nds hi p be t w e e n m e m be r s a nd f r o m m e m be r s t o t he c om m uni t y a s a w hol e 6 7 T he C a m e r oon br a nc h unde r t ook a num be r o f t a s k s I t w e l c om e d ne w c om e r s t o t he c om m uni t y, p r ovi de d s uppor t t o m e m be r s or ga ni z e d e duc a t i ona l pr ogr a m s a nd w or ke d c l os e l y

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1 2 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 w i t h or ga ni z a t i ons l i ke t he R e d C r os s t he G i r l G ui de s t he hos pi t a l s a nd t he m i s s i ons T he V i c t or i a a nd B ue a br a nc he s he l d r e gul a r m e e t i ngs w i t h a va r i e d p r ogr a m m e a r r a nge d f o r pl e a s ur e i nt e r e s t a nd us e f ul ne s s 6 8 S pe c i f i c a l l y m e m be r s or ga ni z e d how t o do i t de m ons t r a t i ons on a c t i vi t i e s l i ke c a ke m a ki ng e m br oi de r y, f l ow e r a r r a ngi ng a nd d r e s s m a ki ng. T h e y a l s o or ga ni z e d publ i c e ve nt s l i ke L i br a r y D a y, B ot a ni s t D a y, a pe t s how a nd t he V i c t or i a C e nt e na r y C e l e br a t i on. O f not e i s t he f a c t t ha t m e m be r s of t he B ot a c l ub r e f us e d t o he l p or ga ni z e a be a ut y c ont e s t a s pa r t of t he V i c t o r i a C e nt e na r y C e l e br a t i on. 6 9 M e m be r s w e r e w i l l i ng t o s uppor t a l t e r na t e pr og r a m s s uc h a s a c hi l dr e n s pa r t y, a h i s t or y of V i c t or i a a ne e dl e w or k c om pe t i t i on, a pa r a de of t r a di t i ona l A f r i c a n dr e s s or a ba by s how but t he y dr e w t he l i ne a t a be a ut y c ont e s t 7 0 T he c l ub s m ul t i r a c i a l c ha r a c t e r pr ovi de d oppor t u ni t i e s f or i t s A f r i c a n a nd E u r ope a n m e m be r s t o ha ve c ul t ur a l e xc ha nge s C ooki ng de m ons t r a t i ons f or e xa m pl e d i d not onl y t e a c h A f r i c a n w om e n how t o c ook E ur ope a n d i s he s but a l s o e na bl e d A f r i c a n w om e n t o s ha r e t he i r f a vor i t e di s he s w i t h E ur ope a n w om e n. I n s om e m e e t i ngs E ur ope a n m e m be r s pr ovi de d pr a c t i c a l i nf or m a t i on t o A f r i c a ns t r a ve l l i ng t o G r e a t B r i t a i n, t e a c hi ng C a m e r ooni a n w om e n how t o s t op a t a xi t o gr e e t pe opl e o n t he s t r e e t t o e a t w i t h a kni f e a nd f or k t o pos t l e t t e r s a nd t o s t a nd i n a que ue T he y a l s o s ha r e d a dvi c e on dr e s s f or G r e a t B r i t a i n a nd w he r e t o pur c ha s e ne c e s s a r y i t e m s A t ot he r m e e t i ngs C a m e r ooni a n w om e n s h a r e d t he i r c ul t u r a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h E ur ope a n m e m be r s A nna F onc ha f or e xa m pl e ga ve a t a l k o n m a r r i a ge c us t om s i n B a m e nda pr ovi nc e 7 1 T he s e e xc ha nge s de m ons t r a t e t ha t t he di f f us i on of i nf or m a t i on w a s not one w a y f r o m E ur ope a ns t o C a m e r ooni a ns but r a t he r a t w o w a y e xc ha nge w i t h bo t h gr oups s ha r i ng i nf or m a t i on. T he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y w a s ope n t o E ur ope a ns a nd A f r i c a ns a nd s om e pr i m a r i l y e l i t e C a m e r ooni a n w om e n pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he or ga ni z a t i on. 7 2 C or ona w oul d, f o r e xa m pl e i nvi t e hi gh pr of i l e w om e n l i ke A nna F onc ha t he w i f e of t he f ut ur e pr i m e m i ni s t e r J ohn F onc ha t o ba by s how s or ot he r e ve nt s t o he l p r a i s e t he hygi e n e a nd he a l t h of l ow e r pa i d C a m e r oon D e ve l opm e nt C or por a t i on ( C D C ) w or ke r s 7 3 S t i l l di f f e r e nc e s i n pe r s pe c t i ve a nd pr i o r i t i e s be t w e e n A f r i c a n a nd E ur ope a n m e m be r s e xi s t e d, pa r t i c ul a r l y a s i nde pe nde nc e dr e w ne a r A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by J O F i e l ds t o W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y m e m be r s hi ghl i gh t s s om e of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s : F i na l l y, I w oul d a s k, w i t h a l l u r ge nc y t ha t I c a n, t h a t w e a l l do a l l i n our pow e r t o f os t e r goodw i l l be t w e e n G ove r nm e nt a nd non G ove r nm e nt a nd be t w e e n b l a c k a nd w hi t e P ol i t i c s a r e of t e n di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd, a nd e ve n di s t r e s s i ng. L e t us t r y t o unde r s t a nd w ha t i s goi ng on i n t he s e m om e nt ous da ys w hi l e N i ge r i a i s be i ng bui l t up i nt o a gr e a t c ount r y; l e t us no t do ha r m by i gnor a nc e or by s us pi c i on, or i l l w i l l A s w om e n, w e do ha ve gr e a t i nf l ue nc e w e s e t t he w hol e t one of our hom e s L e t us a s C or ona m e m be r s t hi nk of t hi s a nd l e t us be on t he s i de of t he a nge l s 7 4 D e s pi t e a t t e m pt s t o br i dge c ul t u r a l di f f e r e nc e s C a m e r ooni a n w om e n c hos e t o l e a ve t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y t o f ound t he i r ow n a s s oc i a t i ons a s i nde pe nde nc e a ppr oa c he d. C om m e nt i ng on t he s e de ve l opm e nt s A nna F onc ha w r i t e s : I n t he pa s t w om e n s a c t i vi t i e s i n t he s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c f i e l d w e r e c onf i ne d t o vi l l a ge s or a t m os t i n t he t r i ba l gr oups T he s e a c t i vi t i e s w e r e s oon t o a s s um e ne w f a c e s w i t h t he br oa de ni ng of s oc i e t y a nd c ont a c t w i t h f or e i gn a i r A s C a m e r oon w a s c om i ng i nt o i t s

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 13 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 ow n a s r e c e nt l y a s i n 1960 a C or ona S oc i e t y i nvi t e d a s e l e c t e d num be r of C a m e r oon w om e n w ho e nr ol l e d a s m e m be r s T hi s s oc i e t y m a y be de s c r i be d a s a n or ga ni s a t i on w i t h a c ol oni a l bi a s t he i de a ha vi ng be e n m oot e d by t h e C ol oni a l O f f i c e I t s e r ve d t he ne e ds of e xpa t r i a t e w om e n s om e of w hos e hus ba nds w e r e s e r vi ng i n t he ove r s e a s t e r r i t or i e s I t s oon be c a m e e vi de nt t ha t s uc h a s oc i e t y c oul d not s e r ve t he ne e ds of a t r ue C a m e r oon W om e n S oc i e t y a nd t hi s m i s s i ng l i nk l e d t o t he r e s i gna t i on of s om e C a m e r oon w om e n f r om t he C or ona s oc i e t y. 7 5 F onc ha be l i e ve d t ha t t hi s di v i s i on be t w e e n e xpa t r i a t e a nd i ndi ge nous w om e n br ought C a m e r ooni a n w om e n t oge t he r a nd l e d t o t he c r e a t i on i n S e pt e m be r 1960 o f t he B ue a W om e n S oc i a l O r ga ni z a t i on. A s i t be c a m e c l e a r t ha t c ol oni a l i s m w a s c om i ng t o a n e nd C a m e r oon i a n w om e n c hos e t o f or m t he i r ow n o r ga ni z a t i ons r a t h e r t ha n c ont i nue t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hos e c r e a t e d by e xpa t r i a t e w om e n a nd l i nke d t o t he c ol oni a l go ve r nm e nt E ve n a s C a m e r ooni a n w om e n r e j e c t e d s om e of t he s pe c i f i c or ga ni z a t i ons f ounde d by e xpa t r i a t e w o m e n, i n t hi s c a s e t he W om e n s C or on a S oc i e t y, t he y e nga ge d i n s om e o f t he s a m e a c t i vi t i e s G r oups l i ke t he B ue a W om e n S oc i a l O r ga ni z a t i on t ook on s i m i l a r pr o j e c t s i nc r e a s i ng t he s i z e a nd num be r o f ba by s how s g i vi ng t a l ks i n hos pi t a l s a nd s ha r i ng i nf or m a t i on on nut r i t i on a nd he a l t h c a r e D e s c r i bi ng t he a c t i vi t i e s of t he s e ne w or ga ni z a t i ons B ur nl e y s t a t e d: ba by f oods ba by c l ot he s a nd t a l ks i n hos pi t a l s t he s e w e r e t he ki nds of t hi ngs t ha t ke pt t he s e gr oups t oge t he r 7 6 T hough t he s e t opi c s w oul d ge ne r a l l y f i t w i t hi n und e r t he r ub r i c o f dom e s t i c i t y, di s c us s i ons of hygi e ne nut r i t i on, a nd he a l t h c a r e w e r e f a r f r om i r r e l e va nt i n C a m e r ooni a n w om e n s l i ve s T he ba by s how s t a ught w om e n how t o de a l w i t h f e ve r s a nd ot he r c om m on s i c kne s s e s a m ong i nf a nt s a nd young c hi l dr e n a nd a l l ow e d w om e n t o s ha r e i n f or m a t i on on nut r i t i ous f oods t ha t c oul d i nc r e a s e t he he a l t h of c hi l d r e n. C hi l d m or t a l i t y w a s hi gh a t t he t i m e a nd t he s e t opi c s r e s ponde d t o w om e n s r e a l c onc e r ns D e s c r i bi ng s i m i l a r i ni t i a t i ve s i n U ga nda T r i pp not e s : T o de ni gr a t e dom e s t i c t r a i ni ng a nd s e e i t onl y a s pa r t of a c i vi l i z i ng a nd dom e s t i c a t i ng i m pe r i a l pr oj e c t m i s s e s i t s r e l e va nc e t o or di na r y w om e n i n a ve r y pr a gm a t i c s e ns e m os t of i t w a s qui t e e s s e nt i a l t o t he he a l t hy s ur vi va l a nd w e l f a r e of c hi l dr e n a nd f a m i l i e s 7 7 M or e ove r t he o r ga ni z a t i on of ba by s how s s e r ve d a s a m e a ns of br i ngi ng w om e n t oge t he r t o s ha r e i n f or m a t i on a nd t o a ddr e s s a br oa d a r r a y of i s s ue s T he s e s how s i ni t i a t e d c onve r s a t i ons be t w e e n ur ba n a nd r u r a l w om e n, s e r ve d a s a m e a ns t o a t t r a c t ne w m e m be r s t o w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons a nd l e d t o t he f r a nk e xc ha nge of vi e w s a nd f i r s t ha nd i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di n g pr obl e m s c o m m on t o a l l i n t he F e de r a t i on 7 8 F i na l l y, by m obi l i z i ng w om e n a r ound s uc h i s s ue s s om e w om e n l i ke B ur nl e y w e r e a bl e t o br e a k out of t he pr i va t e r e a l m t o be c om e c om m uni t y a c t i vi s t s a nd pol i t i c i a ns T hr ough t our s of W e s t C a m e r oon or ga ni z i ng ba by s how s m e e t i ngs t a l ks a nd ot he r e ve nt s B ur nl e y be c a m e w e l l know n. T he s e a c t i vi t i e s r a i s e d he r pr o f i l e w i t hi n p ol i t i c a l c i r c l e s a nd l a unc he d he r pol i t i c a l c a r e e r B ur nl e y s e r ve d a s a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve t o t he W e s t C a m e r oon H ous e of A s s e m bl y f r om 1970 t o 1973 a nd a s a m e m be r o f t he C a m e r oon s N a t i o na l A s s e m bl y f r om 1973 t o 1983 T he ne w l y f ounde d C a m e r ooni a n w om e n s g r oups c ont i nue d t o i nt e r a c t w i t h E u r ope a n w om e n t hr ough e xc ha nge vi s i t s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n i n t e r na t i ona l c onf e r e nc e s a nd a f f i l i a t i ons w i t h i nt e r na t i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons s uc h a s t he A s s oc i a t e d C ount r y W om e n of t he W or l d ( A C W W ) a nd t he I nt e r na t i ona l C ounc i l of W om e n ( I C W ) W i t h i nde pe nde nc e s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge s i n w om e n s or ga ni z i ng oc c ur r e d a s C a m e r ooni a n w om e n f or m e d t he i r ow n m ul t i e t hni c w om e n s a s s oc i a t i on s H ow e ve r c ont i nui t i e s a l s o e xi s t e d a s t he s e a s s o c i a t i ons m a i nt a i ne d s om e of t he s a m e pr oj e c t s a nd a c t i vi t i e s a s e xp a t r i a t e gr oups

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1 4 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C O N C L U S I O N S I n pr e c ol oni a l C a m e r oon, w om e n s a ut hor i t y s t e m m e d f r om t he i r pr oduc t i ve a nd r e pr oduc t i ve w or k. W om e n ga i ne d pr e s t i ge f r om t he i r r ol e s a s pr i m a r y f ood pr oduc e r s a nd a s c hi l d be a r e r s 7 9 I n m a ny s oc i e t i e s t he r e w e r e a l s o s pe c i f i c l e a de r s hi p r ol e s s uc h a s que e n m o t he r s e t a s i de f or w om e n, but t he a ut hor i t y of t he s e pos i t i ons w a s of t e n l i m i t e d t o a n a dvi s or y c a pa c i t y a nd t o r e pr e s e nt i ng w om e n r a t he r t ha n t he e nt i r e c om m un i t y. 8 0 I n t he s e r e a l m s w om e n s i nf l ue nc e de c l i ne d dur i ng c ol oni a l i s m a s t he e c onom y s hi f t e d f r om a f oc us on s ubs i s t e nc e a gr i c ul t ur e t o a r e l i a nc e on c a s h c r op p r oduc t i on a nd t he pow e r o f t r a di t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons w e a ke ne d. A t t he s a m e t i m e w om e n ga i ne d i n ot he r r e a l m s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he a r e a o f f o r m a l pol i t i c a l pow e r I n m a ny pr e c ol oni a l s oc i e t i e s c ul t ur a l nor m s p r ohi bi t e d w om e n f r om a s s um i ng m os t pol i t i c a l r ol e s 8 1 W hi l e i nf or m a l c ons t r a i nt s c ont i nue d t o l i m i t w om e n s a c c e s s t o f or m a l pol i t i c a l of f i c e s a num be r of w om e n w e r e a bl e t o l e ve r a ge t he i r e duc a t i on a nd a c t i vi s m i n w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons i nt o pol i t i c a l pow e r i n t he i m m e di a t e pos t c ol oni a l pe r i od. T he hi s t or y o f e nc ount e r s be t w e e n E ur ope a n a nd A f r i c a n w om e n i n S out he r n C a m e r oons w a s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by c om pl e xi t y a nd a m bi gui t y. T o be s ur e B r i t i s h c ol oni a l a ge nt s f r e que nt l y a s s e r t e d a ut hor i t y ove r C a m e r ooni a n w om e n a nd i m pos e d nor m s of dom e s t i c i t y t ha t w e r e i r r e l e va nt t o C a m e r ooni a n w om e n s da i l y l i ve s A t t he s a m e t i m e i t w oul d be a m i s t a ke t o de ny t he a ge nc y of C a m e r ooni a n w om e n i n t he s e e nc ou nt e r s C a m e r ooni a ns m a na ge d t o t a ke s om e o f t he s ki l l s a t t a i ne d i n c ol oni a l s c hool s dom e s t i c s c i e nc e c e nt e r s a nd c ol oni a l w om e n s a s s oc i a t i on s a nd put t he m t o us e i n t he pos t c ol oni a l e r a i n w a ys t ha t i nc r e a s e d t he i r s t a t us i n s oc i e t y a nd f a c i l i t a t e d t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he pub l i c s phe r e D or ot hy G w a n N ul l a w r i t i ng a bout w om e n s s t a t us i n t he r e gi on i n 1963 t w o ye a r s a f t e r t he de pa r t u r e of G r e a t B r i t a i n m a de a s i m i l a r poi nt : E duc a t e d w om e n a r e on t he i nc r e a s e a nd w i t h t he i r e duc a t i on t he y a r e e l i gi bl e t o e nt e r i nt o gove r nm e nt s e r vi c e o r pr i va t e e nt e r pr i s e s A s w or ki ng c l a s s w om e n, t he e a r ni ng of a nd f r e e us e of m one y r e nde r s t he m a v a s t de gr e e of i nde pe nde nc e 8 2 G w a n N ul l a a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t m e m be r s hi p i n w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons gr e w r a pi dl y i m m e di a t e l y f o l l ow i ng i nde pe nde nc e bui l di ng pa r t i a l l y on t he f ounda t i on e s t a bl i s he d i n t he l a s t de c a de of c ol oni a l r ul e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he r e w e r e a t l e a s t t hr e e l e ga c i e s of E u r o C a m e r ooni a n e nc ount e r s T he f i r s t i nvol ve d t he de ve l opm e nt o f m ul t i e t hni c a s s oc i a t i ons B ot h t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s a nd t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y br ough t t oge t he r w om e n f r om di f f e r e nt c ul t u r a l a nd e t hni c ba c kgr ounds a nd s ought t o b r i dge e t hni c r e l i g i ous a nd e ve n r a c i a l di vi de s M ul t i e t hni c m e m be r s hi p w a s a s i gni f i c a nt de pa r t ur e f r om pr e c ol oni a l w om e n s gr oups w hi c h be c a m e e ve n m or e i m por t a nt i n t he pos t c ol oni a l pe r i od a s t he n e w l y i nde pe nde nt s t a t e s ought t o e s t a bl i s h a na t i ona l i de nt i t y. T he s e c ond l e ga c y i nvol ve d or ga ni z a t i ona l f or m s a nd a c t i vi t i e s C a m e r ooni a n w om e n c a r r i e d s om e f o r m s a nd a c t i vi t i e s f r om c ol oni a l t o pos t c ol oni a l gr oups W hi l e m a ny o f t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s f a i l e d f o l l ow i ng t he de pa r t u r e of O K e l l y, t hos e t ha t s ur vi ve d pr ovi d e d a f ounda t i on f o r w om e n s c oope r a t i ve s i n i nde pe nde nt C a m e r oon. T he l e ga c i e s of t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y a r e e a s i e r t o t r a c e P r om i ne nt w om e n l i ke A nna F onc ha t ook r e l e va nt i de a s t o ne w or ga ni z a t i ons T hi r dl y, t he c o r n m i l l s oc i e t i e s a nd t he W om e n s C o r ona S oc i e t y bot h e xpl i c i t l y s t r e s s e d t he i r non pol i t i c a l c ha r a c t e r B ot h e s c he w e d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n pol i t i c a l de ba t e s f oc us i ng i ns t e a d on de ve l opm e nt a nd s oc i a l w e l f a r e T hi s c hoi c e t o a voi d pol i t i c a l di s put e s a f f e c t e d t he na t ur e a nd w or k of o r ga ni z a t i ons a f t e r i nde pe nde nc e w he r e t he nor m o f non pol i t i c a l or ga ni z i ng w a s di s s e m i na t e d w i de l y. T he s e e nc ount e r s a l s o di f f e r e d i n i m po r t a nt w a ys T he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s w e r e di r e c t e d a t

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 15 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 gr a s s r oot s w om e n, w hi l e t he W om e n s C or ona S o c i e t y s ought out e duc a t e d, e l i t e C a m e r ooni a n w om e n. C l a s s di f f e r e nc e s i n pa r t i c ul a r m e di a t e d t he a ge nc y of C a m e r ooni a n w om e n I m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow i ng i nde pe nde nc e t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s e xpe r i e nc e d a pe r i od of ha r ds hi p a nd ne gl e c t t ha t s t e m m e d f r om a de a r t h o f l e a de r s hi p. W om e n s g r oups l i ke t he B ue a W om e n s S oc i a l O r ga ni z a t i on, i n c ont r a s t e xpe r i e nc e d a pe r i od of g r ow t h. I n f a c t a ye a r a f t e r i t s f or m a t i on, t he B ue a W om e n s S oc i a l O r ga ni z a t i on w a s r e na m e d t he W om e n s C a m e r oon S oc i e t y t o r e f l e c t i t s b r oa de r m e m be r s hi p. U nl i ke t he c or n m i l l s oc i e t i e s t he s e a s s oc i a t i ons ha d a r e a dy s uppl y of e duc a t e d, pol i t i c a l l y s a vvy, a nd i n t e r na t i ona l l y c onne c t e d C a m e r ooni a n w om e n w ho w e r e w i l l i ng a nd a bl e t o a s s um e t he r e i ns of l e a de r s hi p. 8 3 I n c onc l us i on, B r i t i s h c ol oni a l pol i c i e s i n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons a f f e c t e d w om e n i n c ont r a di c t or y w a ys C e r t a i n pol i c i e s a nd i de ol ogi e s c ons t r i c t e d t he s pa c e a va i l a bl e t o w om e n f or publ i c a c t i on, w hi l e ot he r s ope ne d ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s f or w om e n i n t he a r e a s of e duc a t i on, s a l a r i e d e m pl oym e nt publ i c l i f e t r a ve l a br oa d, a nd a c t i vi s m i n l oc a l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l w om e n s or ga ni z a t i ons C a m e r ooni a n w om e n i ns t r um e nt a l l y r e j e c t e d a nd i nc or po r a t e d e l e m e nt s of c ol oni a l pr a c t i c e a nd s e l e c t i ve l y i nc or por a t e d c e r t a i n ge nde r di s c our s e s i nt o t he i r pos t c ol oni a l a c t i vi t i e s N O T E S 1. S e e f or e xa m pl e H unt L i u, a nd Q ua t a e r t 1997 ; H a ns e n 1992; W a l ke r 1990 e s pe c i a l l y c ha pt e r s by C oc k, G a i t s ke l l a nd M e i nt j e s ; a nd G a i t s ke l l 1983. 2. S e e f or e xa m pl e S pe c i a l I s s ue on I ndi ge nous W om e n a nd C ol oni a l C ul t ur e s J our nal of C ol oni al i s m and C ol oni al H i s t or y 6, no. 3 ( 200 5) ; S pe c i a l I s s ue on D e s t i na t i on G l oba l i z a t i on? W om e n, G e nde r a nd C om pa r a t i ve C ol oni a l H i s t or i e s i n t he N e w M i l l e nni um J our nal of C ol oni al i s m and C ol oni al H i s t or y 4, n o. 1 ( 2003 ) ; S pe c i a l I s s ue on R e vi s i ng t he E xpe r i e nc e s of C ol oni z e d W om e n: B e yond B i na r i e s J our nal of W om e n s H i s t or y 14 no 4 ( 2003) ; a nd S pe c i a l I s s ue on G e nde r e d C ol oni a l i s m a nd A f r i c a n H i s t or y, G e nde r and H i s t or y 8, no 3 ( 1996) S e e a l s o T r i pp 2004 a nd 2001; A l l m a n, G e i ge r a nd M us i s i 2002; T hom a s 2000; S he l don 1998; a nd M os s 1997. 3. M a m a 1996, 28 4. W a l ke r 1990, 13. 5. M a m a 1996, 29 6. H unt 1990 46 9 7. G a i t s ke l l 1979; G a i t s ke l l 1983 8. S he l don 1998 9. S he l don 1998 595 10. S he l don 1998, 625. 11. T hom a s 2000. 12. T hom a s 2000, 3, 15. 13. M os s 1997, 103. 14. S e e J a ya w a r de na 1995; C ha udhur i a nd S t r obe l 1992; S t r obe l 1991; a nd C a l l a w a y 1987. 15. T r i pp 2004. 16. Q uot e d f r om B oyd 1986 126 127. 17. C a l l a w a y 1987, 115 18. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1955, 80. 19. R obe r t s on 1986, 93.

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1 6 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 20. I bi d. 21 B r i t i s h C a m e r oons w a s f i r s t a L e a gue of N a t i o ns m a nda t e t e r r i t or y a nd l a t e r a U N t r us t e e s hi p t e r r i t or y G r e a t B r i t a i n r ul e d C a m e r oon a s pa r t of N i ge r i a I n 1961, t he U N T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l or ga ni z e d a pl e bi s c i t e i n t he B r i t i s h c ont r ol l e d t e r r i t o r i e s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t he y w oul d j oi n N i ge r i a or C a m e r oon. N o r t he r n C a m e r oons vot e d t o j oi n N i ge r i a w hi l e t he popul a t i on of S out he r n C a m e r oons c hos e t o r e uni t e w i t h C a m e r oon. 22. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1950, 107. 23. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1950, 107. 2 4. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1951, 107. 25. P e r s ona l i nt e r vi e w A pr i l 10 2002 26. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1959, 166. 27. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1951, 115. 28. B ow i e 1993, 17. 29. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1959, 166. 30. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1951, 107 31. I n a s t udy of f e m a l e l e a de r s i n C a m e r oon, E m m a nue l K onde f ound t ha t t he C a t hol i c W om e n s A s s oc i a t i on ( C W A ) ha s be e n pa r t i c ul a r l y s uc c e s s f ul i n ge t t i ng m e m be r s i n hi gh pol i t i c a l of f i c e s I nde e d, t he C W A i s s e c ond onl y t o t he C P D M i n ha vi ng m e m be r s i n pa r l i a m e nt K onde s ugge s t s t ha t t he C W A e m pow e r s w om e n by e m pha s i z i ng t he i r i ndi vi dua l c a pa bi l i t i e s O ne C W A l e a de r not e s : W e e nc our a ge a l l our m e m be r s W e t e l l t he m t ha t e a c h a nd e ve r yone of t he m c a n do s om e t hi ng . t ha t y ou r e c a pa bl e ( 296 ) T hi s s t r a t e gy e na bl e s w om e n t o e nvi s i on t a ki ng on r o l e s i n t he pub l i c s p he r e S e e K onde 1991. 32. S he l don 1998 33. T r i pp 2004. 34. O K e l l y 197 3 115 124. S e e a l s o T r i pp 2004 35. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1955, 79. 36. N A B S a f e 1957/ 1, P a r t i c i pa t i on i n N a t i ve A ut hor i t i e s 37. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1958, 165. 38. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1958, 165. 39. N A B S a f e 1957/ 1, P a r t i c i pa t i on of W om e n i n N a t i ve A ut hor i t i e s 40. N A B S a f e 1960/ 1, C i r c ul a r 212 / 60, T he P a r t i c i pa t i on of W om e n i n P ub l i c L i f e M a r c h 1, 1960 41. N A B S a f e 1960/ 1, C i r c ul a r 212 / 60, T he P a r t i c i pa t i on of W om e n i n P ub l i c L i f e M a r c h 1, 1960 42. N A B S a f e 1960/ 1, U N R e gi ona l S e m i na r D e c e m be r 12 23, 1960 i n A ddi s A ba ba P r ogr a m m e 43. O t he r r e gi ona l s e m i na r s on t he pa r t i c i pa t i on o f w om e n i n pub l i c l i f e w e r e he l d i n B ogot a C ol um bi a f r om M a y 18 29 1959 i n L a hor e P a ki s t a n on N ove m be r 21 1960 a nd i n U l a n B a t or M ongol i a f r om A ugus t 3 17 1965 44. N A B S a f e 1960/ 1, U N R e gi ona l S e m i na r D e c e m be r 12 23, 1960 i n A ddi s A ba ba 45. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1954, 108. 46. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1960, 59. W i t hi n t he l i t e r a t u r e t he r e a r e m i xe d opi ni ons on t he va l ue of s uc h or ga ni z a t i ons I f i A m a di um e f or e xa m pl e a r gue s t ha t t he s pr e a d of E u r ope a n w om e n s a s s oc i a t i on s l i ke t he Y oung W om e n s C hr i s t i a n A s s oc i a t i on ( Y W C A ) G i r l G ui de s a nd G i r l s B r i ga de t o N i ge r i a c ont r i but e d t o t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he da ught e r s o f i m pe r i a l i s m S e e A m a di um e 2000, 39 43. I n U ga nda T r i pp i n c ont r a s t f i nds t ha t t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons br ought

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 17 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 E ur ope a n, A f r i c a n, a nd A s i a n w om e n t oge t he r t hr ough a n e xpl i c i t i de ol ogy of nonr a c i a l i s m a nd s e r ve d a s t he f ounda t i on f or t he U ga nda n w om e n s m ove m e nt S e e T r i pp 2001 a nd 2000 47. T he W om e n s I ns t i t ut e s m ove m e nt be ga n i n C a na da i n 1897 a nd i n G r e a t B r i t a i n i n 1915. W om e n s I ns t i t ut e s w e r e r ur a l w om e n s gr o ups t ha t a s w r i t t e n i n t he f i r s t c ons t i t ut i on, s ought T o pr om o t e t ha t know l e dge of hous e hol d s c i e nc e w hi c h s ha l l l e a d t o t he i m p r ove m e nt i n hous e hol d a r c hi t e c t ur e w i t h s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on t o ho m e s a ni t a t i on; t o a be t t e r und e r s t a ndi ng of e c onom i c s a nd hygi e ni c va l ue of f oods a nd f ue l s ; a nd t o a m o r e s c i e nt i f i c c a r e of c hi l d r e n, w i t h a vi e w t o r a i s i ng t he ge ne r a l s t a nda r d o f t he he a l t h o f our pe opl e I n s hor t or ga ni z a t i ons a i m e d t o be t t e r t he hom e a nd t he c om m uni t y m o r e br oa dl y a nd t o br i ng w om e n t oge t he r w i t hout r e ga r d t o pol i t i c a l r e l i gi ous or e t hi c a l be l i e f S e e J e nki ns 1953, 7 12 48. G r e a t B r i t a i n 1951, 107. 49. F or m or e on t he r ol e s t ha t w om e n p l a ye d i n B r i t a i n s ove r s e a s s e r vi c e s e e C a l l a w a y 1987. 50. T hi s s e c t i on dr a w s p r i m a r i l y on f ou r w o r ks : O K e l l y 1955, 33 35; O K e l l y 1973 10 8 124; F e nne l l y 1985 119 154; a nd B r ys on, 1979 9 2 94 a nd 136 51. O K e l l y 1973 111 52. O K e l l y 1973 115 53. O K e l l y 1973 123 54. O K e l l y 1955 33 34. 55. F e nne l l y 1985 133 56. F e nne l l y 1985 142 57. O K e l l y 1973 122 123. 58. K onde 1990. O t he r s c hol a r s t hough, t a ke i s s ue w i t h hi s de s c r i pt i on o f anl u S e e A w a s om 2002. A nl u a t r a di t i ona l s a nc t i on m e c ha ni s m us e d by t he K om w om e n i n N or t hw e s t C a m e r oon, i s a n e xa m pl e o f w om e n ove r t l y c ha l l e ngi ng B r i t i s h a ut hor i t y. T hough di f f e r e nt s c hol a r s of f e r di f f e r e nt e xpl a na t i ons o f t he 1958 u pr i s i ng, i t w a s a t l e a s t pa r t i a l l y a p r ot e s t a ga i ns t c ol oni a l pol i c i e s a f f e c t i ng w om e n i nc l udi n g r i s i ng t a xe s a nd l a w s r e gul a t i ng f a r m i ng t e c h ni que s F or a n e xt e nde d di s c us s i on of anl u s e e D i duk 1989; N kw i 1985; A r de ne r 1975; R i t z e nt ha l e r 1960. 59. O K e l l y 1955 34 60. I bi d. 35 61. F e nne l l y 1985 145 62. D e L a nc e y 1987, 10. 63. U N E c onom i c C om m i s s i on f or A f r i c a 1977 2 8. 64. F e nne l l y 1985 145 65. F or a hi s t or y of t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y s e e S w a i s l a nd 1992. 66. V i c t or i a ( L i m be ) i s a c oa s t a l t ow n i n w ha t w a s B r i t i s h S out he r n C a m e r oons B ue a i s l oc a t e d s e ve r a l m i l e s i nl a nd a t t he ba s e of M ount C a m e r oon. B ue a ha s be e n a ke y a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s i t e s i nc e G e r m a n c ol oni a l r ul e B ot h t ow ns a r e l oc a t e d i n w ha t i s now t he S out hw e s t p r ovi nc e of C a m e r oon. 67. N A B S a f e 1956/ 1, S e pt e m be r 9 1958 68. N A B S a f e 1956/ 2. 69. B ot a i s a s e c t i on of V i c t or i a ( now L i m be ) w h e r e m a ny e xpa t r i a t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he c ol oni a l a dm i ni s t r a t i on l i ve d 70. N A B S a f e 1956/ 2, M i nut e s of t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y m e e t i ng he l d a t B ot a C l ub J une 19, 1958.

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1 8 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 71. N A B S a f e 1956/ 2 M i nut e s of W om e n s C or o na S oc i e t y m e e t i ngs 72. H e l e n C a l l a w a y a r gue s t ha t i n N i ge r i a t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y be c a m e a n i m por t a nt m ul t i r a c i a l or ga ni z a t i on w he r e A f r i c a n a nd E ur ope a n w om e n c a m e t oge t he r t o unde r t a ke vol unt a r y w o r k. B y 1953, t he o r ga ni z a t i on ha d a s c hool a nur s e r y a nd r e gul a r a c t i vi t i e s i n L a gos S c hool s w e r e l a t e r e s t a bl i s he d i n K a no a nd J os I n C a m e r oon, t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y w a s e s t a bl i s he d m uc h l a t e r A s l a t e a s 1956, t he pr e s i de nt of t he B ue a br a nc h not e s t ha t t he or ga ni z a t i on onl y e xi s t s on pa pe r T hus t he W om e n s C or ona S oc i e t y i n C a m e r oon w a s not a s e f f e c t i ve a t br i ngi ng t oge t he r A f r i c a n a nd E ur ope a n w om e n on a l ong t e r m ba s i s S e e C a l l a w a y 1987, 11 215 218 73. T he C a m e r oon D e ve l opm e nt C or p or a t i on ( C D C ) i s a gove r nm e nt c ont r ol l e d pa r a s t a t a l s pe c i a l i z i ng i n a gr i c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on. I t w a s f or m e r l y c a l l e d t he C om m onw e a l t h D e ve l opm e nt C or por a t i on. T he B r i t i s h ha nde d ove r t he C D C t o t he i nde pe nde nt gove r nm e nt w hi c h r e na m e d i t t he C a m e r oon D e ve l opm e nt C or por a t i on T e a pa l m nut s ba na na s r ubbe r a nd c oc onut s a r e gr ow n on C D C pl a nt a t i ons T he C D C i s c ur r e nt l y i n t he pr oc e s s of be i ng pr i va t i z e d, a l t hough t he r e i s l i t t l e e vi de nc e t ha t t hi s i s a c t ua l l y t a ki ng pl a c e 74. N A B S a f e 1956/ 2 L e t t e r w r i t t e n by M r s J O F i e l ds N ove m be r 29 1956 75. N A B S a f e 1962/ 1, N a t i ona l C ounc i l of C a m e r oon W om e n. 76. P e r s ona l i nt e r vi e w A pr i l 10 2002 77. T r i pp 2004. 78. F r om 1961 1972 C a m e r oon w a s a f e de r a l s t a t e c om pr i s e d of W e s t C a m e r oon ( B r i t i s h S out he r n C a m e r oons ) a nd E a s t C a m e r oon. I n 1972 C a m e r oon be c a m e a un i t a r y s t a t e I m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow i ng i nde pe nde nc e w om e n s a s s oc i a t i ons or ga ni z e d e ve nt s t ha t br ought t oge t he r w om e n f r om t he t w o f e de r a l s t a t e s N A B 1962/ 1 N a t i ona l C ounc i l of C a m e r oon W om e n. 79. K a be r r y 1952 149 150 a nd K a be r r y a nd C hi l ve r 1961, 365. 80. A w a s on 2002, 3 81. K a be r r y 1952 151 152. 82. D or ot hy G w a n N ul l a T he R ol e of W e s t C a m e r oon W om e n i n t he F a m i l y a nd S oc i e t y P a pe r pr e pa r e d f or a s e m i na r i n G e r m a ny f r om A p r i l 29 M a y 24 1963 or ga ni z e d by t he G e r m a n F ounda t i on f or D e ve l opi ng C ount r i e s N a t i ona l A r c hi ve s B ue a ( N A B ) S a f e 1960/ 1 83. T he s e i nc l ude A nna F onc ha G w e ndol i ne B ur nl e y, D or ot hy A t a bong, P r ude nc e C hi l l a J os e pha M ua a nd ot he r s R E F E R E N C E S A m a di um e I f i D aught e r s of t he G odde s s D aught e r s of I m pe r i al i s m : A f r i c an W om e n St r uggl e f or C ul t ur e P ow e r and D e m oc r ac y N e w Y or k: Z e d B ooks 2000. A l l m a n, J e a n, S us a n G e i ge r a nd N a ka nyi ke M us i s i e ds W om e n i n A f r i c an C ol oni al H i s t or i e s B l oom i ngt on: I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2002 A r de ne r S h i r l e y. S e xua l I ns ul t a nd F e m a l e M i l i t a nc y. I n P e r c e i v i ng W om e n e d. S hi r l e y A r de ne r ( L ondon: M a l a by P r e s s 1975) A w a s om S us s a na Y e ne A C r i t i c a l S u r ve y of t he R e s us c i t a t i on, A c t i va t i on, a nd A da pt a t i on o f

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 19 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 T r a di t i ona l F e m a l e P ol i t i c a l I ns t i t ut i ons t o t he E xi ge nc i e s of M ode r n P ol i t i c s i n t he 1990s : T he C a s e of t he T a kum be ng F e m a l e S oc i e t y i n C a m e r o on. P a pe r pr e s e nt e d a t t he C O D E S R I A 10 t h G e ne r a l A s s e m bl y, K a m pa l a U ga nda 2002 B ow i e F i ona I nt r oduc t i on: R e c l a i m i ng W om e n's P r e s e nc e I n W om e n and M i s s i ons : P as t and P r e s e nt A nt hr opol ogi c al and H i s t or i c al P e r c e pt i ons e d. F i ona B ow i e D e bo r a h K i r kw ood a nd S hi r l e y A r de ne r ( P r ovi de nc e B e r g 1993) B oyd, N a nc y. E m i s s ar i e s : T he O v e r s e a s W or k of t he A m e r i c an Y W C A 1895 1970 N e w Y or k : T he W om a n's P r e s s 1986 B r ys on, J udy C W om e n a nd E c onom i c D e ve l op m e nt i n C a m e r oon. W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S A I D 1979 C a l l a w a y, H e l e n. G e nde r C ul t ur e and E m pi r e : E ur ope an W om e n i n C ol oni al N i ge r i a U r ba na a nd C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s P r e s s 1987. C ha udhur i N upur a nd M a r ga r e t S t r obe l e ds W e s t e r n W om e n and I m pe r i al i s m : C om pl e x i t y and R e s i s t anc e B l oom i ngt on: I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1992 C oc k, J a c kl yn. D om e s t i c S e r vi c e a nd E duc a t i on f or D om e s t i c i t y: T he I nc or po r a t i on o f X hos a W om e n i nt o C ol oni a l S oc i e t y I n W om e n and G e nde r i n Sout he r n A f r i c a t o 1945 e d. C he r r yl W a l ke r ( L ond on: J a m e s C ur r e y, 1990 ) D e L a nc e y, M a r k W W om e n's C oope r a t i ve s i n C a m e r oon: T he C oope r a t i ve E xpe r i e nc e s of t he N or t hw e s t a nd S out hw e s t P r ovi nc e s A f r i c an St ud i e s R e v i e w 30 no 1 ( 1987) : 1 18. D i duk, S us a n. W om e n's A gr i c ul t ur a l P r oduc t i on a nd P ol i t i c a l A c t i on i n t he C a m e r oon G r a s s f i e l ds A f r i c a 59 no 3 ( 1989) : 338 355 F e nne l l y, M a r i on. E l i z a be t h O 'K e l l y: T e c hnol ogy f or W om e n a nd C or n M i l l S oc i e t i e s o f C a m e r oon. I n E ac h i n H e r O w n W ay : F i v e W om e n L e ade r s of t he D e v e l opi ng W or l d B oul de r : L ynne R i e nne r P ubl i s he r s 1985. G a i t s ke l l D e bor a h. C hr i s t i a n C om pounds f or A f r i c a n W om e n i n J oha nne s bur g, 1907 1970. J our nal of Sout he r n A f r i c an St udi e s 6 no 1 ( 1979 ) : 44 69 H ous e w i ve s M a i ds or M ot he r s : S om e C o nt r a di c t i ons of D om e s t i c i t y f or C hr i s t i a n W om e n i n J oha nne s bur g, 1903 39 J our nal of A f r i c an H i s t or y 24, no. 2, ( 1983 ) : 241 56. D e vout D om e s t i c i t y? A C e nt ur y of A f r i c a n W om e n's C hr i s t i a ni t y i n S out h A f r i c a I n W om e n and G e nde r i n Sout he r n A f r i c a t o 1945 e d C he r r yl W a l ke r ( L o ndon: J a m e s C ur r e y, 1990) G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he

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2 0 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1949 L ondon : H M S O 1950. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1950 L ondon : H M S O 1951. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1951 L ondon : H M S O 1952. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1953 L ondon : H M S O 1954. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1954 L ondon : H M S O 1955. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1957 L ondon : H M S O 1958. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1958 L ondon : H M S O 1959. G r e a t B r i t a i n, R e por t by H i s M aj e s t y s G ov e r nm e n t i n t he U ni t e d K i ngdom of G r e at B r i t ai n and N or t he r n I r e l and t o t he T r us t e e s hi p C ounc i l of t he U ni t e d N at i ons on t he A dm i ni s t r at i on of t he C am e r oon s unde r U ni t e d K i ngdom T r us t e e s hi p f or t he Y e ar 1959 L ondon : H M S O 1960. H a ns e n, K a r e n T r a nbe r g e d. A f r i c an E nc ount e r s w i t h D om e s t i c i t y N e w B r uns w i c k, N J : R ut ge r s U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1992. H unt N a nc y R os e D om e s t i c i t y a nd C ol oni a l i s m i n B e l gi um A f r i c a : U s um bur a 's F oye r S oc i a l 1946 1960. Si gns : J our nal of W om e n i n C ul t ur e and Soc i e t y 15, no. 3, ( 1990) : 447 474 H unt N a nc y R os e T e s s i e P L i u, a nd J e a n Q ua t a e r t e ds G e nde r e d C ol oni al i s m s i n A f r i c an H i s t or y O xf or d: B l a c kw e l l P ubl i s he r s 1997. J a ya w a r de na K um a r i T he W hi t e W om e n' s O t he r B ur de nt : W e s t e r n W om e n i n Sout h A s i a dur i ng B r i t i s h R ul e N e w Y or k: R out l e dge 1995 J e nki ns I ne z T he H i s t or y of t he W om e n' s I ns t i t ut e M ov e m e nt of E ng l and and W al e s O x f or d: T he U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1953. K a be r r y, P M W om e n of t he G r as s f i e l ds C ol oni a l R e s e a r c h P ubl i c a t i on, N o. 14 1952

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C O L O N I A L P O L I CI E S A N D W O M E N S P A R T IC IP A T I O N I N P U B L I C L I F E | 21 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 K a be r r y, P M a nd E M C hi l ve r A n O ut l i ne of t h e T r a di t i ona l P ol i t i c a l S ys t e m s of t he B a l i N yong a S out he r n C a m e r oons A f r i c a: J our nal of t he I nt e r nat i onal A f r i c an I ns t i t ut e 31, no. 4 ( 1961) : 355 371. K onde E m m a nue l C a m e r ooni a n W om e n i n N a t i ona l P ol i t i c s S i nc e t he S e c ond W or l d W a r 1945 1985: A n H i s t or i c a l S t udy of W om e n a nd P o l i t i c s i n a M a l e D om i na t e d S oc i e t y P h D D i s s e r t a t i on, B os t on U ni ve r s i t y, 1991 T he U s e of W om e n f or t he E m pow e r m e nt of M e n i n A f r i c a n N a t i ona l i s t P ol i t i c s : t he 1958 A nl u i n t he C a m e r oon G r a s s f i e l ds W or ki ng P a pe r s i n A f r i c a n S t ud i e s no. 147 B os t on: A f r i c a n S t udi e s C e nt e r B os t on U ni ve r s i t y, 1990. M a m a A m i na W om e n's S t udi e s a nd S t udi e s of W om e n i n A f r i c a D ur i ng t he 1990s W o r ki ng P a pe r S e r i e s 5/ 96 D a ka r S e ne ga l : C O D E S R I A 1 996, 28 M a s e m a nn, V a ndr a T he H i dde n C ur r i c ul um of a W e s t A f r i c a n G i r l s B oa r di ng S c hool C anadi an J our nal of A f r i c an S t udi e s 8, no. 3, ( 197 4) : 479 494 M e i nt j e s S he i l a F a m i l y a nd G e nde r i n t he C hr i s t i a n C om m uni t y a t E de nda l e N a t a l i n C ol oni a l T i m e s I n W om e n and G e nde r i n Sout he r n A f r i c a t o 1945 e d C he r r yl W a l ke r ( L ondon: J a m e s C ur r e y, 1990) M os s B a r ba r a T o D e t e r m i ne t he S c a l e of W a nt s of t he C om m uni t y: G e nde r a nd A f r i c a n C ons um pt i on. I n G e nde r e d E nc ount e r s e d. M a r i a G r os z N ga t e a nd O m a r i H K okol e ( N e w Y or k: R out l e dge 1997 ) N kw i P N T r a di t i ona l F e m a l e M i l i t a nc y i n a M ode r n C ont e xt I n F e m m e s du C am e r oun e d. J e a n C l a ude B a r bi e r ( P a r i s : K a r t ha l a 1985) O 'K e l l y, E l i z a be t h A i d and Se l f H e l p: A G e ne r al G ui de t o O v e r s e as A i d L ondon : C ha r l e s K ni ght & C o. L t d 1973 C or n M i l l S oc i e t i e s i n t he S out he r n C a m e r oons A f r i c an W om e n ( 1955) : 33 35 R i t z e nt ha l e r R obe r t E A nl u : A W om e n's U pr i s i n g i n t he B r i t i s h C a m e r oons A f r i c an St udi e s 19, no 3 ( 1960) : 151 156 R obe r t s on, C l a i r e W om e n's E duc a t i on a nd C l a s s F or m a t i on i n A f r i c a 1950 1980. I n W om e n and C l as s i n A f r i c a e d. C l a i r e R obe r t s on a nd I r i s B e r ge r ( N e w Y or k: A f r i c a na P ubl i s hi ng C om pa ny, 1986) R obe r t s on, C l a i r e C a nd N upur C ha udhur i E di t o r 's N ot e : R e vi s i ng t he E xpe r i e nc e s of C ol oni z e d W om e n: B e yond B i na r i e s J our nal of W om e n' s H i s t or y 14, no 4 ( 2003 ) : 6 14. S c ul l y, P a m e l a I ndi ge nous W om e n a nd C ol oni a l C ul t ur e s : A n I nt r oduc t i on J our nal of

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2 2 | A D A MS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C ol oni al i s m and C ol oni al H i s t or y 6 no 3 ( 2005) S he l don, K a t hl e e n. I S t udi e d w i t h t he N uns L e a r ni ng t o M a ke B l ous e s ': G e nde r I de ol ogy a nd C ol oni a l E duc a t i on i n M oz a m bi que T he I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of A f r i c an H i s t or i c al St udi e s 31, no. 3 ( 1998 ) 595 625 S t r obe l M a r ga r e t E ur ope an W om e n and t he Se c o nd B r i t i s h E m pi r e B l oom i ngt on: I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1991. S w a i s l a nd, C e c i l l i e F or t y Y e ar s of Se r v i c e : T he W om e n' s C or ona Soc i e t y 1950 1990 L ondon: T he S oc i e t y, 1992. T hom a s S a m ue l S T r a ns f or m i ng t he G os pe l of D om e s t i c i t y: L uhya G i r l s a nd F r i e nds A f r i c a M i s s i on, 1917 1926, A f r i c an St udi e s R e v i e w 43, no. 2 ( 2000 ) : 1 27. T r i p p, A i l i M a r i A N e w L ook a t C ol oni a l W om e n: B r i t i s h T e a c he r s a nd A c t i vi s t s i n U ga nda ( 1898 1962) C anadi an J our nal of A f r i c an St ud i e s 38, no 1, ( 2004) W om e n's M obi l i z a t i on i n U ga nda : N onr a c i a l I de ol ogi e s i n E ur ope a n A f r i c a n A s i a n E nc ount e r s 19 45 1962 T he I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of A f r i c an H i s t or i c al St udi e s 34, no. 3, ( 2001) W om e n and P ol i t i c s i n U ganda M a di s on: U ni ve r s i t y of W i s c ons i n P r e s s 2000 W a l ke r C he r r yl e d W om e n and G e nde r i n Sout he r n A f r i c a t o 1945 L ondon: J a m e s C ur r e y 1990. R e f e r e n c e S t yl e : T he f ol l ow i ng i s t he s ugge s t e d f or m a t f o r r e f e r e nc i ng t hi s a r t i c l e : M e l i nda A da m s C ol oni a l P ol i c i e s a nd W om e n s P a r t i c i pa t i on i n P ubl i c L i f e : T he C a s e of B r i t i s h S out he r n C a m e r oons A f r i c an S t udi e s Q uar t e r l y 8, no 3: [ on l i ne ] U R L : ht t p: / / w e b. a f r i c a uf l e du/ a s q/ v3/ v8i 3a 1. h t m

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Bre nda n M cS her ry i s a d o ct o ral s t u d en t i n Po l i t i c al S ci en ce at t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Cal i fo rn i a, B erk el ey A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m S pr i ng 2006 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 Th e P ol i t i c a l E c on o my of O i l i n Eq u ato r i a l G u i n e a B R E N D A N M C S H E R R Y A bs tra c t: T h i s p ap er an al y zes t h e p o l i t i cal eco n o my o f o i l i n E q u at o ri al G u i n ea o n e o f A fri ca s n ew es t an d mo s t i mp o rt an t o i l p ro d u cers It b eg i n s w i t h a b ri e f h i s t o ry o f t h e co u n t ry an d i t s recen t ex p eri en c e w i t h o i l l ed d ev el o p men t T h e p ap er t h en mo v es o n t o i n t eg rat e t h e ex p eri en ce o f E q u at o ri al G u i n ea i n t o t h e l i t erat u re l i n k i n g n at u ral r es o u rce ab u n d an ce t o p o o r d ev el o p men t p erfo r man c e, au t h o ri t ari an i s m, an d ci v i l co n fl i ct r es p e ct i v el y T h e p ap er co n cl u d es b y arg u i n g t h at o i l h as ex ac erb at ed al re ad y p r es en t p at h o l o g i es i n E q u at o ri al G u i n e as p o l i t i cal e co n o my p av i n g t h e w ay fo r fu t u re p ro b l e ms o f u n d erd ev el o p me n t i n s t ab i l i t y an d au t h o ri t ari an ru l e, p ro b l ems t h at co u l d al l b e al l ev i at ed t o s o m e d eg ree b y ch an g es i n U S fo rei g n p o l i cy t o w ard s t h e reg i o n I N T R O D U C T I O N I n M a r c h of 2004 t he gove r nm e nt o f E qua t or i a l G ui ne a a r r e s t e d ni ne t e e n s ol di e r s a c c us e d of pl ot t i ng a c o up i n t hi s t i ny, oi l r i c h A f r i c a n c ount r y. M e a nw hi l e t he Z i m ba bw e a n gove r nm e nt a r r e s t e d a not he r s e ve nt y s ol di e r s s uppos e dl y e n r o ut e f r om S out h A f r i c a t o s uppor t t he c oup. L e d by S out h A f r i c a n m e r c e na r y M a r k du T oi t a nd f i na nc e d by, a m ong ot he r s S i r M a r k T ha t c he r t he c oup pl ot t e r s hope d t o r e pl a c e P r e s i de nt O bi a n g N gue m a w i t h t he l ong e xi l e d oppos i t i on l e a de r S e ve r o M ot o. 1 T hi s dr a m a t i c t u r n o f e ve nt s hi ghl i ght s t h e r e ne w e d i nt e r e s t i n t hi s f or m e r S pa ni s h c ol ony i n w e s t C e nt r a l A f r i c a T he r e c e nt di s c ove r y of m a s s i ve oi l r e s e r ve s j us t of f t he c ount r y s A t l a nt i c s hor e s ha s a l r e a dy m a de E qua t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c a s t hi r d l a r ge s t p r oduc e r o f oi l w i t h a n e s t i m a t e d 181, 40 0 ba r r e l s p r oduc i ng e a c h da y 2 F o r e i gn i nve s t m e nt ha s f l ow n i n f r om a r ound t he gl obe e s pe c i a l l y f r om t he U S E c onom i c gr ow t h ha s be e n t he f a s t e s t i n t he w or l d a nd t he I M F pr e di c t s a s t a gge r i ng 45. 1 pe r c e nt r a t e of gr ow t h f o r 2005. 3 T hi s r a pi d gr ow t h, c oupl e d w i t h t he c ount r y s m i ni s c ul e popul a t i on o f l e s s t ha n 500 00 0, ha s br oug ht G D P pe r c a pi t a e s t i m a t e s ( P P P ) t o a n a s t oundi ng $50 240, t he s e c ond hi ghe s t i n t h e w or l d a f t e r L uxe m bour g. 4 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s oi l w e a l t h c oul d t r a ns f or m t he c oun t r y f r om a n i m pove r i s he d ba c kw a t e r i nt o a n e c onom i c pow e r hous e Y e t f e w be ne f i t s ha ve a c c r ue d t o t he m a s s e s r a m pa nt pove r t y d i s e a s e a nd i ne qua l i t y pe r s i s t 5 L i f e e xpe c t a nc y ha s s t a gna t e d a t a di s m a l 49 ye a r s w hi l e une m pl oym e nt

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2 4 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 e xc e e ds t hi r t y pe r c e nt 6 O i l r e nt s ha ve c ons ol i da t e d P r e s i de nt N gue m a s br ut a l a ut ho r i t a r i a n r e gi m e a nd he l pe d f ur t he r c r i m i na l i z e one of t he w or l d s m os t c r i m i na l s t a t e s G r ow i ng e t hni c a nd r e gi ona l t e ns i ons t he r e c e nt c oup pl o t a nd a n e a r l i e r s uc h a t t e m pt i n 2003 po i nt t o r i s i ng pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y i n t he ye a r s t o c om e 7 T hi s c om bi na t i on o f poor de ve l opm e nt pe r f or m a nc e e nt r e nc he d a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m a nd pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y m i r r o r t he e xpe r i e nc e s of ot he r na t ur a l r e s our c e a bunda nt c ount r i e s t hr oughout t he w o r l d. T he s o c a l l e d r e s our c e c ur s e ha s t hw a r t e d t he hope s of m a ny poo r pr i m a r y c om m odi t y e xpor t e r s a nd s pa w ne d a n e xt e ns i ve a c a de m i c l i t e r a t ur e i nt e nt on e xpl a i ni ng t hi s s e e m i ngl y pa r a doxi c a l out c om e T hi s di ve r s e l i t e r a t ur e c a n he l p e xpl a i n E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s c ur r e nt pl i ght a nd s he d l i ght on w ha t l i e s a he a d f ur t he r unde r de ve l opm e nt f e w oppor t uni t i e s f or de m oc r a t i z a t i on i nc r e a s e d pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y, a nd vi ol e nc e A s t he be s t w o r k f r om t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t ur e a c know l e dge s how e ve r t he pol i t i c a l e c onom y o f oi l i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a w i l l f ol l ow i t s ow n of t e n i di os ync r a t i c pa t h. E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s t i ny s i z e t he e xt r a or di na r y pe r va s i ve ne s s of c r i m i na l i t y a t hi gh l e ve l s of gove r nm e nt t he uni que na t ur e o f i t s r e gi ona l a nd e t hni c c l e a va ge s i t s hi s t o r y of e xt r e m e pe r s ona l r ul e i t s s t r a t e gi c i m po r t a nc e t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he of f s hor e na t ur e o f i t s oi l r e s e r ve s w i l l c ondi t i on t he c ount r y s e xpe r i e nc e of t he r e s our c e c ur s e i n i m po r t a nt w a ys U l t i m a t e l y, E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s p r e di c a m e nt l e nds f ur t he r c r e de nc e t o t he c e nt r a l a r gum e nt s o f t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t ur e a nd of f e r s a n e xt r e m e e xa m pl e of t he p i t f a l l s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e s our c e l e d de ve l opm e nt i n ve r y w e a k s t a t e s T hi s pa pe r a na l yz e s t he pol i t i c a l e c onom y of oi l i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a w i t h s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on t o t he a c a de m i c l i t e r a t u r e on t he r e s our c e c ur s e I t be gi ns w i t h a br i e f hi s t or y of t he c ount r y a nd i t s r e c e nt e xpe r i e nc e w i t h oi l l e d de ve l opm e nt T h e pa pe r t he n m ove s on t o i n t e gr a t e t he e xpe r i e nc e of E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a i n t o t he l i t e r a t ur e l i nki ng na t ur a l r e s our c e a bunda nc e t o poor de ve l opm e nt pe r f or m a nc e a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m a nd c i vi l c onf l i c t T he pa pe r c onc l ude s by a r gui ng t ha t oi l ha s e xa c e r ba t e d a l r e a dy p r e s e nt pa t hol ogi e s i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s pol i t i c a l e c onom y, pa vi ng t he w a y f o r a f ut ur e of unde r de ve l opm e nt i ns t a bi l i t y a nd a ut hor i t a r i a n r ul e pr ob l e m s t ha t c oul d a l l be a l l e vi a t e d t o s om e de gr e e by c ha nge s i n U S f o r e i gn pol i c y t ow a r ds t he r e gi on. E Q U A T O R I A L G U I N E A : F R O M T R O P I C A L B A C K W A T E R T O A F R I C A S K U W A I T E qua t or i a l G u i ne a r e m a i ne d unt i l qui t e r e c e nt l y on e of A f r i c a s ba c kw a t e r s R i o M uni a s m a l l s l i ve r of t he A f r i c a n m a i nl a nd be t w e e n C ongo B r a z z a vi l l e a nd G a bon, a nd B i oko I s l a nd m a ke up t hi s t i ny c ount r y o f l e s s t ha n ha l f a m i l l i on r e s i de nt s U nde r S pa ni s h c ol oni z a t i o n c oc oa e xpor t s dom i na t e d t he e c onom y a nd f or e i gne r s m os t l y S pa ni s h a nd N i ge r i a n, c ont r ol l e d t he s m a l l s e r vi c e s e c t or T he va s t m a j or i t y of E qua t o G ui ne a ns r e m a i ne d s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m e r s w i t h l i t t l e or no i nt e g r a t i on i nt o t he m a r ke t e c onom y. L i m i t e d he a l t h a nd e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a nd a l m os t no i nf r a s t r uc t ur a l de ve l opm e nt out s i de t he m a i n t ow ns l e f t t he c ol ony i n a s t a t e of gr os s unde r de ve l opm e nt C ol oni a l i s m t he r e f or e c r e a t e d ne i t he r a uni f i e d na t i ona l m a r ke t nor e f f e c t i ve s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons a nd l e f t t he m a s s e s e gr e gi ous l y i m pove r i s he d. 8 U nf or t una t e l y, i nde pe nde nc e he r a l de d a n e ve n w or s e pe r i od m a r ke d by e c onom i c de c a y a nd br ut a l di c t a t or s hi p. M a c i a s N gue m a t he c oun t r y s f i r s t pr e s i de nt c a m e t o pow e r i n 1968 t h r ough r e l a t i ve l y de m oc r a t i c m e a ns H e t he n i ns t a l l e d one of pos t c ol oni a l A f r i c a s m os t oppr e s s i ve r e gi m e s r i va l e d on l y by I di A m i n i n U ga nda N gu e m a s r ul e c om bi ne d t he w or s t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he L a t i n A m e r i c a n c audi l l o a nd t he A f r i c a n B i g M a n, c e nt r a l i z i ng pow e r a nd c ul t i va t i ng a m e na c i ng c ul t of pe r s ona l i t y. 9 H e e xe c ut e d a c l a s s i c pur ge of t he oppos i t i on e s pe c i a l l y t a r ge t i ng

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 2 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t r a di t i ona l l e a de r s a nd i n t e l l e c t ua l s H i s r e i gn of t e r r or ki l l e d o r f o r c e d i nt o e xi l e be t w e e n a t hi r d a nd a ha l f o f t he c ount r y s popul a t i on. T he pu r ge a l s o dr ove t he c ount r y i nt o e c onom i c f r e e f a l l : t he e xpul s i on of N i ge r i a n a nd S pa ni s h e xpa t r i a t e s t r i gge r e d a ni ne t y pe r c e nt dr op i n G D P a s t he c oc oa i ndus t r y vi r t ua l l y di s i nt e gr a t e d. 1 0 N gue m a f i l l e d m os t gove r nm e nt pos t s w i t h m e m be r s of hi s f a m i l y a nd h i s E s a ngui c l a n, a s ubs e t of t he F a ng pe opl e w ho dom i na t e m a i nl a nd R i o M uni H e di s c r i m i na t e d ope nl y a ga i ns t t he B ubi pe opl e t he dom i na nt e t hni c i t y on B i oko a nd ki l l e d a l m os t a l l of B i oko s B ubi pol i t i c i a ns 1 1 T hi s w i de s pr e a d br ut a l i t y a nd f a vor i t i s m br e d e t hni c t e ns i ons be t w e e n t he F a ng a nd B ubi w ho t oge t he r m a ke up ni ne t y pe r c e nt o f t he c ount r y s popul a t i on, a nd a l s o f os t e r e d di vi s i ons be t w e e n t he va r i ous F a ng c l a ns B e c a us e t he F a ng do m i na t e t he m a i nl a nd a nd t he B ubi t he i s l a nd, t he s e t e ns i ons t ook on a de c i de dl y r e gi o na l c om pone nt 1 2 E ve nt ua l l y, N gue m a be ga n m ur de r i ng i nc r e a s i ng n um be r s of hi s ow n c l a n a nd f a m i l y, a l i e na t i ng e ve n hi s c l os e s t s uppor t e r s T e odor o O b i a ng N gue m a M a c i a s ne phe w i ni t i a t e d a vi ol e nt a nd s uc c e s s f ul c oup i n 1979 a nd c a m e t o p ow e r unde r t he t i t l e l i be r a t or H i s r e gi m e e nde d t he r e i gn o f t e r r or bu t c ont i nue d t he pol i c e s t a t e a nd di c t a t or i a l a ppa r a t us i ns t a l l e d by M a c i a s O bi a ng r e m a i ns i n pow e r t o t hi s da y hi s r ul i ng E s a ngui c l a n r e t a i ni ng a l m os t c om pl e t e c ont r ol of t he c ount r y H um a n r i ght s g r oups r out i n e l y de s c r i be hi m a s one o f t he w or l d s w o r s t di c t a t or s poi nt i ng t o g r os s hum a n r i ght s a bus e s a nd t i ght r e s t r i c t i ons on c i vi l a nd pol i t i c a l f r e e dom s 1 3 U nde r O bi a ng, E qua t or i a l G ui ne a be c a m e a c l a s s i c c r i m i na l s t a t e w i t h m a ny t op l e ve l i ns t i t ut i ons i nvol ve d i n va r i ous i l l i c i t be ha vi or s B a ya r t E l l i s a nd H i bou i n t he i r s e m i na l w or k on t he c r i m i na l i z a t i on of t he A f r i c a n s t a t e l i s t E qu a t or i a l G ui ne a a s one of onl y t hr e e A f r i c a n c ount r i e s a l r e a dy w or t hy of t he m oni ke r c r i m i na l s t a t e i n t ha t t he a ppa r a t us of r ul e ha d be c om e i nt i m a t e l y i nt e r t w i ne d w i t h w i de s c a l e c r i m i na l a c t i vi t y. 1 4 R obe r t K l i t ga a r d s T r opi c al G angs t e r s de s c r i be s hi s ye a r s w or ki ng t he r e f o r t he W or l d B a nk. I t de pi c t s a n a m a z i ngl y i m pove r i s he d pe opl e l e d by c or r upt a nd ul t i m a t e l y i ne pt ga ngs t e r s e nga ge d i n m a s s i ve c r i m i na l a c t i vi t y a nd hum a n r i ght s a bus e s 1 5 C r i m i na l i ndus t r i e s a l r e a dy know n t o f l ou r i s h i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i nc l ude t oxi c w a s t e dum pi ng, dr ug t r a f f i c ki ng, pi r a t e f i s hi ng, a r m s a nd a i r c r a f t s m uggl i ng a nd f or c e d l a bor of c hi l d r e n. 1 6 B y t he m i d 1990s E qua t or i a l G ui ne a ha d be c om e a qui nt e s s e nt i a l c r i m i na l s t a t e r e t a i ni ng i t s a ut oc r a t i c pol i t i c a l s ys t e m w i t ne s s i ng e t hni c a nd r e gi ona l t e ns i ons a nd c ont i nui ng t o s u f f e r f r om e xt r e m e unde r de ve l opm e nt a nd hum a n r i ght s vi ol a t i ons G r e a t hope s f o r a c ha nge c a m e i n 1995 w he n M obi l s t r uc k of f s hor e oi l a t i t s Z a f i r o pr os pe c t i ng s i t e S i nc e t he n, o i l ha s be e n f ound i n m a ny ot he r s i t e s of f t he c oa s t s of bot h B i oko a nd R i o M u ni m a ki ng E qua t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c a s m os t i m por t a nt ne w oi l p r oduc e r E c onom i c gr ow t h ha s a ve r a ge d a r ound 41 pe r c e nt pe r a nnum a nd a bui l di ng boo m ha s gr i ppe d t he c a pi t a l o f M a l a bo a nd t he oi l t ow ns of L uba on B i oko a nd B a t a on t he m a i nl a nd. E ne r gy c om pa ni e s ha ve i nv e s t e d bi l l i ons of dol l a r s i n t he c ount r y ove r t he pa s t de c a de a nd t he w e e kl y H ous t on E xp r e s s f l i e s di r e c t l y f r om M a l a bo t o T e xa s 1 7 T he be ne f i t s of d e ve l opm e nt r e m a i n c onc e nt r a t e d i n t h e ha nds of a ve r y s m a l l e l i t e how e ve r w i t h ve r y f e w t r i c kl e dow n e f f e c t s f or t he m a s s e s T he oi l i ndus t r y onl y e m pl oys a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10, 000 pe opl e m os t l y e xpa t r i a t e s o r m i g r a nt s f r o m t he U S N i ge r i a t he P hi l i ppi ne s a nd C a m e r oon. F ur t he r m or e f e w o i l r e nt s ha ve be e n i n ve s t e d i n pr ogr a m s t o i m pr ove t he qua l i t y of l i f e f o r t he pe opl e w i t h s pe ndi ng on he a l t h s e r vi c e s a ve r a gi ng a m e r e 1 23 pe r c e nt of G D P 1 8 C l e a r l y, t he boom ha s done l i t t l e t o i m pr ove l i f e f o r t he m a j o r i t y o f E qua t o G ui ne a ns W hi l e of l i m i t e d i m po r t a nc e t o m os t of t he c ount r y s pe opl e oi l ha s c e r t a i nl y b r ought

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2 6 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 m a s s i ve w e a l t h t o O bi a ng s r ul i ng c l i que M i s a l l oc a t i on of oi l r e nt s f or l a vi s h pe r s ona l e xpe ndi t ur e s ha ve gr ow n t o r i di c ul ous pr opor t i ons O bi a ng j us t bought a m ul t i m i l l i on dol l a r m a ns i on out s i de W a s hi ngt on D C H i s s on T e odor i n ha s be c om e a r e gul a r i n M a nha t t a n, H ol l yw ood a nd P a r i s w he r e he i s f a m ous f o r d r i vi ng hi s m a ny f a nc y c a r s up a nd dow n t he C ha m ps E l ys s e s H e ha s e ve n be gun hi s ow n L os A nge l e s ba s e d m us i c c om pa ny. A r e c e nt c or r upt i on s c a nda l i nvol vi ng W a s hi ngt on D C s R i ggs B a nk i m pl i c a t e d t he ba nk a nd O bi a ng f o r i l l e ga l l y s i phoni ng of f m i l l i on s of dol l a r s f r om E q ua t or i a l G ui ne a s t r e a s ur y i n t o pe r s ona l a c c ount s F ur t he r m or e m os t of t he m one y O bi a ng s pe nds i ns i de t he c ount r y goe s t o s e e m i ngl y m i s gui de d huge pr oj e c t s s uc h a s bui l di ng a ne w c a pi t a l M a l a bo 2, r a t he r t ha n f o r r oa ds be t w e e n vi l l a g e s ne w s c hool s or ne w hos pi t a l s 1 9 D e s pi t e O bi a ng s obvi ous l y unpa l a t a bl e r e c or d on hum a n r i ght s c or r upt i on a nd c r i m i na l i t y, t he U S gove r nm e nt ha s w or ke d a s s i d uous l y t o i m pr ove r e l a t i ons w i t h E qua t or i a l G ui ne a I n i t s e f f or t s t o r e duc e de pe nde nc e on M i d E a s t o i l t he U S ha s i nve s t e d he a vi l y i n W e s t A f r i c a E qua t or i a l G ui ne a p r ovi de s a pa r t i c ul a r l y a t t r a c t i ve i nve s t m e nt f or A m e r i c a n ( a nd ot he r ) c om pa ni e s be c a us e i t s l e a de r s ha ve be e n w i l l i ng t o gr a nt f a r m o r e l uc r a t i ve of f e r s t ha n ha ve ot he r A f r i c a n l e a de r s A c c or di ng t o a 1999 I M F r e por t f or i ns t a nc e oi l c om pa ni e s r e c e i ve d by f a r t he m os t ge ne r ous t a x a nd p r of i t s ha r i ng pa c ka ge s i n t he r e gi on 2 0 P r e s i de nt B us h ha s r e ope ne d t he U S E m ba s s y i n M a l a bo, i n s pi t e of pr ot e s t s f r om hum a n r i ght s g r oups a nd ha s m e t w i t h P r e s i de nt O bi a ng pe r s ona l l y t o di s c us s oi l s e c ur i t y i n t he r e gi on i ndi c a t i ng how i m por t a nt t he r e gi on ha s be c om e t o U S f or e i gn p ol i c y. T he U S ha s t hus f a r e s c he w e d a t t e m pt s t o pr om ot e e i t he r de m oc r a c y o r a m or e e qui t a bl e d i s t r i but i on of i nc om e i n i t s de a l i ngs w i t h E qua t or i a l G ui ne a T he r e c e nt c oup a t t e m p t s ha ve onl y s t r e ngt he ne d t he r e s ol ve o f t he U S t o s uppor t t he r e gi m e a s f ut u r e i ns t a bi l i t y i n t he r e gi on c oul d r a di c a l l y i m pa c t oi l pr oduc t i on A na t i ona l i s t e xpul s i on of f o r e i gn w o r ke r s i n pa r t i c u l a r c oul d pr ove c a t a s t r ophi c t o t he o i l i nt e r e s t s of t he U S a nd ot he r s T he U S s houl d, h ow e ve r c ha nge i t s pol i c y i n t hi s r e ga r d a nd pr om ot e de m oc r a t i z a t i on a nd m or e e qui t a bl e e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt i n t he c ount r y 2 1 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s f ut ur e e xpe r i e nc e de pe nds t o a gr e a t de gr e e on t he r o l e of e xoge nous f a c t or s s uc h a s U S s uppor t f or e i gn bo r n c oup a t t e m pt s a nd t he e xt e nt of f ut ur e oi l di s c ove r i e s M or e ove r i t s uni que hi s t or y w i l l c ondi t i on t he e f f e c t s of oi l on t he e c onom y pol i t y a nd s oc i e t y i n pow e r f ul w a ys N e ve r t he l e s s t he br oa d s i m i l a r i t i e s a m ong r e s our c e e xpor t e r s de m a nd a t hor ough, c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of t he pol i t i c a l e c o nom y of na t u r a l r e s our c e s N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E W E A L T H A N D P O O R E C O N O M I C D E V E L O P M E N T E c onom i c A ppr oac he s T he ol de s t br a nc h o f t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t u r e f oc us e s on t he t e nde nc y of na t ur a l r e s our c e a bunda nt c ount r i e s t o s uf f e r f r om l ow e c onom i c gr ow t h a nd di s a ppoi nt i ng de ve l opm e nt out c om e s L a t i n A m e r i c a n e c onom i s t s H a ns S i nge r a nd R a ul P r e bi s c h w e r e t w o o f t he f i r s t s c hol a r s t o a ddr e s s t he i s s ue T he y a r gue d t ha t pr i m a r y c om m odi t y e xpor t e r s s uf f e r de c l i ni ng t e r m s of t r a de ove r t he l ong r un. P r i c e s f or c om m o di t y e xpor t s on t he w or l d m a r ke t w i l l t he y c l a i m e d, f a l l r e l a t i ve t o pr i c e s f o r m a nuf a c t u r e d go ods l e a vi ng c om m odi t y e xpor t e r s w i t h ba l a nc e of pa ym e nt pr ob l e m s a nd s l ow e c onom i c gr ow t h. 2 2 E vi de nc e t o s uppor t t he i r c l a i m ha s pr ove n m i xe d, w i t h s om e s t udi e s s how i ng de c l i ne s a nd ot he r s s how i ng s t e a di e r t e r m s of t r a de C uddi ngt on a nd W e i f or i ns t a nc e f ound no s uppo r t f o r t he P r e bi s c h S i nge r hypot he s i s i n a

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 2 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s 2 3 S a ps f or d a nd B a l a s ubr a m a nya n, on t he ot he r ha nd, f ound e vi de nc e t o s uppor t P r e bi s c h a nd S i nge r 2 4 S i nc e t he 1980s ho w e ve r t e r m s o f t r a de ha ve de c l i ne d w or l dw i de f or pr i m a r y c om m odi t i e s a nd gr e a t e r c o ns e ns u s ha s a r i s e n t ha t a t l e a s t f or t hi s t i m e pe r i od, de c l i ni ng t e r m s o f t r a de ha ve pr e s e nt e d a p r obl e m f o r m a ny c ount r i e s 2 5 W hi l e de c l i ni ng t e r m s of t r a de ha ve not ye t a f f e c t e d E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s oi l i ndus t r y, t he e c onom y i s be c om i ng c e nt e r e d a r ound oi l pr oduc t i on t o s uc h a de g r e e t h a t f ut ur e de c l i ne s i n t he t e r m s of t r a de w oul d pr ove de va s t a t i ng t o t h e E qua t o G ui ne a n e c onom y E c onom i s t s ha ve a r gue d t ha t na t u r a l r e s our c e w e a l t h m a y ha ve ot he r ne ga t i ve a f f e c t s on e c onom i e s S om e ha ve s us pe c t e d t ha t r a pi d f l uc t ua t i ons i n c om m odi t y m a r ke t s m i ght m a ke c om m odi t y de pe nde nt e c onom i e s e s pe c i a l l y pr one t o boom a nd bus t c yc l e s a nd di s c our a ge pr i va t e i nve s t m e nt 2 6 I n vol a t i l e m a r ke t s s uc h a s o i l t hi s m a y pr ove e s pe c i a l l y pr obl e m a t i c W e w i l l ha ve t o w a i t f o r t he ne xt f l uc t ua t i on i n o i l p r i c e s how e ve r t o s e e i f t hi s w i l l a f f e c t E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i n a ny m e a ni ng f ul w a y, but e ve r y i ndi c a t i on s ugge s t s t ha t a d r a m a t i c r e duc t i on i n oi l pr i c e s w oul d de va s t a t e t he c ount r y s e c onom y, a s ni ne t y pe r c e nt of a l l e xpo r t s c om e f r om oi l 2 7 T he ve r y vol a t i l e na t u r e of oi l m a r ke t s s i nc e 1971 s ugge s t s t ha t f ut ur e f l uc t ua t i ons a r e l i ke l y a nd t ha t t he y m a y p r ove da n ge r ous f or E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i n t he f ut u r e unl e s s t he c ount r y s l e a de r s c a n a dopt e f f e c t i ve pol i c i e s t o c ount e r t he s e e f f e c t s A not he r a s pe c t of r e s our c e l e d de ve l opm e nt t ha t h a s r e c e i ve d s c hol a r l y a t t e nt i on a ddr e s s e s t he m i ni m a l l i nka ge s be t w e e n t he boom i ng s e c t or a nd t he r e s t of t he e c onom y 2 8 S o f a r t hi s pr obl e m ha s be de vi l e d E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a g r e a t l y. S i nc e m os t of t he i nput s ne e de d f or t he oi l i ndus t r y c om e f r om a br oa d i ndi ge nous i ndus t r y ha s not be ne f i t e d f r om t he boom a nd e ve n t he s e r vi c e i ndus t r y r e l i e s m os t l y on i m por t s T he oi l i ndus t r y i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a r e m a i ns e s s e nt i a l l y, a n e nc l a ve w i t h l i t t l e i m pa c t on t he r e s t of t he e c onom y. I f e nc l a ve e c onom i e s pr ope r l y i nve s t t he i r r e s our c e r e nt s i n ot he r pa r t s o f t he e c onom y a s w e l l a s i n i n f r a s t r uc t ur e a nd hum a n de ve l opm e nt how e ve r t he y c a n c r e a t e gr o w t h i n ot he r s e c t or s or i m p r ove t he qua l i t y of he a l t h a nd e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s T he or e t i c a l l y, E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s e nor m ous pe r c a pi t a oi l r e ve nue s s houl d m a ke e i t he r of t he s e opt i ons f a r e a s i e r t ha n i n c ount r i e s w i t h m uc h l ow e r pe r c a pi t a r e s our c e e xpor t s E qua t or i a l G ui ne a how e v e r l i ke m os t oi l pr oduc e r s ha s f a i l e d t o a c t i n t hi s di r e c t i on, l e a vi ng t he l a c k of l i nka ge s be t w e e n t he oi l a nd non oi l s e c t or s a s a f unda m e nt a l e c onom i c pr obl e m f o r t he c ount r y. T he E qua t o G ui ne a n l e a de r s hi p s f a i l ur e t o i m pl e m e nt pol i c i e s t o c r e a t e l i nka ge s a l s o poi nt s t o t he i m po r t a nc e w e l l s uppor t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on t he r e s our c e c ur s e of i nc or por a t i ng bot h pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c a na l ys i s i n s t udi e s of na t ur a l r e s our c e dr i ve n de ve l opm e nt 2 9 T he m os t w e l l know n a nd be s t s t udi e d va r i a nt of t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t ur e D ut c h D i s e a s e t he or y, f ur t he r hi ghl i ght s t he ne e d t o i nt e gr a t e e c o nom i c a nd pol i t i c a l e xpl a na t i ons i nt o t he a na l ys i s of r e s our c e e xpor t e r s T he D ut c h D i s e a s e ge t s i t s na m e f r om t he e f f e c t s of oi l di s c ove r i e s on t he e c onom y of t he N e t he r l a nds i n t he 1960s a nd 19 70s T he ne w f ound oi l c r e a t e d a n e xpor t boom but t he dom e s t i c e c onom y s oon s uf f e r e d f r om i nf l a t i on a nd a de c l i ne i n m a nuf a c t ur i ng e xpor t s t ha t l e d t o l ow e r e c onom i c gr ow t h a nd r i s i ng une m pl oym e nt T he oi l boom of t he 1970s a nd 1980s p r oduc e d s i m i l a r ou t c o m e s i n c ount r i e s a s va r i e d a s S a udi A r a bi a N i ge r i a a nd M e xi c o. T hi s s e e m i ngl y pa r a doxi c a l phe nom e non oc c ur s w he n t he e xpor t boom l e a ds t o i nf l a t i on a nd a c ons e que nt a ppr e c i a t i on o f t he r e a l e xc ha nge r a t e T hi s m a ke s dom e s t i c pr oduc e r s i n f i e l ds o t he r t ha n t he c om m odi t y s e c t or l e s s c om pe t i t i ve a nd, he nc e l e s s pr of i t a bl e T hi s de c l i ne i n t he s t r e ngt h o f ot he r s e c t or s i n t he e c onom y i s t he c r ux of t he D ut c h D i s e a s e C or de a nd N e a r y ha ve f oun d a m pl e s uppor t f o r t he hypot he s e s of D ut c h D i s e a s e i n t he i r

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2 8 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t he or e t i c a l a na l ys e s 3 0 O t he r s t udi e s c onf i r m t he i n f l ue nc e of D ut c h D i s e a s e on e c onom i c out c om e s e m pi r i c a l l y. I n a c om p r e he ns i ve s t a t i s t i c a l s t udy, S a c hs a nd W a r ne r e xa m i ne ni ne t y s e ve n c ount r i e s ove r a ni ne t e e n ye a r pe r i od a nd s how t ha t s t a t e s w i t h a hi gh r a t i o of na t ur a l r e s our c e e xpor t s t o G D P i n 1971 ha d unus ua l l y s l o w gr ow t h r a t e s be t w e e n 1971 a nd 1989 T he y e xpl a i n t hi s phe nom e non l a r ge l y t hr ough a D ut c h D i s e a s e e f f e c t 3 1 C a s e s t udi e s a l s o pr ovi de a m pl e s uppor t f o r D ut c h D i s e a s e G e l b, f or i ns t a nc e doc um e nt s s i x c a s e s of D ut c h D i s e a s e : A l ge r i a E c ua dor I ndone s i a N i ge r i a T r i ni da d a nd T oba go, a nd V e ne z ue l a 3 2 O ne of hi s c a s e s t udi e s s how s how N i ge r i a s uf f e r e d f r om a n e xt r e m e i ns t a nc e of t he D i s e a s e i n t he 1980s S pi ke s i n oi l pr i c e s i n 1973 74 a nd 1979 80 l e d t o a l a r ge oi l w i ndf a l l f or t he gove r nm e nt but t hi s w i ndf a l l a nd i t s c onc om i t a nt s pe ndi ng i nc r e a s e s s pur r e d i nf l a t i on a n e xc ha nge r a t e hi ke a nd, c ons e que nt l y, a ni ne t y pe r c e nt de c l i ne i n t he non m i ni ng s e c t or 3 3 G a bon, E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s ne i ghbor i n t he G ul f of G ui ne a ha s a l s o s uf f e r e d f r om D ut c h D i s e a s e W hi l e t he c ount r y ha s de ve l ope d a pr os pe r ous oi l i ndus t r y ot he r s e c t or s of t he e c ono m y m os t not a bl y a gr i c ul t u r e ha ve c r um bl e d w hi l e i ne qua l i t y a nd pove r t y pe r s i s t E c o nom i c gr ow t h ha s s t a gna t e d. T he r a pi dl y a ppr oa c hi ng e nd t o t he c ount r y s o i l r e s e r ve s ha s pr om pt e d m a ny t o f e a r a l m os t t ot a l e c onom i c c ol l a ps e i n t he ne a r f ut ur e unl e s s ne w r e s e r ve s a r e f ound. 3 4 D e s pi t e t he c om m on D ut c h D i s e a s e e xpe r i e nc e m a ny c r i t i c s ha ve a r gue d t ha t t hi s a i l m e nt a f f e c t s de ve l ope d e c onom i e s f a r m or e t ha n i t a f f e c t s unde r de ve l ope d one s a nd t ha t i t s e f f e c t s va r y gr e a t l y by c ount r y B e nj a m i n e t a l f o r i ns t a n c e s how t ha t i n C a m e r oon D ut c h D i s e a s e a f f e c t e d a gr i c ul t ur e but not m a nuf a c t ur i ng 3 5 R os s f ur t he r a r gue s t ha t t hought f ul pol i c i e s c a n c ount e r a c t m os t D ut c h D i s e a s e e f f e c t s 3 6 I n t he w o r ds of T e r r y K a r l T he D ut c h D i s e a s e i s not a ut o m a t i c T he e xt e nt t o w hi c h i s t a ke s e f f e c t i s l a r ge l y t he r e s ul t o f de c i s i on m a ki ng i n t he publ i c r e a l m 3 7 F u r t he r m o r e a s C ha udhr y poi nt s out t he pur s ui t o f s ubs t a nt i ve l y di f f e r e nt s e c t or a l a nd i ndus t r i a l s t r a t e gi e s i n di f f e r e nt oi l p r o duc e r s be l i e s t he uni f or m out c om e s pos i t e d by t he D ut c h D i s e a s e 3 8 S o m e c ount r i e s i nc l ud i n g I r a q M a l a ys i a I r a n a nd A l ge r i a ha ve c ount e r e d t he pr e s s ur e s a ga i ns t i nve s t m e nt i n t r a d e a bl e s by i ni t i a t i ng i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on pr ogr a m s 3 9 T he e xpe r i e nc e of B ot s w a na s t a nds a s a r e m a r ka bl e e xa m pl e of how s ound e c onom i c pol i c y c a n pr e ve nt D ut c h D i s e a s e e ve n i n a poor a nd hi g hl y m i ne r a l de pe nde nt e c onom y U pon i nde pe nde nc e f r om G r e a t B r i t a i n i n 1966, B ot s w a na r e m a i ne d one of t he poo r e s t a nd l e a s t de ve l ope d c ou nt r i e s on e a r t h. T he di s c ove r y a f e w ye a r s l a t e r o f t he w o r l d s l a r ge s t di a m ond de pos i t s pr om pt e d a m a s s i ve e xpor t boom t ha t m a de B ot s w a na t he f a s t e s t gr ow i ng e c onom y i n t he w or l d be t w e e n 1970 a nd 1990 R a t he r t ha n w a t c h t he r e s t of t he e c onom y c r um bl e h ow e ve r c om pe t e nt pol i c y m a ki ng w a r de d of f t he w or s t e f f e c t s of D ut c h D i s e a s e T he gove r n m e nt a dopt e d e f f e c t i ve m a c r oe c onom i c pol i c i e s t o ke e p t he r e a l e xc ha nge r a t e s t a bl e T o do t hi s t he y bot h ke pt a hol d on publ i c s pe ndi ng a nd bui l t up m a s s i ve f or e i gn r e s e r ve s R a t he r t ha n bo r r ow f r om t he I M F l i ke m os t A f r i c a n c ount r i e s B ot s w a na now l e nds t he I M F ha r d c u r r e nc y. 4 0 B ot s w a na a l s o m a na ge d t o ke e p i t s l a r ge s t pa r a s t a t a l t he B ot s w a na M e a t C om m i s s i on, c om pe t i t i ve on i nt e r na t i ona l m a r ke t s a nd ha s s pe nt gove r nm e nt r e ve nue s r e s pons i bl y on e f f e c t i ve s oc i a l pr ogr a m s a nd i nf r a s t r uc t ur e not f r i vol ous w hi t e e l e pha nt s C ons e que nt l y, B ot s w a na r e m a i ns A f r i c a s m os t s uc c e s s f ul e c o no m y a nd de m oc r a c y, t hi r t y f i ve ye a r s a f t e r t he be gi nni ng of d i a m ond pr oduc t i on 4 1 W hi l e e f f e c t i ve pol i c y m a ki ng s hi e l de d B ot s w a na f r om D ut c h D i s e a s e E qua t or i a l G u i ne a s e xpe r i e nc e m or e c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s N i ge r i a s I nf l a t i on ha s gr ow n r a pi dl y, hur t i ng t he pu r c ha s i ng pow e r of t he i m pove r i s he d m a s s e s a nd pr om pt i ng a f i f t e e n pe r c e nt e xc ha nge r a t e a ppr e c i a t i on

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 2 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 be t w e e n t he e nd of 2001 a nd t he m i ddl e o f 2003 a l one 4 2 C oc oa p r oduc t i on de c l i ne d by t hi r t y pe r c e nt be t w e e n 1996 a nd 2001 a s i nve s t m e nt s s hi f t e d r a pi dl y t o t he oi l s e c t or a nd e xc ha nge r a t e hi ke s m a de c oc oa pr oduc e r s l e s s c om pe t i t i ve 4 3 D e c l i ni ng t e r m s of t r a de a nd pr i c e f l uc t ua t i ons a r e l i ke l y t o c r e a t e s e r i ous f ut ur e p r obl e m s f o r t he e c onom y of E qua t or i a l G ui ne a a s t he y ha ve i n ot he r oi l pr oduc e r s P oor l i nka ge s t o t he r e s t of t he e c onom y a nd D ut c h D i s e a s e a l r e a dy ha ve a f f e c t e d t he e c onom y a nd t he y t hr e a t e n t o f ur t he r i nf l i c t pa i n on t he e c onom y dow n t he r oa d F e a s i bl e pol i c y s ol ut i ons e xi s t f or bot h a i l m e nt s how e ve r but m os t r e s our c e de pe nde nt c o unt r i e s ha ve pr ove n i nc a pa bl e o f ha ndl i ng t he s e pr obl e m s pol i t i c a l l y. W ha t m a ke s r e s our c e r i c h c ount r i e s m or e p r one t o t he pol i c y f a i l ur e s e xhi bi t e d by N i ge r i a a nd l e s s l i ke l y t o r e s pond t o r e s our c e boom s i n t he w a y e xe m pl i f i e d by B ot s w a na ? P ol i t i c a l s c i e nt i s t s ha ve a ddr e s s e d t he s e f a i l ur e s i n m yr i a d w a ys m a ny of w hi c h r e m a i n c r uc i a l l y i m por t a nt t o t he c a s e of E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a P ol i t i c al Sc i e nc e A ppr oac he s P ol i t i c a l s c i e nt i s t s ha ve f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on poo r pol i c y m a ki ng, ba d i ns t i t ut i ons or s om e c om bi na t i on of t he t w o t o l i nk na t ur a l r e s our c e s t o di s a ppoi nt i ng e c onom i c out c om e s M i ddl e E a s t s pe c i a l i s t s f or i ns t a nc e ha ve l i nke d t he r e nt i e r na t ur e o f t he r e gi on s o i l e c onom i e s t o t he i r ge ne r a l l y di s a ppoi nt i ng de ve l opm e nt pe r f or m a nc e B e bl a w i de f i ne s a r e nt i e r s t a t e a s one t ha t de r i ve s t he bul k o f i t s r e ve nue f r om e xt e r na l r e nt s r a t he r t ha n p r oduc t i ve e nt e r p r i s e s 4 4 L uc i a ni dr a w s a s i m i l a r di s t i nc t i o n be t w e e n a l l oc a t i on a nd pr oduc t i on s t a t e s de pe ndi ng on w hi c h of t he s e t w o f unc t i ons m e r e a l l oc a t i on o r pr oduc t i o n a nd r e a l l oc a t i on i s t he ne c e s s a r y t a s k of t he s t a t e 4 5 M a hda vy w a s t he f i r s t t o a ddr e s s t he pe c ul i a r i t i e s of t he r e nt i e r s t a t e i n hi s a na l ys i s of I r a n. 4 6 H e a r gue d t ha t o i l w e a l t h m a ke s l e a de r s s hor t s i ght e d a nd e nc our a ge s t he pr om o t i on o f e c onom i c pol i c i e s f a vor i ng s t a bi l i t y a nd t he s t a t us quo e n l i e u o f g r ow t h a nd i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on. O t he r s c l a i m t ha t oi l r e nt s m a ke gove r nm e nt s l e s s a c c ount a bl e a nd, t he r e f or e l e s s r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e ds of t he pe opl e 4 7 S ha m ba ya t i s i m i l a r l y a r g ue s t ha t l ow t a xe s a nd e xt e ns i ve w e l f a r e pr ogr a m s s hi e l d r e nt i e r s t a t e s f r om pr e s s ur e t o c r e a t e e f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt p r ogr a m s 4 8 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a qua l i f i e s a s a r e nt i e r s t a t e i n B e bl a w i s de f i ni t i on, a s oi l r e nt s c ons t i t ut e t he va s t m a j or i t y o f t he e c onom y. N e ve r t he l e s s E q ua t or i a l G ui ne a di f f e r s i n c r uc i a l r e s pe c t s f r om t he M i ddl e E a s t s r e nt i e r s t a t e s I t s e xt r a or di n a r i l y w e a k gove r nm e nt i ns t i t ut i ons a nd t he de a r t h of s oc i a l w e l f a r e pr og r a m s i n pa r t i c ul a r m a ke i t unl i ke l y t ha t O bi a ng s r e gi m e w i l l m a na ge t o buy t he a c qui e s c e nc e of t he m a s s e s i n t he s a m e w a y a s K uw a i t or S a udi A r a bi a F ur t he r m or e t he c r i m i na l i t y of t he s t a t e ha s f a c i l i t a t e d a f a r m or e c or r upt m a na ge m e nt of r e nt s t ha n i n t he M i ddl e E a s t w h i c h m a y pos s i bl y c ont r i but e t o gr e a t e r l e ve l s of oppos i t i on f r om t he m a s s e s t o t he c ur r e nt e c ono m i c s i t ua t i on. T he ne o pa t r i m oni a l na t u r e of E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s r e gi m e how e ve r m a ke s i t l i ke l y t ha t a ny a t t e m pt s by O bi a ng t o que l l oppos i t i on w i l l t a ke t he f or m o f gr e a t e r s pe ndi ng on c l i e nt e l i s m pa t r ona ge a nd g r a nt i ng o f pr e be nds r a t he r t ha n w i de s pr e a d be ne f i t s t o t he m a s s e s 4 9 B e yond t he i r l i m i t e d a ppl i c a bi l i t y t o E qua t o r i a l G u i ne a t he t he or i e s of t he r e nt i e r s t a t e s uf f e r f r om t w o i m por t a nt f l a w s F i r s t a s C ha udhr y r i ght f ul l y a s s e r t s t he or i e s of t he r e nt i e r s t a t e f a r out s t r i p de t a i l e d e m pi r i c a l a na l ys i s of a c t ua l c a s e s 5 0 P u r e r e nt i e r s t a t e s do not e xi s t a nd t he va r i ous s o c a l l e d r e nt i e r s t a t e s e xhi bi t i m por t a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c out c om e s F ur t he r m or e de s pi t e t he i r or i gi n i n pol i t i c a l s c i e nc e t he or i e s of t he r e nt i e r s t a t e r e m a i n ove r l y e c onom i s t i c I n t he w or ds of O kr uhl i k T he r e nt i e r s t a t e f r a m e w or k i s l i m i t e d be c a us e i t

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3 0 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 r e l e ga t e s pol i t i c a l c hoi c e s t o t he ba c k s e a t be hi nd s t r uc t ur a l e c onom i e s 5 1 T he c om bi na t i on o f i m po r t a nt i ns i ght s f r om t he r e nt i e r s t a t e pe r s pe c t i ve a nd t he l a c k of e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e f or i t s c l a i m s ha s pr om p t e d m o r e nua nc e d s t udi e s of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e s our c e s a nd de ve l opm e nt C ha udhr y, f or i ns t a nc e pos i t s t ha t be c a us e oi l e xpor t i ng s t a t e s f or m w e a k e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i o ns t he y l a c k t he r e qui s i t e i nf or m a t i on ne e de d t o f or m ul a t e a nd i m pl e m e nt e f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt pol i c i e s F u r t he r m or e w i t hou t a de qua t e i nf o r m a t i on a t t he i r di s pos a l publ i c s pe ndi ng w i l l be i nf o r m e d by p r i m or di a l c l e a va ge s r a t he r t ha n e c onom i c r a t i ona l i t y 5 2 F o r C ha udhr y t he de c l i ne of e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons e nge nde r s a de c l i ne i n ove r a l l i ns t i t ut i ona l qua l i t y, na t i ona l i nt e g r a t i on, s t a t e bui l di ng a nd, u l t i m a t e l y, de ve l opm e nt out c om e s bui l di ng on D e l a c r oi x s c l a s s i c t he or i z a t i on of ho w di s t r i but i ve s t a t e s w i l l di f f e r f unda m e nt a l l y f r om nor m a l s t a t e s i n t he i r pr oc e s s of s t a t e f o r m a t i on. 5 3 S he t r a c e s i ns t i t ut i ona l de ve l opm e nt i n oi l pr oduc i ng S a udi A r a bi a a nd l a bor e xpor t i ng Y e m e n, de m ons t r a t i ng, i n pa r t i c ul a r t he m a r ke d de t e r i or a t i on i n e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons 5 4 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s a l m os t non e xi s t e nt e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons l e nd c r e de nc e t o C ha udhr y s a s s e r t i ons W i t h l i t t l e know l e dge a s t o w ha t oc c ur s i n t he r e m ot e r e gi ons of t he c ount r y i t i s unl i ke l y t ha t O bi a ng a nd hi s c r oni e s c oul d e ve r de ve l op e f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt p r ogr a m s W e a k e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons how e ve r pr e da t e t he oi l bo om a nd, t he r e f or e a r e not t he c ons e que nc e of oi l t hough t he r e s our c e boom m a y f ur t he r e r ode t h e s e i ns t i t ut i ons c ont r i but i ng e ve n f ur t he r t o e c onom i c ba c kw a r dne s s O ve r a l l E qua t o r i a l G ui n e a s w e a k i ns t i t ut i ons a nd poor pol i c y m a ki ng ha ve m a de t he e c onom i c pr obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h oi l l e d de ve l opm e nt e g. D ut c h D i s e a s e a nd poor l i nka ge s t o t he r e s t of t he e c onom y e xt r e m e l y s e ve r e H ow m uc h oi l w i l l c ont i nue t o c ont r i but e t o t hi s unf a vor a bl e e c onom i c s i t ua t i on r e m a i ns unc l e a r T he t r a c k r e c or d o f ot he r w e a k s t a t e s i n A f r i c a s ugge s t s t ha t E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s i ns t i t ut i ons w i l l r e m a i n w e a k a nd i t s pol i c y m a ki ng poor I n G a bon, oi l f a c i l i t a t e d t he gr ow t h o f a n e nc l a ve e c onom y t ha t br ought l i t t l e i n t he w a y of de ve l opm e nt t o t he a r e a s out s i de t he c a pi t a l L i br e vi l l e A ngol a n l e a de r s r a t he r t ha n i nve s t oi l r e nt s i n r oa ds o r hum a n c a pi t a l ha ve pl unde r e d a s m uc h a s $4. 2 m i l l i on ove r t he pa s t f e w ye a r s a l o ne 5 5 N i ge r i a r e m a i ns t he pr e e m i ne nt e xa m pl e of t he de l e t e r i ous e f f e c t s of oi l on i ns t i t ut i ons a nd pol i c y m a ki ng i n A f r i c a I n N i ge r i a oi l pl a ye d a c r i t i c a l r ol e i n t he c r e a t i on of a p r e da t or y s t a t e unde r B a ba ngi da t ha t pa ve d t he w a y f or e c onom i c di s a s t e r R a t he r t ha n f a c i l i t a t e t he gr ow t h of e f f e c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons o r good pol i c i e s oi l a l l ow e d B a ba ngi da t o s pe nd c a r e l e s s l y a nd pe r m i t i ns t i t ut i ons t o de t e r i or a t e 5 6 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i s unl i ke l y t o f a r e m uc h be t t e r t ha n i t s pe t r o s t a t e ne i ghbor s i n A f r i c a e s pe c i a l l y gi ve n t he pa r t i c ul a r l y ve na l pol i c i e s of O bi a ng a nd hi s c i r c l e U nl e s s t he i ns t i t ut i ons of gove r nm e nt c ha nge m a r ke dl y, t he c ha nc e f o r a be t t e r e c onom i c f ut u r e a ppe a r s qui t e b l e a k. U nf or t una t e l y, oi l l e d de ve l opm e nt ha s a l s o ha d de l e t e r i ous e f f e c t s on ot he r i m por t a nt pol i t i c a l c i r c um s t a nc e s na m e l y t he l e ve l s of de m oc r a c y a nd pol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y N at ur al R e s our c e W e al t h and A ut hor i t ar i ani s m A n i m por t a nt s t r a nd of t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t ur e a r gue s t ha t r e s our c e a bunda nc e m a y s i gni f i c a nt l y hi nde r de m oc r a t i c de ve l opm e nt P r op one nt s of t he r e nt i e r s t a t e t he s i s ha ve l on g a r gue d t ha t oi l w e a l t h ha s s i de l i ne d de m oc r a t i c de ve l opm e nt i n t he M i ddl e E a s t O t he r s m a ke s i m i l a r a r gum e nt s a bout r e s our c e r i c h s t a t e s i n A f r i c a a nd C e nt r a l A s i a R os s ha s s how n t ha t na t ur a l r e s our c e w e a l t h ( e s pe c i a l l y oi l ) a nd de m oc r a c y a r e s i gni f i c a n t l y ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d. 5 7 L a m a nd W a nt c he kon, a f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f or G D P hum a n c a pi t a l i nc om e i ne qua l i t y a nd ot he r

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 3 1 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 pos s i bl e de t e r m i na nt s f i nd a r obus t a nd s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n r e s our c e de pe nde nc e a s m e a s ur e d by t he r a t i o o f f ue l a nd m i ne r a l e xpor t s a s a pe r c e nt a ge o f t ot a l e xpor t s a nd a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m 5 8 W a nt c he kon f u r t he r f i nds t ha t a one pe r c e nt i nc r e a s e i n r e s our c e de pe nde nc e a s m e a s ur e d by t he r a t i o o f e xpor t s t o G D P l e a ds t o a ne a r l y e i ght pe r c e nt i nc r e a s e i n t he pr oba bi l i t y o f a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m 5 9 T hi s ove r w he l m i ng s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p a nd t he r e m a r ka bl e pa uc i t y of de m oc r a c y i n r e s our c e r i c h c ount r i e s ha ve pr om pt e d s om e t hi ng of a s c hol a r l y c ons e ns us t ha t a t l e a s t unde r s om e c i r c u m s t a nc e s na t ur a l r e s our c e w e a l t h m a y p r ove i ni m i c a l t o de m oc r a c y N o c ons e ns us ha s a r i s e n, h ow e ve r a s t o w ha t c a us a l m e c ha ni s m s l i nk na t ur a l r e s our c e s t o a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m T he c ur r e nt l i t e r a t ur e i s dom i na t e d by f ou r pos s i bl e m e c ha ni s m s : a r e nt i e r e f f e c t a r e pr e s s i on e f f e c t a m ode r ni z a t i on e f f e c t a nd a f r e e dom f r om i nt e r na t i ona l pr e s s ur e e f f e c t 6 0 S c hol a r s of t he M i ddl e E a s t ha ve l ong r e l i e d on t h e r e nt i e r s t a t e not i on or s om e r e l a t e d va r i a nt t o e xpl a i n t he l a c k of de m oc r a c y i n t ha t r e gi on. O t he r s ha ve be gun t o a ppl y s i m i l a r a r gum e nt s t o ot he r r e gi ons of t he w o r l d, m os t not a bl y A f r i c a R e nt i e r s t a t e t he or i e s a r gue t ha t t he f r e e dom f r om t a xa t i on i n m a ny r e s our c e r i c h c ount r i e s pr e c l ude s m a s s m ove m e nt s f or r e pr e s e nt a t i on. S i m i l a r l y, r e s our c e w i ndf a l l s a l l ow t he e l i t e s t o c ons ol i da t e pow e r a nd buy o f f c ons e nt f r om t he m a s s e s t hr ough gove r nm e nt s pe ndi ng. T he r e nt i e r s t a t e l i t e r a t ur e e m pha s i z e s t he c l os e hi s t or i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t a xa t i on a nd de m oc r a t i z a t i on, r e ve r s i ng t he c om m on r e f r a i n of no t a xa t i on w i t hout r e pr e s e nt a t i on t o no r e pr e s e nt a t i on w i t hout t a xa t i on F r e e f r om t he ne e d t o t a x i t s popul a t i on, f i s c a l l y a ut onom ous s t a t e s f e e l no pr e s s ur e f r om be l ow t o de m oc r a t i z e a nd be c om e a bl e t o m ol l i f y di s s e nt t hr ough s pe ndi ng on pa t r ona ge a nd w e l f a r e pr og r a m s H un t i ngt on, f or i ns t a nc e ha s a r gue d t ha t t he l ow e r t he l e ve l o f t a xa t i on t he l e s s r e a s on f or t he p ubl i c t o de m a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i on. 6 1 A nde r s on f ur t he r a r gue s t ha t f o r oi l pr oduc e r s s uc h r e ve n ue s r e l e a s e t he s t a t e f r om t he a c c ount a bi l i t y or di na r i l y e xa c t e d by t he dom e s t i c a ppr op r i a t i on o f s ur pl us I n c ount r i e s l i ke K uw a i t a nd L i bya t he s t a t e m a y be vi r t ua l l y a ut onom ous f r om i t s s oc i e t y, w i nni ng popul a r a c qui e s c e nc e t hr ough di s t r i but i on r a t he r t ha n s uppor t t hr ough t a xa t i on a n d r e pr e s e nt a t i on. 6 2 M a hda vy a r gue d e a r l y on t ha t r e nt i e r s t a t e s s houl d de m ons t r a t e l i m i t e d p r e s s ur e f r om be l ow f or de m oc r a t i z a t i on. C ha udhr y e c hoe s t hi s s e nt i m e nt by poi nt i ng out t ha t de m a nds f or pol i t i c a l pa r t i c i pa t i on ha ve m o r e of t e n t ha n not be e n i n r e s pons e t o t a xa t i on. 6 3 C r ys t a l f ur t he r a r gue s t ha t oi l w e a l t h i n K uw a i t a nd Q a t a r obvi a t e d a ny ne e d t o t a x t he m e r c ha nt c l a s s w ho s ubs e que nt l y ga ve up a ny de m a nds f or pa r t i c i pa t i on. 6 4 C r ys t a l s a r gum e nt r e t a i ns pa r t i c ul a r r e l e va nc e i n l i ght of t he t e nde nc y i n W e s t e r n pol i t i c a l s c i e nc e t o l i nk t he r i s e of de m oc r a c y t o t he r i s e of t he m e r c ha nt m i ddl e c l a s s 6 5 A va r i a t i on on t he t a xa t i on r e pr e s e nt a t i on l i nk e m pha s i z e s t he a bi l i t y of r e nt i e r s t a t e s t o s pe nd a gr e a t de a l of m one y on pa t r ona ge a nd ot he r pr og r a m s t ha t m a y, i n e f f e c t buy of f t he popul a t i on s a c qui e s c e nc e 6 6 M a ny A f r i c a n oi l p r oduc e r s ha ve f ol l ow e d a s i m i l a r pa t h, us i ng oi l r e ve nue s t o f u r t he r t he i r pa t r ona ge ne t w or ks a nd, t he r e f or e que l l oppos i t i on. L e a de r s i n t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c of C ongo, G a bon a nd A ngol a f o r i ns t a nc e ha ve pr ov e n a bl e t o c ons ol i da t e t he i r a ut oc r a t i c r ul e t hr ough pa t r ona ge po l i t i c s L e ona r d a nd S t r a us a r g ue t ha t e nc l a ve e c onom i e s a r e a f ounda t i on f or pe r s ona l r ul e on t he c ont i ne nt be c a us e t he y c e nt r a l i z e s t a t e r e s our c e s a nd f a c i l i t a t e pa t r ona ge A c c or di ng t o t he m a n e nc l a ve e c onom i c ba s e a l l ow s pe r s ona l r ul e t o s us t a i n i t s e l f ove r t he l ong r un bot h be c a us e e nc l a ve s t he m s e l ve s a r e s us c e pt i bl e t o s t a t e pr e da t i on a nd be c a us e e nc l a ve s do not de pe nd on w i de s pr e a d pr oduc t i vi t y f or t he i r s u s t e na nc e T hus t he s t a t e s p r i m a r y f unc t i on c a n be pr i va t e pa t r ona ge di s t r i but i on 6 7 I t i s no w onde r t ha t m a ny of A f r i c a s l onge s t r unni ng

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3 2 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 di c t a t or s f r om B ongo i n G a bon t o M obut u i n Z a i r e w e r e a l s o l e a de r s of e nc l a ve s t a t e s E qua t or i a l G ui ne a m uc h l i ke A ngol a t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c of C ongo a nd A ngol a ha s ye t t o de ve l op e f f e c t i ve e xt r a c t i ve i ns t i t ut i ons a nd i t s i nc om i ng pe t r o dol l a r s w i l l c e r t a i nl y pr ovi de a di s i nc e nt i ve f o r f ut ur e de ve l opm e nt of t h e s e r e s our c e s M or e ove r i t s t i ny popul a t i on a nd m a s s i ve oi l r e s e r ve s s houl d m a ke i t qui t e e a s y f or O bi a ng a nd h i s c r oni e s t o f ur t he r c ons ol i da t e r ul e t hr ough pa t r ona ge a nd publ i c s pe ndi ng. 6 8 W hi l e pe t r o dol l a r s w i l l l i ke l y f r e e t he gove r nm e nt f r om t a xa t i on ne e ds i t r e m a i ns t o be s e e n, how e ve r w he t he r or not t he c ount r y w i l l be gi n s pe ndi ng m one y on s oc i a l pr og r a m s a nd ot he r p r oj e c t s t ha t ha ve t he pot e nt i a l t o buy m a s s a c qui e s c e nc e S o f a r s pe ndi ng r e m a i ns a bys m a l l y l ow t hough g r ow i ng oppos i t i on t o t he r e gi m e m a y f o r c e t he g ove r nm e nt t o i nc r e a s e i t s s pe ndi ng on s e r vi c e s a nd pa t r ona ge T he pot e nt i a l c e r t a i nl y e xi s t s f o r a r e nt i e r e f f e c t t o t a ke hol d i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a w he r e by t he a bs e nc e of t a xa t i on a nd a bunda nt gove r nm e nt s pe ndi ng di s c our a ge t he gr ow t h of m ove m e nt s f or de m oc r a t i z a t i on. 6 9 I n t he ne a r t e r m how e ve r E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a i s un l i ke l y t o de ve l op s i m i l a r di s t r i bu t i ve pol i c i e s t o e i t he r t he r e nt i e r s t a t e s of t he M i ddl e E a s t or A f r i c a n e nc l a ve s due t o t he e xt r e m e pe r va s i ve ne s s of c r i m i na l i t y i n t he s t a t e i t s e l f O bi a ng w i l l c ont i nue t o f unne l oi l r e nt s i nt o i l l i c i t e nt e r pr i s e s r a t he r t ha n di s t r i but i on T hi s c oul d s pur oppos i t i on t o t he r e gi m e f r om t he m a s s e s a nd s pa w n w i de s pr e a d de m oc r a t i z a t i on pr e s s ur e s f r om be l ow I f s uc h p r e s s ur e s do de ve l op, how e ve r t he y w i l l pr oba bl y not s pur de m oc r a c y. O bi a ng w i l l ha ve a c c e s s t o i m m e ns e pa t r ona ge r e s our c e s t o buy of f ke y c ons t i t ue nc i e s ( a l a t he r e n t i e r s t a t e hypot he s i s ) i f he ne e ds t o. M or e ove r t r a ns i t i ons f r om de m oc r a t i z a t i on i n e xt r e m e c a s e s of pe r s ona l r ul e l i ke E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a r a r e l y l e a d t o de m oc r a t i c s t a bi l i t y 7 0 C ons e que nt l y, a ny t r a ns i t i on t ha t t he m a s s e s c oul d pus h t hr ough w oul d ha ve l i t t l e c ha nc e of s ur vi va l I n t hi s c a s e t r a ns i t i on w oul d m os t l i ke l y e nge nde r f ur t he r a ut ho r i t a r i a ni s m e s pe c i a l l y gi ve n t he a c c e s s t o oi l r e nt s t ha t a ny a ut oc r a t w oul d ha ve M or e ove r O bi a ng s m a s s i ve a c c e s s t o r e s our c e s f or c oul d a l l ow hi m t o bui l d up i m m e ns e r e pr e s s i ve gove r nm e nt s t r uc t ur e s t o di s c our a ge de m oc r a t i z a t i on m ove m e nt s R e pr e s s i on ha s s e r ve d a s a m e c ha ni s m l i nki ng r e s our c e w e a l t h t o a ut ho r i t a r i a ni s m i n ot he r pr i m a r y c om m odi t y e xpor t e r s 7 1 S om e r e s our c e r i c h c ount r i e s a r e a bl e t o bui l d up s t r ong e nough r e pr e s s i ve a ppa r a t us t o qua s h a ny a nd a l l de m oc r a t i z a t i on m ove m e nt s a nd/ or di s c our a ge t he m a s s e s f r om pu r s ui ng s uc h a i m s I r a q unde r S a dda m H us s e i n, t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c o f C ongo unde r M obut u S e s e S e ko, S a udi A r a bi a und e r t he H ous e of e l S a ud a m ong ot he r s pr ovi de vi vi d de m ons t r a t i ons f or t hi s pos s i bi l i t y i n t he r e a l w or l d. N ot a l l r e s our c e r i c h r e gi m e s of c our s e ha ve f ol l ow e d t hi s pa t h of r e pr e s s i on. B ot s w a na us e d i t s m i ne r a l w e a l t h t o i m pr ove s t a t e c a pa c i t y, bui l d i n f r a s t r uc t ur e de ve l op poor r e l i e f pr og r a m s a nd bui l d up f o r e i gn r e s e r ve s s o a s t o a voi d D ut c h D i s e a s e T he e xa m pl e of B ot s w a na s how c a s e s t he i m por t a nc e of pol i t i c a l hi s t or y i n s ha pi ng t he out c om e s of r e s our c e boom s i n di f f e r e nt c ount r i e s B ot s w a na w a s a young but f unc t i oni ng de m oc r a c y w he n di a m onds w e r e d i s c ove r e d, w i t h a h i s t or y m a r ke d by a r e l a t i ve l y be ni gn a nd un i nva s i ve c ol oni a l l e ga c y, pos t c ol oni a l s t a bi l i t y a nd a s t ut e r e s pons i bl e l e a de r s hi p. 7 2 T he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c o f C ongo, on t he ot he r ha nd, ha d a l ong hi s t or y o f e xt r e m e c ol oni a l e xpl oi t a t i on ( e ve n by A f r i c a n s t a nda r ds ) e t hni c c on f l i c t a nd unpr oduc t i ve s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons w he n M obut u c a m e i nt o pow e r 7 3 E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s hi s t or y un f or t una t e l y r e s e m b l e s t ha t of t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c of C ongo f a r m o r e t ha n t ha t of B ot s w a na T he S pa ni s h c ol oni a l r e gi m e t he n unde r t he t hr oe s of F r a nc oi s m l e f t i n pow e r one o f pos t c ol oni a l A f r i c a s m os t br ut a l a nd f e a r e d di c t a t o r s M a c i a s N gue m a N gue m a r ul e d w i t h a n i r on f i s t a nd e i t he r ki l l e d or f or c e d i nt o e xi l e m o r e t ha n a t hi r d

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 3 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 of t he c ount r y s popul a t i on M a c i a s t ypi f i e d t he pe r s ona l r ul e e nde m i c t o A f r i c a a t t he t i m e but he br ought t h i s r ul e f ur t he r t ha n a l m os t a nyone 7 4 H e r ul e d t he c ount r y a s hi s ow n pe r s ona l f i e f dom goi ng by t he na m e s L e a de r of S t e e l T he S ol e M i r a c l e of E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a a nd P r e s i de nt f or L i f e M a c i a s w a s r um or e d t o pr a c t i c e w i t c hc r a f t a nd e ve n c a nni ba l i s m W he t he r or not he di d, t he pe opl e ge ne r a l l y be l i e ve d t ha t he di d a nd l i ve d i n e xt r e m e f e a r of hi m W hi l e O bi a ng N gue m a s r e gi m e ha s pr ove d l e s s br ut a l t h a n M a c i a s ye t i t r e m a i ns one of t he w o r l d s m os t oppr e s s i ve 7 5 T hi s r e c or d o f r e pr e s s i on a nd a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m ha s not s ubs i de d s i nc e t he di s c ove r y of oi l C ont i nue d hum a n r i ght s a bus e s a nd r e pr e s s i on pe r s i s t I f a nyt h i ng, t he gove r nm e nt s ne w f ound w e a l t h ha s i nc r e a s e d i t s r e pr e s s i ve c a pa c i t i e s M a l a bo s B l a c k s P r i s on ha s ga r ne r e d a pa r t i c ul a r r e put a t i on f o r e xt r e m e t or t ur e a nd vi ol e nc e i n l i ght of publ i c i z e d a c c us a t i ons of a bus e by t he a r r e s t e d c oup pl ot t e r s i n 2003. 7 6 R e pr e s s i on, t he r e f or e c ont i nue s t o hi nde r p r ogr e s s t ow a r ds de m oc r a c y i n E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a A t hi r d pos s i bl e l i nk be t w e e n na t ur a l r e s our c e s a nd a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m i s w ha t R os s c a l l s a n a nt i m ode r ni z a t i on e f f e c t w hi c h ha s i t s r oot s i n m ode r ni z a t i on t he or y. 7 7 E c onom i c de ve l opm e nt a nd i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on, m a ny s c hol a r s s ugge s t c r e a t e l a r ge m i ddl e c l a s s e s m ode r n m e nt a l i t i e s r i s i ng e duc a t i on, i m pr ove d l i v i ng s t a nda r ds a nd, c ons e que nt l y, de m a nds f or de m oc r a t i z a t i on. 7 8 T hi s a r gum e nt ha s o f t e n be e n us e d t o e xpl a i n t he l a c k of de m oc r a c y i n m uc h o f t he w o r l d s poo r c ount r i e s a nd t he r i s e o f de m oc r a c y i n t he w e a l t hy W e s t I t ha s ga i ne d r e ne w e d c r e de nc e i n r e c e nt ye a r s e s pe c i a l l y i n t he w a ke of s t a t i s t i c a l s t udi e s s how i ng a huge c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n de m oc r a c y a nd hi gh p e r c a pi t a i nc om e s P r z e w or s ki e t a l f or i ns t a nc e f i nd a huge c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n w e a l t h a nd de m oc r a t i c c ons ol i da t i on, t ho ugh not de m oc r a t i c t r a ns i t i on. 7 9 T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m ode r ni z a t i on a nd de m oc r a t i z a t i on r e m a i ns unc l e a r N e ve r t he l e s s m a ny s c hol a r s s us pe c t t ha t s om e a f f i ni t y be t w e e n l e ve l s of de ve l opm e nt a nd de m oc r a c y doe s e xi s t I f na t ur a l r e s our c e w e a l t h c a n s i de l i ne de ve l opm e n t a s m uc h o f t he l i t e r a t u r e s ugge s t s t he n i t c a n i ndi r e c t l y s i de l i ne de m oc r a c y, a s w e l l a c c or di ng t o m ode r ni z a t i on t he or y R os s pr e s e nt s s t a t i s t i c a l s uppor t f or t hi s hypot he s i s 8 0 T he a ppl i c a bi l i t y of t hi s a r gum e nt f or E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a w i l l r e s t on t he r ol e of oi l i n f os t e r i ng or s i de t r a c ki ng e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt S o f a r t he di s m a l r e c or d of pe r s i s t e nt pove r t y, a gr i c ul t u r a l de c l i ne a n d l i m i t e d e m pl oy m e nt c r e a t i on c e r t a i nl y bode s poor l y f o r a ny f ut ur e de m oc r a c y i f i nde e d t he r e i s a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n de ve l opm e nt a nd de m oc r a c y. E duc a t i on a nd he a l t h a r e i m p r ovi n g onl y m a r g i na l l y, w i t h ve r y l i t t l e i nve s t m e nt goi ng i nt o t he s e s e c t or s I ndus t r i a l i z a t i on ha s ye t t o oc c ur w ha t e xi s t s of a m i d dl e c l a s s i s pr i m a r i l y f or e i gn ( i e C a m e r ooni a n a nd N i ge r i a n) a nd t he m ode r ni z a t i on of t he e c onom y doe s not a ppe a r t o be ha ppe ni ng. 8 1 A f our t h pos s i bl e l i nk be t w e e n na t ur a l r e s our c e w e a l t h a nd a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m l i e s i n t he f r e e dom f r om i nt e r na t i ona l pr e s s ur e t o de m oc r a t i z e e f f e c t E ngl e be r t a nd B odus z yns ki f or i ns t a nc e s how t ha t A f r i c a n t r a ns i t i ons t o de m oc r a c y ha ve oc c ur r e d m os t l y i n r e s our c e poo r a i d de pe nde nt s t a t e s T he y a r gue t ha t t he qua l i t y of t hi s de m oc r a c y i s ge ne r a l l y w e a k, a nd m or e ove r p r i m a r i l y i ns t r um e nt a l i e r e gi m e s de m oc r a t i z e t o pl a c a t e t he w i s he s of t he a i d di s t r i but i ng i nt e r na t i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons O i l a nd m i ne r a l r i c h s t a t e s on t he ot he r ha nd, ha ve be e n a bl e t o a voi d de m oc r a t i z a t i on due t o t he i r r e s our c e w e a l t h. 8 2 T hi s m os t c e r t a i nl y a ppl i e s t o E qua t or i a l G ui ne a a s pe t r o do l l a r s obvi a t e t he ne e d f or d e ve l opm e nt a i d, t he r e by s hi e l di ng t he r e gi m e f r o m f o r e i gn pr e s s ur e W e r e t he U S a nd ot he r c ount r i e s t ha t c ur r e nt l y i nve s t i n t he c ount r y s oi l t o c ha nge t he i r pol i c y t o r e qui r e de m oc r a t i z a t i on m e a s ur e s on t he pa r t of t he N gue m a r e gi m e t h i s c oul d c ha nge dr a s t i c a l l y. A c ha nge i n pol i c y a ppe a r s unl i ke l y how e ve r a s

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3 4 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 U S of f i c i a l s c ont i nue t o p r om ot e t he i de a t ha t t he be s t t hi ng f or t he f ut ur e o f de m oc r a c y i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i s oi l l e d e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt W e c a n, t he r e f o r e e xpe c t t he f r e e dom f r om i nt e r na t i ona l pr e s s ur e e f f e c t t o pe r s i s t i n t he c a s e o f E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a 8 3 T he r e nt i e r r e pr e s s i on, m ode r ni z a t i on a nd f r e e do m f r om i nt e r na t i ona l pr e s s ur e e f f e c t s m a y a l l c ont r i but e t o E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s c ur r e nt a ut ho r i t a r i a ni s m R e pr e s s i on, i n pa r t i c ul a r a ppe a r s l i ke l y t o c ont i nue t o hi nde r de m oc r a t i c de ve l opm e nt s i n t he c ount r y W hi l e none o f t he s e m e c ha ni s m s br ought a bout t he c ount r y s a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m t he y ha ve l i ke l y f u r t he r e d i t s de ve l opm e nt s ugge s t i ng t ha t E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a s oi l boom ha s e xa c e r ba t e d t he c ount r y s pol i t i c a l pr obl e m s F ur t he r m or e oi l w e a l t h ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o t r i gge r ye t a not he r pr obl e m f o r t he c ount r y, pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y. N at ur al R e s o ur c e s and V i ol e nt C onf l i c t A t hi r d va r i a nt o f t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i nks r e s our c e a bunda nc e t o vi ol e nt c onf l i c t a nd pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y. T he r e c e nt c oup a t t e m pt s i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a hi ghl i ght t he pa r t i c ul a r i m por t a nc e of t hi s l i t e r a t ur e f or unde r s t a ndi ng c ur r e nt e ve nt s i n t he c ount r y. M a ny s c hol a r s s t r e s s t he pot e nt i a l f or e t hni c a nd r e gi ona l c onf l i c t s i n r e s our c e r i c h s t a t e s O t he r s e m pha s i z e t he i nc e nt i ve s f or r e be l gr oups c r e a t e d by e xt e ns i ve r e s our c e r e nt s W ha t f or m i f a ny, f ut u r e oi l i ns pi r e d i ns t a bi l i t y m a y t a ke i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a r e m a i ns unc l e a r T h e c ount r y s F a ng/ B ubi t e ns i ons i t s di vi s i on be t w e e n t he i s l a nd a nd t he m a i nl a nd a nd t he va s t i ne qua l i t i e s i nduc e d by oi l l e d de ve l opm e nt pos e s e r i ous t hr e a t s t o s t a bi l i t y, how e ve r M a ny s c hol a r s of t he M i ddl e E a s t a r gue t ha t di s t r i but i ve s t a t e s a r e bound t o s uf f e r f r om e xt e ns i ve r a c i a l e t hni c r e l i gi ous or r e gi ona l c onf l i c t s D e l a c r oi x, f or i ns t a nc e a s s e r t s t he or ga ni z a t i ona l ba s e of c ha l l e nge r s i n a di s t r i but i ve s t a t e c a nnot be c l a s s T he r e f o r e ot he r s t r uc t ur e s of s oc i a l s ol i da r i t y w i l l ha ve t o be a c t i va t e d. A l t e r na t i ve s t r uc t u r e s a r e by de f a ul t t r a di t i ona l s t r uc t ur e s T he m o r e r e c e nt l y i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he w or l d e c onom y a s oc i e t y, t he m o r e a va i l a bl e a r e i t s t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e s H e nc e a di s t r i but i ve s t a t e r ul i ng a r e c e nt l y i nc or por a t e d s oc i e t y w i l l e x pe r i e nc e a m a xi m um o f t r i ba l e t hni c a nd r e l i gi ous c ha l l e nge s 8 4 C ha udhr y s i m i l a r l y e m pha s i z e s t he pr ope ns i t y f o r r e s our c e boom s ( a nd l a bor r e m i t t a nc e boom s ) t o i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e a nd e xa c e r ba t e p r i m or di a l c l e a va ge s i n he r a na l ys i s of S a udi A r a bi a a nd Y e m e n. 8 5 F or S ha m ba ya t i t he non c l a s s c l e a va ge s t ha t a r i s e a r e of t e n i de ol ogi c a l i n na t u r e a s e vi de nc e d by t he r i s e of I s l a m i s m t h r oughout t he M i ddl e E a s t a nd, e s pe c i a l l y, i n I r a n. 8 6 S yn t he s i z i ng a l l of t he s e a r gum e nt s O k r uhl i k s t a t e s C i t i z e ns w ho que s t i on t he i ne qui t a bl e di s t r i but i on o f r e nt s t he m i s a l l oc a t i on of r e s our c e s a nd t he p r of l i ga t e ha bi t s of s t a t e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s ha ve f ound voi c e i n I s l a m i c r e gi on a l a nd pr i v a t e i de nt i t i e s T he s t a t e ha s r e i nf or c e d s oc i a l i de nt i t i e s 8 7 W a t t s i n hi s a na l ys i s of o i l pol i t i c s i n N i ge r i a e m pha s i z e s t he r ol e of bot h s t a t e s a nd m ul t i na t i on a l c or por a t i ons i n r e i nf or c i ng s oc i a l i de nt i t i e s T o W a t t s t he pr e s e nc e a nd a c t i vi t i e s of t he oi l c om pa ni e s c ons t i t ut e a c ha l l e nge t o c us t om a r y f or m s of c om m uni t y a ut ho r i t y, i nt e r e t hni c r e l a t i o ns a nd l oc a l s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons pr i nc i pa l l y t hr ough t he p r op e r t y a nd l a nd di s put e s t ha t a r e e nge nde r e d, vi a f o r m s of

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 3 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 popul a r m obi l i z a t i on a nd a gi t a t i on. T he s e pol i t i c a l s t r uggl e s a r e a ni m a t e d by t he de s i r e t o ga i n a c c e s s t o ( i ) c om pa ny r e nt s a nd c om pe ns a t i on r e ve nue s a nd ( i i ) f e de r a l pe t r o r e ve nue s by c a pt ur i ng r e nt s ( o f t e n f r a udul e nt l y) t h r ough t he c r e a t i on of ne w r e gi ona l a nd/ or l oc a l s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons 8 8 W a t t s a c c ount of e nde m i c e t hni c vi ol e nc e i n t he N i ge r D e l t a r e gi on a nd t he s uppr e s s i on by t he c e nt r a l gove r nm e nt o f m ove m e nt s f o r e nvi r onm e nt a l e t hni c a nd e c onom i c j us t i c e s how s t he e xpl os i ve pot e nt i a l f or e t hni c vi ol e nc e i n poor i ns t i t ut i ona l l y w e a k, r e s our c e r i c h e nvi r onm e nt s T he pot e nt i a l f or oi l t o e xa c e r ba t e e t hni c a nd r e gi o na l t e ns i ons pos e s a s e r i ous t hr e a t f or E qua t or i a l G ui ne a T he c ount r y ha s a l ong hi s t or y of e t hni c c onf l i c t be t w e e n t he B ubi a nd F a ng. T ha t m os t of t he be ne f i c i a r i e s of oi l l e d g r ow t h a r e F a ng ha s s pur r e d w i de s pr e a d a ni m os i t y a m ong t he B ubi e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e m os t of t he c ount r y s oi l l i e s c l os e r t o B i oko t ha n t o R i o M uni M ove m e nt s f or s e c e s s i on ha ve gr ow n i n B i oko a n d a m ong B ubi e xi l e s i n S pa i n. A s E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a c ont i nue s on i t s pa t h o f i ne qui t a bl e e c ono m i c de ve l opm e nt t he c ha nc e s of e t hni c a nd r e gi ona l vi ol e nc e w i l l onl y i nc r e a s e 8 9 T he r e c e nt l i t e r a t ur e on e t hni c a nd c i vi l w a r s o f t e n e m pha s i z e s t he e f f e c t s of na t ur a l r e s our c e w e a l t h on c onf l i c t C ol l i e r a nd H oe f f l e r f or i ns t a nc e f i nd t ha t s t a t e s he a vi l y r e l i a nt on na t u r a l r e s our c e s f a c e a m uc h hi ghe r r i s k of c i vi l w a r t ha n r e s our c e poor s t a t e s T he y e m pha s i z e t he gr e e d of r e be l gr oups a s oppos e d t o pol i t i c a l or e c onom i c gr i e va nc e s a s t he pr i m e m ot i va t i on f or c i vi l c onf l i c t A c c e s s t o r e s our c e s t o f und t he i r r e be l l i ons a nd t he pr os pe c t o f m one t a r y r e w a r d pr e s e nt t he l i nk be t w e e n r e s our c e w e a l t h a nd vi ol e nc e i n t he i r a na l ys i s 9 0 F e a r on a nd L a i t i n, us i ng a di f f e r e nt da t a s e t f i nd t ha t c ount r i e s e xpor t i ng oi l but not o t he r p r i m a r y c om m odi t i e s a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o unde r go a c i vi l w a r R a t he r t ha n e m pha s i z e gr e e d ove r gr i e va nc e t he y f oc us on f a c t or s c on duc i ve t o i ns ur ge nc y. L ow w e i ght hi gh va l ue r e s our c e s s uc h a s oi l di a m onds c oc a a nd opi u m pr o m ot e c i vi l w a r by m a ki ng i t e a s i e r f o r r e be l s t o f i na nc e r e be l l i on. 9 1 F e a r on a r gue s t ha t be c a us e oi l w e a ke ns s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons i t f os t e r s s t a t e de c a y a nd, c ons e que nt l y, r e be l l i on a f i ndi ng l a t e r s uppor t e d i n a n e c onom e t r i c a na l ys i s by H um phr e ys 9 2 T he f i ndi ngs of F e a r on a nd L a i t i n F e a r on, a nd H um ph r e ys a l l poi nt out t he c om pl e xi t y of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e s our c e s a nd vi ol e nc e R e s our c e s a l one c a nnot s pur w a r but t he y c a n c ont r i but e t o vi ol e nc e i n m a ny w a ys E ngl e be r t a nd R on f ur t he r de m ons t r a t e t he c ondi t i ona l na t ur e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr i m a r y c om m odi t i e s a nd c onf l i c t I n t he i r a na l ys i s of t he c i vi l w a r i n C ongo B r a z z a vi l l e f o r i ns t a nc e t he y s how t ha t w hi l e oi l di d c ont r i but e t o t he w a r i t w a s not s uf f i c i e nt t o s pur vi ol e nc e F ur t he r m or e t he y a r gue t ha t t he of f s hor e na t ur e o f C ongo s oi l r e s e r ve s c onc e nt r a t e d c onf l i c t i n t he c a pi t a l c i t y be c a us e onl y c ont r o l ove r t he s t a t e c oul d br i ng o i l r e ve nue s t o t he r e be l s 9 3 T hi s i ns i ght of E ngl e be r t a nd R on s s ugge s t s t ha t a ny c onf l i c t ove r r e s our c e s i n E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a w i l l a l s o l i ke l y c onc e nt r a t e on t he c a pi t a l a s a l l of t he c ount r y s r e s our c e s a r e o f f s hor e O nl y c om pl e t e c ont r ol o f t he s t a t e w i l l e ns ur e c ont r ol ov e r oi l r e nt s i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a m a ki ng s t a t e c ont r ol no t r e gi ona l c ont r ol t he pr i m a r y obj e c t i ve of a ny w a r a i m e d a t oi l r e nt c a pt ur e T he r e c e nt c oup a t t e m pt s bot h a i m e d a t f ul l c ont r ol o f M a l a bo, l e ndi ng f u r t he r s up por t t o t hi s c l a i m R os s pr e s e nt s a not he r pos s i bl e m e c ha ni s m t hr ough w hi c h oi l m a y pr om o t e i ns t a bi l i t y i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a : w ha t he c a l l s boot y f ut ur e s t he s e l l i ng of f ut u r e e xpl oi t a t i on r i ght s t o na t ur a l r e s our c e s 9 4 R os s pos t ul a t e s t ha t t he m a r ke t f or t he s e f ut ur e s m a y be uni que t o A f r i c a a nd m a y he l p e xpl a i n t he pr e ponde r a nc e of c i vi l w a r s a nd c oups on t he c ont i ne nt R os s l a be l s t he 2004 c oup a t t e m pt i n E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a a s a n e xa m pl e of a boot y f u t ur e s pur r e d c oup

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3 6 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 w he r e by t he pe r pe t r a t o r s w e r e gr a nt e d of f e r s f or f u t ur e oi l r e ve nue s T he e xt r a or di na r i l y l a r ge oi l r e s e r ve s i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a a nd t he pot e nt i a l f or f ut ur e oi l di s c ove r i e s m a ke s i t l i ke l y t h a t f ur t he r boot y f ut u r e s a l e s c oul d e nc our a ge m or e c oups a nd, c onc e i va bl y, e ve n l e a d t o a t oppl i ng of t he gove r nm e nt E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s l e a de r s f a c e num e r ous obs t a c l e s i f t he y hope t o p r e ve nt f ut u r e pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y. T he t e nde nc y f o r r e s our c e r i c h c ount r i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y oi l p r oduc e r s t o s uf f e r f r o m hi gh l e ve l s of pol i t i c a l vi ol e nc e a nd e t hni c c onf l i c t t he e xt r e m e l y une qua l c ur r e nt di s t r i b ut i on o f oi l be ne f i t s a nd t he l ong hi s t or y o f F a ng/ B ubi a nd B i oko/ R i o M uni c onf l i c t s m a y c om bi ne t o br i ng t he c ount r y i nt o pol i t i c a l vi ol e nc e of s om e f o r m T he r e c e nt c oup a t t e m pt s de m ons t r a t e t h i s pos s i bi l i t y. M or e ove r t he of f s hor e na t ur e o f t he c o unt r y s oi l r e s e r ve s s ugge s t s t ha t a t t e m pt s a t w i de s pr e a d vi ol e nc e w i l l c e nt e r on t he c a pi t a l c i t y a nd on t he a i m of ga i ni ng f ul l c ont r ol ove r t he gove r nm e nt a s oc c ur r e d i n C ongo B r a z z a vi l l e A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r t he s e a t t e m pt s t o c a pt ur e c ont r ol of t he s t a t e a r e not l i ke l y t o p r om pt a t r a ns i t i on t o de m oc r a c y R a t he r t he y a r e l i ke l y t o s pur gr e a t e r r e pr e s s i on by O bi a ng i f uns uc c e s s f ul a nd f ur t he r i ns t a bi l i t y a nd a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m i f s uc c e s s f ul C O N C L U S I O N E qua t or i a l G ui ne a ha s a l r e a dy be c om e one of t he l a r ge s t pe r c a pi t a oi l pr oduc e r s i n t he w or l d Y e t t he m a j or i t y of E qua t o G ui ne a ns l i ve i n a bj e c t pove r t y unde r o ne o f A f r i c a s w or s t di c t a t o r s T he l i t e r a t u r e on t he r e s our c e c ur s e s ugge s t s t ha t t he s e pr obl e m s w i l l pe r s i s t i f not w or s e n, a s t he c ount r y c ont i nue s t o de ve l op i t s oi l i ndus t r y M or e ove r t he pr oc l i vi t y a m ong oi l pr oduc e r s f or e t hni c a nd r e gi ona l c onf l i c t c a s t s doubt on t he c ount r y s f ut ur e s t a bi l i t y. W hi l e oi l ha s onl y be e n pum pi ng f o r a de c a de a l l s i gns i ndi c a t e t ha t E qua t or i a l G ui ne a i s i n f a c t m a r c hi ng t ow a r ds f ur t he r de ve l opm e nt f a i l ur e s a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m a nd pol i t i c a l i ns t a bi l i t y t he r e by vi ndi c a t i ng m uc h of t he r e s our c e c ur s e l i t e r a t ur e T he c ount r y s un i que pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c s i t ua t i on, how e ve r w i l l c ondi t i on t he c ount r y s pol i t i c a l e c onom y of oi l i n w a ys t ha t m i ght di f f e r f r om t he ge ne r a l pr e s c r i pt i ons of t he r e s our c e c ur s e T he c ount r y s t i ny s i z e a nd m a s s i ve oi l r e s e r ve s m a y a l l ow t he c ount r y t o f ol l ow a pa t h o f de ve l opm e nt t ha t br i ngs g r e a t e r w e a l t h t o t he m a s s e s t hr ough l a r ge s c a l e s oc i a l a nd publ i c s e r vi c e s T he c ur r e nt r e gi m e s how s no s i gn of a n i nt e r e s t i n t hi s pr os pe c t t hough g r ow i ng oppos i t i on f r om t he m a s s e s m a y f or c e t hi s on t he l e a de r s hi p. M or e l i ke l y, t he e xt e ns i ve c r i m i na l i z a t i on of t he E qua t o G ui ne a n s t a t e m a y e xa c e r ba t e t he pr obl e m s of oi l l e d gr ow t h by pr om pt i ng t he e l i t e t o e nga ge i n e ve n f e w e r pr oduc t i ve or e ve n r e di s t r i but i ve a c t i vi t i e s t ha n oc c ur s i n m os t pe t r o s t a t e s T he c ount r y s r e gi ona l a nd e t hni c s pl i t be t w e e n B ubi a nd F a ng w i l l l i ke l y l e a d t o c onf l i c t a l ong t hos e l i ne s a s t he t w o l i ne s of c l e a va ge ove r l a p a nd a l s o c oi nc i de w i t h di f f e r e nc e s i n a c c e s s t o oi l r e v e nue s T he of f s hor e na t ur e o f oi l r e s e r ve s f ur t he r i ndi c a t e s t ha t c i vi l w a r s l i nke d t o r e s our c e s i n E qua t o r i a l G u i ne a w i l l l i ke l y f ol l ow a s i m i l a r pa t t e r n t o t hos e i n C ongo B r a z z a vi l l e w he r e o i l i s a l s o o f f s hor e a s oppos e d t o N i ge r i a w he r e oi l i s bo t h of f s hor e a nd i n t he N i ge r D e l t a i nl a nd T he i nc r e a s i ngl y c l os e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he U S a nd E qua t or i a l G ui ne a w i l l s e r ve a s a f i na l a nd, pe r ha ps e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt f a c t or i n d e t e r m i ni ng t he f ut ur e o f t he c ount r y s po l i t i c a l e c onom y. U S s t r a t e gi c i nt e r e s t i n t he r e gi on ha s t hus f a r pr o m pt e d a n a t t e m pt t o i m pr ove r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he t w o c ount r i e s a nd m a i nt a i n s t a bi l i t y s o a s t o ke e p oi l p r oduc t i on f l ow i ng. T he U S ha s t u r ne d a bl i nd e ye t o t he hum a n r i ght s a bus e s c r i m i na l be ha vi or a nd br u t a l i t y o f

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 3 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t he c ur r e nt r e gi m e i n e xc ha nge f or e a s y oi l a c c e s s E qua t or i a l G ui ne a r e m a i ns a t l e a s t a s de pe nde nt on A m e r i c a n i nve s t or s how e ve r a s t he U S i s on t he c ount r y s oi l C ons e que nt l y, a ge nui ne a t t e m pt on t he pa r t of t he U S t o pr om o t e a m or e e qui t a bl e de ve l opm e nt pa t t e r n o r i m pr ove pol i t i c a l a nd c i vi l r i ght s c oul d, c onc e i va bl y be qui t e s uc c e s s f ul T he U S gove r nm e nt c oul d, qui t e e a s i l y, us e e c onom i c l e ve r a ge t o f or c e de m oc r a t i z a t i on a nd/ or m or e e qui t a bl e de ve l opm e nt out c om e s on O bi a ng. F or i ns t a nc e t h e U S c oul d e a s i l y m a ke o i l c ont r a c t s c ondi t i ona l on pol i c y c ha nge s a nd m oni t or t he s e c ha nge s c a r e f ul l y. T he U S c oul d a l s o of f e r e f f e c t i ve s e c ur i t y t o t he r e gi m e a l ong w i t h t he s e e c onom i c i nc e nt i ve s t o f o r c e c ha nge E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s t i ny s i z e a nd m a s s i ve oi l r e s e r ve s m e a n t ha t e ve n r e f or m s c oul d pr ovi de i m pr ove m e nt s i n t he l i ve s of E qua t o G ui ne a ns U nf or t una t e l y, ho w e ve r no c ha nge a ppe a r s on t he hor i z on, t he r e by i nc r e a s i ng t he l i ke l i hood t ha t E qua t or i a l G ui ne a w i l l c ont i nue dow n i t s c ur r e nt pa t h o f c r i m i na l i t y, c or r upt i on a nd a ut oc r a c y. N O T E S 1. M a r k du T oi t i s a f or m e r m e m be r of E xe c ut i ve O ut c om e s ( E O ) t he i n f a m ous now de f unc t m e r c e na r y gr oup. E O ha s w or ke d t o gr e a t s uc c e s s a c r os s t he c ont i ne nt m os t not a bl y du r i ng t he L i be r i a n w a r of t he 1990s E O f or m e d out of t he a s he s of t he B uf f a l o B a t t a l i on, S out h A f r i c a s pa r a m i l i t a r y a r m y t ha t f ought i n N a m i bi a a nd A ng ol a dur i ng t he 1970s a nd 1980s D u T o i t i s know n t o m a i nt a i n r e l a t i ons w i t h m a ny ol d m e m be r s of t he B a t t a l i on. 2. E c onom y of E quat or i al G ui ne a, 2001 e s t i m a t e ht t p: / / w w w a ppl i e dl a ngua ge c om / c ount r y_ gui de s / e qua t or i a l _gui ne a _c ount r y_e c onom y. s ht m l 3. T he W or l d s M os t R e pr e s s i ve S oc i e t i e s F r e e dom H ous e ht t p: / / w w w doc ut i c ke r c om / 2005/ 04 / w or s t of w or s t w or l ds m os t r e pr e s s i ve ht m l 4. T he C I A W or l d F a c t book, 2005, ht t p: / / w w w c i a gov/ c i a / publ i c a t i ons / f a c t book/ ge os / e k. ht m l 5. F o r a t ho r ough di s c us s i on of t he pe r s i s t e nc e of t he s e pr obl e m s s e e T e r r y K a r l a nd I a n G a r y, T he B ot t om of t he B ar r e l : A f r i c a s O i l B oo m and t he P oor C a t hol i c R e l i e f S e r vi c e s 2003. 6. H um an D e v e l opm e nt R e por t 2004 7. T he W or l d s M os t R e pr e s s i ve R e gi m e s 2004. 8. M a x L i n i ge r G oum e z Sm al l i s N ot A l w ay s B e a ut i f ul : T he s t or y of E qua t or i al G ui ne a, R ow m a n a nd L i t t l e f i e l d S a va ge M D 198 9. 9. S a m ue l D e c a l o, A f r i c a n P e r s ona l D i c t a t or s hi ps T he J our nal of M ode r n A f r i c an St udi e s V ol 23 N o. 2, J une 1985. 10. G e of f r e y W ood. B us i ne s s a nd P ol i t i c s i n a C r i m i na l S t a t e : T he E xa m pl e of E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a A f r i c an A f f ai r s 103/ 413 R oya l A f r i c a n S oc i e t y, 2004 11. D e c a l o, 1985 12. L i ni ge r G oum e z 1989. 13. I bi d 14. F r a nc oi s B a ya r t S t e phe n E l l i s a nd B e a t r i c e H i bou, T he C r i m i nal i z at i on of t he S t at e i n A f r i c a, I nd i a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1999. 15. R obe r t K l i t ga a r d, T r opi c al G angs t e r s : O ne M a n s E x pe r i e nc e w i t h D e v e l opm e nt and D e c ade nc e i n D e e pe s t A f r i c a, B a s i c B ooks 199 0. 16. F o r a de t a i l e d a c c ount of t he s e i l l e ga l a c t i vi t i e s s e e W ood, 2004. F o r a s om e w ha t

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3 8 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 out da t e d a c c ount s e e B a ya r t e t a l 17. K e n S i l ve r s t e i n, U S O i l P ol i t i c s i n t he K uw a i t of A f r i c a T he N at i on A p r i l 4 2002; ht t p: / / w w w t he na t i on. c om / doc m ht m l ? i = 20020422 & c = 1& s = s i l ve r s t e i n 18. I bi d 19. P e t e r M a a s A T ouc h o f C r ude M ot he r J one s J our nal ht t p: / / w w w m ot he r j one s c om / ne w s / f e a t ur e / 2005/ 0 1/ 12_400. ht m l J anuar y / F e br uar y 2005. 20. I bi d 21. S e e t he c onc l us i on f or m or e on t hi s 22. R a ul P r e bi s c h T he E c onom i c D e v e l opm e nt of L at i n A m e r i c a and i t s P r i nc i pal P r obl e m s U N L a ke S uc c e s s N Y 1950; H a ns S i nge r T h e D i s t r i but i on o f T r a de be t w e e n I nve s t i ng a nd B or r ow i ng C ount r i e s A m e r i c an E c onom i c R e v i e w 40, 1950. 23. J ohn C uddi ngt on a nd H ong W e i A n E m pi r i c a l A na l ys i s of t he P r e bi s c h S i nge r H ypot he s i s : A ggr e ga t i on, M ode l S e l e c t i on a nd I m pl i c a t i ons i n H a ns S i nge r e t a l E x por t l e d G r ow t h v e r s us B al anc e d G r ow t h i n t he 1990s N e w W or l d S e r i e s V ol 13 D e l hi 1998. 24. F o r e xa m pl e D a vi d S a ps f or d a nd V N B a l a s ubr a m a nya n. T he L ong R un B e ha vi or of t he R e l a t i ve P r i c e of P r i m a r y C om m odi t i e s : S t a t i s t i c a l E vi de nc e a nd P ol i c y I m p l i c a t i ons W or l d D e v e l opm e nt 22, no 11 N ove m be r 1994. 25. E dua r do B or e ns z t e i n a nd C a r m e n M R e i nha r t T he M a c r oe c onom i c D e t e r m i na nt s of C om m odi t y P r i c e s I M F St af f P ape r s 41, J une 19 94; M i c ha e l B l e e ne y a nd D a vi d G r e e na w a y, L ong R un T r e nds i n t he P r i c e o f P r i m a r y C om m odi t i e s a nd i n t he T e r m s o f T r a de of D e ve l opi ng C ount r i e s O x f or d E c onom i c P ape r s V o. 45 N o. 3, J ul y 1993 26. R a gna r N ur ks e E qui l i br i um G r ow t h i n t he W o r l d E c onom y H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge 1961. 27. J e dr z e j G e or ge F r yna s T he O i l B oom i n E qu a t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c an A f f ai r s 103 ( 413) 2004. 28. A l be r t H i r s c hm a n T he St r at e gy of E c onom i c D e v e l opm e nt Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w H a ve n, 1958. 29. S e e f o r e xa m pl e M i c ha e l R os s T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y o f t he R e s our c e C ur s e W or l d P ol i t i c s 51, J a nua r y 1999. 30. M a x W C or de n a nd S P e t e r N e a r y B oom i ng S e c t or a nd D e i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on i n a S m a l l O pe n E c onom y, E c onom i c J our nal 92, D e c e m be r 1982. 31. J e f f r e y S a c hs a nd A ndr e w W a r ne r N a t ur a l R e s our c e A bunda nc e a nd E c onom i c G r ow t h, N B E R W or k i ng P a pe r S e r i e s 5398, 199 5 32. A l a n G e l b e d. O i l W i ndf al l s : B l e s s i ng or C ur s e O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y or k 1988. 33. H e nr y B i e ne n, N i ge r i a : F r om W i ndf a l l G a i ns t o W e l f a r e L os s e s i n G e l b, 1988 34. S ve n W unde r W he n t he D ut c h D i s e a s e M e t t he F r e nc h C onne c t i on: O i l M a c r oe c onom i c s a nd O i l i n G a bon, C I F O R C A R P E U S A I D R e por t C e nt e r f o r I n t e r na t i ona l F or e s t r y R e s e a r c h, J a ka r t a 2003 35. N a nc y C B e nj a m i n, S ha nt a ya na n D e va r a j a n a nd R obe r t J W e i ne r T he D ut c h D i s e a s e i n a D e ve l opi ng E c onom y: O i l R e s e r ve s i n C a m e r oon, J our nal of D e v e l opm e nt E c onom i c s 30, J a nua r y 1989. 36. R os s 1999. 37. T e r r y K a r l T he P ar adox of P l e nt y : O i l B oom s and P e t r o St at e s U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1997 p 5

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 3 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 38. K i r e n A z i z C ha udhr y. T he P r i c e of W e al t h : E c onom i e s and I ns t i t ut i ons i n t he M i dd l e E as t C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s I t ha c a a nd L ondon, 1997, p. 187. 39. I bi d p 5 40. M a r i a S a w a f f a nd M oor t a z a J i w a nj i B e a t i ng t he R e s our c e C ur s e : T he C a s e of B ot s w a na E nv i r onm e nt al E c onom i c s Se r i e s P a pe r N o. 83, W or l d B a nk, W a s hi ngt on D C 2001. 41. A bdi I s m a i l S a m a t a r A n A f r i c an M i r ac l e : S t at e and C l as s L e ade r s hi p i n B ot s w a na D e v e l opm e nt H e i ne m a nn, 2002. 42. F r yna s 2004. 43. T he de c l i n e i n c oc oa pr oduc t i on p r e c e de d D ut c h D i s e a s e t hough D ut c h D i s e a s e a ppe a r s t o ha ve e xa c e r ba t e d t he de c l i ne o f t he i ndus t r y. F o r i nve s t m e nt s i n t he oi l s e c t or s e e O i l B oom put s E qua t or i a l G ui ne a on e c onom i c f a s t t r a c k, R e ut e r s A l e r t N e t 2001, ht t p: / / w w w a l e r t ne t o r g/ t he f a c t s / r e l i e f r e s our c e s / 255187. ht m 44. H az e m B e bl aw i T he R e nt i e r S t at e i n t he A r ab W or l d, i n L uc i ani e d. T he A r ab S t at e U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1990 45. G i a c om o L uc i a ni A l l oc a t i on ve r s us P r oduc t i on S t a t e s : A T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k, i n L uc i a ni e d. T he A r ab St at e U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or n i a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1990 p 71 46. H us s e i n M a hda vy. T he P a t t e r ns a nd P r obl e m s of E c onom i c D e ve l opm e nt i n R e nt i e r S t a t e s : T he C a s e of I r a n, i n M A C ook, e d. St udi e s i n t he E c onom i c H i s t or y of t he M i ddl e E as t O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s L ondon, 1970. 47. L i s a A nde r s on. T he S t a t e i n t he M i ddl e E a s t a nd N or t h A f r i c a C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s 20, 1987 48. H oot a n S ha m ba ya t i T he R e nt i e r S t a t e I n t e r e s t G r oups a nd t he P a r a dox of A ut onom y: S t a t e a nd B us i ne s s i n T ur ke y a nd I r a n C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s 26, A pr i l 19 94. 49. M i c ha e l B r a t t on a nd N i c ol a s va n de W a l l e D e m oc r at i c E x pe r i m e nt s i n A f r i c a: R e gi m e T r ans i t i ons i n C om par at i v e P e r s pe c t i v e C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y o r k, 1997. 50. K i r e n C ha udhr y, T he P r i c e of W e al t h : I ns t i t ut i ons and E c onom i e s i n t he M i ddl e E as t C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1997, p 187 51. G w e nn O kr uhl i k, R e nt i e r W e a l t h, U n r ul y L a w a nd t he R i s e o f O ppos i t i on: T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of O i l S t a t e s C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s V ol 31, N o. 3, A pr i l 1999. 52. K i r e n A z i z C ha udhr y. T he P r i c e of W e a l t h: B us i ne s s a nd S t a t e i n L a bor R e m i t t a nc e a nd O i l E c onom i e s I nt e r nat i onal O r gani z at i on, 43 1 989; K i r e n A z i z C ha udhr y T he P r i c e of W e al t h: I ns t i t ut i ons and E c onom i e s i n t he M i ddl e E as t C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s I t ha c a a nd L ondon, 199 7. 53. J a c que s D e l a c r oi x. T he D i s t r i but i ve S t a t e i n t he W or l d S ys t e m i n St ud i e s i n C om par at i v e I nt e r nat i onal D e v e l opm e nt V ol 15 1980. 54. C ha udhr y, 1989 a nd C ha udhr y 1997 55. N a nc y B i r ds a l l a nd A r vi nd S ubr a m a ni a n, S a vi ng I r a q F r om I t s O i l F or e i gn A f f a i r s V ol 83 N o. 4, J ul y/ A ugus t 2004. 56. P e t e r L e w i s F r om P r e be nda l i s m t o P r e da t i on: T he P o l i t i c a l E c onom y of D e c l i ne i n N i ge r i a T he J our nal of M ode r n A f r i c an St udi e s 3 4, 1 M a r c h 1996 57. M i c ha e l R os s D oe s O i l H i nde r D e m oc r a c y? W or l d P o l i t i c s 53 A p r i l 2001 58. R i c ky L a m a nd L e ona r d W a nt c he kon. P ol i t i c a l D ut c h D i s e a s e W or ki ng P a pe r N ove m be r 2002, p. 2. 59. L e ona r d W a n t c he kon. W hy D o R e s our c e D e pe nde nt C ount r i e s H a ve A ut hor i t a r i a n

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4 0 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 G ove r nm e nt s ? J our nal of A f r i c an F i nanc e and E c onom i c D e v e l opm e nt V ol 5 N o 2 2002 60. S e e R os s 2001 a nd E ngl e be r t a nd B odus z yns ki 2005 61. S a m ue l P H unt i ngt on T he T hi r d W av e : D e m oc r at i z at i on i n t he L at e 20t h C e nt ur y N or m a n U ni ve r s i t y of O kl a hom a P r e s s 1991, p. 6 5; quot e d i n M i c ha e l R os s D oe s T a xa t i on L e a d t o R e pr e s e nt a t i on? B r i t i s h J our na l o f P ol i t i c a l S c i e nc e 34, 2004 B r i t i s h J our na l of P ol i t i c a l S c i e nc e 34 2004 62. A nde r s on, 1987, p. 10. 63. C ha udhr y, 1989. 64 J i l l C r ys t a l O i l and P ol i t i c s i n t he G ul f : r ul e r s and m e r c hant s i n K uw ai t and Q at ar N e w Y or k: C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1990 65. S e e f o r e xa m pl e B a r r i n gt on M oor e Soc i al O r i gi ns of D i c t at or s hi p and D e m oc r ac y : L or d and P e as ant i n t he M ak i ng of t he M ode r n W o r l d, B e a c on P r e s s B os t on, 1966 66. R os s 2001; G w e nn O kr ul hi k. R e nt i e r W e a l t h U nr ul y L a w a nd t he R i s e of O ppos i t i on: T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of O i l S t a t e s C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s V ol 31, N o. 3, A pr i l 1999. 67. D a vi d L e ona r d a nd S c ot t S t r a us A f r i c a s St al l e d D e v e l opm e nt : I nt e r nat i onal C aus e s and C ur e s L ynne R i e nne r 2003 68. E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a m a y pr ove t he m os t r e nt i e r o f a l l non M i ddl e E a s t e r n s t a t e s i n f a c t S a o T om e e P r i nc i pe a not he r m i c r o s t a t e i n t he G ul f of G ui ne a m a y pr ovi de E qua t or i a l G ui ne a s onl y c om pe t i t i on i n t hi s r e ga r d. W hi l e o i l pr oduc t i on ha s ye t t o be gi n t he r e i t i s c l e a r t ha t m a s s i ve r e s e r ve s l i e o f f s hor e a nd t he e ve n s m a l l e r popul a t i on he r e c oul d m a ke S a o T om e t he m os t oi l r i c h ( pe r c a pi t a ) c ount r y on e a r t h 69. K a r l 2003; S i l ve r s t e i n, 2004 70. M i c ha e l B r a t t on a nd N i c ol a s va n de W a l l e D e m oc r at i c E x pe r i m e nt s i n A f r i c a, 1997 71. R os s 2001. 72. S a m a t a r 1999 73. P i e r r e E ngl e be r t St at e L e gi t i m ac y and D e v e l o pm e nt i n A f r i c a L ynne R e i nne r B oul de r C O 2001. 74. R obe r t J a c ks on a nd C a r l R os be r g, P e r s onal R u l e i n B l ac k A f r i c a: P r i nc e A ut oc r at P r ophe t T y r ant U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1982 75. L i ni ge r G oum e z 1989. 76. S i l ve r s t e i n, 2004 77. R os s 2002. 78. O n t he i m por t a nc e of t he m i ddl e c l a s s e s s e e B a r r i ngt on M oor e 1968; O n t he i m por t a nc e of m ode r n va l ue s s e e D a vi d L e r ne r T he P as s i ng o f T r adi t i onal Soc i e t y : M ode r ni z i ng t he M i ddl e E as t F r e e P r e s s G l e nc oe I l 1958 79. A da m P r z e w or s ki M i c ha e l E A l va r e z J os e A nt oni o C he i bub a nd F e r na ndo L i m ongi W ha t M a ke s D e m oc r a c i e s E ndur e ? i n L a r r y D i a m ond a nd M a r c F P l a t t ne r e d. T he G l obal D i v e r ge nc e of D e m oc r ac i e s J ohns H opki ns P r e s s B a l t i m or e a nd L ondon 2001 80. R os s 2001. 81. W ood, 2004; F r yna s 2004 ; S i l ve r s t e i n, 2004 82. P i e r r e E ngl e be r t a nd M oni c a B odus z yns ki P ove r t y a nd D e m oc r a c y i n A f r i c a O l de nbor g W or ki ng P a pe r 2005/ 1 2005 83. M a a s 2004; S i l ve r s t e i n, 2004. 84. D e l a c r o i x, 1980, p. 11. 85. C ha udhr y, 1989.

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 4 1 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 86. S ha m ba ya t i 1994 87. O kr ul hi k 1999, p. 300. 88. M i c ha e l W a t t s R e s our c e C ur s e ? G ove r nm e nt a l i t y, O i l a nd P ow e r i n t he N i ge r D e l t a G e opol i t i c s 2005, p. 54. 89. S i l ve r s t e i n, 2004; F r yna s 2004; W ood 2004 90. P a ul C ol l i e r a nd A nke H oe f f l e r G r e e d and G r i e v anc e i n C i v i l W ar W or l d B a nk P a pe r O c t obe r 2001 91. J a m e s D F e a r on a nd D a vi d L a i t i n E t hni c i t y, I ns ur ge nc y a nd C i vi l W a r A m e r i c an P ol i t i c al Sc i e nc e R e v i e w 97, F e br ua r y 2003 92. J a m e s D F e a r on W hy D o S om e C i vi l W a r s L a s t S o M uc h L onge r T ha n O t he r s ? J our nal of P e ac e R e s e ar c h, 41 3 M a r c h, 2004; M a c a r t a n H um phr e ys N a t ur a l R e s our c e s C onf l i c t a nd C onf l i c t R e s ol ut i on: U nc ove r i ng t he M e c ha ni s m s J our nal of C onf l i c t R e s ol ut i on, 49 ( 4) A ugus t 2005 508 537. 93. P i e r r e E ngl e be r t a nd J a m e s R on, P r i m a r y C o m m odi t i e s a nd W a r : C ongo B r a z z a vi l e s A m bi va l e nt R e s our c e C ur s e C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s O c t obe r 2004, 61 81 94. M i c ha e l R os s B oot y F ut ur e s U npubl i s he d W or ki ng P a pe r M a y 6, 2005, a va i l a bl e a t ht t p: / / w w w pol i s c i u c l a e du/ f a c ul t y/ r os s / R E F E R E N C E S A bdi I s m a i l S a m a t a r A n A f r i c an M i r ac l e : S t at e an d C l as s L e ade r s hi p i n B ot s w ana D e v e l opm e nt H e i ne m a nn, 2002. A l be r t H i r s c hm a n, T he St r at e gy of E c onom i c D e v e l opm e nt Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w H a ve n, 1958. A l a n G e l b, e d. O i l W i ndf al l s : B l e s s i ng or C ur s e O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y or k 1988 D a vi d L e ona r d a nd S c ot t S t r a us A f r i c a' s St al l e d D e v e l opm e nt : I nt e r nat i onal C aus e s and C ur e s L ynne R i e nne r 2003. D a vi d S a ps f or d a nd V N B a l a s ubr a m a nya n. T he L ong R un B e ha v i or o f t he R e l a t i ve P r i c e o f P r i m a r y C om m odi t i e s : S t a t i s t i c a l E v i de nc e a nd P o l i c y I m pl i c a t i ons W or l d D e v e l opm e nt 22 no. 11 N ove m be r 1994. E c onom y of E quat or i al G ui ne a, 2001 e s t i m a t e ht t p: / / w w w a ppl i e dl a ngua ge c om / c ount r y_gui de s / e qua t or i a l _gui ne a _c ount r y_e c onom y. s ht m l E dua r do B or e ns z t e i n a nd C a r m e n M R e i nha r t T he M a c r oe c onom i c D e t e r m i na nt s of C om m odi t y P r i c e s I M F St af f P ape r s 41, J une 19 94. F r a nc oi s B a ya r t S t e phe n E l l i s a nd B e a t r i c e H i bou, T he C r i m i nal i z at i on of t he St at e i n A f r i c a, I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1999.

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4 2 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 G e of f r e y W ood. B us i ne s s a nd P ol i t i c s i n a C r i m i na l S t a t e : T he E xa m pl e of E qua t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c an A f f ai r s 103 / 413, R oya l A f r i c a n S oc i e t y, 2 004. G i a c om o L uc i a ni A l l oc a t i on ve r s us P r oduc t i on S t a t e s : A T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k, i n L uc i a ni e d. T he A r ab St a t e U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1990 G w e nn O kr uhl i k, R e nt i e r W e a l t h, U n r ul y L a w a nd t he R i s e of O ppos i t i on: T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of O i l S t a t e s C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s V o l 31 N o 3 A pr i l 1999 H a ns S i nge r T he D i s t r i but i on of T r a de be t w e e n I nve s t i ng a nd B or r ow i ng C ount r i e s A m e r i c an E c onom i c R e v i e w 40 1950 H a z e m B e bl a w i T he R e nt i e r S t a t e i n t he A r a b W or l d, i n L uc i a ni e d. T he A r ab St at e U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1990 H oot a n S ha m ba ya t i T he R e nt i e r S t a t e I nt e r e s t G r oups a nd t he P a r a dox of A ut onom y: S t a t e a nd B us i ne s s i n T ur ke y a nd I r a n, C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s 26, A pr i l 1994. H um a n D e v e l opm e nt R e por t U ni t e d N a t i ons D e ve l opm e nt P r og r a m N e w Y or k, 2004 H us s e i n M a hda vy. T he P a t t e r ns a nd P r ob l e m s of E c onom i c D e ve l opm e nt i n R e nt i e r S t a t e s : T he C a s e of I r a n, i n M A C ook, e d. St udi e s i n t he E c onom i c H i s t or y of t he M i ddl e E as t O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s L ondon 1970 J a c que s D e l a c r oi x. T he D i s t r i but i ve S t a t e i n t he W or l d S ys t e m i n St udi e s i n C om par at i v e I nt e r nat i onal D e v e l opm e nt V ol 15, 1980. J a m e s D F e a r on a nd D a vi d L a i t i n E t hni c i t y, I ns ur ge nc y a nd C i vi l W a r A m e r i c an P ol i t i c al Sc i e nc e R e v i e w 97, F e br ua r y 2003 J a m e s D F e a r on, W hy D o S om e C i vi l W a r s L a s t S o M uc h L onge r T ha n O t he r s ? J our nal of P e ac e R e s e ar c h, 41, 3 M a r c h, 2004. J e dr z e j G e or ge F r yna s T he O i l B oom i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c an A f f ai r s 103 ( 413) 2004 J e f f r e y S a c hs a nd A ndr e w W a r ne r N a t ur a l R e s our c e A bunda nc e a nd E c onom i c G r ow t h, N B E R W or ki ng P a pe r S e r i e s 5398 1 995. J i l l C r ys t a l O i l and P ol i t i c s i n t he G ul f : r ul e r s and m e r c hant s i n K uw ai t and Q at ar N e w Y or k: C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1990 J ohn C uddi ngt on a nd H ong W e i A n E m pi r i c a l A na l ys i s of t he P r e bi s c h S i nge r H ypot he s i s : A ggr e ga t i on, M ode l S e l e c t i on a nd I m pl i c a t i ons i n H a ns S i nge r e t a l E x por t l e d G r ow t h v e r s us B al anc e d G r ow t h i n t he 1990s N e w W or l d S e r i e s V ol 13, D e l hi 1998

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 4 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 K e n S i l ve r s t e i n, U S O i l P ol i t i c s i n t he K uw a i t o f A f r i c a ' T he N at i on A p r i l 4 2002; ht t p: / / w w w t he na t i on. c om / doc m ht m l ? i = 20020422 & c = 1& s = s i l ve r s t e i n K i r e n A z i z C ha udhr y. T he P r i c e of W e a l t h: B us i ne s s a nd S t a t e i n L a bo r R e m i t t a nc e a nd O i l E c onom i e s I nt e r nat i onal O r gani z at i on, 43, 1989 K i r e n A z i z C ha udhr y. T he P r i c e of W e al t h : E c ono m i e s and I ns t i t ut i ons i n t he M i dd l e E as t C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s I t ha c a a nd L ondon, 1997 L a r r y D i a m o nd a nd M a r c F P l a t t ne r e d. T he G l o bal D i v e r ge nc e of D e m oc r ac i e s J ohns H opki ns P r e s s B a l t i m or e a nd L ondon, 2001. L e ona r d W a nt c he kon. W hy D o R e s our c e D e pe nde nt C ount r i e s H a ve A ut hor i t a r i a n G ove r nm e nt s ? J our nal of A f r i c an F i nanc e and E c onom i c D e v e l op m e nt V ol 5 N o 2 2002 L i s a A nde r s on. T he S t a t e i n t he M i ddl e E a s t a nd N or t h A f r i c a C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s 20, 1987. M a c a r t a n H um phr e ys N a t ur a l R e s our c e s C onf l i c t a nd C onf l i c t R e s ol ut i on: U nc ove r i ng t he M e c ha ni s m s J our nal of C onf l i c t R e s ol ut i o n, 49 ( 4) A ugus t 2005 508 537. M a r i a S a w a f f a nd M oor t a z a J i w a nj i B e a t i ng t he R e s our c e C ur s e : T he C a s e of B ot s w a na E nv i r onm e nt al E c onom i c s Se r i e s P a pe r N o. 83, W or l d B a nk, W a s hi ngt on D C 2001. M a x W C or de n a nd S P e t e r N e a r y B oom i ng S e c t or a nd D e i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on i n a S m a l l O pe n E c onom y, E c onom i c J our nal 92 D e c e m be r 198 2. M a x L i ni ge r G oum e z Sm al l i s N ot A l w ay s B e aut i f ul : T he s t or y of E quat or i al G ui ne a R ow m a n a nd L i t t l e f i e l d S a va ge M D 1989. M i c ha e l B l e e ne y a nd D a vi d G r e e na w a y, L ong R u n T r e nds i n t he P r i c e of P r i m a r y C om m odi t i e s a nd i n t he T e r m s o f T r a de of D e ve l opi ng C ount r i e s O x f or d E c onom i c P ape r s V ol 45 N o. 3 J ul y 1993. M i c ha e l B r a t t on a nd N i c ol a s va n de W a l l e D e m oc r at i c E x pe r i m e nt s i n A f r i c a, C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge 1997. M i c ha e l R os s B oot y F ut ur e s U npubl i s he d W or ki ng P a pe r M a y 6, 2005, a va i l a bl e a t ht t p: / / w w w pol i s c i uc l a e du/ f a c ul t y/ r os s / M i c ha e l R os s D oe s O i l H i nde r D e m oc r a c y? W o r l d P ol i t i c s 53 A p r i l 2001 M i c ha e l R os s D oe s T a xa t i on L e a d t o R e pr e s e nt a t i on? B r i t i s h J our na l of P ol i t i c a l S c i e nc e 34 2004, B r i t i s h J our na l of P ol i t i c a l S c i e nc e 34 2004

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4 4 | M CS H E RR Y A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 M i c ha e l R os s T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of t he R e s our c e C ur s e W or l d P ol i t i c s 51, J a nua r y 1999 M i c ha e l W a t t s R e s our c e C ur s e ? G ove r nm e nt a l i t y, O i l a nd P ow e r i n t he N i ge r D e l t a G e opol i t i c s 2005, p. 54. N a nc y C B e nj a m i n, S ha nt a ya na n D e va r a j a n a nd R obe r t J W e i ne r T he D ut c h D i s e a s e i n a D e ve l opi ng E c onom y: O i l R e s e r ve s i n C a m e r oon J our nal of D e v e l opm e nt E c onom i c s 30, J a nua r y 1989. N a nc y B i r ds a l l a nd A r vi nd S ubr a m a ni a n, S a vi ng I r a q F r om I t s O i l F or e i gn A f f ai r s V ol 83, N o. 4, J ul y/ A ugus t 2004. O i l B oom put s E qua t o r i a l G ui ne a on e c onom i c f a s t t r a c k, R e ut e r s A l e r t N e t 2001, ht t p: / / w w w a l e r t ne t o r g/ t he f a c t s / r e l i e f r e s our c e s / 255187. ht m P a ul C ol l i e r a nd A nke H oe f f l e r G r e e d and G r i e v anc e i n C i v i l W ar W or l d B a nk P a pe r O c t obe r 2001. P e t e r L e w i s F r om P r e be nda l i s m t o P r e da t i on: T h e P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of D e c l i ne i n N i ge r i a T he J our nal of M ode r n A f r i c an St udi e s 34 1 M a r c h 1996. P e t e r M a a s A T ouc h o f C r ude M ot he r J one s J o ur nal ht t p: / / w w w m ot he r j one s c om / ne w s / f e a t ur e / 2005/ 0 1/ 12_400. ht m l J anuar y / F e br uar y 2005. P i e r r e E ngl e be r t St at e L e gi t i m ac y and D e v e l opm e nt i n A f r i c a L ynne R e i nne r B oul de r C O 2001. P i e r r e E ngl e be r t a nd J a m e s R on, P r i m a r y C om m o di t i e s a nd W a r : C ongo B r a z z a vi l e 's A m bi va l e nt R e s our c e C ur s e C om par at i v e P ol i t i c s O c t obe r 2004 61 81 P i e r r e E ngl e be r t a nd M oni c a B odus z yns ki P ove r t y a nd D e m oc r a c y i n A f r i c a O l de nbor g W or ki ng P a pe r 2005 / 1, 2005. R a gna r N ur ks e E qui l i br i um G r ow t h i n t he W or l d E c onom y H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge 1961. R a ul P r e bi s c h T he E c onom i c D e v e l opm e nt of L at i n A m e r i c a and i t s P r i nc i pal P r obl e m s U N L a ke S uc c e s s N Y 1950 R i c ky L a m a nd L e ona r d W a nt c he kon. P ol i t i c a l D ut c h D i s e a s e U npubl i s he d P a pe r N ove m be r 2002, p 2 ( not a va i l a bl e onl i ne ) R obe r t J a c ks on a nd C a r l R os be r g, P e r s onal R ul e i n B l ac k A f r i c a: P r i nc e A ut oc r at P r ophe t T y r ant U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1 982.

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T H E P O L I T IC A L E C O N O M Y O F O I L I N E Q U A T O RI A L G U I N E A | 4 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 R obe r t K l i t ga a r d, T r opi c al G angs t e r s : O ne M an' s E x pe r i e nc e w i t h D e v e l opm e nt and D e c ade nc e i n D e e pe s t A f r i c a, B a s i c B ooks 1990. S a m ue l D e c a l o, A f r i c a n P e r s ona l D i c t a t or s hi ps T he J our nal of M ode r n A f r i c an St udi e s V ol 23, N o. 2, J une 1985. S ve n W unde r W he n t he D ut c h D i s e a s e M e t t he F r e nc h C onne c t i on: O i l M a c r oe c onom i c s a nd O i l i n G a bon, C I F O R C A R P E U S A I D R e por t C e nt e r f or I nt e r na t i ona l F or e s t r y R e s e a r c h, J a ka r t a 2003. T e r r y K a r l T he P ar adox of P l e nt y : O i l B oom s and P e t r o St at e s U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f or ni a P r e s s B e r ke l e y, 1997. T e r r y K a r l a nd I a n G a r y T he B ot t om of t he B a r r e l : A f r i c a' s O i l B oom and t he P oor C a t hol i c R e l i e f S e r vi c e s 2003. T he C I A W or l d F a c t book, 2005, ht t p: / / w w w c i a g ov/ c i a / publ i c a t i ons / f a c t book/ ge os / e k. ht m l T he W or l d's M os t R e pr e s s i ve S oc i e t i e s F r e e dom H ous e ht t p: / / w w w doc ut i c ke r c om / 2005/ 04 / w or s t of w or s t w or l ds m os t r e pr e s s i ve ht m l R e f e r e n c e S t yl e : T he f ol l ow i ng i s t he s ugge s t e d f or m a t f o r r e f e r e nc i ng t hi s a r t i c l e : B r e nda n M c S he r r y. T he P ol i t i c a l E c onom y o f O i l i n E qua t or i a l G ui ne a A f r i c an St udi e s Q uar t e r l y 8, no. 3 [ onl i ne ] U R L : ht t p: / / w e b a f r i c a u f l e du/ a s q/ v8 / v8i 3a 2. ht m

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To ny Wa t ers i s A s s o ci at e P ro fes s o r an d Ch ai r, D ep art men t o f So ci o l o g y Cal i fo rn i a St at e U n i v ers i t y Ch i co H e w as a Fu l b ri g h t S ch o l ar at t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f D a r E s Sal a am i n 2 0 0 3 0 4 an d w o rk ed i n T an zan i a i n refu g ee as s i s t an ce p ro j e ct s i n 1 9 8 4 7 an d 1 9 9 4 6 H e i s t h e au t h o r o f B u r ea u cr a t i z i n g t h e G o o d S a m a r i t a n ( W es t v i ew 2 0 0 1 ), an d Th e P er s i s t en ce o f S u b s i s t en ce A g r i cu l t u r e: Li f e B en ea t h t h e M a r k et p l a ce ( L ex i n g t o n Bo o k s 2 0 0 6 ) A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 A T I S S U E M a r k e ts an d M or al i ty: A me r i c an R e l a ti o n s w i th T an z an i a T O N Y W A T E R S T a nz a ni a ha s ne ve r be e n hi gh on t he l i s t of of f i c i a l U S r e l a t i ons hi ps i n A f r i c a A nd f or A m e r i c a t hi s ha s pr oba bl y not be e n a m a j or pr obl e m ; t he t w o c ount r i e s a r e e c onom i c a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y ve r y di f f e r e nt C hr oni c a l l y poo r T a nz a ni a ha s s e e m i ngl y l i t t l e t o of f e r t he w e a l t hy a nd pow e r f ul U ni t e d S t a t e s T a nz a ni a ha s a n a nnua l G N P c a pi t a of $290 f or i t s 36. 5 m i l l i on pe opl e w hi c h w or ks out t o a t ot a l G N P of a ppr oxi m a t e l y $10. 5 b i l l i on. O f t he t ot a l na t i ona l pr oduc t a bout $1 bi l l i on a r r i ve s i n t he f or m of bi l a t e r a l a i d l i t t l e of i t di r e c t l y f r om t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T a nz a ni a a l s o pr oduc e s l i t t l e t ha t i s of i nt e r e s t i n t he w or l d m a r ke t pl a c e A s a r e s ul t t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha s f e w a i d pr og r a m s de s i gne d di r e c t l y f or T a nz a ni a R a t he r e m ba s s y a nd U S A I D s t a f f pe ddl e t he gr a b ba g of W a s hi ngt on de s i gne d e c onom i c a s s i s t a nc e pr ogr a m s r oot e d i n i de ol ogi e s of m a r ke t e c onom i c s N e ve r t he l e s s de s pi t e or pe r ha ps be c a us e of i t s e c onom i c di s a dva nt a ge s T a nz a ni a m a ke s i m por t a nt non e c onom i c c ont r i but i ons t o t he i n t e r n a t i ona l s ys t e m out of pr opor t i on t o i t s e c onom i c m us c l e I n pa r t i c ul a r T a nz a ni a ha s a r e c ogni z e d c a pa c i t y t o m a ke m o r a l c l a i m s n ot j us t be c a us e of i t s pove r t y, but a l s o be c a us e of i t s pol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y, s t r ong r e c or d of m e di a t i ng be t w e e n unr ul y ne i ghbor s s uc c e s s f ul w i l dl i f e c ons e r va t i on pol i c i e s a nd hos t i ng of r e f uge e s S uc h pol i c i e s f oc us on t he m or a l r e s pons i bi l i t i e s na t i ons ha ve i n t he w o r l d or de r r a t he r t ha n m a r ke t e c onom i c s B ut m o r a l a s s e r t i ons a r e a poo r f i t w i t h t he t r a de ba s e d r e l a t i ons hi ps t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t ypi c a l l y s e e ks A n e xc e pt i on w hi c h pe r ha ps i l l us t r a t e s t he t w o di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c he s i s i n t he publ i c he a l t h pr o gr a m s s pons o r e d by t he C e nt e r f o r D i s e a s e C ont r ol a nd U S A I D s i nc e t he l a t e 1990s F or t he A m e r i c a ns j u s t i f i c a t i on f or s uc h publ i c he a l t h pr ogr a m s i s i n t he l os t pr oduc t i vi t y of i l l w or ke r s pa r t i c ul a r l y t he young a dul t s w ho di e o f H I V / A I D S F or t he T a nz a ni a ns t he j us t i f i c a t i on i s r oo t e d i n a m or a l obl i ga t i on t o a s s i s t t he s i c k. I n t he f i e l d of f o r e i gn r e l a t i ons T a nz a ni a ha s r a r e l y l ooke d t ow a r d t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T a nz a ni a s m a i n f oc us ha s i ns t e a d be e n on good r e l a t i ons w i t h t he s out he r n A f r i c a n c ount r i e s now r ul e d by pa r t i e s i t a s s i s t e d t o a c hi e ve i nde pe nde nc e be t w e e n t he 1960s a nd 1990s a nd t he s oc i a l de m oc r a c i e s of E ur ope w hi c h pr ovi de m or e di r e c t f i na nc i a l a s s i s t a nc e t ha n t he U ni t e d

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M A R K E T S A N D M O R A L I T Y : A M E RIC A N R E L A T IO N S W I T H T A N Z A N I A | 4 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 S t a t e s M uc h of t h i s E ur ope a n a i d i s di r e c t e d t ow a r d s e c t or s w hi c h a r e not ge a r e d t ow a r d di r e c t m a r ke t pr oduc t i on s uc h a s publ i c he a l t h, w a t e r s ys t e m s pr i m a r y e duc a t i on, a nd w i l dl i f e c ons e r va t i on. T a nz a ni a a l s o ha s c ons i s t e nt l y c l os e r e l a t i ons w i t h C hi na w hi c h bu i l t t he T a nz a ni a Z a m bi a r a i l w a y i n t he 1960s w he n T a nz a ni a f l i r t e d w i t h C hi ne s e C om m uni s m B ut w i t h t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i r r e s pe c t i ve of t he f a c t t ha t i t ha s t he bi gge s t e m ba s s y c om pound i n D a r E s S a l a a m r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e t yp i c a l l y a t a r m s l e ngt h, a c ondi t i on t ha t c ha nge d onl y br i e f l y f ol l ow i ng t he A l Q a e da a t t a c k on t he U ni t e d S t a t e s E m ba s s y i n T a nz a ni a i n 1998 I n s hor t t he r e i s a m i s m a t c h be t w e e n t he po l i t i c a l e c onom i c a nd c ul t ur a l i nt e r e s t s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd T a nz a ni a T he U ni t e d S t a t e s s e e ks t o us e t he w or l d m a r ke t s ys t e m t o f ur t he r i t s gl oba l goa l s a nd doe s s o us i ng t he i de ol ogy o f t he m a r ke t pl a c e A m e r i c a n f or e i gn a s s i s t a nc e pr ogr a m s e m pha s i z e e nt r e pr e ne ur s hi p, a nd e nga ge m e nt i n w or l d c om m odi t y m a r ke t s t h r ough pr ogr a m s l i ke t he A f r i c a n G r ow t h a nd O ppor t uni t y A c t ( A G O A ) a nd t he M i l l e ni um C ha l l e nge A c c ount E ve n A m e r i c a n pr og r a m s i m pl e m e nt e d f or hum a ni t a r i a n r e a s ons l i ke he a l t h e duc a t i on, a nd r e f uge e a s s i s t a nc e a r e l i ke l y t o be j us t i f i e d i n t e r m s of l os t l a bor p r oduc t i vi t y r a t he r t ha n s i m pl e a ppe a l s t o do w ha t i s r i ght i r r e s pe c t i ve of t he e c onom i c c ons e que nc e s B ut T a nz a ni a w hi c h ha s l i t t l e l e ve r a ge i n t he w or l d e c onom i c s ys t e m doe s not a l w a ys us e s uc h e c onom i c dogm a t o j us t i f y pol i c y. I ns t e a d, i t s e e ks goa l s t hr ough i de ol ogi c a l a nd m o r a l c l a i m s Y ou pr ot e c t r e f uge e s be c a us e i t i s your r e s pons i bi l i t y a s a ne i ghbor you t r e a t t he s i c k be c a us e i t i s t he r i ght t hi ng t o do a nd oppos e c ol oni a l i s m w h e t he r or no t i t i s pr o f i t a bl e t o do s o. H I S T O R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D : T A N Z A N I A N F O R E I G N R E L A T I O N S T a nga nyi ka be c a m e i nde pe nde nt f r om B r i t a i n i n 1 961, a nd i n 196 4 j oi ne d w i t h Z a nz i ba r t o f o r m T a nz a ni a T he n a s t oda y, i t w a s a poo r c ount r y bl e s s e d w i t h l i t t l e i nf r a s t r uc t ur e I m pr ove d r oa ds a t i nde pe nde nc e i n 1961 w e r e f e w a nd r a i l t r a ns po r t l a c ki ng. T he s m a l l c a pi t a l c i t y i n D a r E s S a l a a m ha d onl y a s ha l l ow por t R ur a l a r e a s ha d a r a pi dl y gr ow i ng a gr a r i a n s ubs i s t e nc e popul a t i on of a bout 9 m i l l i on w ho a t e m uc h of w hi c h t he y pr oduc e d, a nd m a r ke t e d l i t t l e i n e i t he r l oc a l or i nt e r na t i ona l m a r ke t s C oa s t a l a r e a s w e r e l a r ge l y M us l i m w hi l e i nt e r i or a r e a s w e r e C hr i s t i a ni z e d by w e s t e r n m i s s i ona r i e s be gi nni ng i n t he 19t h c e nt ur y. F a m i ne w hi c h pe r i odi c a l l y t hr e a t e ne d di f f e r e nt pa r t s of t he c ount r y, w a s de a l t w i t h t hr ough r e l i e f t r a di t i ona l l y f unde d by t he B r i t i s h c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt i n c oope r a t i on w i t h c h ur c h a ge nc i e s T he f e w a va i l a bl e he a l t h a nd e duc a t i on f a c i l i t i e s w e r e p r ovi de d by a r a nge of C a t hol i c a nd P r ot e s t a nt m i s s i ona r y s oc i e t i e s f r om N o r t h A m e r i c a a nd E u r ope w hi c h ha d t he w h e r e w i t ha l t o f und a nd s t a f f r e m ot e ope r a t i ons T he ne w l y i nde pe nde nt T a nz a ni a w a s l e d by f ound i ng P r e s i de nt J ul i us N ye r e r e a nd hi s popul a r T a nga nyi ka A f r i c a n N a t i ona l U n i on ( T A N U ) N ye r e r e qui c kl y e s t a bl i s he d a n i de ol ogi c a l l y gr ounde d f or e i gn pol i c y of de f i a nt n on a l i gnm e nt a nd a dom e s t i c pol i c y of A f r i c a n S oc i a l i s m r oot e d i n nos t a l gi c vi e w s of p r e c ol oni a l s oc i e t y. I m pl i c i t l y t hi s pol i c y w a s hos t i l e t o m a r ke t s w hi c h w e r e c ont r ol l e d by a s m a l l E a s t A s i a n m e r c ha nt m i nor i t y r a t he r t ha n by bl a c k A f r i c a ns E ve n i n t he 1960s N ye r e r e s f o r e i gn pol i c y e m pha s i z e d m or a l r e s pons i bi l i t i e s i nc l udi ng oppos i t i on t o a pa r t he i d i n R hode s i a a nd S out h A f r i c a de c ol oni z a t i on, a nd t he r e c e pt i on of r e f uge e s R e l a t i ons w i t h B r i t a i n w e r e s e ve r e d i n 1 965 f ol l ow i ng R hode s i a s de c l a r a t i on of i nde pe nde nc e a nd r e l a t i ons w i t h t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w e r e dow ngr a de d t o pr ot e s t A m e r i c a n i nvol ve m e nt i n V i e t na m B ot h m ove s i nvo l ve d t he l os s of de ve l opm e nt a i d a s s i s t a nc e t o T a nz a ni a I n t he l a t e 1960s t he f e w m a nuf a c t ur i ng a nd a gr i c ul t ur a l e nt e r pr i s e s m os t of w hi c h

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4 8 | W A T E RS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 w e r e c ont r ol l e d by t he E a s t A s i a n m i nor i t y w e r e a l s o na t i ona l i z e d by N ye r e r e s gove r n m e nt a nd r e or ga ni z e d i nt o s t a t e ow ne d f i r m s P r oduc t i o n w hi c h w a s a l r e a dy m i ni s c ul e de c l i ne d e ve n f ur t he r N ye r e r e a l s o be l i e ve d t ha t i t w a s be t t e r t o l e a ve na t ur a l r e s our c e s w he t he r m i ne s or e ve n T a nz a ni a s out s t a ndi ng pa r ks un e xpl oi t e d, r a t he r t ha n pe r m i t t i ng f o r e i gn c om pa ni e s t o m a ke i nve s t m e nt s a nd t he n e xpa t r i a t e pr o f i t s I t w a s s a i d t ha t N ye r e r e onc e c om m e nt e d t ha t he di d no t w a nt T a nz a ni a t o be c om e a na t i on o f w a i t e r s i n s pe c t a c ul a r na t i ona l pa r ks w he r e e ve n na pki ns w e r e i m por t e d. B ut t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt pa r t o f uj a m a a s oc i a l i s m w a s t he r e or ga ni z a t i on o f t he va s t num be r s of s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m e r s B e gi nni ng i n t he 1960s T a nz a ni a a l s o r e or ga ni z e d i t s r ur a l popul a t i on, of t e n f or c i bl y i nt o c o ope r a t i ve f a r m s T hi s w a s c ont i nue d i n t he 1970s w i t h t he s uppor t o f w e s t e r n donor s pa r t i c ul a r l y t he N or di c c ount r i e s G e r m a ny, a nd t he N e t he r l a nds T hi s s uppor t c ont i nue d i n l a r ge pa r t be c a us e N ye r e r e s ha r d e dg e d A f r i c a n S oc i a l i s m of t he 1970s w a s t e m pe r e d by T a nz a ni a n l e a de r s hi p w h i c h e m pha s i z e d t he pr ot e c t i on of hu m a n r i ght s D e s pi t e c os t s t o i t s e c onom y, T a nz a ni a l e d t he e c onom i c b oyc ot t of S out h A f r i c a a nd f r e e l y a dm i t t e d r e f uge e s f r om R w a nda M oz a m bi que B ur undi a n d U ga nda T he l a t e 1970s a nd e a r l y 1980s w e r e t he da r ke s t h our s f or T a nz a ni a a nd w ha t r e m a i ne d of i t s m a r ke t e c onom y. A s uc c e s s f ul w a r w i t h U ga nda s de s pot i c a nd br ut a l P r e s i de nt I di A m i n i n 1978 79, f ur t he r bur ni s he d T a nz a ni a s r e put a t i on a s a m or a l l e a de r i n t he i nt e r na t i ona l c om m uni t y. U n f or t una t e l y f or N ye r e r e t he gr a t i t u de of t he i nt e r na t i ona l c om m un i t y f or e l i m i na t i ng A m i n d i d not i nc l ude pi c ki ng up t he bi l l s f r om t he w a r w hi c h w e r e i ns t e a d pa i d f o r w i t h de f e r r e d m a i nt e na nc e of r oa ds s t a t e ow ne d f a c t or i e s a nd ot he r gove r nm e nt i n f r a s t r uc t ur e A s a r e s ul t T a n z a ni a be c a m e e ve n m or e o f a ba c k w a t e r T he f e w f a c i l i t i e s a t r e now ne d na t i ona l pa r ks l i ke M t K i l i m a nj a r o, t he S e r e nge t i a nd N go r ongor o C r a t e r de t e r i or a t e d P a ve d r oa ds c r um bl e d, a nd gr a ve l e d r oa ds be c a m e i m pa s s a bl e E l e c t r i c a l ge ne r a t i on di m i ni s he d, a nd t he f e w r e m a i ni ng i ndus t r i a l m i ne s c l os e d. I nc r e a s i ng i m pove r i s hm e nt of t he m a r ke t s e c t or l e d i n t he 1980s t o e ve r ha r s he r gove r nm e nt c ont r ol s on e c onom i c a c t i vi t y j us t i f i e d by t he na t i ona l i s t i de ol ogy of uj am aa s oc i a l i s m T r a di ng i n f or e i gn c ur r e nc y w a s f o r bi dde n, a gr i c ul t ur a l s a l e s t o pr i va t e t r a de r s ba nne d, a nd bus i ne s s p e opl e ( m a ny of t he m A s i a n) w e r e a r r e s t e d f or e c onom i c c r i m e s A r t i f i c i a l l y l ow pr i c e s w e r e f i xe d f or f ood a nd c om m odi t i e s ne e de d by t he u r ba n popul a t i on e ve n a s m i gr a t i on i nt o D a r E s S a l a a m w a s r e s t r i c t e d. S e c onda r y e duc a t i on a l s o de c l i ne d, a s s c hool s e s t a bl i s he d by m i s s i on s oc i e t i e s w e r e na t i ona l i z e d, a nd f undi ng s w i t c he d t o ba s i c l i t e r a c y pr ogr a m s f or t he r u r a l vi l l a ge s T hi s l e d t o hi gh r a t e s of ba s i c l i t e r a c y f o r s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m e r s B ut f e w o f t he s e f a r m e r s w e r e pr e pa r e d t o e nt e r t he m ode r n i ndus t r i a l w o r kf or c e w he r e hi ghe r l e ve l s of l i t e r a c y a nd num e r a c y w e r e i m por t a nt N ot a bl y, i t w a s not e nough e duc a t i on t o s t i m ul a t e t he w e l l know n r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n f e m a l e e duc a t i on a nd de c l i ni ng b i r t h r a t e s ; m uc h of t he r ur a l popu l a t i on r e s ponde d s i m pl y by r e t r e a t i ng de e pe r f r om t he m a r ke t w he r e t he s ubs i s t e nc e l i f e s t yl e e xpa nde d a l ong w i t h a gr ow i ng popul a t i on S o a s t he T a nz a ni a n e c onom y s t a gna t e d a nd s hr a nk i n t he 1980s t he s i z e of t he r ur a l popul a t i on s oa r e d. W ha t l i t t l e i m pr ove m e nt i n gr os s na t i ona l pr oduc t t he r e w a s a nd dur i ng t he 1970s a nd 1980s t he r e w a s of t e n ne ga t i ve G N P g r ow t h w a s qui c kl y c ons um e d by a popul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e o f upw a r ds o f 3 % pe r ye a r B y t he e a r l y 1980s t he or i gi na l 9 m i l l i on ha d doub l e d, a nd by t he 2002 c e ns us i t a l m os t doubl e d a ga i n t o 35 m i l l i on S us t a i ni ng g r ow t h w e r e c ont i nue d

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M A R K E T S A N D M O R A L I T Y : A M E RIC A N R E L A T IO N S W I T H T A N Z A N I A | 4 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 a ppe a l s t o donor s f or f a m i ne r e l i e f a s dr ought l i m i t e d ha r ve s t s of s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m e r s w ho ha d pus he d i nt o a r e a s of e r r a t i c r a i n f a l l a nd poor e r s oi l s T he r udi m e nt a r y r oa d s ys t e m s t i l l i na de qua t e f or t r uc ke r s t o ha ul s ur pl us gr a i n t o m a r ke t pr of i t a bl y, w a s i ns t e a d us e d f or t he di s t r i but i on of r e l i e f gr a i n pr oduc e d a br oa d D e s pi t e gr i m e c onom i c pr os pe c t s i n t he e a r l y 1980 s T a nz a ni a c ont i nue d t o a t t r a c t l a r ge s um s of a i d f r om E ur ope M e a nw hi l e t he R e a ga n a dm i ni s t r a t i on w hi c h w a s hos t i l e t o N ye r e r e s pol i c i e s of non a l i gnm e nt a nd s oc i a l i s m di s t a nc e d i t s e l f M uc h of t he a i d c a m e f r om S c a ndi na vi a w hi c h ha d s ym pa t hi e s w i t h t he non a l i gn m e nt of T a nz a ni a a s w e l l a s i t s s oc i a l i s t phi l os ophy. B ut by t he m i d 1980s t he s e donor s t o o be ga n t o w i t hd r a w s uppor t c i t i ng m i s m a na ge m e nt of donor f unde d pr o j e c t s a nd c or r upt i on. N ye r e r e r e t i r e d i n 1985 a nd a ne w gove r nm e nt unde r h i s c hos e n s uc c e s s or A l i H a s s a n M w i nyi be ga n a c c e di ng t o de m a nds of t he c r e di t or s a t t he I nt e r na t i ona l M one t a r y F und ( I M F ) a nd W or l d B a nk t o l oos e n t he s oc i a l i s t e r a c ont r ol s on t he T a nz a ni a n e c onom y. D u r i ng t he l a t e 1980s a nd 1990s f r e e t r a de i n f or e i gn c ur r e nc y w a s l e ga l i z e d, t he a s s e t s of hundr e ds o f s t a t e ow ne d c om pa ni e s ( m os t of w hi c h w e r e non pr oduc i ng) w e r e s ol d t o l oc a l a nd f or e i gn i nve s t or s a nd pr i c e c ont r ol s r e m ove d f r om gr a i n t r a di ng. S l e e py D a r E s S a l a a m w hi c h ha d a popul a t i on of j us t ove r 100 000 a t i nde pe nde nc e i n 1961 i nc r e a s e d i n popul a t i on s om e t hi r t y f ol d t o a popul a t i on of a bout 3 m i l l i on i n 2005 l a r ge l y a s a r e s ul t of g r ow t h s i nc e 1985 I r r e s pe c t i ve of p r obl e m s w i t h c o r r upt i on a nd i ne f f i c i e nc y, T a nz a ni a s c ont i nue d pos i t i ve r ol e i n t he a nt i a pa r t he i d m ov e m e nt a nd r e f uge e r e l i e f a dde d t o i t s i nt e r na t i ona l pr e s t i ge i n t he 1990s I nde e d, i nt e r na t i ona l r e f uge e r e l i e f a nd p r ogr a m s or ga ni z e d i n T a nz a ni a on be ha l f o f R w a nda ns B ur undi a ns a nd C ongol e s e w e r e t o gi ve a m a j or boos t t o t he T a nz a ni a n e c onom y i n t he m i d 1990s w he n ove r $100 m i l l i on i n c a s h a nd f oods t u f f s w a s i nj e c t e d i nt o t he c ount r y t o s uppor t t he r e f uge e r e l i e f pr ogr a m T a nz a ni a a l s o c ont i nue d t o be vi e w e d a s a n hone s t i nde pe nde nt b r oke r a nd pl a ye d a l e a di ng r ol e i n pe a c e ne got i a t i ons a m ong f a c t i o ns f r o m R w a nda a nd B ur undi i n pa r t i c ul a r I n t he 1990s T a nz a ni a be c a m e t he s i t e f or t he U N s I nt e r na t i ona l C r i m i na l T r i buna l on R w a nda a s w e l l a s r e gi ona l gr oupi ngs f r om s o ut he r n a nd e a s t e r n A f r i c a F or m e r P r e s i de nt N ye r e r e be c a m e a m e di a t or i n B ur undi s on goi ng c i vi l w a r unt i l hi s de a t h i n 1999 I M F i ns pi r e d e c onom i c e xpe r i m e nt s a l s o c ont i nue d i n t he c ont e xt of s hi f t s f r om a s i ngl e pa r t y s t a t e t o one i n w hi c h s e ve r a l s m a l l but noi s y pa r t i e s e m e r ge d a l ongs i de t he dom i na nt s uc c e s s or t o N ye r e r e s T A N U C ha m a C ha M a pi nduz i or C C M C C M i s popul a r pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h t he va s t c ons e r va t i ve r u r a l popul a t i on w hi c h s e e ks t o pr e s e r ve a s t a t us quo w hi c h i nc l ude s a c c e s s t o a gr i c ul t ur a l l a nd, a m odi c um o f e duc a t i o n a nd he a l t h c a r e a nd t he pr ovi s i on o f f a m i ne r e l i e f B y 2005, i t w a s unc l e a r w he t he r t he e c onom i c r e f o r m s of t he 1980s a nd 1990s ha d pa i d of f D e s pi t e s t r uc t ur a l a dj us t m e nt t he 1990s ha d onl y a t e pi d e c onom i c gr ow t h r a t e o f a bout 0. 1 % pe r ye a r w e l l be l ow t he 2. 3 % popul a t i on gr ow t h r a t e B ut s i nc e 2000, e c onom i c g r ow t h r a t e s ha ve i m pr ove d, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he c i t i e s G N P gr o w t h r a t e s i n 2002 03 w e r e pe gge d a t a bout 5. 8% A l t hough popul a t i on g r ow t h r a t e s s l ow e d f r om hi ghs of t he 1970s i t s t i l l c ont i nue d t o c l i m b r a pi dl y S uc h popul a t i on i nc r e a s e ha s t he p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t of e a t i ng up m a ny of t he a dva nt a ge s of s uc h r obus t e c onom i c gr ow t h T he r a pi dl y de ve l opi ng e c onom y r e f l e c t s a n e xpa ndi ng but i m pove r i s he d u r ba n s e c t or R ur a l y out h r us he d i nt o t he c i t y t o t a ke j obs s uppor t e d by t our i s m a bur ge oni ng de ve l opm e nt a i d i ndus t r y a nd m i nor m a nuf a c t ur i ng. M uc h of t hi s gr ow t h w a s s t i m ul a t e d by a ne w t our i s t s e c t or i n T a nz a ni a s na t i ona l pa r ks a nd t r opi c a l Z a nz i ba r w hi c h a t t r a c t e d E u r ope a n t our i s t s B ut A m e r i c a n t our i s m r e m a i ns m ut e d, i n pa r t due t o

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5 0 | W A T E RS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 c ont i nui ng U S S t a t e D e pa r t m e nt w a r n i ngs t o t ou r i s t s t ha t A l Q a e da ha s be e n a c t i ve i n T a nz a ni a A M E R I C A N T A N Z A N I A N R E L A T I O N S O f f i c i a l A m e r i c a t oda y of t e n t r e a t s T a nz a ni a a s a m i l dl y a nnoyi ng c hi l d c om pl a i n i ng a bout l a c k of s e c ur i t y, ope n m a r ke t s a pe r s i s t e nt l y l a r ge publ i c s e c t or a nd c or r upt i on i n t he m a na ge m e nt of a i d m one y. T a nz a ni a c ont i nue s t o r e s pond w i t h a m a s t e r f ul ga m e of pl a yi ng r i c h donor c ount r i e s of f a ga i ns t e a c h ot he r D e ve l opm e nt p r oj e c t s r e j e c t e d out of f r us t r a t i o n by one donor a r e of t e n f unde d by a not he r S uc h m ove s pe r m i t t he pe r s i s t e nc e of t he r ul i ng C C M e l i t e w hi c h ne e ds t he a i d i nf us i on t o s us t a i n pow e r D e s pi t e f r us t r a t i ons t he A m e r i c a n gove r nm e nt pe r s i s t s i n t he i r a t t e m pt s t o m a ke f r i e nds i n T a nz a ni a ut i l i z i ng t he gr a b ba g of pr og r a m s a nd a s s i s t a n c e l i ke A f r i c a n G r ow t h a nd O ppor t uni t y A c t ( A G O A ) a nd t he M i l l e nni um C ha l l e nge A c c ount de s i gne d i n W a s hi ngt on f o r c ount r i e s w i t h m or e e s t a bl i s he d m a r ke t e c onom i e s l i ke M a ur i t i us S out h A f r i c a S w a z i l a nd, a nd G ha na T he r e i s pe r ha ps no be t t e r i l l us t r a t i on o f how l i m i t e d t he T a nz a ni a n e c onom y i s t ha n i n t he c ount r y s r e s pons e t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a ggr e s s i ve e c onom i c out r e a c h pr ogr a m A G O A I n 2004 a f t e r f i ve ye a r s of a ggr e s s i ve pr om ot i on onl y $3. 6 m i l l i on w a s e xpor t e d unde r t he A c t w hi c h a c c or di ng t o U S da t a r e pr e s e nt e d 15. 6 % o f T a nz a ni a s e xpor t s t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t ha t ye a r G i ve n s uc h e c onom i c w e a kne s s i t i s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t T a nz a ni a n f or e i gn pol i c y c ont i nue s t o f oc us on a n a s s e r t i on of m or a l l e gi t i m a c y, w he t he r i n oppos i t i o n t o c ol oni a l i s m a nd a pa r t he i d, s uppor t f or r e f uge e pr ot e c t i on, c ons e r va t i on, a nd hum a n r i ght s r a t he r t ha n e c onom i c pow e r I r r e s pe c t i ve of t he m i s m a t c he d pol i c i e s t he c ur r e n t A m e r i c a n r e s pons e i s onl y t o i nt e ns i f y e f f or t s t o i m pl e m e nt W a s hi ngt on de s i gne d pol i c i e s on t he a s s um pt i on t ha t p r oj e c t f a i l u r e i s due t o publ i c r e l a t i ons i s s ue s r a t he r t ha n t he m i s m a t c h be t w e e n A m e r i c a n a nd T a nz a ni a n w or l d vi e w s T he r e s ul t i n r e c e nt ye a r s i s w hy s t udy t r i ps f or pol i t i c i a ns t o s t udy de m oc r a c y, po l i c e of f i c e r s t o s t udy a nt i t e r r or i s m t e c hni que s a nd A s i a n bus i ne s s m e n t o e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa t i on i n A G O A O t he r W a s hi ngt on de s i gne d pr og r a m s i nc l ude a s s i s t a nc e f or r u r a l a gr i c ul t ur e de s i gne d by A m e r i c a n a gr i c ul t u r a l e c onom i s t s a nd i m pr ove d s e c ur i t y f or f a c i l i t i e s f r e que nt e d by of f i c i a l A m e r i c a ns T he U S A I D budge t f or T a nz a ni a i t s e l f i s c ons i s t e nt l y l e s s t ha t $30 m i l l i on pe r ye a r w i t h m uc h of t he a s s i s t a nc e goi ng t o A m e r i c a n N G O s a nd c om pa ni e s t o pr om ot e s m a l l bus i ne s s de ve l opm e nt A f oc us on na t i ona l pa r ks a nd c ons e r va t i on f i l l s out t he s hor t l i s t of p r ogr a m s c oor di na t e d by U S A I D a nd t he U S E m ba s s y dur i n g t he l a s t f i ve ye a r s N e w e r pr ogr a m s f or t he t r e a t m e nt of H I V / A I D S a r e a l s o be i ng e s t a bl i s he d i n t he c ont e xt o f t he P r e s i de nt B us h s 2003 E m e r ge nc y P l a n f or A I D S R e l i e f pr og r a m s P a r t of t he p r obl e m i s t ha t A m e r i c a n vi s i on f or T a nz a ni a n r e l a t i ons ha s be e n obs c ur e d by i t s ow n pr e oc c upa t i on w i t h t he 2001 a t t a c ks by A l Q a e da A s a r e s ul t t he A m e r i c a ns ha ve a n ove r w he l m i ng i nt e r e s t i n s e c ur i t y i s s ue s w hi c h w h i l e dom i na nt f or t he A m e r i c a ns a r e i r r e l e va nt t o t he m a s s of poo r r ur a l T a nz a ni a ns A l Q a e da c e l l s m a y w e l l be a c t i ve i n M us l i m a r e a s bu t f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of T a nz a ni a ns S t a t e D e pa r t m e nt t r a ve l a dvi s or i e s onl y s l ow t he gr ow t h of t he s t i l l s m a l l t ou r i s t s e c t or i n t he c ount r y s g a m e pa r ks w i t hout a c l e a r i m pr ove m e nt i n s e c ur i t y. I nde e d, T a nz a ni a ns t ypi c a l l y g r um bl e t ha t E a s t A f r i c a i s s i ngl e d out f o r s uc h bl a nke t w a r ni ngs a nd poi nt i ng out t ha t unl i ke S pa i n or t he U ni t e d K i ngdom t he r e ha ve be e n no know n t e r r or i s t a t t a c ks i n T a nz a n i a s i nc e 1998. I n r e s pons e t o t he 1998 e m ba s s y bom bi ng i n T a nz a ni a be t w e e n 1999 a nd 2003 t he U ni t e d

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M A R K E T S A N D M O R A L I T Y : A M E RIC A N R E L A T IO N S W I T H T A N Z A N I A | 5 1 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 S t a t e s ha s s pe nt a bout $100 m i l l i on f o r a ne w t w e nt y t w o a c r e e m ba s s y c om pl e x, a i r por t s e c ur i t y, F B I i nve s t i ga t i ons a r m or e d ve hi c l e s c on s t r uc t i on of d i p l om a t i c f a c i l i t i e s a nd r e ha bi l i t a t i on of E m ba s s y s t a f f hous i ng T he a m ou nt dw a r f s e ve n t he e xpor t t r a de be t w e e n t he c ount r i e s m uc h l e s s t he s m a l l e r a m oun t of t r a de s t i m ul a t e d by A G O A o r pr ov i de d i n o f f i c i a l a i d. V e r y l i t t l e o f s uc h s e c ur i t y s pe ndi ng t r i c kl e s dow n t o t he m a s s of r ur a l poor w ho do not f r e que nt D a r E s S a l a a m a nd c e r t a i nl y do no t f l y i n a nd out of t he ne w l y s e c ur e d a i r por t s A l s o da m a gi ng t o of f i c i a l A m e r i c a n T a nz a ni a r e l a t i ons i s t he r ol e of c ons ul a r r e gul a t i ons i n gr a nt i ng vi s a s t o T a nz a n i a ns vi s i t i ng t he U ni t e d S t a t e s V i s a a ppl i c a t i ons c os t a non r e f unda bl e $50 f or a pr oc e s s w hi c h i s opa que f r om t he T a nz a n i a n pe r s pe c t i ve pa r t i c ul a r l y gi ve n t ha t pe opl e s pons or e d t o a t t e nd c onf e r e nc e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s by U S gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s a nd N G O s a r e r out i ne l y de ni e d vi s a s S uc h a r e s pons e i s pe r ha ps pa r t i c ul a r l y m ys t i f yi ng i n a s oc i e t y l i ke T a nz a ni a w hi c h c ons i de r s hos pi t a l i t y t o be a m or a l i ndi c a t or o f f r i e nds hi p. B ut a ga i n, ur ba n i nf r a s t r uc t u r e of e m ba s s i e s a i r por t s vi s a s a nd t he r he t or i c of s e c ur i t y i s a m oot poi nt f or t he va s t m a j or i t y of T a nz a ni a s r ur a l a nd ur ba n poor T he f a c t o f t he m a t t e r i s t ha t w he t he r t he gove r nm e nt i n D a r E s S a l a a m l e a ns t o w a r ds t he c a pi t a l i s t r i ght o r s oc i a l i s t l e f t i s l a r ge l y i r r e l e va nt t o t he 20 25 m i l l i on T a nz a ni a ns w ho l i ve on s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m s o r t he m i l l i ons m or e m ovi ng i nt o t he f a s t gr ow i ng c i t i e s I nde e d, a n unc om f or t a bl e f a c t f o r t he a g r i c ul t ur a l e c onom i s t s hi r e d by U S A I D i s t ha t t he i r e xpe r t i s e i n hi ghl y m e c ha ni z e d A m e r i c a n a gr i c ul t ur e ha s l i t t l e t o d o w i t h s ubs i s t e nc e a gr i c ul t ur e i n T a nz a ni a w he r e f i e l ds a r e t i l l e d w i t h a hoe a nd m os t pr oduc t i on i s c ons um e d on f a r m ne ve r r e a c hi ng t he m a r ke t pl a c e C om pl i c a t i ng a i d pr ogr a m s i s T a nz a ni a s a s s e r t i on of i t s pl a c e a s a n a gr i c ul t ur a l c ount r y be c a us e of t he l a r ge s ubs i s t e n c e s e c t or I t i s a n a gr i c ul t u r a l c ount r y but not one w hi c h pa r t i c i pa t e s e xt e ns i ve l y i n i nt e r na t i ona l m a r ke t s O ddl y, de s pi t e t he a t t i m e s f r os t y r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n of f i c i a l A m e r i c a a nd of f i c i a l T a nz a ni a a nd t he ge ne r a l l a c k o f bus i ne s s oppor t u ni t i e s pe r s on t o pe r s on r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n A m e r i c a ns a nd T a nz a ni a ns a r e of t e n qu i t e good. I n l a r ge pa r t t hi s r e f l e c t s r e l a t i ons hi ps out s i de t he m a r ke t pl a c e a nd e s t a bl i s he d by non o f f i c i a l A m e r i c a ns w or ki ng i n T a nz a ni a A m e r i c a n m i s s i on s oc i e t i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y t he A f r i c a n I nl a nd M i s s i on a nd t he S out he r n B a pt i s t s ha ve ha d a pr e s e nc e i n up c ount r y T a nz a ni a s i nc e t he l a t e 19 t h c e nt ur y. R e t ur ne d A m e r i c a n m i s s i ona r i e s pr ovi de a s m a l l c ons t i t ue nc y f o r T a nz a ni a i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s P e a c e C or ps vol u nt e e r s ha ve be e n pr e s e nt i n s ubs t a nt i a l num be r s s i nc e t he l a t e 1980s a nd ha ve a s s i s t e d w i t h t he r e vi t a l i z a t i on of T a nz a ni a n s e c onda r y s c hool s dur i ng t he l a s t 15 ye a r s W i l dl i f e r e s e a r c he r s w or ki ng i n t he m a gni f i c e nt ga m e pa r ks a nd r e s e r ve s a nd e ve n pa l e on t ol ogi s t s w or ki ng a t O l duva i G or ge a nd ot he r s i t e s a l s o pr ovi de a r e a s of m u t ua l i nt e r e s t A m e r i c a n a c a de m i c s ha ve pa s s e d t hr ough t he U ni ve r s i t y of D a r E s S a l a a m s i nc e 1962, a nd r e t ur n a s a dvoc a t e s f or a c a de m i c e xc ha nge pr ogr a m s M a ny T a nz a ni a n f a c ul t y ha v e s t udi e d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I n r e c e nt ye a r s a gr ow i ng t our i s t t r a de m e a ns t ha t bot h t ou r ope r a t o r s a nd t ou r i s t s a r e de ve l opi ng a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h T a nz a ni a s na t i ona l pa r ks a nd t he be a c h r e s or t s on Z a nz i ba r N ot a bl y t hough, s uc h s ha r e d a c t i vi t i e s ha ve l i t t l e t o do w i t h di r e c t p r oduc t i on o f m a nuf a c t ur e s or s e r vi c e s f or t he i nt e r na t i ona l m a r ke t pl a c e S uc h r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e i ns t e a d r oot e d i n m or a l s hos pi t a l i t y, a e s t he t i c s c onc e r n f or t he s i c k, hum a ni t a r i a ni s m e duc a t i on, a nd ot he r i s s ue s of onl y t a nge nt i a l i s s ue s t o t he i nt e r na t i ona l bus i ne s s i nt e r e s t s t ypi c a l l y f oc us e d on by of f i c i a l U S pol i c ym a ke r s W H I C H W A Y A M E R I C A S R E L A T I O N S H I P W I T H T A N Z A N I A ?

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5 2 | W A T E RS A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 A s l ong a s U S di pl om a t i c goa l s i n T a nz a ni a a r e f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on m a r ke t s a nd t e r r or i s m t he r e i s l i ke l y t o be l i t t l e ba s i s f or t he t ype of pol i t i c a l e c onom i c a nd c ul t ur a l a c t i vi t y t ha t t i e c ount r i e s t oge t he r B y t he s a m e t oke n, a s l ong a s T a nz a ni a i s de pe nde nt on i nt e r na t i ona l l a r ge s s e f or na t i ona l budge t s i t i s unl i ke l y t o ha ve t he i nde pe nde nc e ne e d e d t o t r ul y be a n e f f e c t i ve pa r t ne r e ve n f o r t he m or a l i s s ue s w hi c h bot h c ount r i e s va l ue N e ve r t he l e s s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd T a nz a ni a do s ha r e s om e va l ue s w hi c h a r e c e nt r a l t o i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons S ha r e d goa l s i nc l ude di s e a s e c ont r ol pr ot e c t i on of h um a n r i ght s c ons e r va t i on, publ i c he a l t h, e duc a t i on, a nd a n i n t e r e s t i n r e l i gi ous f a i t h. T a nz a ni a s gr e a t e s t i nt e r na t i ona l r e s our c e i s p r oba bl y i t s pol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y r e l a t i ve t o ot he r c ount r i e s i n t he r e gi on. T he c ount r y s r ol e a s a n hone s t b r oke r i n t he r e c e pt i on of r e f uge e s hos t i ng o f i nt e r na t i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons a nd s pons or s hi p of pe a c e t a l ks i s a n i m por t a nt non e c onom i c r e s our c e O t he r a r e a s w hi c h a r e na t ur a l f or U S T a nz a ni a r e l a t i ons i nc l ude hi ghe r e duc a t i on. T he U ni ve r s i t y of D a r E s S a l a a m ha s a l ong hi s t or y of r e c e i vi ng a nd hos t i ng A m e r i c a n uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s f a c ul t y, a nd r e s e a r c he r s T he r e a r e s ha r e d i nt e r e s t s i n pe a c e f ul r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n C hr i s t i a ni t y a nd I s l a m t oo. B ut pe r ha ps publ i c he a l t h i s t he a r e a w he r e c oope r a t i on c a n be gr e a t e s t A m e r i c a n i ns t i t ut i ons s t a r t i ng w i t h m i s s i ona r y s oc i e t i e s i n t he l a t e 1890s ha ve a l ong hi s t or y of i nvol ve m e nt w i t h publ i c he a l t h i n T a nz a ni a T he pol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y of t he c ount r y m e a ns t oo t ha t l ong t e r m pub l i c he a l t h da t a a r e a va i l a bl e T h i s i s va l ua bl e f o r bot h t he hum a ni t a r i a n, a nd c om m e r c i a l i nt e r e s t s of t he t w o c ount r i e s B ut t hi s r a nge of s ha r e d i nt e r e s t s a nd s t r e ngt hs i s n ot now r e f l e c t e d i n o f f i c i a l U ni t e d S t a t e s pr ogr a m s i n T a nz a ni a w hi c h i ns t e a d e m pha s i z e t r a di t i ona l A m e r i c a n c om m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n a gr o bus i ne s s a nd i ndus t r i a l pr oduc t i on I n t he s hor t a nd m e di um r un s uc h c om m e r c i a l a c t i vi t i e s a r e m or e i m por t a nt i n c ount r i e s w hi c h ha ve a w or k f or c e na t ur a l r e s our c e s a nd t r a ns por t a t i on i nf r a s t r uc t ur e s ui t e d t o s uc h pr oduc t i on. M or e t o t h e po i nt T a nz a ni a ne e ds pr ogr a m s w hi c h w i l l he l p i t t o pr e s e r ve t he va l ue i n w i l dl i f e r e s e r ve s f or t he l ong r un, s ol i di f y i t s hone s t br oke r pos i t i on i n r e gi ona l r e l a t i ons p r ov i de s e c onda r y s c hool t r a i ni ng pa r t i c ul a r l y f or f e m a l e s de ve l op a publ i c he a l t h s e c t or w hi c h i s a m ode l f or ot he r c ount r i e s a nd c ope w i t h gr ow i ng ur ba n c onge s t i on. S uc h p r ogr a m s r e qui r e t he de ve l opm e nt of m ode r n i ns t i t ut i ons a nd a w or kf or c e a s s ur e l y a s bus i ne s s e s do. A m ong pr og r a m s l i ke l y t o m a t c h s ha r e d A m e r i c a n a nd T a nz a ni a n i nt e r e s t s m or e c l os e l y a r e : S pons or s hi p of f e m a l e s e c onda r y a nd t e r t i a r y e duc a t i on w hi c h ha s t he e f f e c t of br i ngi ng dow n bi r t h r a t e s a nd de ve l opi ng t r a i ne d a nd di s c i pl i ne d w or ke r s f o r gove r nm e nt a l c i vi l s oc i e t y, a nd pr i va t e s e c t or s P r e s e r va t i on of ou t s t a ndi ng pa r k l a nds a nd w i l dl i f e T h i s ha s f e w e c onom i c r e w a r ds i n t he s hor t r un but pot e nt i a l l y ou t s t a ndi ng r e w a r ds i n t he l ong r un. T a nz a ni a s pol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y c ont r i but e s t o a c a pa c i t y f or e va l ua t i ng l ong t e r m publ i c he a l t h m e a s ur e s T hi s i s a r e s our c e not f ound i n m a ny ot he r c ount r i e s of c e nt r a l A f r i c a T a nz a ni a s s t a bi l i t y a l s o pr ovi de s a n oppo r t uni t y f or t he c oor d i na t i on of i nt e r na t i ona l hum a ni t a r i a n r e l i e f e f f o r t s w hi c h ha s a l r e a dy i nc l u de d bot h t he r e c e pt i on a nd r e s e t t l e m e nt of r e f uge e s c oor di na t i on of di p l om a t i c e f f or t s f or t he s e t t l e m e nt of di s put e s a m ong ne i ghbor i ng c ount r i e s a nd e s t a bl i s hm e nt o f i nt e r na t i ona l bur e a uc r a c i e s l i ke t he r e gi ona l of f i c e f or t he U S C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C o nt r ol a nd t he I nt e r na t i ona l C our t i n A r us ha T h e l ong r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n A m e r i c a n m i s s i on s oc i e t i e s a nd t he a l l e vi a t i on of r ur a l

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M A R K E T S A N D M O R A L I T Y : A M E RIC A N R E L A T IO N S W I T H T A N Z A N I A | 5 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a3 h t m S pr i ng 2006 T a nz a ni a n pove r t y, pr ovi de s a m u t ua l i nt e r e s t i n t h e f i e l ds of he a l t h c a r e a nd e duc a t i on. R e f uge e r e c e pt i on a nd r e l i e f c ont r i but e s t o t he s t a b i l i t y of t he e a s t e r n a nd c e nt r a l A f r i c a a nd gi ve n c ont i nui ng i ns t a bi l i t y o f ne i ghbo r i ng c ount r i e s l i ke D R C ongo, B ur undi R w a nda a nd U ga nda i s l i ke l y t o do s o i n t he f ut u r e T he l ong r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s f a c ul t y a nd r e s e a r c he r s t r a de s on s t r e ngt hs of bot h c ount r i e s I n l a r ge pa r t be c a us e o f T a nz a ni a s s t a bi l i t y, t he un i ve r s i t y s ys t e m c ont i nue s t o ha ve a s t r ong f a c ul t y w i t h a r a pi dl y gr ow i ng s t ude nt body. B ut f or t he A m e r i c a ns t he r e i s a not he r que s t i on a bout w he t he r a n e f f e c t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he t w o c ount r i e s i s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s b r oa de r i nt e r e s t T he r e a r e m a ny ot he r c ount r i e s w hi c h f or ge ogr a phi c pol i t i c a l a nd hi s t or i c a l r e a s ons c a n a nd s houl d ha ve a h i ghe r p r i or i t y B ut ne w bui l di ngs f or t he U S S t a t e D e pa r t m e nt a nd C e nt e r f o r D i s e a s e C ont r ol i n D a r E s S a l a a m of f i c e s e nd a di f f e r e nt m e s s a ge T he m e s s a ge i t s e nds i s t ha t T a nz a ni a s houl d be a n e f f e c t i ve pa r t ne r w i t h t he A m e r i c a ns B ut a n e f f e c t i ve pa r t ne r f or w ha t ? A ga i n, t he s m a l l s i z e of t he T a nz a ni a n e c onom y m i t i ga t e a ga i ns t t r a di t i on a l e c onom i c r e l a t i ons a t l e a s t i n t he s hor t a nd m e di um r un. B ut t he U ni t e d S t a t e s c oul d f oc us m or e on T a nz a ni a s s t r e ngt hs r a t he r t ha n s ol e l y on t he i m m e di a t e gl oba l i nt e r e s t s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T a nz a ni a w i l l ha ve 50 m i l l i on pe opl e by a bout 2015, w i t h t e ns of m i l l i ons s e e ki ng e nt r y i nt o t he w or l d e c onom y, e ve n a s t he i r br e t hr e n c ont i nue t o l i ve on s ubs i s t e nc e f a r m s T hi s w oul d m e a n t a i l or i ng pr og r a m s a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h a c l os e r e ye t o t he uni que r ol e T a nz a ni a pl a ys i n A f r i c a a nd t he w or l d T he s t r e ngt hs bot h c ount r i e s s ha r e a r e c om m i t m e nt s t o good gove r na nc e r e f uge e r e l i e f e duc a t i on oppo r t uni t i e s p ol i t i c a l s t a bi l i t y a nd t he e r a di c a t i on o f di s e a s e T i l t i ng pol i c y t ow a r ds T a nz a ni a i n s uc h a f a s hi on i s m or e pr oduc t i ve t ha n c ont i nui ng t o p r e a c h t he gos pe l of m a r ke t s a nd i nve s t m e nt i n a pl a c e w hi c h ha s ye t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n w or l d m a r ke t s i n a s i gni f i c a nt f a s hi on. R e f e r e n c e S t yl e : T he f ol l ow i ng i s t he s ugge s t e d f or m a t f o r r e f e r e nc i ng t hi s a r t i c l e : T ony W a t e r s A m e r i c a n R e l a t i ons W i t h T a nz a ni a A f r i c an St udi e s Q uar t e r l y 8, no. 3 [ onl i ne ] U R L : ht t p: / / w e b. a f r i c a uf l e du/ a s q/ v8/ v8i 3a 3. h t m

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a4 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 T h e F r e n c h E n c ou n t e r w i t h A f r i c an s : Wh i t e R e s p on s e t o B l ac k s 1530 1880 Wi l l i am B C oh e n B l oom i n gt on : I n d i an a U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s 2003. 360 p p T he F r e nc h E nc ount e r w i t h A f r i c ans pr ovi de s a r e vi e w of F r e nc h t hi nki ng a bout r a c e a nd s l a ve r y a s i t de ve l ope d f r om t he s i xt e e nt h t o t he n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y. C ohe n s book e m e r ge d i n r e s pons e t o t hr e e s t udi e s of t he A ngl o S a xon i m a ge o f B l a c ks : C ur t i n s T he I m age of A f r i c a ( 1964 ) J or da n s W hi t e O v e r B l ac k : A m e r i c an A t t i t ude s T o w ar d t he N e gr o ( 1969) a nd F r e dr i c ks on s T he B l ac k I m age i n t he W hi t e M i nd: T he D e bat e on A f r o A m e r i c an C har ac t e r and D e s t i ny ( 1971) C ohe n s s t udy w a s i nt e nde d t o c ons t i t ut e a F r e nc h f oc us e d e xa m i na t i on of t he i m a ge of B l a c ks but i ns t e a d ge ne r a t e d unpr e c e de nt e d a t t e nt i on w he n r e vi e w e d i n L e M onde by E m m a nue l T odd w ho a t t a c ke d t he c e nt r a l t he s i s of t he s t udy: t ha t t h e r e e xi s t e d a c ons e ns us i n F r e nc h t hought w hi c h r e l e ga t e d t he B l a c k t o a pos i t i on o f i n f e r i or i t y. S o vi ol e nt w a s T odd s a t t a c k on C ohe n s s t udy t ha t i t w a s t a ke n a s f ur t he r e vi de nc e of t he F r e nc h r e l uc t a nc e t o e nga ge w i t h t he r a c e que s t i on. T a ki ng a r e vi s i oni s t a ppr oa c h, C ohe n c ha l l e nge s t h e r e put a t i on t ha t F r a nc e ha d ga i ne d f or i t s e l f f or be i ng a c ount r y i nc a pa bl e o f r a c e a nd c ol or pr e j udi c e ; a pe r c e pt i on t ha t w a s s o w i de l y he l d, he a r gue s t ha t i t ha d c om e t o f or m a n i nt e gr a l pa r t o f t he F r e nc h s e l f i m a ge T r a c i ng t he i ne qua l i t y of B l a c ks a nd W hi t e s ba c k t o i de a s i nhe r i t e d f r om t he C l a s s i c a l w or l d, i n t he f i r s t f i ve c ha pt e r s of t he s t udy C ohe n e xpl o r e s t he f ounda t i o ns of s l a ve r y, t he w a ys i n w hi c h i t w a s j us t i f i e d, a nd i t s de ve l opm e nt H e goe s on t o c ha r t t he r i s e of i m pe r i a l i s m a s w e l l a s t he de m a nds f or t he a bol i t i on o f s l a ve r y t h r ough e m a nc i pa t i on i n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y he s i t a t i on ove r w hi c h C ohe n a t t r i but e s t o de e p unde r l y i ng doubt s a bout B l a c ks C ha pt e r e i ght i s a ke y c ha pt e r w hi c h e xpl or e s s c i e nt i f i c r a c i s m a nd t he a s c e nda nc e of r a c e t hi nki ng, t he c ul m i na t i on of c e nt u r i e s of hos t i l i t y t ow a r ds B l a c ks t ha t f ound i t s e xpr e s s i on i n l a ngua ge bor r ow e d f r om t he bi ol og i c a l s c i e nc e s T he p r ogr e s s i ve e xpa ns i on of F r e nc h E m pi r e e xpl o r e d i n t he f i na l c ha pt e r o f t he vol um e c ont i nue d t o pr e s e nt A f r i c a ns a s pa s s i ve r e i nf or c i ng e xi s t i ng i m a ge s of B l a c ks I n C ohe n s w or ds I m pe r i a l i s m d i d not c a us e a ny r e a s s e s s m e nt of B l a c ks but r a t he r he l pe d t o pr e s e r ve t he ne ga t i ve i m a ge s t ha t ha d e xi s t e d s i nc e t he e a r l i e s t s t a ge s of F r a nc o A f r i c a n c ont a c t ( 283) T he f i r s t e di t i on o f t hi s onc e gr oundbr e a ki ng a nd n ow c l a s s i c book w a s publ i s he d i n 1980, a nd i t i s s ur pr i s i ng t ha t i t ha s onl y r e c e nt l y be e n pu bl i s he d i n pa pe r ba c k. A l t hough t he p r e s e nt e di t i on i s i de nt i c a l t o t he o r i gi na l t he a ddi t i on of a f or e w or d by P r of e s s or L e S ue ur of t he U ni ve r s i t y of N e br a s ka pr ovi de s not onl y a va l ua bl e ov e r vi e w of t he t e xt hi ghl i gh t i ng i t s c e nt r a l t he s i s but a l s o a n a ppr e c i a t i on o f C ohe n s l i f e a nd a c hi e ve m e nt s a s a s c hol a r C ohe n r e c e i ve d hi s P hD f r o m S t a n f or d U ni ve r s i t y a nd s pe nt hi s e n t i r e a c a de m i c c a r e e r a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f I ndi a na s e r vi ng a s C ha i r of t he D e pa r t m e nt of H i s t or y f o r pa r t of t ha t t i m e C ohe n s f i r s t t w o books R ul e r s of E m pi r e a nd E ur ope an E m pi r e B u i l di ng a ddr e s s e d t he F r e nc h c ol oni a l s e r vi c e i n

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B O O K R E V I E W | 5 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a4 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y A f r i c a H e t he n t ur ne d t o t he s t udy of e a r l i e r t i m e s w hi c h l e d t o t he pub l i c a t i on of t hi s vol um e i n 1980. T he pr e s e nt e di t i on w a s publ i s he d s hor t l y a f t e r hi s de a t h i n 2002. T he F r e nc h E nc ount e r w i t h A f r i c ans i s c l e a r l y w r i t t e n, w e l l s t r uc t u r e d a nd de t a i l e d w i t hout be i ng t oo de ns e m a ki ng i t a c c e s s i bl e t o a br oa d r e a de r s hi p. A l t hough C ohe n's book l a c ks a bi bl i ogr a phy, e xt e ns i ve e ndnot e s pr ovi de c l a r i f i c a t i on on poi nt s o f i nt e r e s t a s w e l l a s r e f e r e nc e s C ohe n s a ppr oa c h w a s c ont r ove r s i a l w he n t he boo k f i r s t a ppe a r e d but t he ne w l i ne s of i nqui r y i ni t i a t e d by C ohe n ha ve s i nc e be e n f ol l ow e d up i n t he w r i t i ngs of ot he r pr om i ne nt hi s t or i a ns m os t not a bl y T z ve t a n T odor ov C ohe n s i de a s a r e now w i de l y us e d a nd a c c e pt e d, m a ki ng T he F r e nc h E nc ount e r w i t h A f r i c ans a n i m po r t a nt poi n t of r e f e r e nc e f o r bot h a c a de m i c s a nd s t ude nt s C ha r l ot t e B a ke r U ni v e r s i t y of N ot t i ngham U K

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a5 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 C ou n t e r C ol on i al C r i m i n ol ogy : A C r i t i q u e o f I m p e r i al i s t R e as on B i k o A goz i n o. L on d on : P l u t o 2003 281 p p T hi s book w i l l undoubt e dl y p r ovi de m uc h di s c us s i on i n c r i m i nol ogi c a l c i r c l e s but i t s hou l d not be c onf i ne d t o s uc h a na r r ow f i e l d. I nde e d, B i ko A goz i no ha s us he r e d f or t h a c a l l a m ong ot he r t hi ngs f or f o r m e r E ur ope a n c ol oni e s o f E ur ope t o a dopt a ne w c r i m i no l ogi c a l t he or y t o a i d i n t he l i be r a t i on of m i l l i ons f r om hum a n m i s e r y A c c or di ng t o t he a ut hor pr e s e nt l y t he r e i s no s i ngl e s uc h [ C r i m i nol ogy] de pa r t m e nt i n t he num e r ous uni ve r s i t i e s i n A f r i c a ( e xc e pt i n S out h A f r i c a ) t he C a r i bbe a n, A s i a a nd, t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt S out h A m e r i c a ( 9) H e w a r ns A f r i c a n a nd ot he r f or m e r c ol oni a l na t i ons ho w e ve r not t o i m i t a t e t he m ot he r c ount r i e s c r i m i nol ogy a ppa r a t us e s t ha t a r e s t e e pe d i n i m pe r i a l i s t i c phi l os ophy a nd pr a c t i c e F or A goz i no, w e s t e r n c r i m i nol ogi c a l t e c hnol ogy ha s e i t he r di r e c t l y or i n di r e c t l y s t i f l e d t he de ve l opm e nt of t hos e ve r y s oc i e t i e s i n c ol oni a l pos t c ol oni a l a nd e ve n pos t p os t c ol oni a l t i m e s M or e ove r he c ont e nds t ha t w e s t e r n c r i m i nol ogi s t s ne e d t o a dopt a l e s s a r r oga nt a pp r oa c h t o c r i m i nol ogy by l i s t e ni ng t o t he voi c e s of t he voi c e l e s s a nd pow e r l e s s f r om pa s t a nd pr e s e nt A t i t s ba s e t he book i s bol d a nd i c onoc l a s t i c B e c a us e of t h i s i t i s r e f r e s hi ng t o r e a d a nd ve r y i nf or m a t i ve T he a ut hor pul l s no punc he s i n h i s c r i t i que of w e s t e r n i m pe r i a l i s m a s i t ha s i nt e r s e c t e d a nd de f i ne d m uc h o f t he s o c a l l e d T hi r d W or l d s j udi c i a l s ys t e m s A goz i no w r i t e s : C r i m i nol ogy w a s de ve l ope d pr i m a r i l y a s a t ool f or i m pe r i a l i s t dom i na t i on a nd i t c ont i nue s t o ope r a t e l a r ge l y a s a r e pr e s s i ve t e c hnol ogy. O t he r t e c hnol ogi e s of dom i na t i on c r a f t e d by i m pe r i a l i s m s uc h a s t he a r m y, t he pol i c e a nd t he p r i s on, ha ve be e n ge ne r a l l y a ppr opr i a t e d by ne oc ol oni a l r e gi m e s a r ound t he w or l d ( 228 ) A goz i no i s pa r t i c ul a r l y c r i t i c a l o f t he de a r t h i n w e s t e r n c r i m i nol og i c a l i ns i ght s i nt o c ont e m por a r y f o r m s of i m pe r i a l i s m a nd hum a n s u bor di na t i on due t o t he c ont i nue d he ge m ony of t he W e s t C r i m i nol ogi c a l t he or y t e nds t o e m a na t e f r om t he m e t r opol i s e s of t he W e s t a nd t hi s ne ga t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e s t he e m pow e r m e nt o f t he di s e m pow e r e d w ho t e nd t o be m os t of t e n but not e xc l us i ve l y, pe opl e o f c ol or W ha t m a ke s C ount e r C ol oni al C r i m i nol ogy : A C r i t i que of I m pe r i al i s t R e as on a n i nt e r e s t i ng a nd i nf or m a t i ve r e a d i s i t s us e o f a n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y pe r s pe c t i ve o r w ha t A goz i no de e m s a s a t r a ns di s c i pl i na r y t he or e t i c o m e t hodol ogi c a l i n t e r v e nt i on ( 1) T hi r t e e n c ha pt e r s pl us a n i nc i s i ve f or e w or d f r om S t e phe n P f ohl a nd a n e l a bor a t e c onc l us i on m a ke up t he s t r uc t u r e of t he book. T he t opi c s r a nge f r om a c r i t i que of T he E nl i ght e nm e nt a nd E u r o A m e r i c a n T he or i e s of t he J udi c i a l P r oc e s s t o F e m i ni s t P e r s pe c t i ve s a nd C r i t i c a l C r i m i nol ogy, t o E xe c ut i v e L a w l e s s ne s s a nd t he S t r ugg l e f o r D e m oc r a c y i n A f r i c a t o a n a n a l ys i s of t he l a t e r e gga e s t a r P e t e r T os h. C r uc i a l l y, A goz i no o f f e r s a w i de r a ngi ng a n d e c l e c t i c s c hol a r l y w or k t ha t i s une qui voc a l l y c ount e r c ol oni a l i n i t s a pp r oa c h. I t w i l l no doub t i r k t he s e ns i bi l i t i e s of t hos e s c hol a r s e m be dde d i n E u r ope a n c a nons a nd w hi t e a ppr oa c h e s t o c r i m i nol ogi c a l d i s c our s e w hi c h a r e c ur r e nt l y t he s t a pl e di e t i n m os t uni ve r s i t y c ou r s e s

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B O O K R E V I E W | 5 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a5 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 I n r e ga r d t o c ha pt e r t w e l ve m os t A m e r i c a ns w i l l p r oba bl y not be ve r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t he a na l ys i s of S t e phe n L a w r e nc e t he c a s e of a young m i ddl e c l a s s bl a c k B r i t i s h m a l e m ur de r e d by f i ve r a c i s t young m e n i n E ngl a nd ( A pr i l 22, 1993) I t i s a pow e r f ul c ha pt e r t ha t i nt e r a c t s w i t h t he publ i c i nqui r y r e por t i nt o t he ki l l i ng a l ong w i t h J a m e s B a l dw i n, a nd ke y t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nc l udi ng: M a r xi s m F unc t i ona l i s m R a t i ona l i s m a nd P os t s t r uc t ur a l i s m A us e f ul t a bl e ( 198) he l ps t he r e a de r s i t ua t e t he t he or i e s a nd w r i t e r s t ha t a dhe r e t o s uc h s c hool s of t hought T hi s w i l l be pa r t i c ul a r l y u s e f ul t o bot h un de r gr a dua t e s a nd gr a dua t e s H ow e ve r a l t hough I a m i n f ul l a gr e e m e nt w i t h A g oz i no s ove r a l l c r i t i que of w e s t e r ni z e d not i ons a nd pr a c t i c e of c r i m i nol ogy a nd i t s c l a i m t o obj e c t i ve s c i e nc e t ha t doe s ve r y l i t t l e t o e na bl e t he pow e r l e s s t o a t t a i n j us t i c e he s t i l l doe s not f ul l y e s c a pe t he E ur oc e nt r i c c a non. T o put i t a not he r w a y, t he r e i s a s t r ong a nd a dm i r a bl e a t t e m pt by A goz i no t o di s a s s oc i a t e hi m s e l f f r om t he t he or e t i c a l qua gm i r e of E u r oc e nt r i c di s c o ur s e but t he r e i s not e nough e nga ge m e nt w i t h a l t e r na t i ve s c hool s of t hought pa r t i c ul a r l y f r om t h e pe r s pe c t i ve of A f r i c a ns Y e s t he r e a r e t he c ont r i but i ons of N kr um a h, C a br a l F a non, S i va na nda n, H a l l D a vi s hooks a nd ot he r bl a c k t he or i s t s but m os t o f t he s e s c hol a r s w e r e or a r e e i t he r M a r xi s t a nd/ or bl a c k F e m i ni s t W ha t a bout s c hol a r s w ho w a nt t o r e s e a r c h A f r i c a n c ul t u r e a nd s oc i a l e xpe r i e nc e w i t hout t he ghos t of K a r l M a r x ha ngi ng on t he i r s houl de r ? O r t hos e l i k e C l e nor a H uds on W e e m s w ho s e e k a n A f r i c a na w om a ni s t r a t he r t ha n f e m i n i s t a ppr oa c h t o s oc i a l t he or y? T h i s how e ve r i s m e r e l y c ons t r uc t i ve c r i t i c i s m t ha t s houl d e nha nc e i n due c our s e I w oul d hope A goz i no s a l r e a dy l a uda bl e t he or e t i c a l pos i t i on. I nde e d, he a dm i t s t ha t hi s r e s e a r c h w i l l ne e d f ur t he r e xpl or a t i on ( 247) a nd c ont e m pl a t i on, pr ovi de d t ha t he c a n obt a i n t he f undi n g f o r s uc h c ount e r he ge m oni c r e s e a r c h e nde a vor s i n t he s e dr a c oni a n c ons e r va t i ve t i m e s O ve r a l l t hi s i s a book t ha t de s e r ve s t o be on a l l c r i m i nol ogi c a l r e a di ng l i s t s a nd i t w oul d be a t hom e i n a ny A f r i c a n c e nt e r e d s t udi e s c our s e I t of f e r s a ge ne r ous a m ount of s c hol a r l y i nqui r y i nt o a n a r e a t ha t ha s pa i d s c a nt a t t e nt i on t o A f r i c a n a nd ot he r pe opl e of c ol o r s pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t he c r i m i nol ogi c a l d i s c our s e I t i s t he r e f or e gr ound br e a ki ng a nd a m us t r e a d. M a r k C hr i s t i a n M i am i U ni v e r s i t y O hi o

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w af ri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a6 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 A f r i c an F r an c op h o n e C i n e m a S a m b a D i op N e w O r l e an s : U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s of t h e S ou t h 2004. 106 p p A f r i c a S h oot s B ac k : A l t e r n at i ve P e r s p e c t i ve s i n S u b S ah ar an A f r i c an F i l m M e l i s s a T h ac k w ay. B l oom i n g t on : I n d i an a U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s O xf or d : O x f or d U K : Jam e s C u r r e y, L t d C ap e t ow n S ou t h A f r i c a: D avi d P h i l i p 200 3. 230 p p S a m ba D i op s A f r i c an F r anc ophone C i ne m a i s de s t i ne d f or s t ude nt s w ho ha ve a n i nt e r e s t i n f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n c i ne m a a l t hough D i op doe s not s pe c i f y f or w hi c h e duc a t i ona l l e ve l i t i s a ppr opr i a t e G i ve n i t s t r a di t i ona l t he m a t i c a pp r oa c h a nd t he l i m i t e d num be r of f i l m s i t di s c us s e s I w oul d l i m i t i t s us e t o unde r g r a dua t e i nt r oduc t o r y c our s e s i n f i l m or a s a n i nt r oduc t i on f o r t he uni ni t i a t e d s c hol a r M e l i s s a T ha c kw a y s A f r i c a Sh oot s B ac k i s bot h m or e a m bi t i ous i n s c ope a nd m or e s uc c e s s f ul i n i t s pr e s e nt a t i on. A l t hou gh T ha c kw a y gi ve s a de qua t e a t t e nt i on t o t he A f r i c a n na r r a t i ve t r a di t i ons a nd t he m e s out l i ne d b r i e f l y i n D i op s book, s he goe s be yond t he m t o a c know l e dge f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n f i l m m a ke r s f o r t he i r i nnova t i on i n s t yl e a nd t e c hni que S he e xpl or e s how A f r i c a n di r e c t or s c r e a t e t he i r ow n a r t i s t i c vi s i on, r e j e c t i ng t he r e s t r i c t i ve not i on of A f r i c a n c i ne m a T ha c kw a y i l l us t r a t e s c onvi nc i ngl y how t he s e f i l m m a ke r s i nc or por a t e t r a di t i ona l i m a ge s a nd pr a c t i c e s f r om A f r i c a i n t he i r f i l m s w he n be ne f i c i a l t o a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i r pe opl e but how t he y e s c he w s t e r e ot ypi c a l i m a ge s of A f r i c a i m pos e d by t he W e s t D i op or ga ni z e s he r book by t he m e hi s t or y o r a l t r a di t i on, m yt h, r e l i gi on ge nde r a nd s e xua l i t y, a nd pos t c ol oni a l i s m a nd m uc h of w ha t t he book pu r por t s t o a c hi e ve i s c ont a i ne d i n i t s s um m a r y i nt r oduc t i on a nd c onc l us i on. T he bod y of t he book a na l yz e s i n s om e de t a i l f i l m s ba s e d on t he i r c e nt r a l t he m e s ; f or e xa m pl e C e ddo by O us m a ne S e m b ne ( S e ne ga l ) i s us e d a s t he ba c kdr op f o r a ge ne r a l di s c us s i on of t he hi s t or y of f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n c i ne m a ; L a ge n s e by C he i c h O um a r S i s s oko ( M a l i ) i l l us t r a t e s t he r o l e of r e l i gi on. S uc h a n a ppr oa c h i s va l i d a nd t he r e i s m uc h good t he m a t i c a na l ys i s of t he f i l m s H ow e ve r D i op a l s o p r om i s e s t o di s c us s c i ne m a t i c t e c hni que but t he r e i s ve r y l i t t l e a bout i t i n t hi s t e xt a nd s he i ne vi t a bl y r e t ur ns t o t he m e s a s m a j or poi nt s of di s c us s i on. I n c ont r a s t T ha c kw a y di s c us s e s t r a di t i ona l t he m a t i c a ppr oa c he s w hi l e a l s o a c know l e dgi ng t he t e c hni que a nd c onc e r ns of A f r i c a n d i r e c t or s i n de pe nde nt of t he i r c a t e gor i z a t i on a s A f r i c a n f i l m m a ke r s I n he r us e f ul i nt r oduc t i on T ha c kw a y c ha l l e nge s t he qua l i f i c a t i on of S ub S a ha r a n A f r i c a i nt o l i ngui s t i c c a t e gor i e s a ngl ophone f r a n c ophone a nd l us ophone r i ght l y a r gui ng t ha t t he s e di s t i nc t i ons a r e c onve ni e nt c ol oni a l c ons t r uc t s but t ha t a m i no r i t y o f t he pe opl e s of t he s e r e gi ons a c t ua l l y us e s E ur ope a n l a ngua ge s w i t h a ny r e gul a r i t y H e r a r gum e nt i s m or e l e ngt hy a nd de t a i l e d t ha n D i op s c ur s or y di s c us s i on of di gl os s i a i n w hi c h na t i ve A f r i c a n l a ngua ge s a r e us e d a l ongs i de E ur ope a n one s i n A f r i c a n c i ne m a T ha c kw a y e xpl a i ns t ha t t he t e r m f r a nc ophone r e f e r s t o a c om m on s oc i o pol i t i c a l he r i t a ge r a t he r t ha n a s p r oof o f t he pr i m a c y o f

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B O O K R E V I E W | 5 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a6 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 F r a nc e a s a c ul t ur a l r e f e r e nc e S he i s c onc e r ne d w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l pr e oc c upa t i ons of t e n de l i ne a t e d i n t hi s t ype o f t e xt t he m e s t ha t s he r e f e r s t o a s r e pr e s e nt a t i on, i de nt i t y a nd vo i c e but s he e nl a r ge s t hi s vi e w t o e xpl a i n how A f r i c a n f i l m m a ke r s c ha l l e nge E ur ope a n s t e r e ot ype s a nd e m pow e r t he i r a udi e nc e s t hr ough t he f i l m i c m e di um H e r c ha pt e r s a r e w e l l o r ga ni z e d a nd de t a i l e d. I n t he f i r s t c ha pt e r s he s i t ua t e s A f r i c a n f i l m i n i t s br oa de r pr e dom i na nt l y E u r ope a n c ont e xt a nd i l l us t r a t e s how c ur r e nt c r i t i c a l c i ne m a t i c t he or y m a y be a ppl i e d t o A f r i c a n c i ne m a I n c ha pt e r 2 s he e xpl or e s r e pr e s e nt a t i on, i de nt i t y, a nd voi c e how f i l m m a ke r s us e t he m e di um t o a f f i r m A f r i c a n i de nt i t y w hi l e c ha l l e ngi ng ne ga t i ve W e s t e r n s t e r e ot ype s C ha pt e r 3 s how s how f i l m m a ke r s c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y i s de ve l ope d a nd how e l e m e nt s of A f r i c a n or a l t r a di t i on a r e i nt e gr a t e d i nt o f i l m C ha pt e r 4 i s a di s c us s i on of m e m or y a nd hi s t or y i n w hi c h t he a ut hor i l l us t r a t e s how c ol oni a l pow e r s r e p r e s s e d or m i s r e pr e s e nt e d A f r i c a n hi s t or y, a nd how A f r i c a n di r e c t or s r e a ppr opr i a t e t he i r hi s t or y a nd i nt e r pr e t i t f r om a n A f r i c a n pe r s pe c t i ve C ha pt e r 5 c ont a i ns a n i m por t a nt but o f t e n ove r l ooke d, a s pe c t of f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n f i l m A f r i c a n f i l m s s e t i n E ur ope w hi c h gi ve a udi e nc e s a vi e w of t he i m m i gr a nt e xpe r i e nc e a nd e xpl o r e t he not i on of A f r i c a n i de nt i t y r a r e l y t r e a t e d i n f i l m e i t he r A f r i c a n or E ur ope a n. C ha pt e r 6 gi ve s w om e n i n f i l m t he i r r i ght f ul due e xpl o r i ng t he m e s o f e m pow e r m e nt i n f i l m s by bot h f e m a l e a nd m a l e di r e c t or s S pe c i a l a t t e nt i on i s gi ve n t o t h r e e pr om i ne nt w om e n di r e c t or s S a f i F a ye ( S e ne ga l ) A nne L a ur e F ol l y ( T ogo) a nd F a nt a R gi na N a c r o ( B ur ki na F a s o) D i op de vot e s s e ve r a l pa r a gr a phs t o pr ob l e m s of p r oduc t i on a nd di s t r i but i on a m ong f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n f i l m m a ke r s a ga i n, a n i m por t a nt poi nt R e c e i vi ng l i t t l e o r no f undi ng f r o m t he i r c ount r y of or i gi n t he s e f i l m m a ke r s m us t s e e k f i na nc i ng t h r ough t he F r e nc h M i ni s t e r o f C oope r a t i on, a nd i n m a ny c a s e s w ha t i s a s ke d of t he m by t he F r e nc h gove r n m e nt i s a ut he nt i c i t y, w hi c h m e a ns de pi c t i ng s c e ne s of a g r i c ul t ur a l l i f e i ndi ge nous s pi r i t ua l a nd c ul t ur a l r i t ua l s a nd na t i ve da nc e a nd m us i c I n ot h e r w or ds i t i s di f f i c ul t a nd s om e t i m e s c ont r ove r s i a l f or A f r i c a n a r t i s t s t o de pi c t m or e m o de r n c onc e r ns pos t c ol oni a l pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c s t r i f e t he A I D S e pi de m i c a nd l os s of c u l t ur a l i de nt i t y H ow e ve r m uc h o f t h i s i nf or m a t i on s e e m s a ne c dot a l a nd t he t e xt i t s e l f i s poor l y or ga ni z e d a nd r e f e r e nc e d. L ong l i s t s of f i l m m a ke r s a nd t he i r c ount r i e s a r e gi ve n i n t he i nt r oduc t or y c ha pt e r i ns t e a d of a s a f i l m ogr a phy a t t he e nd o f t he t e xt T he f i l m ogr a phy t ha t i s gi ve n a t t he e nd i nc l ude s onl y t he 15 f i l m s a c t ua l l y di s c us s e d i n t he t e xt a nd t he n r e f e r e nc e d onl y by di r e c t or s na m e a nd t i t l e o f f i l m I t w oul d be he l pf ul t o ha ve t he c ount r y of or i gi n he r e f or qu i c k r e f e r e nc e A s hor t di s c us s i on of w om e n f i l m m a ke r s S a r a h M a l dor or ( G ua de l oupe ) a nd F l or a G om e s ( G ui ne a u B i s s a u) i s i nc l ude d i n t he s e c ond c ha pt e r on hi s t or y but i t s e e m s a n a f t e r t hought or a dut y f ul f i l l e d, a f t e r ne a r l y t he e nt i r e c ha pt e r i s de vot e d t o O us m a ne S e m b ne ( a n i m por t a nt pi one e r i n A f r i c a n c i ne m a no doubt ) C e r t a i n s ubj e c t gr oupi ngs a r e c ur i ous a nd c onf us i ng. W hy, f o r e xa m pl e doe s D i op i nc l ude N e w A e s t he t i c s ( os t e ns i bl y a di s c us s i on of di r e c t or i a l t e c hni que di s t r i but i on a nd pr oduc t i on) i n a c ha pt e r l a r ge l y de vot e d t o ge nde r a nd hom os e xua l i t y? A l t hough a s s t a t e d a bove D i op doe s a c r e di t a bl e j ob of i l l us t r a t i ng t he m e s s om e of hi s a na l ys e s a r e obvi ous e ve n t o t he uni ni t i a t e d s t ude nt or s c hol a r s uc h a s w he n s he c o m m e nt s t ha t . a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n doc um e nt a r i e s a nd f i c t i on m us t be m a de a s t he t w o do not ne c e s s a r i l y pl a y s i m i l a r r o l e s ( 66) T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o books i n t e r m s of s our c e m a t e r i a l a nd r e f e r e nc e s i s t e l l i ng. D i op pr ovi de s ne a r l y n i ne t y s our c e s but i n r oughl y one qua r t e r of t he s e ( m a ny o f t he m j our na l a r t i c l e s ) no da t e o f publ i c a t i on i s gi ve n, m a ki ng t h e m di f f i c ul t t o f i nd i f one c hoos e s t o c onduc t f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. N o s t i l l phot os of t he f i l m s a r e i n c l ude d, w hi c h m i ght he l p t o i l l us t r a t e s om e of t he t he m a t i c di s c us s i ons a nd s pa r k i nt e r e s t i n vi e w i ng t he f i l m s di s c us s e d. T ha c kw a y, on t he

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60 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a6 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 ot he r ha nd, i s t hor ough a nd pa i ns t a ki ng i n he r r e f e r e nc e s S he i nc l ude s a n e xt e ns i ve f i l m og r a phy ( w e l l ove r 100 f i l m s a r e di s c us s e d i n he r t e xt ) i nc l udi ng de t a i l s s uc h a s c ount r y of or i g i n, di s t r i but or s r unni ng t i m e a nd m e di um T he bi bl i o gr a phy of r e f e r e nc e w or ks i s de t a i l e d a nd up t o da t e a nd i nc l ude s a w e a l t h of s our c e s f or f ur t he r s t udy. S i nc e t he s e f i l m s a r e s om e t i m e s not e a s y t o f i nd, m os t he l pf ul i s t he c ont a c t i nf or m a t i o n f or m a j or di s t r i but or s o f f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n f i l m s i nc l ude d a t t he e nd. R e f e r e nc e not e s a ppe a r i n t he r i ght m a r gi ns of e a c h pa ge ( w hi c h I f ound l e s s di s t r a c t i ng t ha n f oot not e s but m or e e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e t ha n e ndnot e s ) a nd t he r e a r e doz e ns of m ovi e s t i l l s a nd r e pr oduc t i ons of m ovi e pos t e r s t o i l l us t r a t e t e c hni c a l poi nt s a nd ke y t he m a t i c e l e m e nt s A s a n i nt r oduc t i on t o f r a nc ophone A f r i c a n c i ne m a D i op s t e xt i s s uf f i c i e nt i n s pi t e o f i t s w e a kne s s e s w he r e a s T ha c kw a y s t e xt i s a n e xc e l l e nt s our c e i n e ve r y r e ga r d a s a n i nt r oduc t i on t o t he s ubj e c t a s a r e f e r e nc e f or s e r i ous s c hol a r s a nd a s a n a s s i gne d t e xt i n a n unde r gr a dua t e or gr a dua t e c our s e P a t r i c k D a y U ni v e r s i t y of W i s c ons i n E au C l ai r e

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a7 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 P h as e s of C on f l i c t i n A f r i c a R os e K ad e n d e K ai s e r an d P au l J. K ai s e r e d s T or on t o: D e S i t t e r P u b l i c at i o n s 2005 184 p p A f r i c a ha s be e n a f f l i c t e d by s e r i ous a r m e d c onf l i c t s pe r ha ps m or e t ha n a ny ot he r r e gi on on t he pl a ne t I t i s how e ve r i m por t a nt t o put t he c a us e s of t he s e c onf l i c t s i nt o p r ope r pe r s pe c t i ve r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y c onc l udi ng t ha t t he y a r e t r i ba l or e t hn i c c onf l i c t s I n m os t c a s e s t he unde r l yi ng c a us e s of t he s e c onf l i c t s a r e c l os e l y i nt e r w ove n i n bot h na t i ona l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l a r e na s A m ong t he i nt e r na t i ona l f a c t or s a r e t he c ons e que nc e s of t he C ol d W a r a nd i t s a f t e r m a t h a s w e l l a s t he gl oba l i z a t i on a nd l i be r a l i z a t i on of t he w or l d e c onom y, w hi c h ha ve ge ne r a t e d pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c i ns e c ur i t y i n A f r i c a N a t i ona l f a c t or s t ha t ha ve c ont r i but e d t o a r m e d c onf l i c t s i n A f r i c a i nc l ude di s c r i m i na t or y pol i t i c a l pr oc e s s e s s ke w e d r e s our c e di s t r i but i on, c e nt r a l i z e d a nd hi ghl y pe r s ona l i z e d f or m s of gove r na nc e c or r upt i on, a nd m i s m a na ge m e nt I n p r a c t i c e a t t e nt i on t o t he s e c onf l i c t s i s us ua l l y a t t he i ndi v i dua l c ount r y l e ve l a nd i n t he c ont e xt s of s pe c i f i c c ount r i e s T he c ons e que nc e i s t ha t c onf l i c t r e s ol ut i on s t r a t e gi e s f a i l t o a pp r e c i a t e t he c om pl e x, of t e n r e gi ona l na t ur e of c onf l i c t s i n A f r i c a T hi s book a i m s t o pr ovi de a n a na l yt i c a l f r a m e w or k f or c onc e pt ua l i s i ng a nd de a l i ng w i t h s om e of t he s e c onf l i c t s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n W e s t a nd C e nt r a l A f r i c a T he book i n i t i a l l y c ons i de r s t he c r i t i c a l i s s ue of t e r r or i s m a nd t he w a y i t ha s a f f e c t e d A f r i c a T he e m pha s i s i n t he di s c us s i on i s on t he f a c t or s t h a t s e r ve t o m obi l i s e a c t or s t ow a r d t he us e of vi ol e nc e T he book poi nt s out t ha t t he unde r l yi ng c a us e s of t e r r or i s m s houl d be s ought i n s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l i nj us t i c e s a nd i n pa t t e r ns of i ne qua l i t y T he w a r on t e r r o r i s m t he r e f or e r e qui r e s m or e t ha n a r m e d i nva s i ons I t c a l l s f or c oope r a t i on i n a t t a c ki ng de s pa i r a nd i ndi gni t i e s t ha t s pa w n r a di c a l pol i t i c a l m e a s ur e s a nd vi ol e nc e T he book m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he U ni t e d S t a t e s pr i or i t y ha s be e n t o r e duc e t he t h r e a t of t e r r o r i s m a ga i ns t A m e r i c a n i nt e r e s t s a t hom e a nd a br oa d, but t ha t t he r e a r e c os t s i nvol ve d a nd oppo r t uni t i e s t ha t A f r i c a n gove r nm e nt s c a n e xpl oi t T he bo t t om l i ne i s t ha t A f r i c a s houl d s e e k t o s t r i ke m or e a dva nt a ge ous ba r ga i ns w i t h t he U ni t e d S t a t e s by ne got i a t i ng f or t he s t r e ngt he ni ng of gove r nm e nt a l i ns t i t ut i ons t o f i ght t e r r o r i s m T he book a l s o w a r ns of t he da nge r s o f t he w a r a ga i ns t t e r r or i s m d i ve r t i ng A m e r i c a n a t t e nt i on f r om e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt a nd de m oc r a t i s a t i on. T hi s vol um e a l s o unde r s c or e s t he hi s t or i c a l a nd c u l t ur a l f a c t or s i n t he e xa c e r ba t i on of c onf l i c t s i n A f r i c a I t c i t e s t he c a s e of N or t he r n G h a na t ha t w i t ne s s e d c onf l i c t s be t w e e n 1981 a nd 1994. T he s e c onf l i c t s w e r e a n e xt e ns i on of t he f a i l ur e of t he pos t c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt t o r e c ons t r uc t c i t i z e ns hi p i n a w a y t ha t ba l a nc e d e t hni c i nt e r e s t s T he pos t c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt i ns t e a d m a r gi na l i z e d s om e gr oups w hi c h i n t ur n a g gr a va t e d c onf l i c t be t w e e n e t hni c gr oups M os t c onf l i c t s i n A f r i c a a r e i n pa r t i nf or m e d by t r a di t i on a l l e ga c i e s of s ke w e d s oc i o e c o nom i c a nd pol i t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi ps T he r e f uge e p r obl e m i n A f r i c a i s a not he r c r uc i a l f a c t or l i nke d t o c onf l i c t s T he t e xt a r gue s t ha t c onf l i c t s do no t s i m pl y s pi l l a c r os s bounda r i e s be c a us e of m ove m e nt of r e f uge e s I ns t e a d, c onf l i c t s a r i s e w he n r e f uge e s e n t e r i nt o a po l a r i z e d s i t ua t i on or one t ha t a l r e a dy c ont a i ns t he

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62 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a7 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 s e e ds of di s c or d. I n s uc h c a s e s r e f uge e s c r e a t e t e ns i ons by c r e a t i ng ne w a l i gn m e nt s or c ha ngi ng ol d one s T he c a s e s of T a nz a ni a a nd t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c of C ongo ( D R C ) a r e us e d i n t he book t o i l l us t r a t e t hi s s i t ua t i on. T he hi s t or i c a l pol a r i t y a nd m ove m e nt of r e f uge e s i n e a s t e r n D R C he l ps t o e xpl a i n t he t e ns i on a nd c onf l i c t s i n t ha t c o unt r y i n t he r e c e nt pa s t I n T a nz a ni a s i m i l a r hi s t or i c a l c i r c um s t a nc e s do not pe r t a i n a nd t ha t pa r t l y e xpl a i n s w hy T a nz a ni a ha s not w i t ne s s e d vi ol e nt c onf l i c t s i nvol vi ng r e f uge e s T he book a l s o de a l s w i t h t he s c ope of t he c onf l i c t s i n t he D R C s i nc e i nde pe nde nc e i l l us t r a t i ng t he r ol e of b ot h t he r e gi ona l a nd t r a ns na t i ona l f or c e s I n t he c a s e of W e s t A f r i c a t he book e xa m i ne s t he c a s e of L i be r i a a nd m a i nt a i ns t ha t w hi l e a pe a c e a gr e e m e nt c a n l a y a f ounda t i on unde r w hi c h ove r t w a r m a y c e a s e i t i s t he e f f or t s t o c ons ol i da t e t he pe a c e a gr e e m e nt t ha t de t e r m i ne w he t he r t ha t a gr e e m e nt w i l l l a s t o r not I t i s i m por t a n t t o bui l d on pe a c e a gr e e m e nt s by pa yi ng c l os e a t t e nt i on t o t he vu l ne r a bi l i t i e s t ha t e a c h pa r t y br i ngs t o t he ne got i a t i ng t a bl e T he book a l s o c ons i de r s t he que s t i on of t r a ns i t i ona l j us t i c e i n S i e r r a L e one S i e r r a L e one a dopt e d t w o t r a ns i t i ona l j us t i c e pol i c y opt i ons : a T r u t h C om m i s s i on a nd a S pe c i a l C our t I n t he r e c e nt pa s t c ount r i e s t ha t ha ve e m e r ge d f r om c onf l i c t or gr os s hum a n r i ght s a bus e s ha ve i nc r e a s i ngl y s how n i nt e r e s t i n a dopt i ng a va r i e t y of pol i c y. T he books c a ut i ons a ga i ns t e m br a c i ng a one s i z e f i t s i t a l l a pp r oa c h. I t m a i nt a i ns t he ne e d t o m oor pol i c y opt i ons t o s pe c i f i c c ont e xt s T he book doe s w e l l i n b r oa dl y hi ghl i ght i ng t he c om pl e x na t ur e of m os t o f t he c onf l i c t s on t he A f r i c a n c ont i ne nt I t t a ke s i n di ve r s e m e t hodol og i c a l a ppr oa c he s a nd i de ol ogi c a l a s s um pt i ons a nd c e r t a i nl y a dds t o c r i t i c a l t hi nk i ng by pr ovi di ng f a s c i na t i ng a nd f a c t ua l c a s e s t udi e s E a c h c ha pt e r c ha l l e nge s t he r e a de r t o r e t hi nk t he c onve n t i ona l s i m pl i s t i c w a y of br a ndi ng c onf l i c t s i n A f r i c a i n t r i ba l / e t hi c t e r m s W ha t pe r ha ps doe s not c om e out s t r ongl y i n t he e s s a ys on t e r r or i s m i s t he de ba t e on t he r ol e o f r e l i gi on i n c onf l i c t s pa r t i c ul a r l y w he r e i nd i vi dua l s s e e k t o l e gi t i m i s e ba r ba r i s m i n t he na m e of be l i e f R e l i gi on ha s a l s o w or ke d i n t a nde m w i t h s oc i o e c onom i c f a c t or s t o i nt e ns i f y c onf l i c t s i n s om e pa r t s o f A f r i c a i nc l u di ng N or t he r n U ga nda a nd S out he r n S uda n T he book a l s o de f i ne s c onf l i c t i n br oa d t e r m s of pe r c e i ve d i nc om pa t i bi l i t y o f i nt e r e s t s or c om pe t i t i ons f or c ont r ol o f s c a r c e r e s our c e s Y e t i n t he c a s e s c ove r e d, t he r e i s l i t t l e e f f or t t o di s t i ngui s h t he s e f r om ove r t a nd s t r uc t u r a l but i ns i di ous f or m s of c onf l i c t i n c ount r i e s s uc h a s Z i m ba bw e K e nya a nd N i ge r i a N one t he l e s s t he b ook i s r i c hl y r e l e va nt t o c ont e m por a r y r e a de r s i n i t s a bi l i t y t o hi ghl i ght c om pl e x de ba t e s a nd bor r ow f r om di ve r s e s our c e s of da t a T he va r i ous c ont r i but or s c a n e a c h s t a nd on t he i r ow n but t he y a l s o bui l d on e a c h ot he r I t i s a w e l l pa c ka ge d book on s om e ke y c a s e s of de s t r uc t i ve c on f l i c t i n A f r i c a I t s houl d i nt e r e s t bot h a c a de m i c i a ns a nd pr a c t i t i one r s i nt e r e s t e d i n i nt e l l e c t ua l de ve l op m e nt di a l ogue a nd p r a c t i c e on c onf l i c t br oa dl y a nd on A f r i c a i n pa r t i c ul a r K i s i a nga ni E m m a nue l U ni v e r s i t y of t he W i t w at e r s r and

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a8 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 S w ah i l i M od e r n i t i e s C u l t u r e P ol i t i c s an d I d e n t i t y o n t h e E as t C oas t o f A f r i c a P at C a p l an an d F ar ou k T op an e d s T r e n t on N J: A f r i c a W or l d P r e s s 2004. 270 p p A phot ogr a ph o f a young w om a n w e a r i ng a gr e e ni s h ve i l a nd hol di ng a m obi l e phone t o he r r i ght e a r a dor ns t he c ove r of S w a hi l i M ode r ni t i e s a c ol l e c t i on of c on f e r e nc e c ont r i but i ons de a l i ng w i t h C ul t ur e P ol i t i c s a nd I de nt i t y on t he E a s t C oa s t of A f r i c a I t s houl d be po i nt e d out t ha t t h e m ode r ni t y i n t he t i t l e r e f e r s t o a m uc h l onge r pe r i o d of t i m e t ha n t he c ove r pi c t u r e s ugge s t s t he m os t obvi ous e xa m pl e be i ng J os A r t ur o S a a ve dr a s c ha pt e r on t he i nc or por a t i on of f or e i gn w or ds i nt o S w a hi l i poe t r y w r i t t e n be t w e e n 1880 a n d 1907. T he pl u r a l S w a hi l i M ode r ni t i e s r e f l e c t s not on l y t he m a ny f or m s i n w hi c h m ode r n i t y m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f on t he E a s t A f r i c a n C oa s t a t va r i ou s t i m e s but a l s o t he di ve r s i t y o f a ppr oa c he s us e d by t he c ont r i but o r s t o t he vol um e w ho ha ve t he i r ba c kgr ound w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f G r e g C a m e r on, w ho i s a pol i t i c a l s c i e nt i s t e i t he r i n l a n gua ge a nd l i t e r a t ur e s t udi e s or a nt hr opol ogy T he c a s e s t udi e s c ove r s a l m os t a l l of t he S w a hi l i C oa s t w i t h L a m u a s t he m os t nor t he r n s i t e o f r e s e a r c h a nd t he C om or o i s l a nds t he m os t s out he r n pa s s i ng B a ga m oyo, Z a nz i ba r a nd M a f i a i s l a nd. T he book i s w e l l s t r uc t ur e d, a l t hough t he he a di ngs of t he t h r e e s ub s e c t i ons F r om M a l i ndi t o t he C om or os : L oc a l l e ve l C a s e S t udi e s of S w a hi l i M ode r ni t i e s ( c ha pt e r s 2 6) F oc us on Z a nz i ba r ( c ha pt e r s 7 9 ) a nd M ode r ni t i e s a nd I de nt i t i e s i n S w a hi l i T e xt s : P oe t r y, S ongs a nd P l a ys ( c ha pt e r s 10 13) w hi c h a r e gi ve n on t he ho m e pa ge t o t he book ha ve gone m i s s i ng i n t he book i t s e l f 1 I n t he i n t r oduc t or y c ha pt e r C a pl a n de f i ne s w ha t m ode r ni t y m e a ns i n t he c ont e xt of t he hi s t or y of t he S w a hi l i C oa s t by s um m a r i z i ng t he m a i n t hr e a ds of di s c us s i on be t w e e n t he c onf e r e nc e pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w e r e f a c e d w i t h t w o m a i n c ha l l e nge s : t o m a ke c l e a r t ha t t he c oa s t o f E a s t A f r i c a ha s l ong be e n a n a r e a o f pe r pe t ua l c ha nge ( p. 3) a n d t o s how t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m ode r ni t y a nd t r a di t i on i s f a r f r om be i ng a n e i t he r / or m a t t e r ( p. 5) A s t he e di t or s s t a t e i n t he i r pr e f a c e t he y a i m e d t o e xpl or e t he i m pa c t of r e c e nt hi s t or i c a l c ha nge s on t he E a s t C oa s t : gl oba l i z a t i on a nd i t s c onc om i t a nt l oc a l i z a t i on; de v e l opm e nt a nd unde r de ve l opm e nt ; pol i t i c a l c ha nge s c onf l i c t a nd c ont e s t s ; a nd l oc a l unde r s t a ndi ngs of a nd s t r i v i ngs t ow a r ds t he e l us i ve goa l of m ode r ni t y ( vi i i ) a n a i m w hi c h t he y de f i ni t e l y a c c om pl i s he d w i t h t hi s vol um e T he e l us i ve c ha r a c t e r of m ode r ni t y i s a t t he c e nt e r of C a pl a n s ow n c a s e s t udy on M a f i a i s l a nd f or w hi c h s he e m pl oye d a c r e a t i ve a pp r oa c h. A s he r l a s t vi s i t da t e s ba c k t o 1994, C a pl a n us e s t he m a ny l e t t e r s s e nt t o he r s i nc e t he n, t o a na l yz e t he c ha nge s w hi c h t he i s l a nd ha s unde r gone i n t he pe r i od o f s t r uc t ur a l a dj us t m e nt S he di s c us s e s how pe opl e de a l w i t h t he i nc r e a s i ng f i na nc i a l de m a nds w hi c h go ha nd i n ha nd w i t h m ode r n i z a t i on a nd a l s o r e f l e c t s on how t he s e de m a nds t r a ns l a t e i nt o r e que s t s f or f i na nc i a l s u ppor t pl a c e d upon he r s e l f t he a nt hr opol ogi s t ( p 51) I n he r c onc l us i on C a pl a n c a ut i ons a ga i ns t e xa gge r a t i ng t he s uc c e s s of c opi ng s t r a t e gi e s or r om a nt i c i z i ng r e s i s t a nc e ( p. 5 8) w hi c h i s t a ki ng up a gr e a t de a l of r e c e nt

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64 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a8 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 l i t e r a t ur e on de ve l opm e nt a nd m ode r n i t y a nd ha v i ng know n t he a r e a f or ove r t hr e e de c a de s t a ke s a m uc h m or e pe s s i m i s t i c out l ook w he n s he s t a t e s : I n t he c ont e xt o f M a f i a I s l a nd, a nd i nde e d, I s us pe c t of m uc h of t he r e s t o f s ub S a ha r a n A f r i c a t he odds a r e j us t ove r w he l m i ng [ ] T he f a c t i s t ha t pe opl e di e ne e dl e s s l y a nd pe opl e s l i ve s a r e m uc h ha r de r t ha n t he y s houl d be M ode r ni t y r e m a i ns e l us i ve ( p. 58 59) I n t he s e c ond, a l s o ve r y s t i m ul a t i ng, c a s e s t udy on M a f i a i s l a nd, C hr i s t i ne J W a l l e y e xpl or e s not i ons of t he m e a ni ng of de ve l opm e nt t o t he pe opl e on M a f i a a nd c ont r a s t s t he m w i t h t he unde r s t a ndi ng o f de ve l opm e nt by t he di f f e r e nt a c t o r s w i t hi n t he de ve l opm e nt bus i ne s s G r e g C a m e r on s P ol i t i c a l V i o l e nc e E t hni c i t y a nd t he A gr a r i a n Q ue s t i on i n Z a nz i ba r i s t he f i r s t of t w o c ha pt e r s w hi c h de a l w i t h t he r e c e nt pol i t i c a l c onf l i c t be t w e e n t he r ul i ng C ha m a c ha M a pi nduz i ( C C M ) pa r t y a nd t he C i vi c U ni t e d F r on t ( C U F ) oppos i t i on w hi c h a l s o t ook vi ol e nt f or m s s uc h a s t he de m ons t r a t i ons m os t not a bl y i n t he J a nua r y 2001 w he r e m a ny C U F s uppor t e r s l os t t he i r l i ve s i n s hoot i ngs H e c onvi nc i ngl y a r gue s t ha t t he or i gi ns o f Z a nz i ba r s c ont e m por a r y pol i t i c a l c r i s i s de r i ve d f r om t he a gr a r i a n c r i s i s m a n i f e s t e d i n P e m ba s r e gi ona l i s ol a t i on, r a t he r t ha n a r e a s s e r t i on of A r a b he ge m oni c de s i gns on t he I s l e s ( p. 112 ) T hi s pos i t i on i s pa r t l y c ha l l e nge d by K j e r s t i L a r s e n s c ha pt e r w hi c h i s ba s e d on obs e r va t i ons a nd c onve r s a t i ons dur i ng e xt e ns i ve f i e l dw or k i n Z a nz i ba r f r om t he m i d e i gh t i e s on. T he a ut hor s w ho de a l w i t h c ul t u r a l e xpr e s s i ons of S w a hi l i i de nt i t y ge ne r a l l y of f e r m o r e pos i t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve s A s s i bi A A m i du de s c r i be s S w a hi l i poe t r y a s a m e a ns t o f i ght out pol i t i c a l s t r uggl e s i n L a m u, w hi l e P a ul M us a u di s c us s e s how i nnova t i ons on va r i ous l e ve l s ha ve c ha nge d T a a r a b f r o m a non pa r t i c i pa t or y f o r m of m us i c r e v ol vi ng a r ound t he m a i n t opi c l ove t o a m us i c s t yl e w hi c h e nc our a ge s t he pa r t i c i pa t i on o f i t s a udi e nc e a nd w hi c h a l s o a ddr e s s e s s oc i o pol i t i c a l i s s ue s s u c h a s c or r upt i on, e duc a t i on a nd H I V / A I D S T he onl y c ha pt e r w i t h a n e xpl i c i t ge nde r f oc us i s F a r ouk T opa n s a na l ys i s of t he r e p r e s e nt a t i ons of F e m a l e S t a t us i n S w a hi l i L i t e r a t ur e H a vi ng t r a c e d c ha nge s i n t hr e e p i e c e s of S w a hi l i l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h ha ve be e n p r oduc e d i n di f f e r e nt pe r i ods of t i m e he c onc l ude s t ha t t he a t t i t ude of m e n t ow a r ds i s s ue s of g e nde r w hi c h on t he l e ve l o f l i t e r a t ur e m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f on t he nu m be r of m a l e w r i t e r s w ho t a ke a s t a nd a ga i ns t t he e xpl oi t a t i on of w om e n i s a de c i s i ve f a c t or ( p 224 225) A l l t w e l ve c ha pt e r s a r e r e l a t i ve l y s hor t a nd ge ne r a l l y r e a d w e l l a l t hough t he r e a r e s ubs t a nt i a l di f f e r e nc e s w i t h r e ga r ds t o t he i r qua l i t y a nd or i gi n a l i t y. S om e a ut hor s r e m a i n ve r y m uc h on t he s ur f a c e of t he i r t opi c a nd a m o r e s e l e c t i ve e di t i ng pol i c y c oul d ha ve i m p r ove d t hi s c ol l e c t i on D e s pi t e t he s e s hor t c om i ngs t he book c e r t a i nl y i s o f gr e a t va l ue t o a nybody w i t h a n i nt e r e s t i n t he c ont e m por a r y S w a hi l i C oa s t a nd t he w a y i t s i nha bi t a nt s f a c e a nd c ons t r uc t t he c om pl e xi t i e s of m ode r ni t i e s B i r gi t E ngl e r t U nv i e r s i t y of V i e nna N ot e 1. S e e ht t p: / / w w w gol ds m i t hs a c uk/ de pa r t m e nt s / a nt hr opol ogy/ s t a f f / pa t c a pl a n/ s w a hi l i m ode r ni t i e s php

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a9 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 P e op l e s S p ac e s an d S t a t e S p ac e s : L an d an d G o ve r n an c e i n M oz am b i q u e R os e m ar y E l i z ab e t h G al l i L an h a m M D : L e xi n gt o n B ook s 2003. 313 p p P e opl e s Spac e s and St at e Spac e s e xa m i ne s t he w a ys i n w hi c h M oz a m bi c a ns ha ve l os t l a nd r i ght s a nd ha ve be e n l e f t out of t he m e a ni ngf ul de c i s i on m a ki ng w i t h r e ga r d t o l a nd m a na ge m e nt de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s T he s c e na r i o i s a f a m i l i a r one f or A f r i c a C ol oni a l pow e r s vi e d f or t he r e gi on a nd c a r ve d i t up i n w a ys w hi c h di d not c or r e s pond t o c us t om a r y l a nd t e nur e r e gi m e s C onc e s s i ona r y c om pa ni e s ove r w or k a nd br u t a l i z e pe opl e c a us i ng m a ny t o f l e e i n o r de r t o s e e k m or e m e a ni ngf ul e m pl oym e nt t o pa y t he hi gh t a xe s ne w l y i m pos e d upon t he m T he s oc i a l c ons e que nc e s of f l oodi n g a nd dr ought t a ke on ne w di m e ns i ons due t o c ha nge s i n gove r na nc e w hi c h f a i l t o m a ke r u r a l pe opl e a nd t he i r l i ve l i hoo ds a pr i or i t y R e s e t t l e m e nt s c he m e s a nd t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of w i l dl i f e p r ot e c t e d a r e a s br i ng ne w ha r ds hi ps t o r u r a l pe opl e T he pos t i nde pe n de nc e gove r nm e nt c ont i nue s m a ny of t he p r a c t i c e s e s t a bl i s he d dur i ng c ol oni a l r ul e but gove r na nc e i s l e s s t r a ns pa r e nt a nd c or r upt i on c om m onpl a c e T he book i s d i vi de d i nt o t w o pa r t s P a r t one i n t r od uc e s t he r e a de r t o t he or ga ni z a t i on o f r ur a l s pa c e a nd t he s pe c i f i c s of l i f e i n s e ve r a l s m a l l s e t t l e m e nt s D oc um e nt s f r om t he hi s t or i c a l a r c hi ve s of M oz a m bi que a s w e l l a s c ol oni a l m i s s i o n, di s t r i c t a dm i ni s t r a t or a nd c om pa ny r e por t s s e r ve a s t he ba s i s of m uc h of t he i n f or m a t i on pr ovi de d f or t he e a r l i e r ye a r s T he de pt h of c ove r a ge va r i e s f or t he 1975 1991 due t o t he i na bi l i t y of t he a ut hor t o a c c e s s r e l e va nt pr i m a r y s our c e s I n a ddi t i on s e ve r a l ke y i n f or m a nt s r e m a i ne d s i l e nt on t he s a m e t i m e pe r i od T he s e c ond por t i on of P e opl e s Spac e s and St at e Spac e s e xpl o r e s t he w a ys i n w hi c h de m oc r a t i c s pa c e s a r e c r e a t e d. I t i s bui l t upon i n f or m a t i on gl e a ne d t hr oug h or a l hi s t or i e s a nd f i e l d r e s e a r c h us i ng a ppr a i s a l t e c hni que s T he m a i n a r gum e nt o f t he bo ok i s t he ne e d t o br i ng r u r a l M oz a m bi c a ns i nt o pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c de c i s i on m a ki ng. T he a ut h or a r gue s t ha t l oc a l pe opl e s houl d do t he i r ow n pl a nni ng a nd t he n a ppr oa c h de ve l opm e nt a ge nc i e s f or f undi ng. T he a ut ho r i s c r i t i c a l of t he c ur r e nt pr oc e dur e s i n w hi c h out s i de r s m e r e l y c ons ul t l oc a l pe opl e a nd t he n c hos e w hi c h of a c om m uni t y s pr i or i t i e s w i l l be a ddr e s s e d a nd w he n. G a l l i c onc l ude s t ha t t he r e i s a ne e d f o r e xt e ns i ve r e t r a i ni ng of s t a t e of f i c i a l s a nd t ha t t he l ow e s t l e ve l s t a t e of f i c i a l s a r e t he m os t r e c e pt i ve t o m or e de m oc r a t i c pl a nni ng pr oc e s s e s T he book i s a ki n t o t w o m onogr a phs bound t oge t h e r : t he f i r s t s e c t i on i s o f i nt e r e s t t o hi s t or i a ns a nt hr opol ogi s t s a nd ot he r s w or ki ng on i s s ue s of hi s t or y of t r a de m i gr a t i on a nd f a m i l y l i f e T he s e c ond, r e s e m bl i ng f i e l d r e por t s w i t h de s c r i pt i ons of i ndi vi dua l bui l d i ngs a nd f i e l ds i s us e f ul t o t he W or l d B a nk a nd N G O s t a f f T he book ha ngs t oge t he r w e l l e nough but m a y not ha ve a w i de a udi e nc e G r a dua t e s t ude nt s a nd s pe c i a l i s t s w i l l f i nd t he book us e f ul f or i t s c ont r i but i ons t o t he s t udy of a n A f r i c a n c ount r y f o r w hi c h t he r e a r e f e w de t a i l e d f i e l d s t udi e s T he va l ue of t he book s c ont r i but i ons m a y be be t t e r a ppr e c i a t e d a f t e r m or e de t a i l s f r om t he ye a r s 1975 1991 be c om e a va i l a bl e A ddi t i ona l i nf o r m a t i on on l a nd t e nur e i s ne e de d. F or e xa m pl e que s t i ons s uc h a s w he r e w e r e unc ons ol i da t e d hol di ngs m os t c om m on, w he t he r t r e e s c oul d be

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66 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a9 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 m or t ga ge d a nd by w hom t he w a ys i n w hi c h s qua t t e r s ga i ne d r i ght s ove r t i m e a nd how t hi s m i ght ha ve di f f e r e d by pl a c e of or i gi n e t hni c i t y ge nde r or ot he r f a c t or s m i ght ha ve be e n a ddr e s s e d. N o i nf or m a t i on i s pr ovi de d on us e a nd m a na ge m e nt o f t he m a r i ne e nvi r onm e nt T he dut i e s of va r i ous l e ve l s of l oc a l a ut ho r i t y a r e de t a i l e d but ho w gove r na nc e i s ne got i a t e d i n r ur a l M oz a m bi que a nd how ha s t hi s c ha nge d ove r t i m e i s l e s s c l e a r Q ue s t i ons l e f t una ns w e r e d i nc l u de w ha t oppor t uni t i e s e xi s t e d f or r ur a l pe opl e t o s i t on a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n gove r ni ng boa r ds a nd c ounc i l s a nd how i s vot i ng unde r t a ke n w i t hi n r e gi ona l gove r ni ng bodi e s a nd m or e ge ne r a l l y. T he a ut hor dr a w s on t he w or k o f J a m e s C S c ot t J udi t h T e ndl e r a nd A nt oni o G r a m s c i t o a r gue t ha t i f r u r a l pe opl e w e r e a bl e t o di r e c t l y e l e c t di s t r i c t a nd s ub di s t r i c t l e ve l o f f i c i a l s t he y w oul d be put on m or e e qua l f oot i ng w i t h ur ba n pe opl e but l i t t l e c onne c t i on i s m a de be t w e e n M oz a m bi que a nd ot he r A f r i c a n c ount r i e s i n t e r m s of pl a c i ng t he c ount r y i n a b r oa de r c ont e xt of P or t ugue s e hol di ngs f r ont l i ne s t a t e s o r s out he r n A f r i c a m or e ge ne r a l l y. T he r e i s a l s o s ur pr i s i ngl y l i t t l e di s c us s i on of t he l i t e r a t u r e on s pa c e pl a c e a nd i de nt i t y, w hi c h w oul d ha ve s t r e ngt he ne d t he a na l yt i c a l poi nt s m a de i n t he boo k. H e i di G l a e s e l F r ont a ni E l on U ni v e r s i t y

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 0 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 T ou r i s m i n t h e N e w S ou t h A f r i c a: S oc i al R e s p on s i b i l i t y an d t h e T ou r i s t E xp e r i e n c e G ar t h A l l e n an d F r an k B r e n n an L on d on : I B T au r i s 2004 305 p p S oc i a l s c i e nt i s t s G a r t h A l l e n a nd F r a nk B r e nna n, ha ve e s s e nt i a l l y c r e a t e d t w o i nt e r r e l a t e d books be t w e e n t he c ove r s of T our i s m i n t he N e w Sout h A f r i c a: Soc i al R e s pons i bi l i t y and t he T our i s t E x pe r i e nc e A s oc i a l a nt hr opol ogi s t s a nd a pol i t i c a l e c onom i s t t he pa i r w o r ke d i n S out h A f r i c a f r om t he m i d 199 0s t o 2002. F i r s t t he i r j oi nt e f f o r t i s a hope f ul ye t c a ut i ona r y t a l e c onc e r ni ng e c o t our i s m a nd de ve l opm e nt i n t he c ont e xt of K w a Z ul u N a t a l S e c ond, t he a ut hor s l e a d r e a de r s on a w i ndi ng pa t h i nt o t he ps yc he of t he i nt e r na t i ona l t r a ve l e r s pe c ul a t i ons on i s s ue s of i nt e r na t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p, a nd a c c ount a bl e t our i s t be ha vi or T he t e xt s houl d i nt e r e s t s c hol a r s of S out h A f r i c a n s t udi e s t ou r i s m s t udi e s de ve l opm e nt s t udi e s s oc i a l a nt hr opol ogy, a s w e l l a s pol i t i c a l e c onom y. I n t he ope ni ng c ha pt e r s t he a ut ho r s pr e s e nt a h i ghl y de t a i l e d ove r vi e w o f S out h A f r i c a n t our i s m pol i c y i n t he 1990s F ol l ow i ng t he 1994 t r a ns i t i on f r om a pa r t he i d t he s t a t e c ha r a c t e r i z e s t our i s m a s a pa na c e a f os t e r i ng r e c onc i l i a t i on na t i on bui l di ng, j ob c r e a t i on, a nd e c onom i c gr ow t h A d di t i ona l l y, A l l e n a nd B r e nna n pr e s e nt a m o r e s pe c i f i c a c c ount of t ou r i s m de ve l opm e nt i s s ue s f a c i ng t he no r t he r n r e gi on of K w a Z ul u N a t a l ( K Z N ) E nc om pa s s i ng na t i ona l pa r ks e s t ua r i e s a nd w i l dl i f e a r e a s a s w e l l a s m a ny r ur a l A f r i c a n c om m un i t i e s K Z N i s a p r i m e l oc a t i on f or e xt r a c t i ng e xa m pl e s of e c o t our i s m de ve l opm e nt a nd i t s i m pa c t on l oc a l g r oups T he a ut hor s p r i m a r y goa l i s t o c ont r i but e t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on c om m uni t y ba s e d e c ot our i s m I n t he i r vi e w t he c ur r e nt di s c our s e o f t e n unde r s t a nda bl y w e i ght e d t ow a r ds i s s ue s of c ons e r va t i on a nd s us t a i na bi l i t y, c oul d be ne f i t f r om a t i nge of r e a l i s m T he y a s s e r t t ha t de ve l opm e nt pl a nne r s ne e d t o be t t e r r e c ogni z e t he t a ngl e s of ve s t e d i nt e r e s t s a nd t he pol i t i c a l f a c t or s t ha t c om pl i c a t e t he w e b o f de c i s i on m a k e r s s t a ke hol de r s a nd a f f e c t e d pa r t i e s T o t hi s e nd t he a ut ho r s s um m a r i z e a nd e va l ua t e c a s e s t udi e s of c ont e m por a r y pr og r a m s s uc h a s t h os e a t D ukuduku F or e s t P hi nda R e s our c e R e s e r ve a nd K os i B a y i n K Z N T he y i de nt i f y a nd c ha r a c t e r i z e t he ke y pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s of e a c h pr ogr a m T he i r s c r ut i ny i s a i m e d a t c ons t r uc t i ng i m p r ove d, vi a bl e m ode l s of i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n na t i ona l of f i c e s t he pr i va t e s e c t or a nd i ndi vi dua l c om m un i t i e s I m por t a nt l y t he y s t r e s s t he ne e d f or bot h e nvi r o nm e nt a l a nd c ul t ur a l s pe c i f i c i t y w he n de s i gni ng pr og r a m s T o f u r t he r e xpos e t a ngl e s A l l e n a nd B r e nna n pi npoi nt a num be r of r e a l i s t i c i m pe di m e nt s t o s us t a i na bl e de ve l opm e nt i ni t i a t i ve s i n S out h A f r i c a s r ur a l a r e a s O ne pr e va l e nt a nd pe r t i ne nt i s s ue i s t he pa r t i c i pa t i on o f l oc a l A f r i c a n g r oups T o be gi n S out h A f r i c a s hi s t or y of i ns t i t ut i ona l i nj us t i c e t ow a r ds bl a c ks l i nge r s ove r A f r i c a n c om m uni t i e s a nd i m pe de s t he i r t r us t of ne w pr og r a m s A r e c e nt l y publ i c i z e d c onc e r n f or t he na t i on t he r e i s c ont i nue d de ba t e ove r w ho t he gove r nm e nt i ndi vi dua l s or t he c om m uni t y i s t he f i na l de c i s i on m a ke r c onc e r ni ng l a nd ow ne r s hi p a nd us e S i m i l a r l y t he a ut ho r s que s t i on t he s t r uggl e be t w e e n c om m uni t y a nd pe r s ona l i nt e r e s t s T he y a s k: I s t he s e l f de t e r m i na t i on a nd i nd i vi dua l i s m l a ude d unde r t he ne w f r e e c a pi t a l i s t a nd de m oc r a t i c S out h A f r i c a f unda m e nt a l l y a t odds w i t h t he e qua l l y l a ude d goa l s of c om m uni t y a c t i on a nd e m pow e r m e nt ? I n s um A l l e n a nd B r e nna n c ha r a c t e r i z e K Z N a s unf e r t i l e gr ound f or de ve l opm e nt unt i l t he s e f a c t or s a l ong w i t h c r i m e

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68 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 0 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 a nd pol i t i c a l a nd e t hni c t ur bul e nc e a r e a ddr e s s e d. S e e m i ngl y f r a gm e nt e d f r om t he i ni t i a l di s c us s i on of e c ot our i s m t he s e c ond s e c t i on of t he t e xt di r e c t s i t s f oc us t o t he s oc i a l l y r e s pons i bl e va c a t i one r I n a n i n t e r e s t i ng t ur n t he a ut hor s a ddr e s s t he m or a l a nd e t hi c di m e ns i on of t our i s m e xpr e s s l y t h r ough t he di l e m m a s pr e s e nt e d t o i nt e r na t i ona l t our i s t s A l l e n a nd B r e nna n s pe c ul a t e w he t he r t our i s t s s houl d m odi f y t he i r i ndi vi dua l be ha vi or a s gue s t s of a not he r na t i on. ( T hi s i s s u e i s a l s o a ddr e s s e d by E C ha m be r s 2005 a m ong ot he r s ) T he y r a i s e m a ny que s t i ons r e l a t e d t o t ol e r a t i on a nd ob l i ga t i on I n t he S ou t h A f r i c a n c a s e : s houl d vi s i t or s a bi de o r r e a c t t o s oc i a l i nj us t i c e s uc h a s r a c i s m i n t he hos t c ount r i e s ? T he y a l s o que s t i on w h a t p r om pt s s om e t our i s t be ha vi or s : D o t our i s t s m a ke pur c ha s e s out of a s e ns e of c om pa s s i on or c om pe l l a t i on t o gi ve ba c k t o t he c om m uni t y t he y vi s i t ? D e s pi t e t he hi ghl y t he or e t i c a l a nd c onj e c t ur a l na t u r e of t hi s s e c t i on, t he t e xt of f e r s s e ve r a l i de a s w or t hy of f ur t he r di a l ogue F o r i ns t a nc e t he y di s c us s how i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n t our i s m bodi e s c a n ve nt ur e t ow a r ds gr e a t e r goa l s s uc h a s c ons e r va t i on. I n t hi s ve i n A l l e n a nd B r e nna n m a ke t he c a s e f or a n i nt e r na t i ona l c ode o f c onduc t f or t r a ve l e r s T he i r a r g um e nt c ont a i ns a hypot he t i c a l di s c us s i on of t h e a r c he t ypa l G ood T o ur i s t s om e one w ho w i l l ha v e t he i ni t i a t i ve t o l e a r n c us t om s a nd a c t r e s pe c t f ul l y i n t r a ve l s i t ua t i ons de s pi t e e nc ount e r i ng di s s i m i l a r nor m s a nd va l ue s C onve r s e l y, A l l e n a nd B r e nna n t e nd e r a f e w p r obl e m a t i c e xa m pl e s F or i ns t a nc e t he y pos t ul a t e t ha t r um o r s of c r i m e a nd vi ol e nc e di s s ua de vi s i t s t o S out h A f r i c a or r e s t r i c t t ou r i s t s a c t i vi t i e s w hi l e i n S out h A f r i c a n c i t i e s T hough a va l i d c onc e r n, t he a ut hor s of f e r f e w c r i m e r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s a nd no pe r s ona l i z e d i nf or m a t i on f r om i nt e r vi e w s w i t h vi c t i m s o r non v i c t i m s T he i r a r gu m e nt r e s t s on a f i c t i ona l c ha r a c t e r w ho i s de ba t i ng t he c ons e que nc e s of l e a vi ng hi s hot e l r oom a f t e r d a r k t o vi s i t t he D ur ba n be a c hf r ont F or t hi s r e a de r t he t e xt ho l ds s om e w e a k poi nt s F i r s t of a l l t he pe r s ona l i t i e s of t hi s s e c t i on, a he doni s t i c j e t s e t t e r ( r e m i ni s c e nt o f t he U gl y A m e r i c a n ) t he G ood T ou r i s t a nd t he t i m i d t r a ve l e r c om pos i t e c ha r a c t e r s a l i ke a r e pe r ha ps t oo ge ne r a l i z e d. T h r oughout t he t e xt t he r e i s l i t t l e di s c us s i on of m e t hodol ogy or di r e c t quot a t i on of i nf or m a nt s T he a na l ys i s c oul d be i m p r ove d w i t h m or e r e m a r k s on t he i r c u r r e nt i n t e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons or m o r e t hor ough unpa c ki ng of vi gne t t e s F i na l l y, de s pi t e e nga gi ng w i t h i s s ue s of e t hni c gr oup pa r t i c i pa t i on t he y ne gl e c t a t hor ough d i s c us s i on of t he i m pa c t s of c ul t ur a l t our i s m t ha t c oupl e e c o t ou r i s m i ni t i a t i ve s a nd c e r t a i nl y c ol l i de w i t h ne w S out h A f r i c a n t our i s m pol i c i e s T he s t r e ngt h o f t hi s w o r k l i e s i n t he a ut hor s a ppr e c i a t i on of t he nua nc e d c ha r a c t e r of t our i s m T our i s m i s a di a l e c t i c a l s oc i a l pr oc e s s C om bi ne d w i t h de ve l opm e nt i t i s a f ur t he r c om pl i c a t e d ne t w or k of pol i t i c a l e c onom i c f a c t or s e nvi r on m e nt s a nd s t a ke hol de r gr oups A dm i t t e dl y A l l e n a nd B r e nna n s w or k i s e xpl o r a t o r y a nd o f f e r s m o r e a ve nue s f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h t ha n de f i ni t i ve a ns w e r s c onc e r ni ng e i t he r e c ot our i s m de ve l opm e nt or s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y. I n c onc l us i on, i t i s t he c onne c t i ons l i nki ng t he t w o s e c t i ons of t he t e xt s uc h a s t ha t be t w e e n t he a l t r ui s t i c t ou r i s t a nd t he i r pot e nt i a l i m pa c t on pr ogr a m s o f e c ol ogy a nd c ons e r va t i on, o r t ha t b e t w e e n good gove r na nc e a nd good c i t i z e ns hi p, w hi c h w i l l a l l ow f or s uc c e s s f ul de ve l opm e nt pr ogr a m s i n t he f ut u r e R a c he l H a r ve y U ni v e r s i t y of F l or i da R e f e r e n c e C ha m be r s E r v e C a n t he A nt hr op ol ogy of T ou r i s m M a ke U s B e t t e r T r a ve l e r s ? N A P A B ul l e t i n 23, ( 2005) : 27 44.

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 U n c e r t ai n S af ar i : K e n yan E n c ou n t e r s an d A f r i c an D r e am s A l l an M Wi n k l e r L an h am M D ( U S A ) : H am i l t on B ook s 2004. 149p p I t i s a l w a ys a pl e a s a nt s ur pr i s e t o f i nd a book t ha t i s w r i t t e n a bout one s ow n e xpe r i e nc e s M a ny of us ha ve t a ught or s t udi e d i n A f r i c a ye t a c c ount s of t ha t e xpe r i e nc e a r e r a r e T he r e i s a w hol e i ndus t r y of P e a c e C or ps books s om e of t he m e xc e l l e nt ( G e or ge P a c ke r s T he V i l l age o f W ai t i ng [ 1984] a bout T ogo, c om e s t o m i nd ) T he r e a r e t r a ve l books m a ny o f t he m c ove r i ng E a s t A f r i c a s om e of t he m s e l f i ndul ge nt ot he r s w or ks o f l i t e r a t ur e ( t a ke t he l a t e S hi va N a i pa ul s de l i ght f u l N or t h of Sout h [ 1978 ] ) A nd t he r e a r e j our na l i s t s a c c ount s of t he i r l i ve s i n A f r i c a o f t e n pr ovi di ng a t hought f ul a na l ys i s ( B l a i ne H a r de n m a y not ha ve i nve nt e d t he t e r m B i g M a n, but hi s book A f r i c a: D i s pat c he s f r om a F r agi l e C ont i n e nt [ 1990] c e r t a i nl y b r ought i t t o a w i de r a udi e nc e A c c ount s of t he t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e i n A f r i c a how e ve r a r e r a r e T hi s m a ke s A l l a n W i nkl e r s book a us e f ul c ont r i b ut i on. W i nkl e r t a ught a s a F ul br i gh t pr of e s s or i n t he h i s t or y de pa r t m e nt of t he U ni ve r s i t y of N a i r obi i n 1995 96 a nd ha s vi s i t e d K e nya f or e xt e nde d pe r i ods s i nc e 1990. A s he put s i t i n hi s pr e f a c e hi s book t r i e s t o c a pt ur e hi s l ove f or K e nya a nd i s m e a nt a s a n a f f e c t i ona t e po r t r a i t o f pe opl e pl a c e s a nd p r obl e m s ( p. 6) W hi l e t he book i s hone s t a nd ge ne r a l l y r e a da bl e i t i s n t e nt i r e l y s uc c e s s f ul a t c onve yi ng t he a ut hor s a f f e c t i on f or K e nya T he book i s s t r uc t u r e d a s a s e r i e s of r e l a t i ve l y i nde pe nde nt e s s a ys W hi l e c e r t a i n t he m e s r e a ppe a r a s w e l l a s c e r t a i n c ha r a c t e r s ( W i nkl e r s n e i ghbor M a r y a f e l l ow i ns t r uc t or a t t he uni ve r s i t y, f r om w hom he l e a r ns a bout t he K e nya n s oc i a l c ont e xt ) t he c ha pt e r s c oul d s t a nd on t he i r ow n a nd i nde e d pe r ha ps t he y w e r e or i gi na l l y w r i t t e n a s s e pa r a t e e s s a y s T he c ha pt e r on e duc a t i on, T e a c h t he C hi l d r e n W e l l i s e s pe c i a l l y r e f r e s hi ng, a s i t r e c ount s t he e xpe r i e nc e s m a ny of us ha ve f a c e d t e a c hi ng i n a f o r e i gn e nvi r o nm e nt : t he l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s t he c l a s s e s c a nc e l l e d f or no a ppa r e nt r e a s on, t he i nt e l l i ge nt bu t by A m e r i c a n s t a nda r ds pa s s i ve s t ude nt s F or W i nkl e r hi s e nc ount e r s a r e ge ne r a l i z a bl e : t he c r um bl i ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of N a i r obi [ w a s ] t ypi c a l o f t he c o unt r y a s a w hol e ( p. 44 ) H e ha s s hi ppe d s e ve r a l hundr e d books i nt e ndi ng t o dona t e t he m t o t he uni ve r s i t y l i br a r y. W i t h he l p f r om t he A m e r i c a n E m ba s s y, t he books a r e t r a c e d t o a w a r e hous e a t t he por t of M om ba s a a nd a r r i ve i n N a i r ob i B ut gi ve n W i nkl e r s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t he uni ve r s i t y l i br a r y ( I t w a s a m e s s [ p. 52] ) he de c i de s t o c ont r i but e t he books t o hi s de pa r t m e nt t o c r e a t e a l i br a r y, but bui l d i ng a f e w books he l ve s be c om e s a n e nor m ous unde r t a ki ng: T he e nt i r e e pi s ode w a s a ki nd of m i c r os c opi c s t ud y of t he pr obl e m s o f t r yi ng t o ge t t hi ngs done i n a de ve l opi ng c ount r y. T he bu r e a uc r a c y w a s a l m os t i m pe ne t r a bl e dom i na t e d by of f i c i a l s a f r a i d t o t a ke t he i ni t i a t i ve f o r f e a r of c o m m i t t i ng t oo m uc h, a c c om pl i s hi ng t oo l i t t l e a nd l os i ng t he i r j obs ( p. 53) W i nkl e r a ppl i e s t hi s a ppr oa c h t o m os t of hi s e xpe r i e nc e s i n K e nya : ba s e d on hi s pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s he dr a w s ge ne r a l c onc l us i ons A s a hi s t or i a n, he r e a l i z e s t he r i s ks of t hi s a ppr oa c h,

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70 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 a nd i n t he c ha pt e r on c or r upt i on ( T he P ol i t i c s of F e a r ) he s uppor t s hi s ge ne r a l i z a t i ons w i t h i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he e di t o r o f t he D a i l y N a t i on, T o m M s hi ndi oppos i t i on l e a de r R i c ha r d L e a ke y, a nd w i t h f o r m e r a t t o r ne y ge ne r a l C ha r l e s N j onj o, f or c e d out of of f i c e i n a pow e r pl a y i n t he 1980s U nf or t una t e l y t he onl y t hi ng w e l e a r n f r o m t he l a t t e r i nt e r vi e w i s t ha t N j onj o w a s unw i l l i ng t o t a l k a bout t he c a r e f ul l y or c he s t r a t e d a t t a c kt ha t ha d br ought hi m dow n ( p. 110) O ne doe s ge t a f e e l f or t he w a y t he c ount r y w o r ks t he byz a nt i ne m a c hi na t i ons of po l i t i c s a nd pow e r but l i ke t h e t e a c he r w ho onl y s pe nds a ye a r t he r e one i s l e f t w onde r i ng e xa c t l y w ha t i s goi ng on. W i nkl e r bl a m e s t he c ol oni a l e xpe r i e nc e f or K e nya s c or r upt i on a nd i t s f a i l ur e t o l i ve up t o i t s pr om i s e a t i nde pe nde nc e B y i m p l i c a t i on, t hi s a ppl i e s t o a l l of A f r i c a : O ne a ut oc r a t a f t e r a not he r ha s dr a w n s ki l l f ul l y on t he l e s s ons of t he c ol oni a l pa s t a nd us e d t he pa t t e r ns of r e pr e s s i on de vi s e d t he n t o s e c ur e pe r s ona l a nd pol i t i c a l a dva nt a ge i n t he pos t i nde pe nde nc e ye a r s ( p. 104) W hi l e t hi s i s c e r t a i nl y t r ue i n m a ny i ns t a nc e s i t do e s not e xpl a i n w hy c or r upt i on a nd i ne f f i c i e nc y ha ve pe r c ol a t e d t o a l l l e ve l s of K e nya n s oc i e t y, a n d W i nkl e r doe s n t of f e r ot he r s ugge s t i ons O n P r e s i de nt M oi w ho f i na l l y r e t i r e d i n 2002, W i nk l e r gi ve s s om e ni c e one l i ne r s ( he f i nds i t s ym bol i c t ha t t he m onum e nt t o M oi i n U hur u P a r k i s i n a s t a t e of di s r e pa i r [ p 108 ] ) but ul t i m a t e l y he doe s n t t e l l a nyt hi ng ne w a bout M oi : I f e l t m ys e l f c a ught up i n t hi s c a r e f ul l y c ul t i va t e d c ha r a de I ha d t o gi ve M oi gr udgi ng r e s pe c t f or t he s uppor t he de m a nde d a nd r e c e i ve d, j us t a s I ha d r e l uc t a nt l y a ppl a ude d L yndon J ohns on w he n he i m pos e d hi s w i l l on t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n t he m i d 1960s ( p. 108) T he c onne c t i on t o L yndon J ohns on i s ne ve r e xpl a i ne d, a nd t he non s e qui t ur i s e m bl e m a t i c of t he w a y W i nkl e r t hr ow s t oge t he r f a s c i na t i ng t i db i t s i n t hi s book. T he r e s ul t of t h i s hone s t book i s i nt e r e s t i ng, c e r t a i nl y t o a nyone w ho ha s t a ught o r w or ke d i n A f r i c a but i t ne ve r r e a l l y br i ngs K e nya t o l i f e S r e n J ohns on D e l f t U ni v e r s i t y of T e c hnol ogy T he N e t he r l and s

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 N o P e ac e N o War : A n A n t h r op ol ogy o f C on t e m p or ar y A r m e d C on f l i c t s P au l R i c h ar d s e d A t h e n s O H : O h i o U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s 2005. 214 p p A t War s E n d : B u i l d i n g P e ac e A f t e r C i vi l C on f l i c t R ol an d P ar i s C am b r i d ge : C a m b r i d ge U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004. 290 p p N o P e ac e N o W ar a nd A t W ar s E nd p r obe t he na t ur e of a r m e d hos t i l i t i e s w hi l e pa yi ng c l os e a t t e nt i o n t o t he i r s oc i a l c ont e xt a nd pr oc e s s I t s houl d be not e d t ha t de s pi t e t he i r di f f e r e nt m e t hodol ogi e s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s bot h t om e s s pe a k s i m ul t a ne ous l y t o s c hol a r s a nd pr a c t i t i one r s of pe a c e bui l di ng, a nd t o ot he r s i nt e r e s t e d i n t he c ha l l e nge s of m a na gi ng c i v i l vi ol e nc e I n s pi t e o f t he s i m i l a r i t y o f t op i c s a nd t he i r ge ne r a l t r e a t m e nt of t he i s s ue s a t ha n d, t hi s r e vi e w di s c us s e s e a c h book i n t ur n i n o r de r t o be t t e r a c c e nt ua t e t he i r i m por t a nd pot e nt i a l P a ul R i c ha r ds e di t e d vol um e i s t he p r oduc t of a r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t on t he a nt h r opol ogy o f vi ol e nt c onf l i c t A c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of t he c ha pt e r s i n t hi s c ol l e c t i on i l l us t r a t e t ha t t he i nt e nt of t he i nve s t i ga t i on i s t he unpa c ki ng of t he c onc e pt s of w a r a nd pe a c e f r o m t he l oa d of m e a ni ngs de pos i t e d on t he m by s e c ur i t y e xpe r t s a nd i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons s c hol a r s T he poi nt of de pa r t ur e f or t he c ont r i but or s i s de bunki ng t he dom i na nt m e di a pe r c e pt i on t ha t r ogue s t a t e s a nd t e r r or i s t ne t w or ks a r e c a us e s r a t he r t ha n s ym pt om s of t he vol a t i l i t y of i nt e r na t i ona l l i f e I n i t s e xe c ut i on o f t hi s obj e c t i ve N o P e ac e N o W ar a dopt s t he c onc e pt ua l t ool k i t o f a n t hr opol ogi c a l r e s e a r c h. C ons e que nt l y, s uc h a nove l t a ke on t he i s s ue of c ont e m por a r y a r m e d c onf l i c t s m a ke s pos s i bl e a num be r of i m por t a nt c onj e c t ur e s on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n w a r a nd pe a c e T he c ol l e c t i on c ha l l e nge s i t s r e a de r s t o t hi nk a bout w a r ( a nd a l s o pe a c e ) a s a s pe c t s of s oc i a l pr oc e s s e s a nd not m e r e l y a s t he out c om e s of a s e t of c a us e s T hi s pr opos i t i on i s pa r t i c ul a r l y pe r t i ne nt t o t he pos t C ol d W a r c onf l i c t s t he ove r w he l m i ng m a j or i t y of w hi c h oc c ur r e d w i t hi n a nd not be t w e e n s t a t e s R i c ha r ds vol um e l oc a t e s s uc h w a r s w i t hi n t he s oc i a l c ont e xt t ha t nu r t ur e s t he m T h i s a l l ow s c onf l i c t t o be c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s s om e t hi ng m a de t hr ough s oc i a l a c t i on, a nd s om e t hi ng t ha t c a n be m ode r a t e d t hr ough s oc i a l a c t i on r a t he r t ha n vi e w i n g i t a s s o e xc e pt i ona l a s t o r e qui r e s pe c i a l e xpl a na t or y e f f or t ( p 3) T he ut i l i t y o f t hi s a r gum e nt i s a dva nc e d i n e l e ve n e s s a ys on s oc i e t i e s vul ne r a bl e t o or a f f e c t e d by w a r T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on c onc e nt r a t e s on t he t r e a t m e nt of t he A f r i c a n c a s e s a s t he y a r e l i ke l y of gr e a t e r i nt e r e s t t o t he r e a de r s of t hi s j ou r na l I n t hi s c ont e xt one s houl d a dm i r e S t e n H a gbe r g s pe r s pi c a c i ous t r e a t m e nt of t he vo l a t i l e i nt e r e t hni c pe a c e i n B ur ki na F a s o. I n a n i nve s t i ga t i on w hi c h s e e ks t o e xpl a i n t he pe r s i s t e nc e of t he une a s y pe a c e i n t he c ount r y H a gbe r g d r a w s a t t e nt i on a w a y f r om t he pa r t pl a ye d by t he c e nt r a l a ut hor i t i e s a n d e xt e r na l a c t or s a nd i ns t e a d f oc us e s on t he r ol e of l oc a l a dm i ni s t r a t i ons H e poi nt s t ha t i t i s t he f unc t i oni ng of l oc a l bu r e a uc r a c y ( s us t a i ne d by r e g ul a r pa ym e nt s of s a l a r i e s ) m or e t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e t ha t ke e ps t he l i d on c i vi l unr e s t i n t he c ount r y H a gbe r g s a na l ys i s c ont r i but e s t o t he e m e r gi ng l i t e r a t ur e l i nki ng pos t C ol d W a r c i vi l c on f l i c t s ( not onl y i n A f r i c a ) t o t he br e a kdow n o f l oc a l a dm i ni s t r a t i ons a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r t he s ubs e que nt c or r upt i on o f l oc a l di s put e r e s ol ut i on pr oc e dur e s ( p.

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72 | B O O K R E V I E W A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 55) T hi s poi nt dove t a i l s w i t h S ve r ke r F i nns t r m s t r e a t m e nt o f t he c onf l i c t i n N or t he r n U ga nda F i nns t r m e m ba r ks on a s oc i o l i ngui s t i c e xa m i na t i on, w hi c h he t e r m s know i ng by e nga ge m e nt s ( p. 98) of t he i nt e r a c t i ve c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l p r a c t i c e of i n t e r pr e t a t i on a nd c ount e r i n t e r pr e t a t i on of t he c onf l i c t by t he va r i ous pr o t a goni s t s T he p r oc e s s e s of m a r gi na l i z a t i on due t o t he m a l f unc t i oni ng of s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons a r e a t t he he a r t of C a s pa r F i t he n s a nd P a ul R i c ha r ds s t udy of t he c onf l i c t i n S i e r r a L e one T he a ut hor s e m pha s i z e t he ope r a t i ona l f a i l ur e of t r a di t i ona l gr oup s ol i da r i t i e s ( p. 117) T he di s s ol ut i on of t he s e t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps i n t he c ount r y l e a ds t he m t o s ugge s t t he e m e r ge nc e of c om pe t i ng a f f i ni t i e s or ga ni z e d a r ound c ul t u r e s of vi ol e nc e T he a na l ys i s of t hi s c ha pt e r how e ve r c oul d ha ve gr e a t l y be ne f i t e d f r o m a c om pa r i s on w i t h s i m i l a r s t udi e s of t he w a r s i n f o r m e r Y ugos l a vi a w hi c h l i nk t he l e ve l s of vi ol e nc e t o t he r ui n o f s oc i a l hi e r a r c hi e s T he di f f i c ul t y t o r e bui l d s oc i a l s ol i da r i t i e s i s r e i t e r a t e d by M a t s U t a s i n hi s c ha pt e r on t he r e i nt e gr a t i on of L i be r i a s c hi l d s ol di e r s U t a s l i ke F i nns t r m e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of know i ng a nd e nga gi ng t he s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt i n t he pr oc e s s of pe a c e bui l di ng. A s i m i l a r a r gum e nt i s a dva nc e d by B j or n L i ndg r e n i n hi s e s s a y on pol i t i c a l vi ol e nc e i n Z i m ba bw e T he t hr us t o f hi s t he s i s i s t ha t c onf l i c t s ne ve r r e a l l y e nd, but c ont i nue t o l i ve i n t he m e m or i e s of vi ol e nc e a nd t he r e a l i t y of di s l oc a t i on. T he r e f or e L i ndgr e n poi nt s t ha t s us t a i na bl e pe a c e pr oj e c t s r e qui r e a t t e nt i on t o t he s oc i a l a c c om m oda t i on of t h e s e e xpe r i e nc e s Y e t de s pi t e t he e nl i ght e ne d a ppr oa c h of t he s e e s s a ys a l l of t he m pa l e i n c om pa r i s on w i t h t he c l os i ng e x pl or a t i on by t he l a t e B e r nha r d H e l a nde r on t he l ong a nd c om pl e x w a r i n S om a l i a D ur i ng t he 1990s t he c ount r y ha s be c o m e a poi gna nt s ym bol f o r bot h pol i t i c a l s c i e nt i s t s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of i nt e r na t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons H e l a nde r s ugge s t s t ha t t he f a i l ur e o f t he pe a c e bui l di ng i ni t i a t i ve s i n t he c ount r y i s due t o t he i r obj e c t i ve t o r e s us c i t a t e t he s t a t e i ns t i t ut i ons s o t ha t pe a c e c a n f l our i s h. A s t he p r ovoc a t i ve t i t l e of hi s e s s a y W ho N e e d s a S t a t e s ugge s t s H e l a nde r r e v i s i t s t he pr a c t i c e s of l oc a l s t a t e l e s s s oc i e t i e s by c ons i de r i ng t he de l i ve r y o f s oc i a l s e r vi c e s i n N or t h e a s t S om a l i a I n t hi s r e s pe c t he m a ke s a n i m po r t a nt c ont r i but i on not onl y t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he pr oc e s s a nd c ont e xt of m ode r n c onf l i c t but a l s o a dds t o t h e gr ow i ng l i t e r a t u r e on pos t W e s t ph a l i a n s t a t e hood. I n t he s e a nd m a ny o t he r w a ys N o P e ac e N o W ar pr ovi de s a m uc h ne e de d a c c ount of t he r ol e pl a ye d by s oc i a l pr oc e s s e s i n pos t C ol d W a r i nt r a s t a t e c onf l i c t s I t a l s o i nvi t e s r e a de r s t o c ons i de r a l t e r na t i ve w a ys f or o ve r c om i ng t he di l e m m a s of s t a t e f a i l ur e a nd s t a t e c ol l a ps e I t i s e xpe c t e d t ha t s om e w oul d obj e c t t o t he a nt hr opol ogi c a l a ppr oa c h a dva nc e d by t he vol um e ; but e ve n t he de t r a c t or s w oul d ha ve t o a dm i r e t he c ohe r e nc e a nd c ons i s t e nc y w i t h w hi c h i t ha s be e n f ol l ow e d by t he c ont r i but or s T he c ol l e c t i on w oul d t he r e f or e a ppe a l t o t he a dva nc e d s t ude nt of i n t e r na t i ona l a f f a i r s a n d i n pa r t i c ul a r t o s c hol a r s e xpl or i ng t he i s s ue s of e t h ni c s t r i f e D e a l i ng w i t h t he a f t e r m a t h o f vi ol e nt c onf l i c t s i s a l s o t he f oc us of R ol a nd P a r i s A t W ar s E nd H i s pr a gm a t i c obj e c t i ve i s t o s ugge s t w a ys f or m a ki ng pe a c e bui l di ng m or e e f f e c t i ve P a r i s c ons i de r s t hi s a n e s s e nt i a l r e qui r e m e nt i n c ount e r i ng t he p r obl e m s of c i vi l c onf l i c t i n t he pos t C ol d W a r e r a U nl i ke N o P e ac e N o W ar P a r i s t e xt ut i l i z e s t he t r a d i t i on a l c onc e pt ua l t ool s of i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons t he or y a nd s e c ur i t y s t udi e s H ow e ve r A t W ar s E nd s m a i n f i ndi ng w oul d not s ur pr i s e t he c ont r i but or s t o R i c ha r ds vol um e P a r i s pr opos e s t ha t pe a c e bui l di ng i s a s pe c i f i c ki nd o f s oc i a l e ngi ne e r i ng ba s e d on pa r t i c ul a r a s s um pt i ons a bout how be s t t o e s t a bl i s h dur a bl e dom e s t i c pe a c e ( p. 6) H i s c l a i m t he n i s t ha t a l l m a j or pe a c e bui l di ng i ni t i a t i ve s of t he 1990 s di s c ount e d t hi s s oc i e t a l di m e ns i on i n t he i r w or k I ns t e a d t he y f oc us e d on t he t w i n a s pe c t s of l i be r a l i z a t i on: de m oc r a t i z a t i on a nd m a r ke t i z a t i on. T he a r gum e nt i s t ha t s uc h pe a c e bui l di ng p r a c t i c e i s i nf l ue nc e d by t he i de a s of t he U S P r e s i de nt W oodr ow W i l s on.

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B O O K R E V I E W | 7 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 2 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 H a vi ng c onduc t e d a n i de a t i ona l ove r vi e w of t he no t i on a nd pr a c t i c e o f pe a c e bui l di ng, P a r i s s t r i ke s a t i t s f ounda t i on H e c onj e c t ur e s t ha t i ns t e a d of ou t r i ght l i be r a l i z a t i on, t he f or e m os t obj e c t i ve of pe a c e bui l di ng s houl d be i ns t i t ut i ona l i z a t i on t he c ons t r uc t i on of e f f e c t i ve pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c i ns t i t ut i ons pr i or t o i m p l e m e nt i ng e xt e ns i ve l i be r a l i z i ng r e f or m s i n or de r t o bol s t e r t he c onf l i c t da m pe ni ng qua l i t i e s of s oc i e t i e s ( p. 235 ) S uc h p r opos i t i on m i ght not s e e m e xc e pt i ona l l y o r i gi na l how e ve r due t o P a r i s a ppr oa c h a nd m e t hodol ogy i t di f f e r s qua l i t a t i ve l y f r om t he ne o G r a m s c i a n c r i t i qu e t r a di t i ona l l y l e ve l e d a t hum a ni t a r i a n i n t e r v e nt i ons I n o r de r t o a s s e r t hi s c l a i m P a r i s r e vi s i t s t he f our t e e n pe a c e ke e pi ng ope r a t i ons c onduc t e d be t w e e n 1989 a nd 1999. A ga i n ow i ng t o c ons i de r a t i ons of r e l e va nc e t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on r e vi e w s t he di s c us s i on of pe a c e bui l di ng i ni t i a t i ve s i n A f r i c a A t W ar s E nd s e t s of f i t s e va l ua t i on of i nt e r na t i ona l l y s pons or e d l i be r a l i z a t i on e f f or t s w i t h t he c a s e s of A ngol a a nd R w a nda H ow e ve r i ns t e a d of r e c ount i ng t he f a i l ur e o f t he pe a c e bui l di ng e nde a vor s i n t he s e c ou nt r i e s P a r i s e m ba r ks on a m e t i c ul ous i nve s t i ga t i on of t he a c t ua l r e c ons t r uc t i on e f f or t H i s e xpl or a t i on pr ovi de s c i r c um s t a nt i a l e vi de nc e t ha t t he l i be r a l i z a t i on i ni t i a t i ve s m a y ha ve a c t ua l l y w or ke d a ga i ns t t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of s t a bi l i t y. L i ke w i s e i n t he c om pa r a t i ve t r e a t m e nt o f C a m bodi a a nd L i be r i a P a r i s di s c e r ns a di ve r s i on o f de m oc r a t i z a t i on p r oc e s s ( a t l e a s t ) pa r t i a l l y s us t a i ne d by t he pe a c e bui l di ng e f f or t L i be r i a s c a s e i n pa r t i c ul a r c or r obo r a t e s hi s c l a i m t ha t ha s t y l i be r a l i z a t i on e f f o r t s m i ght a c t ua l l y w or k a ga i ns t t he goa l of e s t a bl i s hi ng a s t a bl e a nd l a s t i ng pe a c e i n c ount r i e s t ha t a r e j us t e m e r gi ng f r om c i vi l w a r s ( p. 96) P a r i s dr a w s a s i m i l a r c onc l us i on i n hi s t r e a t m e nt of t he c onf l i c t i n S i e r r a L e one L i ke t he c ont r i but or s t o N o P e ac e N o W ar he e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of know i ng a nd e nga gi ng t he s oc i a l c ont e xt i n t he pr om ot i on of s us t a i na bl e pe a c e i ni t i a t i ve s P r oba bl y t he m a i n c ha l l e nge t o hi s hyp ot he s i s i s pos e d by t he c a s e s of N a m i bi a a nd M oz a m bi que w hi c h by a nd l a r ge t e nd t o be c on s i d e r e d a s s uc c e s s s t or i e s of pe a c e bui l di ng. Y e t P a r i s que r i e s w he t he r t he e f f or t t he r e w a s of t he s a m e na t ur e a s i n t he ot he r pos t C ol d W a r i nt r a s t a t e w a r s H e a r gue s t he r e f o r e t he c onf l i c t s i n N a m i bi a a nd M oz a m bi que w e r e not c i vi l w a r s a t a l l ( p 148) I nde e d, t he w a r s t he r e w e r e bo t h i ns t i ga t e d a nd s us t a i ne d by e xt e r na l a c t or s P a r i s di s pl a ys t ha t w he n t he out s i de r s a ba ndone d t he ba t t l e f i e l ds t he r e w a s l i t t l e de m a nd f or c ont i nue d f i ght i ng, t he r e by r e duc i ng t he r i s ks of r a pi d l i be r a l i z a t i on e xa c e r ba t i ng t e ns i ons a m ong f or m e r l y w a r r i ng pa r t i e s ( p. 135) S uc h ove r vi e w of t he pe a c e bui l di ng e f f or t s du r i ng t he 1990s c onvi nc e s P a r i s i n t he s e ns i bi l i t y of e s t a bl i s hi ng a s ys t e m of dom e s t i c i ns t i t ut i ons c a pa bl e of m a na gi ng t he di s r upt i ve e f f e c t s of de m oc r a t i z a t i on a nd m a r ke t i z a t i on. P e r ha ps t he o nl y f l a w i n t hi s l i ne of a r gum e nt i s t he l a c k of c r i t e r i a f or ga ugi ng t he c a pa bi l i t y o f t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons T hi s de f i ni t e l y i s a n i s s ue t o be t a c kl e d by f ur t he r r e s e a r c h a nd A t W ar s E nd i s undoubt e dl y go i ng t o i ns pi r e a ddi t i ona l e nqui r i e s i nt o i t s i s s ue s F or s c hol a r s of pos t C ol d W a r a f f a i r s i n t he A f r i c a n c ont i ne nt bot h t om e s of f e r a w e a l t h of i nf or m a t i on a nd pos s i bl e t e m pl a t e s f or e xa m i ni ng t he que s t i on of o r de r T he vi r t ue o f bot h R i c ha r ds a nd P a r i s vol u m e i s t ha t t he y a r e not s e e ki ng t o gi ve de f i ni ni t i ve a ns w e r s a nd i m pos e pe r s pe c t i ve s b ut i nf or m pr ovoke a nd c ha l l e nge t he i r r e a de r s t o e xpl or e ne w a ve nue s i n t he e xpl a na t i on a nd t he unde r s t a ndi ng of t he c onf l i c t s of t he 1990s I n t hi s r e s pe c t N o P e ac e N o W ar a nd A t W ar s E nd w oul d be w i t h us f o r qui t e a w hi l e bo t h a s a n e xc e l l e nt r e f e r e nc e s our c e f or s c hol a r s of c onf l i c t s t udi e s a s w e l l a s a r e pos i t or y of know l e dge f o r a nyone i n t e r e s t e d i n t he pr oc e s s a nd t he c ont e xt o f c i vi l w a r s E m i l i a n K a va l s ki L ou ghbor ough U ni v e r s i t y U K

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 3 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 T h e P ol i t i c s o f H u m an i t ar i an O r gan i z at i on s I n t e r ve n t i on L an h a m O b i aga N d u b i s i U n i ve r s i t y of A m e r i c a P r e s s 2004. 120 p p I nt e r ve nt i ons by hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons i n c on f l i c t s e t t i ngs a r e m a i nl y pr e m i s e d on t he m or a l pr i nc i pl e a nd t he unque s t i ona bl e ne e d t o a l l e vi a t e s uf f e r i ng a m ong t he di s t r e s s e d popul a t i on. H ow e ve r t he i r a l t r ui s t i c i nt e r ve nt i ons a r e c ont e nt i ous c ha l l e ngi ng a nd pot e nt i a l l y c a pa bl e of ne ga t i ve a nd uni nt e nde d c ons e que nc e s I n hi s s hor t but c r i t i c a l book, N dubi s i O bi a ga a P r of e s s or of P ol i t i c s a t F or t V a l l e y S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, i nve s t i ga t e s a c t i vi t i e s a nd r o l e s of s e ve r a l hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons r e s pons i bl e f or r e l i e f o pe r a t i ons i n t he f a m i ne s t r i c ke n a r e a s dur i ng t he N i ge r i a n C i vi l w a r of 1967 1970 H ypot he s e s gui di ng t he s t udy a nd w e l l e xpl or e d i n t he t e xt i nc l ude a t t e m pt s by t he hu m a ni t a r i a n a c t or s t o i nf l ue nc e be ha vi our of be l l i ge r e nt s l e a de r s hi p, l e gi t i m a c y, ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd m a t e r i a l s uppor t g i v e n t o t he B i a f r a r e gi m e b y t he hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons C ha pt e r one e xpl or e s t he m ul t i f a c e t e d de ba t e on t h e na t ur e of i nt e r ve nt i on by t hi r d pa r t i e s i n c i vi l w a r s S o m e of t he c ont e nt i ous i s s ue s c onf r ont i ng hum a ni t a r i a ni s m a nd a na l ys e d by t he a ut hor i nc l ude t he m e a ni ng of i nt e r ve nt i on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n non i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ne ut r a l i t y, j us t i f i c a t i ons pol i t i c a l na t ur e a nd l e gi t i m a c y of hum a ni t a r i a n i nt e r ve nt i ons I n i t s br oa de r m e a ni ng, i nt e r ve nt i on be c om e s i ne vi t a bl e w i t h c ons e que nc e s of s t r i c t i m pa r t i a l i t y l i ke l y t o be m or e de l e t e r i ous N on i nt e r ve nt i on c a n e nc our a ge t he s t r onge r pa r t y i n t he c on f l i c t : A gr e a t na t i on i nt e r ve ne s i n t he dom e s t i c r e a l m of ot he r s t a t e s w he n i t s a ys ye s a nd w he n i t s a ys no by i t s s he e r e xi s t e nc e O bi a ga w r i t e s O bi a g a unde r s t a nds i nt e r ve nt i on t hr ough m ot i va t i ona l a nd c ons e que nt i a l a na l ys i s M ot i va t i o na l a na l ys i s c ons i s t s of a c t i ons t ha t a r e c ons c i ous l y c onc e i ve d t o a f f e c t t he a ut hor i t a t i ve s t r uc t ur e of t he t a r ge t w hi l e c ons e que nt i a l a na l ys i s c ons i s t s of a pol i c y w hi c h ha s uni n t e nde d or i na dve r t e nt c ons e que nc e s i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e f r om t he c ons e que nc e s of i nt e r ve nt i on a n e xa m pl e be i ng t he c a s e w he r e r e l i e f a i d s t r e ngt he ne d t he B i a f r a r e gi m e I n t he s e c ond c ha pt e r t he a ut ho r e xpl or e s t he hi s t or i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve of t he C i vi l w a r t he r ol e a nd i nt e r e s t s of va r i ous t hi r d pa r t i e s i n t he c onf l i c t I nt e r a c t i on o f m a ny f or c e s i s a t t r i but e d t o t he or i gi n of t he c onf l i c t w i t h p r om i ne nc e gi ve n t o e t h ni c r i va l r i e s a nd c om pe t i t i on f o r s t a t e c ont r ol a m ong t he I bo Y or uba a nd H a us a F ul a ni t he t h r e e dom i na nt e t hni c bl oc s i n N i ge r i a H e t he n gi ve s r e a s ons a nd s e que nc e of e ve nt s t ha t e ve nt ua l l y l e d t o c onc e r t e d de m a nds f or a B i a f r a n s t a t e a nd de c l a r a t i on of I nde pe nde nc e i n M a y 30 1967 M ot i va t i ons by f or e i gn bus i ne s s f i r m s na t i on s t a t e s i nt e r na t i on a l or ga ni z a t i ons a nd hum a ni t a r i a n gr oups w e r e va r i e d. F or t he bus i ne s s f i r m s a nd na t i on s t a t e s e c onom i c r a t i ona l e w a s dom i na nt w i t h oi l be i ng t he p r i m e i nt e r e s t of o i l c om pa ni e s s uc h a s t he S he l l B P t he A m e r i c a n G u l f a nd t he F r e nc h S A F R A P B r i t a i n t h e e x c ol oni a l pow e r ha d t he hi ghe s t s t a ke s i n t he c r i s i s w i t h a n e s t i m a t e d 52% t ot a l i nve s t m e nt i n t he c ount r y w hi l e F r a nc e s i nve s t m e nt t ot a l l e d $71 28 m i l l i on. F ur t he r i nt e r e s t w a s s t i m ul a t e d by t he 1967 M i ddl e E a s t w a r a nd t he c l os ur e o f t he S ue z C a na l f a c t or s t ha t i nc r e a s e d de m a nd a nd

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B O O K R E V I E W | 7 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 3 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 va l ue of t he N i ge r i a n oi l A ddi t i ona l l y, N i ge r i a ha d a ge ogr a phi c a l a dva nt a ge s i nc e oi l f r om M i ddl e E a s t r e qui r e d t r a ns por t a t i on a r ound t he C a pe A m e r i c a r e m a i ne d ne ut r a l w hi l e B r i t a i n a nd R us s i a ga ve L a gos m i l i t a r y s up por t a nd ba c ke d t he O ne N i ge r i a c onc e pt C hi na s s uppor t f o r t he B i a f r a n c a us e w a s i nf l ue nc e d by a gl oba l S i no S ovi e t r i va l r y a nd s t r ong di s l i ke f or L a gos pr o W e s t e r n pol i c i e s T a nz a ni a Z a m bi a G a bon a nd I vor y C oa s t s uppor t e d B i a f r a on hum a ni t a r i a n gr o unds a l t hough O bi a ga not e s t ha t N ye r e r e s s uppor t m a y ha ve be e n a pol i t i c a l ga m bi t t o b r i ng di pl om a t i c p r e s s ur e on P r e s i de nt G ow on t o ne got i a t e w i t h r e be l s T he pe r c e i ve d f e a r o f ba l ka n i s a t i on a nd a c ont i ne nt a l s e c ur i t y t hr e a t r e s ul t i ng f r om B i a f r a s s e c e s s i on m ot i va t e d m os t A f r i c a n s t a t e s t o s uppor t L a gos S uppo r t f r om F r a nc e C hi na Z a m bi a T a nz a ni a G a bon a nd I vor y C oa s t a nd di r e c t de a l i ngs of t he U S w i t h s e c e s s i oni s t s i n r e l a t i on t o hum a ni t a r i a n a s s i s t a nc e s t r e ngt he ne d t he s t a t us of B i a f r a i n i t s uns uc c e s s f ul e f f or t s t o obt a i n i nt e r na t i ona l r e c ogni t i on. I n t he l a s t t w o c ha pt e r s O bi a ga a na l yz e s i nt e r ve nt i on, i m pa c t s c ha l l e nge s a nd c ont r ove r s i e s t ha t s ur r ounde d ope r a t i ons o f t he I nt e r na t i ona l C om m i t t e e of t he R e d C r os s ( I C R C ) a nd C hur c he s A de t a i l e d a na l ys i s s how s t ha t de s pi t e t he i r hum a ni t a r i a n a c t s a nd m ot i va t i ons hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons a t t e m pt e d t o i nf l ue nc e be ha vi our of t he l e a de r s hi p a nd a l s o p r ovi de d r e be l s w i t h ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd m a t e r i a l s uppor t T h e C hur c h a nd m i s s i ona r i e s w e r e bi a s e d, p ol i t i c a l a nd c om m i t t e d t o t he r e be l s pol i t i c a l goa l of s e l f de t e r m i na t i on. O bi a ga a l s o i nt e r r oga t e s t he dua l i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he G e ne va C onve nt i on a nd de m ons t r a t e s how i t w a s us e d by t he gove r nm e nt t o j us t i f y s t a r va t i on a s a w e a pon of w a r T he C ha pt e r s a l s o hi ghl i ght s t he pr obl e m s of a c c e s s l i m i t e d ne got i a t i on c a pa c i t i e s a nd uni nt e nde d c ons e que nc e s a s s om e of t he ope r a t i ona l c ha l l e nge s f a c i ng hum a ni t a r i a n o r ga ni z a t i ons i n s i t ua t i ons of c i vi l s t r i f e I n t he c onc l us i on, O bi a ga a s s e r t s t ha t hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons t oge t he r w i t h ot he r t h i r d pa r t i e s a c t e d a s m a j or pr opa ga nda t ool f or B i a f r a a nd pr ol onge d t he w a r t h r ough m a t e r i a l a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l s uppor t t o t he r e be l s a nd a t oughe ni ng of t he L a gos a t t i t ude M or a l obl i ga t i on f or c e s t hi r d pa r t i e s t o i n t e r ve ne i n g r a ve s i t ua t i ons r e ga r dl e s s of pos s i bl e r e pe r c us s i ons be c a us e c ons e que nc e s of non i nt e r ve nt i on c a n be m o r e de l e t e r i ous t ha n uni nt e nde d c ons e que nc e s S t a r va t i on i n B i a f r a e xe m pl i f i e s s uc h a s i t ua t i on. O bi a ga s book i s a w e l c om e a nd a n i nva l ua bl e c on t r i but i on t o t he a c a de m i c de ba t e s a nd l i t e r a t ur e on hum a ni t a r i a n i n t e r ve nt i on. T he a na l ys i s of N i ge r i a n c onf l i c t a nd a w e l l s e l e c t e d bi bl i ogr a phy a dds a c om pa r a t i ve va l ue t o t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e c ove r i ng m o r e r e c e nt c om pl e x e m e r ge nc i e s i n S om a l i a S u da n, E t hi opi a L i be r i a a nd t he D e m oc r a t i c R e publ i c of C ongo. I t i s a us e f ul book f o r r e s e a r c he r s a c a de m i c s a nd s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t e d i n A f r i c a n c onf l i c t s S t a f f w or ki ng w i t h r e l i e f a ge nc i e s w i l l de f i ni t e l y f i nd t he book i n di s pe ns a bl e T he book doe s n t e xha us t t he s ubj e c t a nd t hi s w a s not t he a ut hor s i nt e nt S om e a r e a s t ha t l a c k de e pe r a na l ys i s a nd m i ght ne e d f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i nc l ude t he r o l e of m e r c e na r i e s a nd s t r a t e gi e s t o m i t i ga t e t he un i nt e nde d c ons e que nc e of hum a ni t a r i a n i nt e r ve nt i on a n unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t i s i m pe r a t i ve i n pe a c e bui l di ng a nd c onf l i c t r e s ol ut i on. C ons i de r i ng t he books l e ngt h a nd by gi vi ng t oo m uc h s pa c e t o t he na t i on s t a t e s a nd i nt e r na t i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons a s t hi r d pa r t i e s t o t he c onf l i c t t he a ut hor di d i nj us t i c e t o t he book s t i t l e O ne w oul d e xpe c t a m or e i n de pt h a na l ys i s of hum a ni t a r i a n or ga ni z a t i ons T he book s qua l i t y i s a l s o c om pr om i s e d by l a c k of t hor ough e di t or i a l w or k T hom a s N K i m a r u U ni v e r s i t y of t he W i t w at e r s r and

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 4 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 A H i s t or y of I n e q u al i t y i n S ou t h A f r i c a, 1652 2 002. S a m p i e T e r r e b l an c h e P i e t e r m ar i t z b u r g: U n i ve r s i t y o f N at al P r e s s 20 02. 527 p p S a m pi e T e r r e bl a nc he ha s t he e r udi t i on a nd uni que i ns i ght s i nt o b ot h s i de s of t he pol i t i c a l di vi de i n S out h A f r i c a t o m a ke hi m a n e xc e l l e nt c hoi c e t o a t t e m pt t hi s a m bi t i ous book. A l e a di ng S out h A f r i c a n e c onom i s t he w a s unt i l 1987 a m e m be r of t he r ul i ng N a t i ona l P a r t y, t he pa r t y of a pa r t he i d, but l a t e r be c a m e one of t h e i r f i e r c e c r i t i c be c om i ng a f oundi ng m e m be r a nd e c onom i c a dvi s e r of t he D e m oc r a t i c P a r t y w hi l e a l s o be i ng i nvol ve d i n c l a nde s t i ne m e e t i ngs w i t h t he A N C i n t he 1980s A t one l e ve l t hi s book i s a de t a i l e d e c onom i c a nd p ol i t i c a l hi s t or y o f S out h A f r i c a A t a not he r i t i s a s us t a i ne d c r i t i que f r om a s oc i a l de m oc r a t i c pe r s pe c t i ve of t he e nt i r e hi s t or y a nd c ont e m por a r y s i gni f i c a nc e of i ne qua l i t y a nd gl oba l i z a t i on i n a S out h A f r i c a n s e t t i ng. T hi s dua l a ppr oa c h he l ps e xpl a i n bot h t he l e ngt h a nd t he c o m pl e x s t r uc t ur e of t he book w hi c h c ons i s t s of f our pa r t s : P ow e r L a nd, a nd L a bour ; T he T r a n s i t i on a nd t he N e w S out h A f r i c a ( 1990 2002) ; C ol oni a l i s m S e g r e ga t i on, a nd A pa r t he i d ( 1652 1994) ; a nd A n I nc om pl e t e T r a ns f or m a t i on: W ha t s T o B e D one ? T he book d a r t s ba c kw a r ds a nd f or w a r ds i n t i m e T h i s s t r uc t ur e t oge t he r w i t h nu m e r ous c r os s r e f e r e nc e s a nd a bbr e vi a t i ons m a y i r k s om e r e a de r s but a c c or ds w i t h t he a ut hor s a i m t o w r i t e c om m i t t e d h i s t or y a nd pos e pr a c t i c a l s t r a t e gi e s f o r ge nui ne t r a ns f or m a t i on. T he book i s ba s e d s ol e l y on s e c onda r y, r a t he r t ha n a r c hi va l s our c e s a nd i s i nt e nde d a s a br oa d s ynt he s i s a l t hough T e r r e bl a nc he w a s pr i vy t o s om e hi dde n f a c t s on t he t r a ns i t i on pe r i od. O n t he i nc om pl e t e t r a ns f o r m a t i on f r om 1994 he i s a da m a nt : e nor m ous pr ob l e m s o f pove r t y he a l t h, l a nd hunge r a nd l i nge r i ng r a c i s m a nd e xpl oi t a t i on r e m a i n. T he que s t i on he pos e s i s w he t he r t he s e c ha l l e nge s m i ght ha ve be e n be t t e r m e t by a m o r e c om pr e he ns i ve s t a t e c e nt e r e d a ppr oa c h i n t he be s t t r a di t i on o f E ur ope a n s oc i a l d e m oc r a c y r a t he r t ha n ove r r e l i a nc e on bui l di ng a ne w bl a c k e l i t e w e dde d t o ne o l i be r a l i s m I n t h i s r e ga r d, T e r r e bl a nc he e xpos e s t he l i t t l e know n i nf or m a l m e e t i ngs be t w e e n w hi t e bi g bus i ne s s a nd A N C l e a de r s t ha t i n t he t r a ns i t i on pe r i od a l l ow e d f o r a l e s s ove r t e c onom i c vi c t or y of t he O l d G ua r d a l ongs i de a n i m p r e s s i ve pol i t i c a l vi c t or y f or t he A N C ( T e r r e bl a nc he na r r a t e s t hi s t he s i s i n a ne w C a na di a n f i l m M adi ba: T he L i f e & T i m e s of N e l s on M ande l a ( C B C 2004 ) E ve n i f gl oba l t r e nds ha ve r e nde r e d r a di c a l opt i on s l e s s r e a l i s t i c i t i s a pe r s ua s i ve a r gum e nt a n d one not w i t hout c ha m pi ons i n t he S out h A f r i c a n a c a de m y a nd e ve n i n s om e e c he l ons of s t a t e pow e r T e r r e bl a nc he s de f i ni t i on of a nd e l a bo r a t i on on t h e hi s t or y of t he bl a c k e l i t e i s a t t i m e s s om e w ha t s i m pl i s t i c : t he r e i s l i t t l e f o r e xa m pl e o n t he c om pl e x hi s t or i c t i e s be t w e e n di f f e r e nt bl a c k s oc i a l s t r a t a T he bl a c k e l i t e i s t r e a t e d a s a pa s s i ve e nd pr oduc t of e nt r a pm e nt by t he w hi t e bour ge oi s i e s a nd t he ne w bl a c k pe t i t bou r ge oi s i e m ys t e r i ous l y us e s t r a de uni on pow e r ( pp 135 7) E ve n s o, t he f oc us on e l i t e s s e r ve s hi s pur p os e w e l l T he m or e c ont e m po r a r y pa r t s of t he book c om pa r e f a vor a bl y w i t h o t he r r e c e nt c r i t i que s of t he s t a t us quo, s uc h a s P a t r i c k B ond s

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B O O K R E V I E W | 7 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 4 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 E l i t e T r ans i t i on: F r om A par t he i d t o N e ol i be r al i s m i n Sout h A f r i c a ( P i e t e r m a r i t z bur g: U ni ve r s i t y of N a t a l P r e s s 2000) T e r r e bl a nc he a l s o c r i t i c i z e s t he T r ut h a nd R e c onc i l i a t i on C om m i s s i on f or f a i l i ng t o c onf r ont s ys t e m i c e xpl oi t a t i on ( p 124 ) D e s pi t e s om e c ont r ove r s i a l f or m ul a t i ons f or e xa m pl e t h e c ont e nt i on t ha t a f f i r m a t i ve a c t i on ha s f e d bl a c k e l i t i s m ( p. 136) he i s a l w a ys t hought pr ovoki ng H i s A f r i ka ne r e s t a bl i s hm e nt or i gi ns a nd a n e l i s i on of t he pa nt he on of A f r i c a n na t i ona l i s t hi s t or y l e a ve hi m ope n t o c ha r ge s f r om s uc h qua r t e r s t ha t he dow n pl a ys t he A N C gove r nm e nt s ve r y c ons i de r a bl e a c hi e ve m e nt s Y e t t he e vi de nc e of a l ong hi s t or y o f i ne qua l i t y i s t he r e i n i t s h i s t or i c a l w a r t s a nd a l l a nd f or t hi s t he a ut hor m us t be c om m e nde d. A l t hough t he a ut hor l i ke s t o t hi nk o f t hi s a s p r i m a r i l y a hi s t or y book, i t i s m uc h m or e a n e nga ge d di a l ogue be t w e e n pa s t a nd pr e s e nt W hi l s t s om e hi s t or i a ns m a y be gr udge t he nua nc e s l os t t hr ough t he a ut hor s i na t t e nt i on t o a r c hi va l r e s e a r c h or f a s hi ona bl e t r e nds i n s oc i a l hi s t or y T e r r e bl a nc he s f oc us on i ne qua l i t y a nd on hi s t or i c a l r a t he r t ha n s uppos e dl y i nna t e c a us e s of pove r t y ( pp 42 44) t oge t he r w i t h hi s ow n ba c kgr o und, gi ve t hi s book g r e a t e r pot e nt i a l pa r t i c ul a r l y a m ong w hi t e S out h A f r i c a n r e a de r s f o r i m pa c t be yond c l oi s t e r e d s c hol a r l y s t udi e s A nd a l t hou gh t he a ut ho r i s c a r e f u l t o a c know l e dge A N C a c hi e ve m e nt s i t w i l l be i nt e r e s t i ng t o s e e t he r e c e pt i on a c c or de d t he book i n t he bl a c k e l i t e c i r c l e s he t r e nc ha nt l y c r i t i c i z e s G e ne r a l l y, t he a ut ho r ha s m a de a s ol i d a t t e m pt a t a na l yz i ng t he w or k of nu m e r ous s c hol a r s a c r os s a n e nor m ous s pa n of 350 ye a r s t o a c hi e ve h i s t a s k of w r i t i ng a hi s t or y of i ne qua l i t y r e l e va nt t o t oda y s S out h A f r i c a S om e not a bl e a ut hor i t i e s s uc h a s C ha r l e s va n O ns e l e n, a r e s t r a nge l y a bs e nt but m os t o f t he us ua l s us pe c t s a r e di s c us s e d t oge t he r w i t h a r e p r e s e nt a t i ve hos t of ne w ge ne r a t i on pol i t i c a l e c onom i s t s s uc h a s B ond a nd J ul i a n M a y, a s w e l l a s w or ks i n A f r i ka a ns I n e m pha s i z i ng t he c ont i nui ng t he m e of e c onom i c e xpl oi t a t i on a nd di s e m pow e r m e nt of i ndi ge nous pe opl e s by s e t t l e r c a pi t a l i s m T e r r e b l a nc he j oi ns t he w i de r i ve r o f c om m i t t e d a nt i a pa r t he i d s c hol a r s hi p t ypi f i e d by s c hol a r s s uc h a s M a r t i n L e ga s s i c k, S hul a M a r ks a nd B e r na r d M a guba ne but he w r i t e s m o r e i n t he pr ovoc a t i ve s t yl e of r e c e nt r e vi s i oni s t hi s t or i a ns i f on a m or e s w e e pi ng s c a l e T e c hni c a l l y t he book i s w e l l pr oduc e d i f a r r a nge d s om e w ha t s c he m a t i c a l l y. A ba ke r s doz e n of t a bl e s a dd qua nt i t a t i ve va l ue a nd e a s e t he t e di u m of a l ong t e xt t hough t he y c ove r onl y t he l a s t c e nt ur y. N um e r ous o t he r s t a t i s t i c s a l s o a r e a dd uc e d. W e l e a r n, f o r i ns t a nc e t ha t i n a c ount r y c r yi ng out f or ur ge nt s t a t e s e r vi c e s t o c on f r ont H I V A I D S a nd pove r t y, c or por a t e t a xa t i on de c l i ne d f r om 27 % i n 1976 t o onl y 11% i n 1999: a w e a k f i s c a l ba s e f or a ny t r a ns f or m a t i on. S om e t i ny t ypog r a phi c a l e r r or s ha ve c r e pt i nt o t he i nde x: S i z ul u f o r S i s ul u a nd M os hw e s he f or M os hw e s hw e T he de e p a nd j us t i f i e d r e s pe c t f or l i be r a t i on he r oe s of t he M a nde l a ge ne r a t i on w i l l pe r s i s t S o t oo w i l l t he ne e d t o know m or e a bout t he hi s t or y a nd s i gni f i c a nc e of t oda y s bur ni ng pr obl e m s T hi s i m por t a nt a nd i nt e ns e l y c om pa s s i ona t e book w i l l a i d t ha t unde r s t a ndi ng a nd de s e r ve s w i de r e a de r s hi p a m ong hi s t or i a ns s oc i ol ogi s t s e c onom i s t s a nd pol i t i c a l s c i e nt i s t s a nd a l s o a m ong t he young w hi t e S out h A f r i c a ns w hom t he a ut hor t a r ge t s t o m a ke s ubs t a nt i a l s a c r i f i c e s t o t a c kl e pove r t y ( p 5 ) i nde e d a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n S out h A f r i c a s houl d r e a d, a nd a c t upon, t hi s book P e t e r L i m b M i c hi gan St at e U ni v e r s i t y

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 5 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 L ad u m a! S oc c e r P ol i t i c s an d S oc i e t y i n S o u t h A f r i c a. P e t e r A l e gi S c ot t s vi l l e S ou t h A f r i c a: U n i ve r s i t y of K w aZ u l u N at al P r e s s 2004. 221 p p C a n s oc c e r e xpl a i n t he w or l d or a t l e a s t S out h A f r i c a n hi s t or y? 1 P e t e r A l e gi s a m bi t i ous c om pe l l i ng a nd m uc h a nt i c i pa t e d L adum a! Soc c e r P ol i t i c s and Soc i e t y i n Sout h A f r i c a s e e ks t o do t he l a t t e r w i t h g r e a t pa na c he A l e gi br i ngs S out h A f r i c a n popul a r a nd s oc i a l hi s t or y a l i ve m uc h a s a de f t m i d f i e l de r w oul d b r i ng t he ba l l a l i ve i n a s oc c e r c up f i na l H i s a na l ys i s c ove r s e ve r yt hi ng f r o m a s pe c t s of A f r i c a n l e i s ur e t i m e t o t r a de uni oni s m a nd f r om r ur a l t r a di t i ons o f s por t t o t he s t r uggl e f o r u r ba n s pa c e A l e gi s how s c l e a r l y t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he s por t i ng s pe c t a c l e of s oc c e r e m bodi e s not onl y t he f a ul t l i n e s of r a c e a nd c l a s s i n S ou t h A f r i c a but a l s o t he w a ys i n w hi c h A f r i c a ns c ont e s t e d a nd s ha pe d t he ve r y l i m i t e d s pa c e s a va i l a bl e t o t he m i n t he i r l i be r a t i on s t r uggl e I n s o doi ng, A l e gi a l l ow s t he r e a de r t o ge t c a ught up i n h i s c l e a r e nt hus i a s m f or t he be a ut i f ul ga m e A c r i t i c a l que s t i on f or S out h A f r i c a n hi s t or y i s of c our s e w he r e s oc c e r f i t s i n r e l a t i on t o ot he r dom i na nt f or m s of m a s c ul i ne l e i s ur e i de nt i t y a nd w hi t e pa t r i a r c hy. I n t hi s ve i n one c a n w e l l i m a gi ne how m a ny w hi t e c ol oni a l S ou t h A f r i c a ns w ho be c a m e obs e s s e d w i t h r ugby but not s oc c e r w oul d ha ve e m br a c e d H e nr y B l a ha s of t q uot e d qui p a b out t he pe r c e i ve d di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n r ugby a nd s oc c e r : r ugby i s a be a s t l y ga m e pl a ye d by ge nt l e m e n; s oc c e r i s a ge nt l e m a n s ga m e pl a ye d by be a s t s . . 2 G i ve n t he hi s t or i c a l i m por t a nc e of r ugby t o w hi t e S out h A f r i c a a nd t he c om pa r a t i ve l y c ons t r a i ne d pl a c e of A f r i c a n s oc c e r s uc h a f a l s e di c hot om y c a pt ur e s s om e of t he w a ys w hi t e s i n S out h A f r i c a e m pha s i z e d a nd e ve n c e l e br a t e d pe r c e i ve d di f f e r e nc e s a s t he y c ons t r uc t e d t he i r w or l d of s e gr e ga t i on a nd a pa r t he i d. Y e t a s A l e gi a r gue s i n L adum a! A f r i c a n s oc c e r gr e w a nd t hr i ve d i n S out h A f r i c a de s pi t e t he s e c ons t r a i nt s A l e gi s e t s out t o e xpa nd on e xi s t i ng br oa de r w or ks on l e i s ur e t i m e s por t a nd i de nt i t y t hr ough hi s a na l ys i s of t he hi s t or y of w ha t w a s pr i m a r i l y A f r i c a n s oc c e r i n S out h A f r i c a a nd he a c c om pl i s he s m uc h i n t hi s r e ga r d. A l e gi s how s ho w A f r i c a n s oc c e r w a s bui l t upon f a r m o r e c om pl e x a nd s ophi s t i c a t e d t e r r a i n t ha n w oul d f i r s t a ppe a r e ve n i f t he pi t c he s t ha t young A f r i c a n s oc c e r pl a ye r s hone d t he i r s ki l l s on w e r e of m ud a nd dus t H e s i t ua t e s t he r i s e i n popul a r i t y o f s oc c e r w i t hi n t he c ont e xt o f A f r i c a n a t hl e t i c a nd m a r t i a l t r a di t i ons ( c ha pt e r 1 ) a nd t he n e xpl or e s t he c l a s s a nd ur ba n di m e ns i ons o f t he s por t a s i t gr e w i n t he s e gr e ga t e d c i t i e s of S out h A f r i c a ( c ha pt e r 3, 4 a nd 5) H e r e A l e gi m a ke s a s i gni f i c a n t c ont r i but i on t o A f r i c a n u r ba n hi s t or y by a ddi ng t o our unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he w a y s por t s pr ov i de d out l e t s f or s oc i a l pol i t i c a l a nd e ve n e c on om i c a s s oc i a t i ons i n a s oc i e t y de e pl y di vi de d by c l a s s a nd r a c e P e r ha ps t he m os t c om pe l l i ng m a t e r i a l c om e s i n c ha pt e r s 7 a nd 8 w h e r e A l e gi c ont r a s t s t he s t r uggl e s of bl a c ks t o f os t e r non r a c i a l s por t i ng i n S out h A f r i c a w i t h t he ba l d f a c e d r a c i s m of t he d om i na nt w hi t e s por t i ng a ut hor i t i e s T he r e a r e a l s o s om e f a s c i na t i ng t e a m hi s t or i e s i nc l udi ng de t a i l e d s t or i e s of t he now f a m ous O r l a ndo P i r a t e s ( c ha pt e r 6) a nd a c c ount s of t he va r i ous A f r i c a n s oc c e r l e a gue s w hi c h s t r uggl e d

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B O O K R E V I E W | 7 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 5 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 t o s ur vi ve t hr ough t he a pa r t he i d e r a A l e gi a l s o gi v e s c ons i de r a t i on of t he m a j o r pl a yi ng s t yl e s ; t hos e a dopt e d f r om a br oa d a nd t hos e w hi c h or i gi n a t e d i n t he A f r i c a n t ow ns hi ps Y e t t he r e i s pe r ha ps l e s s of i nt e r e s t he r e f or d i e ha r d s oc c e r f a ns t ha n f or m or e s e r i ous a c a de m i c hi s t or i a ns I nde e d, A l e gi ha s p r ovi de d a v i vi d a nd c a pt i va t i ng hi s t or y ba s e d on ve r y s ound e xt e ns i ve a r c hi va l r e s e a r c h a nd a m ul t i t ude of i nt e r vi e w s w i t h f a s c i na t i ng c ha r a c t e r s f r om t he w o r l d o f S out h A f r i c a n s oc c e r H e w e a ve s bot h s e r i ous s e c onda r y s c hol a r l y s our c e s i n w i t h r e f e r e nc e s t o popul a r m e di a s uc h a s f i l m a nd t he c e l e br a t e d m a g a z i ne D r um H e a l s o pr ov i de s a us e f ul a na l ys i s of t he r e l e va nt hi s t or i og r a phy, w hi c h i s pl a c e d a t t he ba c k of t he book i n a n a ppe ndi x, r a t he r i n t he i nt r oduc t or y m a t e r i a l a nd s o do no t h e l p t he r e a de r f r a m e h i s w or k a t t he s t a r t W hi l e L adum a! m a ke s a s i gni f i c a nt c ont r i but i on t o our unde r s t a ndi ng of S out h A f r i c a n s oc i e t y dur i ng s e gr e ga t i on a nd a pa r t he i d I ha ve s o m e c onc e r n a bout t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he book de a l s w i t h ge nde r a nd pa t r i a r c hy. A l e gi doe s a c kn ow l e dge t he ve r y ge nde r e d w a ys t ha t s oc c e r de ve l ope d ( p. 4 a nd p 55 ) a nd t he r e i s a br i e f di s c u s s i on of w om e n s i nvol ve m e nt w i t h s uppor t e r s c l ubs ( pp 127 28) H e m or e ove r a r g ue s t ha t c e r t a i n e l e m e nt s of t he t ow ns hi p c ul t ur e s ur r oundi ng ga ng vi ol e nc e m a s c ul i ni t y a n d i de nt i t y a r e i n ne e d of f ur t he r r e s e a r c h ( p 94) O ve r a l l how e ve r he t e nds t o s hy a w a y f r om a c r i t i c a l a na l ys i s of t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he s oc i a l dyna m i c of t he m a l e dom i na t e d s por t s e e m e d t o r e i n f or c e pa t t e r ns o f pa t r i a r c hy. A m o r e t hor oughgoi ng l ook a t t he w a ys t ha t t he c ul t u r e of s oc c e r s ha pe d not j us t m a l e i de nt i t i e s bu t a l s o m a l e a t t i t ude s t ow a r d w om e n a nd vi s a ve r s a w oul d ha ve be e n he l pf ul D e s pi t e t he s e r e s e r va t i ons L adum a! i s a w e l c om e a ddi t i on t o t he f i e l d of A f r i c a n hi s t or y I t i s a w e l l r e s e a r c he d, c oge nt l y a r gue d w or k w i t h c r i s p w r i t i ng. A l t hough s om e m i gh t be i nc l i ne d t o s e e t he book a s a n a t t e m pt t o ove r r e a c h by a s c r i bi ng s o m uc h s i gni f i c a nc e t o s oc c e r i n S out h A f r i c a a t a l m os t e ve r y t ur n, A l e gi p r ovi d e s f r e s h i ns i ght s w hi c h de m ons t r a t e j us t how s i gni f i c a nt s oc c e r a nd l e i s ur e t i m e a r e f o r unde r s t a ndi ng A f r i c a n h i s t or y. A r a n M a c K i nnon U ni v e r s i t y of W e s t G e or gi a N O T E S 1. F o r a n a m bi t i ous but c om pe l l i ng e f f o r t a t t he f or m e r s e e F r a nkl i n F oe r H ow S oc c e r E xpl a i ns T he W or l d: A n U nl i ke l y T he or y of G l oba l i z a t i on ( N e w Y or k H a r pe r C ol l i ns 2 004) 2. T he r e a r e m a ny va r i a t i ons of t hi s phr a s e w i t h v a r i ous a t t r i but i ons but s e e W C l a r k, R ugby Q uot e s ( vi e w e d a t ht t p: / / w e s c l a r k. c om / r r r / quo t e s ht m l ) F o r r ugby s e e T he X V I t h M a n, L e t t e r s t o Y oung R ugby F oot ba l l P l a ye r s ( G l a s gow B l a c ki e a nd S on L t d. 1907) p 7 a nd f or t he S out h A f r i c a n di m e ns i on s e e A G r undl i ngh A O de nda a l a nd B S pi e s B e yond T he T r yl i ne R ugby a nd S out h A f r i c a n S oc i e t y ( J oha nne s bur g, R a ve n P r e s s 1995)

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 6 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 I n R w an d a w e s ayT h e F a m i l y t h at d oe s n ot s p e ak d i e s ( V i d e o D oc u m e n t ar y ) A n n e A gh i on D i r e c t or B r ook l yn N Y : F i r s t R u n I c ar u s F i l m s 2004. 54 m i n T he r e ha s be e n m uc h i n t e r e s t i n t he 1994 G e noc i d e i n R w a nda l a t e l y due t o t he t e n ye a r a nni ve r s a r y w hi c h w a s c om m e m or a t e d i n A pr i l of 2004. E ve n H ol l yw ood c a m e ou t w i t h a R w a nda n t he m e d f i l m t i t l e d H ot e l R w anda t o c oi n c i de w i t h t he a nni ve r s a r y I t hi nk t ha t t hi s i s a good de ve l opm e nt a nd w e s houl d not l e t t he ge noc i de be f or got t e n l e s t i t be r e pe a t e d. T he f i l m I n R w a nda w e s a yT he F a m i l y t ha t doe s not s pe a k di e s i s not a bi g budge t f i l m l i ke H ot e l R w anda but i t i s a l ow budge t doc um e nt a r y f i l m e d on l oc a t i on w hi c h l e t s t he s ur vi vo r s s pe a k f or t he m s e l v e s a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s t e n ye a r s a f t e r t he ge noc i de t ook pl a c e F or t ha t r e a s on a l one i t i s a va l ua bl e doc um e nt f or s t ude nt s of t he R w a nda n ge noc i de T he f i l m i s a l m os t e xc l us i ve l y i n K i r w a nda w i t h E ngl i s h s ubt i t l e s T hi s f i l m i s a s e que l t o t he doc u m e nt a r y G a c a c a L i vi ng T oge t he r A ga i n i n R w a nda ? a l s o di r e c t e d by A gh i on. T hi s s e que l be gi ns w i t h t he r e l e a s e of hundr e ds of pr i s one r s w ho ha d gone t h r ough t he G a c a c a c our t s ys t e m ha d c onf e s s e d t he i r c r i m e s a nd w e r e pa r done d. T he doc um e nt a r i a ns s pe c i f i c a l l y f ol l ow t he pa t h of one R w a m f i z i a r u r a l f a r m e r f r om a vi l l a ge i n t he hi l l s c a l l e d R ubona R w a m f i z i t e l l s h i s s i de of t he s t or y ; w hi c h i s t ha t he w a s pa r t of t he H ut u ni ght pa t r ol s w ho oc c a s i ona l l y m ur de r e d pe opl e but t ha t he w a s f a l s e l y a c c us e d of ki l l i ng s pe c i f i c pe opl e i n R ubona O n t he ot he r s i d e w e ha ve r e t ur ne d T ut s i m e n a nd H ut u w i dow s w ho w e r e m a r r i e d t o s l a i n T ut s i m e n w ho c l a i m t ha t R w a m f i z i i s a l i a r I t i s i m pos s i bl e t o know w ho i s t e l l i ng t he t r ut h he r e t e n ye a r s a f t e r t he f a c t a nd t h e f i l m m a ke r s l e a ve i t t o t he a udi e nc e t o f or m t he i r ow n opi ni ons I m po r t a nt l y, t he s ur vi vor s t e l l t he f i l m c r e w how t he y f e e l e xc e pt f or w he n s om e one r a t t l e s of f t he o f f i c i a l R w a nda n gove r nm e nt pa r t y l i ne on r e c onc i l i a t i on. A l s o t e l l i ng i s how t he f i l m s how s t he di vi de be t w e e n t hos e w i l l i ng t o f or gi ve a nd pa r don, a nd t hos e w ho r e f us e t o r e c onc i l e w i t h t hos e t he y c ons i de r t o be t he f or m e r a s s a s s i n s of t he i r f a m i l i e s T he w i dow s a l s o s a y T he s e w hi t e s a s k us i f w e a r e ha ppy. T he s e w hi t e s a s k t he s t r a nge s t que s t i ons T hi s br i ngs up t he i s s ue of t he r ol e o f t he f i l m m a ke r s T he i r s t yl e i s t o r e m a i n ou t of s i ght T he y w a nt t he s t or y t o t e l l i t s e l f f r om t he m o ut hs of t he s ur vi vo r s Y e t t hi s pr e s e nt s pr obl e m s T he di r e c t or ne ve r s t a t e s w ha t t he i r r e a s ons a r e f o r m a ki ng t he doc um e nt a r y, w ho i nvi t e d t he m a nd how t he y pe r s ua de d t he i r i nf or m a nt s t o t a l k. T hi s r a i s e s t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons W e r e t he s e pe opl e pa i d? D i d t he y f e a r n ot t a l ki ng t o t he f i l m c r e w ? D i d t he y f e a r s t r a yi ng of f t he of f i c i a l pa r t y l i ne ? A nd w e r e t he e nc ount e r s be t w e e n e x pr i s one r s a nd s ur vi vor s dr i nki ng be e r t oge t he r i n t he l oc a l bout i que s t a ge d f or t he c a m e r a w he n pr e s e nt e d a s e ve r yda y m om e nt s c a pt ur e d on f i l m ? U nf o r t una t e l y, w e don t know be c a us e t he di r e c t or ne ve r a ddr e s s e s t he s e m e t hodol ogi c a l que s t i ons T he ot he r s hor t c o m i ng of t he f i l m i s t ha t t he ba c kgr ound t o t he R w a nda n ge noc i de i s not pr e s e nt e d, s o t he un i ni t i a t e d a udi e nc e s oon be c om e s c onf us e d a bout w hy t he i nf o r m a nt s a r e a c t i ng c e r t a i n w a ys a nd s a yi ng c e r t a i n t hi ngs T he f i l m m a ke r m i s t a ke nl y

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B O O K R E V I E W | 8 1 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 6 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 a s s um e s a r e a l know l e dge of t he ba c kgr ound of t h e ge noc i de on t he pa r t of t he a udi e nc e S e c ondl y, t he i n f or m a nt s a r e onl y i de nt i f i e d by t he i r na m e s not a s e i t he r H ut u or T ut s i T hi s m a y be i n ke e pi ng w i t h c ur r e nt o f f i c i a l pol i c y of t h e R w a nda n g ove r nm e nt t ha t a l l c i t i z e ns a r e s i m pl y R w a nda n, a nd t he r e i s no e t hni c di vi de H ow e ve r i f no i n f or m a nt s a r e i de nt i f i e d ( e xc e pt by t he i r na m e s ) t he a udi e nc e ha s t o gue s s ba s e d on t he i r t e s t i m ony w he t he r t he y s e l f i de nt i f y a s e i t he r H ut u o r T ut s i O nl y t he n doe s t he t e s t i m ony be gi n t o m a ke s e ns e F o r e xa m pl e w he n one i nf or m a nt s a ys W e m us t ge t a l ong w i t h t he m t he y out num be r us t he i ni t i a t e d know t ha t he i s t a l ki ng a s a T ut s i m a n, s ur r ounde d by a H ut u m a j or i t y. U nf or t una t e l y a ga i n f or t he uni ni t i a t e d i t m a y be di f f i c ul t t o m a ke t he s e i de nt i f i c a t i ons i nde pe nde nt l y. T he r e f or e i n s um t hi s f i l m i s a va l ua bl e hi s t or i c a l doc um e nt I t s houl d be vi e w e d c r i t i c a l l y by s t ude nt s of t he ge noc i de O t he r vi e w e r s w i l l ne e d s om e ba s i c ba c kgr ound know l e dge t o be a bl e t o m a ke a ny s e ns e of t hi s f i l m w hi c h i s d i a l ogue he a vy, a nd i n w hi c h t he i nf or m a nt s s pe a k w i t h m a ny of t he s a m e a s s um pt i ons c onc e r ni ng ba c kgr ound unde r s t a ndi ng on be ha l f of t he a udi e nc e t ha t t he f i l m m a ke r s s e e m t o t a ke f or g r a n t e d. T i m ot hy N e vi n U ni v e r s i t y of F l or i da

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 7 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 L e t t i n g T h e m D i e : W h y H I V / A I D S P r e ve n t i o n P r ogr am m e s F ai l C at h e r i n e C am p b e l l B l oom i n gt on : I n d i an a U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s 2003 2 14p p T he H I V / A I D S e pi de m i c c ont i nue s t o s pr e a d. D a i l y, t he e pi de m i c s t ol l i s f e l t by f a m i l i e s c om m uni t i e s bus i ne s s e s a nd na t i ons F or t w e nt y f i ve ye a r s w i t hi n e a c h of t he s e l e ve l s a va r i e t y of pr ogr a m s ha ve be e n de s i gne d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d t o s t r e ngt he n pr e ve nt i on e f f or t s I t ha s pr ove n e s pe c i a l l y di f f i c ul t t o de ve l op pr og r a m s t h a t i nc or por a t e a r a nge of a c t i vi t i e s t ha t w i l l r e a c h m ul t i pl e a udi e nc e s a nd a ddr e s s t he m ul t i pl e f a c t or s t ha t pl a c e pe opl e a t r i s k o f H I V / A I D S C a t he r i ne C a m pbe l l s book i s t he m os t c om pr e he ns i ve r e vi e w t o da t e o f one m ul t i f a c e t e d pr e v e nt i on pr ogr a m I r e a d t he book s hor t l y a f t e r t a l ki ng w i t h pe opl e i n N a m i bi a a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h a w or kpl a c e ba s e d H I V / A I D S pr e ve nt i on pr ogr a m T he vi e w s of pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t ha t N a m i bi a pr oj e c t c l os e l y e c ho t he obs e r va t i ons of C a m pbe l l a bout a c om m uni t y ba s e d H I V / A I D S pr o j e c t i n S out h A f r i c a t he f oc us of t hi s book. H e r a na l ys i s of t he m a ny e l e m e nt s t ha t de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a n H I V / A I D S p r oj e c t i s a ppl i c a bl e t o m a ny p r oj e c t s a c r os s A f r i c a U n f or t una t e l y, t oo, he r c onc l us i ons t ha t e ve n w e l l r e s our c e d p r oj e c t s of t e n f a i l t o a c hi e ve t he i r goa l s a nd f a i l t o s t e m t he e pi de m i c a r e w i de l y a ppl i c a bl e T he que s t i on, t he n, i s w hy, a f t e r a qua r t e r of a c e nt ur y, ha ve na t i ona l a n d i nt e r na t i ona l r e s pons e s t o t he e pi de m i c a c hi e ve d s o l i t t l e ? C a m p be l l s s t udy goe s a l ong w a y t ow a r d a ns w e r i ng t hi s que s t i on. C a m pbe l l m ove s he r a na l ys i s be yond w ha t ha s be e n t he c e nt e r of m os t H I V / A I D S pr oj e c t s : t he f oc us on c ha ngi ng i n di vi dua l s e xua l be ha vi or s S he l ooks a t t he m i x o f s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd pol i c y d e t e r m i na nt s of s e xua l be ha vi or w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of one c om m uni t y ba s e d H I V / A I D S pr e ve nt i on pr oj e c t S he s e e ks t o s how how t he i ni t i a l c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k t ha t i n f or m s p r oj e c t de s i gn a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on l e a ds t o s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e a t s ubs e que nt s t a ge s of t he pr oj e c t S he a r gue s t ha t H I V / A I D S pr oj e c t s ne e d t o be f o r m ul a t e d w i t h a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he e c onom i c a nd s oc i a l pr e s s ur e s t ha t e xi s t a t a nd on l oc a l c om m uni t i e s A t t he s a m e t i m e t hos e pr oj e c t s m us t r e c ogni z e t ha t ge nde r c l a s s a nd s oc i a l pow e r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i l l s ha pe how a pr oj e c t i s pe r c e i ve d a nd m a ni pul a t e d by m e m be r s o f c om m uni t i e s O ne of m os t i ns i ght f ul s e c t i ons de a l s w i t h t he pr oj e c t s e f f or t s t o i nvol ve i n t he p r oj e c t w om e n w ho s e l l s e x. T he w om e n w e r e r e c r ui t e d t o be pe e r e duc a t o r s T he y w e r e e xpe c t e d t o i nt e r a c t w i t h ot he r s e x w or ke r s w i t h c l i e nt s a nd c o m m uni t y m e m be r s t o r a i s e a w a r e ne s s a bout H I V / A I D S a nd p r om ot e p r e ve nt i on. A l l of t he w o m e n w e r e poor ha d l i t t l e c ont r ol ove r t he i r w or k a nd ha d no e xpe r i e nc e a s f a c i l i t a t or s f or c ha nge A l e ngt hy pr oc e s s of r e c r ui t m e nt a nd t r a i ni ng oc c ur r e d T he pr oc e s s w a s hi nde r e d by t h e pow e r of a c om m uni t y C hi e f w ho s ought t o ga i n f i na nc i a l l y f r om t he pr oj e c t E ve nt ua l l y, t h e obs t r uc t i oni s t C hi e f w a s ki l l e d a nd r e pl a c e d by a younge r m a n w ho pr om ot e d g r e a t e r de m oc r a t i c i nvol ve m e nt i n c om m uni t y a f f a i r s O ve r t i m e t he r ol e of w om e n a nd t he p r oj e c t s p e e r e duc a t or s w a s e nha nc e d by t hi s t ur n of e ve nt s

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B O O K R E V I E W | 8 3 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 7 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C a m pbe l l a r gue s a t t ha t bot h c om m uni t y a nd na t i o na l l e ve l s p r oj e c t pa r t i c i pa nt s m us t f e e l t he y ha ve a voi c e i n de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s T he pe e r e duc a t or s ga i ne d a l e ve l of t ha t c onf i de nc e t hr ough t he r e s pe c t t he y a c hi e ve d. B ut t he c ha nne l s f o r pa r t i c i pa t i on w e r e r e l a t i ve l y na r r ow A s w i t h t he pe e r e duc a t or s I obs e r ve d i n N a m i bi a t he e f f or t s o f t hos e de s c r i be d by C a m pbe l l w e r e l i m i t e d by t he ga ps t ha t oc c ur r e d e a r l y i n t he p r oj e c t s c onc e pt ua l a nd de s i gn s t a ge s C r e a t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng m ul t i di m e ns i ona l pr o j e c t s a r e not e a s y t a s ks pa r t i c ul a r l y gi ve n t he i m pl os i on o f m a n y publ i c he a l t h s ys t e m s t he s ke pt i c i s m of c om m uni t i e s t ow a r d p r om i s e s of i m pr ove m e nt s i n l i vi ng c ondi t i ons a nd t he op t i ons a va i l a bl e t o bot h w om e n a nd m e n t o m a ke a l i vi ng i n c ont e m po r a r y A f r i c a U nl i ke m a ny of t he i nt e r na t i ona l a nd na t i ona l a ge nc i e s f oc us e d on H I V / A I D S i s s ue s C a m pbe l l doe s not a r gue t ha t m or e m one y i s t he i ni t i a l r e qui s i t e f o r i m pr ove d pr oj e c t s I n e s s e nc e he r a na l ys i s a r gue s f or de s i gn t e a m s w i t h b r oa de r pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha n ha s be e n t he c a s e t o da t e I n t ur n i m pr ove d d e s i gn of H I V / A I D S pr og r a m s w i l l t a ke i nt o a c c ount a w i de r r a nge of di s c i pl i ne s a nd t he l e s s ons t he y ha ve l e a r ne d. I nde e d, one i s s t r uc k i n C a m pbe l l s a s s e s s m e nt a nd i n r e vi e w i ng ot he r H I V / A I D S pr og r a m s how l i t t l e ha s be e n l e a r ne d a nd a ppl i e d f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e s of f i f t y ye a r s of c om m uni t y de ve l opm e nt w or k T he book o f f e r s m a ny va l ua bl e i ns i ght s f or H I V / A I D S pl a nne r s a nd p r a c t i t i one r s O ne w oul d a s k of C a m pbe l l t o di s t i l l he r a na l ys i s i nt o a s hor t e r m or e c onc i s e f or m a t t ha t w i l l be r e a d a nd us e d by t he pe opl e w h o now s ha pe H I V / A I D S p r ogr a m s B i l l R a u T ak om a P ar k M D

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 8 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 I n an d O u t o f F oc u s : I m age s f r om C e n t r al A f r i c a, 1885 1960 C h r i s t au d G e ar y. L on d on : P h i l i p Wi l s on 2002. 128 p p T hi s book, ba s e d on a w onde r f ul e xhi bi t or i gi na l l y or ga ni z e d a t t he N a t i ona l M us e u m of A f r i c a n A r t i n W a s hi ngt on, ha s i ns i ght f ul a ppr oa c he s t o e v a l ua t i ng t he w a ys E ur ope a ns a nd A f r i c a ns c r e a t e d, t r a ns m i t t e d, a nd e m pl oye d ph ot ogr a phi c i m a ge s f or va r i e d e nds G e a r y de s c r i be s t he f or m a t i on o f a C e nt r a l A f r i c a n i m a ge w or l d w he r e phot ogr a p he r s publ i s he r s s ubj e c t s a nd c ons um e r s a l l s ought t o pr oduc e a nd c ont r ol i m a ge s t ha t of t e n p r ove d f a r m or e l ong l i ve d t ha n t he r e put a t i on o f t he phot ogr a phe r s T o c ount e r a c t t he a nonym i t y of m os t phot og r a phe r s i n c ol oni a l A f r i c a G e a r y w or ke d w i t h P ol i s h s c hol a r K r z ys z t of P l us kot a t o e xa m i ne t he oe uvr e o f P ol i s h phot ogr a phe r C a s i m i r Z a gour s ki w ho w o r k e d f r om 1924 unt i l 1944 i n L opol dvi l l e ( K i ns ha s a ) t he c a pi t a l of t he B e l gi a n C ongo T he a ut hor doe s a n out s t a ndi ng j ob of p l a c i ng hi s s ubj e c t s i n a r a ng e o f hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt s : t he t e c hni c a l a nd a r t i s t i c de ve l opm e nt of pho t ogr a phy, t he h i s t or y of c ol oni a l C e nt r a l A f r i c a a nd t he c om pl e x r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a nt h r opol ogy a n d i m a ge s i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y G e a r y be gi ns w i t h a s hor t e s s a y, A W o r l d of I m a ge s t h a t s e t s up t he m a i n t he m e s of t he e nt i r e w o r k a nd i nt r oduc e s r e a de r s t o t he f or m a t i on of c ol oni a l phot ogr a phi c s t yl e s e s pe c i a l l y t he t ype i m a ge t ha t e s s e nt i a l i z e d e t hni c i de nt i t i e s H e t he n gi ve s a n ove r vi e w of t he i m a ge s di s s e m i na t e d i n E ur ope a bout C e nt r a l A f r i c a e s pe c i a l l y t he B e l gi a n C ongo. I n hi s m a s t e r f ul r e vi e w o f i m a ge s pr oduc e d i n t he e r a of L e opol d I I s not or i ous C ong o F r e e S t a t e he s how s how bot h t he oppone nt s a nd s uppor t e r s of L e opol d I I de pl oye d i m a ge s of vi ol e nc e a nd e t hni c t ype s i n t he i r di s c us s i on s O f f i c i a l s pos e d A f r i c a ns i n t r a di t i ona l s c e ne s a l ong w i t h a be t t i ng t he c r e a t i on of phot ogr a phs c e l e br a t i ng e c onom i c a nd e duc a t i ona l be ne f i t s of c ol oni z a t i on. S om e A f r i c a n phot ogr a phe r s i n t he F r e e S t a t e s uc h a s H e r z e ki a h A ndr e w S ha nu, s a w t he i r c a r e e r s r ui ne d onc e t he y j oi ne d i n t he pr ot e s t s a ga i ns t L e opol d I I S t i l l ot he r s s uc h a s F r e de r i c k S t a r r ( t he f i r s t a nt hr opol ogi s t a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go) de f e n de d t he F r e e S t a t e s us a ge of s t a ge d i m a ge s of unt ouc he d A f r i c a A f t e r t he B e l gi a n gove r nm e nt t ook t he c ol ony ove r s hor t l y be f o r e W or l d W a r I i m a ge s c ont i nue d t o pl a y a ke y r o l e i n how C e nt r a l A f r i c a w a s unde r s t ood. C ha ngi ng t e c hnol ogy a l t e r e d t he t ype s of phot og r a phs t ha t w e r e pr oduc e d, a s po s t c a r ds l os t popul a r i t y a nd ne w j our na l s l i ke L I l l us t r at i on C ongol ai s e i nt r oduc e d r e a de r s t o t he B e l gi a n C ongo. T our i s t s w he t he r t he y w e r e m e m be r s of t he B e l gi a n r oya l f a m i l y o r f o r e i gne r s i n s e a r c h of a dve nt ur e s ought out t r a di t i ona l A f r i c a n t ype s A f r i c a ns e s pe c i a l l y c hi e f s f a vor e d by t he c ol oni a l s t a t e r e s ponde d t o ot he r s e xpe c t a t i ons by e nc our a gi ng t our i s t s t o t a ke phot ogr a phs G e a r y not e s how i m a ge s of M a ngbe t u w om e n f r om no r t he r n C ongo a ppe a r e d on s t a m ps t r a ve l books a nd pos t c a r ds M a ngbe t u l e a de r s kne w t ha t t he i r gue s t s e xpe c t e d t o s e e ha i r s t yl e s a nd c l ot he s ba s e d on de c a de s ol d phot ogr a phs a nd l e a r ne d t o c ha nge f r om W e s t e r n s t yl e dr e s s t o t r a di t i ona l out f i t s a nd t o c a r e f ul l y s t a ge w ha t t he y w a nt e d vi s i t or s t o pho t og r a ph.

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B O O K R E V I E W | 8 5 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t e r l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 8 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 P l us kot a a nd G e a r y de vot e t w o c ha pt e r s t o Z a gour s ki T he a ut ho r s unc ove r e d a w i de r a nge of phot ogr a phs a nd bi ogr a phi c a l i n f or m a t i on gl e a ne d f r om f a m i l y i nt e r vi e w s s t a t e a r c hi ve s a nd pe r s ona l l e t t e r s Z a gou r s ki a ppe a r s a s ne i t he r a s t ooge of c ol oni a l pr opa ga nda nor a s e l f l e s s phot ogr a phe r de f e ndi n g i ndi ge nous w a ys of l i f e b ut a c om pl i c a t e d m a n s e e ki ng t o bui l d a r e put a t i on a nd c a pt ur i ng t he e t hnog r a phi c pr e s e nt on f i l m H e c a m e t o A f r i c a a t t he a ge of 40 i n 1924, f o r r e a s ons t he a ut hor s ha ve di f f i c ul t y di s c o ve r i ng, a nd r a n a phot ogr a phy s t udi o f or t he ne xt t w o de c a de s Z a gour s ki pr ove d t o be a s ki l l f u l bus i ne s s m a n w ho s ol d e l a bor a t e a l bum s a nd s ought m one y f r om t he c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt t o c o nt i nue m a ki ng phot og r a phs a nd f i l m s H i s a r t i s t i c c r e a t i ons dr e w f r om t he c om m on be l i e f of s a l va ge a nt hr opol ogy w hi c h he l d t ha t i ndi ge nous c ul t ur e s ne e de d t o be c a ught on f i l m be f or e t he y va ni s he d. T hough t he s e i m a ge s of t e n a ppe a r s t a ge d, t he y a r e s t i l l s t unni ng t o s e e O f c our s e A f r i c a ns t oo w e r e phot ogr a phe r s a nd pe opl e w ho w i s he d t o be f i l m e d A c c or di ngl y t he l a s t c ha pt e r e xpl or e s t he i r c r a f t i n C e nt r a l A f r i c a A f r i c a n s ubj e c t s w e r e not doc i l e pr ops but a c t i ve l y t ook pa r t i n how t he y w o ul d a ppe a r T ur n of t he c e nt ur y por t r a i t s t a ke n by A f r i c a ns s how t he s e l f r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a c oa s t a l ur ba n e l i t e t ha t e nj oye d f ol l ow i ng c onve nt i ons of E u r ope a n f a m i l y phot ogr a phy. F o r e xa m pl e T ut s i r oya l l e a de r s s e e ki ng t o pr op up t he i r l e gi t i m a c y f ound phot ogr a phs one w a y of di s pl a yi ng t he i r pow e r a nd c onne c t i on t o a t r a di t i on t he y a c t i ve l y he l pe d c ons t r uc t G e a r y a l s o pr ovi de s a b r i e f but i m pr e s s i ve c ol l e c t i on o f bi ogr a phi e s of A f r i c a n phot ogr a phe r s a s w e l l a s e xa m pl e s of t he i r w or ks T hi s book i s a j oy t o l ook a t a nd ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o be qui t e us e f ul i n uppe r l e ve l unde r gr a dua t e a nd gr a dua t e c our s e s i n a r t hi s t or y i m pe r i a l i s m a nd A f r i c a n s t udi e s c our s e s F i r s t i t c om bi ne s c a r e f ul a r c hi va l r e s e a r c h w i t h a be a ut i f ul s e t of i m a ge s t ha t c a n be us e d t o e xa m i ne how i m a ge s w e r e pr oduc e d a bout A f r i c a S e c ond, t he s t udy o f f e r s a nua nc e d vi e w of i m a ge m a ki ng t ha t w oul d c o m pl i m e nt br oa de r t he m e s of c ol oni a l r ul e a nd t he a r t f u l c ons t r uc t i on of c us t om a r y pr a c t i c e s F o r c l a s s e s t ha t de a l w i t h t he C ongo F r e e S t a t e t hi s book m a ke s a n i nt r i gui ng t e xt t o a s s i gn w i t h A da m H oc hs c hi l d s K i ng L e opol d s G hos t F i na l l y, i t r e c a pi t ul a t e s i n s uc c i nc t a nd s ki l l f ul p r os e m uc h of t he r e c e nt l i t e r a t ur e on c ol oni a l phot ogr a phy T he r e a r e a f e w qui bb l e s one c oul d ha ve w i t h t hi s e xc e l l e nt book. M i s s i ona r i e s a s phot ogr a phe r s r a r e l y e nt e r t he d i s c us s i on, de s pi t e t he t r e m e ndous a m ount of i m a ge s t he y pr oduc e d. F o r a book on C e nt r a l A f r i c a i t i s s ur pr i s i ng t ha t G a bon, a pl a c e w he r e A f r i c a n phot ogr a phe r s w or ke d f r om t he 1870s onw a r d, doe s not r e c e i ve m uc h c ove r a ge F i na l l y t he r e f e r e nc e s t o F r e de r i c k S t a r r s ugge s t t he a nt hr opol ogi s t m i s t a ke nl y us e d vi ol e nt i m a ge r y t ha t w or ke d a ga i ns t S t a r r s goa l of de f e ndi ng L e opol d I I T hi s w a s no a c c i de nt ; S t a r r w a s a n a nt i i m pe r i a l i s t w ho t hought vi ol e nc e i ne vi t a bl y c a m e w i t h c onque s t but pl a c e d t he bl a m e f or br ut a l i t y on A f r i c a n s ol di e r s w o r ki ng f or L e opol d i ns t e a d of t he c ol oni a l gove r nm e nt s ow n pol i c i e s S t a r r s phot ogr a phs of c ha i ne d pr i s one r s c oul d be i nt e r pr e t e d a s pr oof t ha t L e opol d I I w a s t r yi ng t o r e s t r a i n t he s uppos e dl y una voi da bl e c r ue l t y t ha t c a m e w i t h c ol oni z a t i on. D e s pi t e t he s e m i nor c r i t i c i s m s d o not he s i t a t e t o r e a d t hi s be a ut i f ul s t udy. J e r e m y R i c h U ni v e r s i t y of M ai ne at M ac hi as

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 9 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 T h e S yn t ax o f C h i c h e w a. S a m M c h om b o. C am b r i d ge : C am b r i d ge U n i ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004. 149 p p T he Sy nt ax of C hi c he w a i s a t hor ough de s c r i pt i on of C hi c he w a s ynt a c t i c s t r uc t ur e s I t i s i nf or m e d by e xt e n s i ve r e s e a r c h ba s e d on va r i ous a s pe c t s of A f r i c a n l a ngua ge s i n pa r t i c ul a r B a nt u l a ngua ge s T hi s book i s ve r y i m p r e s s i ve i n t ha t i n a ddi t i on t o de s c r i bi ng C hi c he w a s ynt a c t i c s t r uc t ur e s t he a ut hor c r e a t i ve l y a ddr e s s e s t he di f f e r e nt i nt e r f a c e s : be t w e e n phon ol ogy a nd m or phol ogy, phonol ogy a nd s ynt a x a nd m o r ph ol ogy a nd s ynt a x. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he va r i ous c ont r i but i ons of t he s t udy of A f r i c a n l a ngua ge s t o l i ngui s t i c t he or y a r e hi ghl i ght e d. I ns t e a d of r e s t r i c t i ng hi m s e l f t o a pa r t i c ul a r t he o r e t i c a l f r a m e w or k, t he a ut hor p r ovi de s a n e l a bor a t e de s c r i pt i on ba s e d on a di ve r s i t y o f t he o r e t i c a l a ppr oa c he s T hi s i s a c hi e ve d t hr ough a n a na l ys i s of a r e a s s uc h a s phone t i c s a nd phonol ogy, c l a us e s t r uc t ur e r e l a t i ve c l a us e s a r gum e nt s t r uc t ur e a nd l i ngui s t i c pr oc e s s e s i n t he v e r b do m a i n. T he i nt r oduc t o r y c ha pt e r pr ovi de s a n ove r vi e w of t he B a nt u l a ngua ge f a m i l y a nd pl a c e s C hi c he w a i n t hr e e S out he r n A f r i c a n c ount r i e s I n a ddi t i on t he c ha pt e r pr ovi de s ge ne r a l de m ogr a phi c s of t he l a ngua ge C ha pt e r one a l s o o ut l i ne s t he ge ne r a l f e a t ur e s o f C hi c he w a w hi l e pr ovi di ng t he va r i ous pr opos a l s t o a c c ount f or t he s t a t us of noun pr e f i xe s i n C hi c he w a a nd B a nt u l a ngua ge s i n ge ne r a l T hr ough t he de s c r i pt i on o f t h e phonol ogi c a l s ys t e m of C hi c he w a t he a ut hor s how s t he r e l e va nc e of t one t o s ynt a c t i c c onf i gur a t i ons I n pa r t i c ul a r t hi s i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t one a nd r e l a t i ve c l a us e f or m a t i on i s e xpl or e d i n de t a i l i n c ha pt e r 2 a nd 4. T he a ut ho r a l s o di s c us s e s s t r e s s a s s i gnm e nt a nd hi ghl i ght s a r e a s t ha t m a y r e qui r e f ur t he r r e s e a r c h w i t hi n t he a r e a of t o ne ( p. 16) T he di s c us s i on on c l a us e s t r uc t ur e ( c ha pt e r t hr e e ) i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t i ng be c a us e i t hi ghl i ght s t he r ol e of t one i n de t e r m i ni ng t he r e l a t i on of t he e xt e r na l noun phr a s e ( N P ) t o t he ve r b s i nc e t hi s c a nnot be a c c ount e d f o r by i t s s t r uc t ur a l pos i t i on o r gove r nm e nt T he a ut hor a l s o m e nt i ons c om pa r a bl e a na l ys i s of t he t r e a t m e nt a nd s t a t us of t he obj e c t m a r ke r s i n ot he r l a ngua ge s s uc h a s K i r undi a nd K i ha ya C ha pt e r t hr e e c l os e s w i t h a di s c us s i on of m oda l s a nd how t he y di f f e r f r om ve r ba l s uf f i xe s C ha pt e r f our p r ovi de s a n e l a bor a t e de s c r i pt i on of n om i na l c om pl e m e nt a t i on, i n pa r t i c ul a r t he r e l a t i ve c l a us e T he r ol e o f r e l a t i ve c l a us e i n c l e f t a nd que s t i on f or m a t i on i s a l s o de s c r i be d i n de t a i l I n a ddi t i on, t he a ut ho r di s c us s e s t he va r i ous r ol e s of t he s ubj e c t m a r ke r a nd obj e c t m a r ke r i n r e l a t i ve c l a us e f o r m a t i on. I n t hi s c ha pt e r t he a ut hor pr ovi de s a n e xc e l l e nt e xa m pl e of t he a ppl i c a t i on of l i ngu i s t i c t he or y t o pr ov i de a uni f i e d a na l ys i s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he a ut hor pos e s que s t i ons t ha t m a y be of i nt e r e s t t o s c hol a r s w or ki ng w i t h ot he r l a ngua ge s t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o C hi c he w a C ha pt e r s f i ve a nd s i x de a l w i t h t he m o r phol ogy o f t he ve r b s t e m T he a ut ho r di s c us s e s ve r ba l e xt e ns i ons i n de t a i l A l s o, t he a ut hor a l s o t a l ks a bo ut t he s t a t us of pr e ve r b s t e m m or phe m e s a nd c ont r a s t s t he s e w i t h pos t ve r b s t e m m or phe m e s a n d pr ovi de s a t r e e t o r e pr e s e nt t he ve r b i n

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B O O K R E V I E W | 8 7 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a1 9 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 C hi c he w a ( p. 70) M c hom bo f ur t he r di s c us s e s t he m uc h de ba t e d i s s ue of t he o r de r i ng o f ve r ba l s uf f i xe s i n B a nt u a nd p r ovi de s s om e of t he que s t i ons t ha t g ui de d r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a i n B a nt u l a ngua ge s T he c onc l udi ng c ha pt e r out l i ne s s om e of t he l i ngui s t i c pr oc e s s e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he ve r b s t e m T he s e i nc l ude r e dupl i c a t i on c om poundi ng a nd nom i na l de r i va t i on T he a ut ho r a l s o di s c us s e s how va r i ous t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c he s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o a c c ount f or m or phe m e o r de r i ng i n B a nt u. M c hom bo m a ke s r e f e r e nc e t o M i r r or P r i nc i pl e T e m pl a t i c M or phol ogy a nd T he m a t i c R ol e s a nd pr ovi de s br i e f h i s t or i c a l a c c ount s of e a c h a ppr oa c h. O ve r a l l t he book i s c l e a r l y a r r a nge d a n d w r i t t e n i n a n a c c e s s i bl e s t yl e I t p r ovi de s da t a f r om a va r i e t y of l a ngua ge s t ha t m a y be us e d i n c r os s l i ngui s t i c s t udi e s or w i t hi n B a nt u l a ngua ge s I n a ddi t i on, t he book pr ov i de s e xa m pl e s of how t o a p pl y a nd t e s t t he or y i n l e s s r e s e a r c he d l a ngua ge s a s ki l l t ha t i s be ne f i c i a l f o r l i ngui s t i c s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t e d i n B a nt u l a ngua ge s T he Sy nt ax of C hi c he w a w oul d be a va l ua bl e t e a c hi ng/ l e a r ni ng r e s our c e f or s t ude nt s of B a nt u l i ngui s t i c s M a nt oa R os e S m ous e U ni v e r s i t y of F l or i da

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 0 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 E n e r gy S e r vi c e s f or t h e U r b an P oor i n A f r i c a: I s s u e s an d P ol i c y I m p l i c a t i on s K e b e d e B e r e k e t an d I k h u p u l e n g D u b e ( e d s ) L on d o n : Z e d B ook s L t d i n as s oc i at i on w i t h A f r i c an E n e r gy P ol i c y R e s e ar c h N e t w or k ( A F R E P R E N ) N ai r ob i K e n ya, 2004. 297p p E ne r gy Se r v i c e s i s a c om pi l a t i on of c ount r y c a s e s t udi e s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s t he c ha l l e nge of pr ovi di ng t he e ve r gr ow i ng ur ba n poo r popul a t i on on t he c ont i ne nt w i t h m ode r n e ne r gy s e r vi c e s s uc h a s e l e c t r i c i t y a nd ke r os e ne t ha t w oul d r e pl a c e t r a di t i ona l bi om a s s ba s e d f ue l s s uc h a s w ood a nd c ha r c oa l T he c a s e s c om e f r om t he S A D C r e gi on ( Z a m bi a a nd Z i m ba bw e ) a nd f r om E a s t A f r i c a ( E t hi opi a U ga nda a nd T a nz a ni a ) I n or de r t o m a ke c r os s c ount r y c om pa r i s ons a nd d r a w m or e ge ne r a l c onc l us i ons e a c h c a s e s t udy w a s t o a ddr e s s f i ve br oa d a r e a s : 1) t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he poor c a n a f f or d m ode r n e ne r gy s e r vi c e s ; 2) t he r ol e of upf r ont c os t s i n pr ov i di ng m ode r n e ne r gy s e r vi c e s t o t he poor ; 3) t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h e ne r gy s ubs i d i e s t a r ge t e d t ow a r d t he poo r a c t ua l l y r e a c h t he poor ; 4) t he i m pa c t of e ne r gy s u bs i di e s on gove r nm e nt f i na nc e s ; a nd 5 ) t he i m pa c t of t he c ur r e nt s ys t e m of e l e c t r i c i t y t a r i f f s o n s m a l l a nd m i c r o e nt e r pr i s e s ( S M E s ) E a c h c a s e s t udy t he n of f e r s pol i c y r e c om m e nda t i ons ba s e d on t he s t udy s f i ndi ngs M os t of t he c a s e s t udi e s a r e qui t e de t a i l e d i n t e r m s of t he da t a us e d, w i t h m os t o f t he da t a a r e de r i ve d f r om gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s s t a t e ow ne d ut i l i t i e s or t hr ough s ur ve ys T he a m ount a nd de t a i l of t he da t a us e d w e r e qui t e s ur pr i s i ng gi ve n t he know n di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h obt a i ni ng t he ne c e s s a r y da t a or t he r e l i a bi l i t y o f t he da t a I f i nd t hi s e s pe c i a l l y t r ue of t he Z a m bi a n c a s e w he r e I ha ve know l e dge of da t a p r obl e m s w i t h t he s t a t e ow ne d e l e c t r i c ut i l i t y Z E S C O a t t he i r m os t r e c e nt pr i c e r e vi e w p r oc e e di ng. M or e ove r t he us e of s ur ve y da t a w a s a l s o r e l i e d upon qui t e he a vi l y i n t he Z a m bi a n a nd E t hi opi a n c a s e s a nd s houl d m a ke a ny r e a de r que s t i on t he va l i d i t y of t he da t a us e d t o r e a c h s om e of t he ove r a r c hi ng c o nc l us i ons O nl y i n one c a s e s t udy ( T a nz a ni a ) w a s t he r e a t r ul y ope n a c know l e dge m e nt of t he a f o r e m e nt i one d da t a pr obl e m s S om e of t he ove r a r c hi ng f i nd i ngs of t he s t udi e s m a y be s ur pr i s i ng t o A f r i c a w a t c he r s e s pe c i a l l y w i t h r e s pe c t t o a f f o r da bi l i t y. T he f i r s t i s t ha t t he ur ba n poor c a n a f f or d uns ubs i di z e d e ne r gy s e r vi c e s T he s e c ond f i ndi ng, r e l a t e d t o t he f i r s t i s t ha t t he poor c a nnot a f f o r d t o pa y f o r t he upf r ont c os t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ons um i ng m ode r n e ne r gy s e r vi c e s s uc h a s e l e c t r i c i t y c onne c t i ons hous e w i r i ng, s t ove s l a m ps e t c C on s e que nt l y, m a ny of t he c a s e s r e c om m e nd s ubs i di z i ng t he up f r ont c os t s r a t he r t ha n s ubs i di z i ng c ons um pt i on, a s ha s t r a di t i ona l l y be e n t he c a s e i n pr o poor pol i c i e s o r t o a m or t i z e t he c os t of t he up f r ont i nve s t m e nt by c ons um e r s ove r a pe r i od of ye a r s not i ng t he c ur r e nt pr a c t i c e w oul d r e qui r e t he poor t o pa y t he up f r ont c os t s a s a l um p s um pa ym e nt T he s e f i ndi ngs a nd r e c om m e n da t i ons a r e s i m i l a r t o t he f i ndi ngs a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons of W or l d B a nk a nd U N s t udi e s on s e r vi ng t he poo r i n pl a c e s s uc h a L a t i n A m e r i c a a nd S out h A s i a A t hi r d ge ne r a l f i ndi ng i ndi c a t e s m os t s ubs i di e s f o r e ne r gy c ons um pt i on a r e N O T c a pt ur e d by t he poor T hi s i s a l s o c ons i s t e nt w i t h f i ndi ngs f r om ot he r s t udi e s f r om a r ound t he de ve l opi ng w or l d. T he r e a s on s ubs i di e s e nd up be ne f i t i ng t he non poor i s be c a us e t he y a r e s ubs i de s on

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B O O K R E V I E W | 8 9 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 0 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 c ons um pt i on, a s m e nt i one d a bove not on c onne c t i on or up f r on t c os t s T he r e f or e a nybody w ho i s c onne c t e d r e c e i ve s t he s ubs i dy ( us ua l l y non poo r ) but t he poor w ho ha ve t r oubl e a f f or di ng t he up f r ont c os t s a r e e xc l ude d. T hi s r e s ul t f ur t he r bol s t e r s t he r e c om m e nda t i on f o r s ubs i di z i ng up f r ont c os t s T he i m pa c t o f s ubs i di e s on gove r nm e nt f i na nc e s i s not s o c l e a r c ut H ow e ve r t he r e a de r i s l e f t w onde r i ng w ha t c ons t i t ut e s gove r nm e nt a nd t he r e w a s no c ons i s t e nt m e a s ur e of t he i m pa c t on t he f i s c a l he a l t h of gove r nm e nt a c r os s c a s e s T h e ge ne r a l i m pr e s s i on i s t ha t s ubs i di e s ha ve l i t t l e i m pa c t on publ i c f i na nc e a s e vi de nc e d by c os t r e f l e c t i ve a nd r e ve nue s uf f i c i e nt t a r i f f s i n E t hi opi a a nd t he l e s s t ha n 5% i m pa c t i n T a nz a ni a H ow e ve r t he s ubs i di e s i n e l e c t r i c i t y i n Z a m bi a a nd Z i m ba bw e ha ve be e n de bi l i t a t i ng t o t h e s t a t e ow ne d c om pa ni e s a nd w hi l e t he y do not ne c e s s a r i l y c ons t i t ut e gove r nm e nt s pe ndi ng, t h e l a r ge c om pa ny de f i c i t s a r e c l e a r l y a l ong r un bur de n on t hos e gove r nm e nt s T he a ut hor s s houl d ha ve pr ovi de d m or e c ons i s t e nc y he r e O ve r a l l t he book i s w e l l done a nd i t a c c om pl i s he s t he goa l s s e t f or t h by t he e di t or s of t he c om pi l a t i on, i n s pi t e of t he da t a l i m i t a t i ons a nd da t a que s t i ons a nd ve r i f i e s t ha t pr ovi di ng e ne r gy s e r vi c e s t o t he poor i n A f r i c a i s f i na nc i a l l y vi a bl e i f t he be s t pos s i bl e pol i c i e s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d. M or e ove r i t r e i nf o r c e s i n t he A f r i c a n c ont e xt w h a t ha s be e n f ound i n ot he r pa r t s of t he w o r l d w i t h r e s pe c t t o e ne r gy s e r vi c e pr ovi s i on f or t he po or I t i s a m us t r e a d f or a nybody w or ki ng i n de ve l opm e nt a nd e ne r gy i n A f r i c a i nc l udi ng a nd e s pe c i a l l y W or l d B a nk a nd I M F pr o f e s s i ona l s a s w e l l a s gove r nm e nt pol i c y m a ke r s i n A f r i c a T h e r e a r e m a ny o t he r s m a l l e r l e s s ons t ha t c a n be dr a w n f r om t he c a s e s pr e s e nt e d, ot he r t ha n t hos e p r ovi de d a bove a nd t ha t c oul d be a ppl i e d w i t h a ppr opr i a t e m odi f i c a t i ons t o c ha nge pol i c y i n t he l oc a l c ont e xt P a ul M S ot k i e w i c z U ni v e r s i t y of F l or i da

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A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 A f r i c a n S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y V ol um e 8, I s s ue 3 S pr i n g 2006 C on t i n e n t of M o t h e r s C on t i n e n t of H op e : U n d e r s t an d i n g an d P r om o t i n g D e ve l op m e n t i n A f r i c a T od ay. S k ar d T or i l d N e w Y or k : Z e d B o ok s L t d 2003. 260 p p I n t hi s book S ka r d dr a w s on he r r i c h e xpe r i e nc e w or ki ng a nd l i vi ng i n C e nt r a l a nd W e s t A f r i c a t o r e c ount t he c om pl e x s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s i n t he r e gi on. S ka r d c a r e f ul l y a na l yz e s t he ove r a l l de ve l opm e nt i m pl i c a t i ons o f c onf l i c t s i l l i t e r a c y a nd e pi de m i c s s uc h a s H I V / A I D S a nd m a l a r i a w i t h pa r t i c ul a r e m pha s i s o n w om e n a nd gi r l s S he r e ve a l s a w i de r a nge of i ns t i t ut i ona l i de ol ogi c a l a nd c ul t ur a l i s s ue s t ha t ha ve be a r i ngs on t he w a ys i n w hi c h de ve l opm e nt a s s i s t a nc e ha s be e n unde r t a ke n i n t he r e gi on. U l t i m a t e l y, t he book i s a bout e f f e c t i ve a nd i ne f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt i nt e r ve nt i on s i n A f r i c a T he book a r gue s f or a n unbi a s e d a nd t a r ge t e d de ve l opm e nt a ppr oa c h t ha t ought t o t a ke i nt o a c c ount t he p r e va i l i ng s oc i a l hi s t or i c a l c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s T he di s c our s e s w i ngs ba c k a nd f or t h i n h i s t or y, f r o m t he s l a ve t r a de a nd c ol oni a l e xpl oi t a t i on t o de c ol oni z a t i on a nd pos t i nde pe nde nc e gove r na nc e c a r e f ul l y s c r ut i n i z i ng t he i r c ont r i but i on t o t he pr e va i l i ng c r i s e s i n t he r e gi on w hi l s t a na l yz i ng t he i r i m pl i c a t i ons f or m e e t i ng de ve l o pm e nt obj e c t i ve s i n t he f ut u r e B y dr a w i ng a t t e nt i on t o s o m e of t he m os t de a dl y a nd br ut a l c i vi l w a r s i n t he r e gi on a nd hi ghl i ght i ng t he a ppa l l i ngl y vi ol e nt a t t r i but e s of t he s e c onf l i c t s S ka r d not on l y r e c ount s t he pa s t but a l s o c ha l l e nge s r e a de r s t o po nd e r t he f u t ur e o f A f r i c a F or e xa m pl e s he br i e f l y t ouc he s upon a c r uc i a l a nd ye t pa r a doxi c a l a s pe c t of pe a c e bui l di ng: t he pr a c t i c e of r e w a r di ng r e be l s i n a n e f f o r t t o e nd vi o l e nc e a s w a s done i n L i be r i a w i t h C ha r l e s T a yl or ( p 19) S i m ul t a ne ous l y, S ka r d r e ve a l s A f r i c a s r e m a r ka bl e r e s i l i e nc e a m i ds t l a w l e s s ne s s i nj us t i c e pove r t y, di s e a s e a nd opp r e s s i on. I n pa r t i c ul a r s he s he ds l i ght on t he o f t e n unde r s t a t e d r ol e of w om e n i n c our a ge ous l y uphol di ng t he f r a c t ur i ng s oc i a l f a br i c a s a r e s ul t of e ndur i ng ha r d s hi ps C ons e que nt l y, t he book a r gue s w e l l f or t he m e a ni n gf ul a nd de l i be r a t e i nc l us i on of w om e n i n t he de ve l opm e nt pr oc e s s i f pe a c e a nd pr os pe r i t y a r e t o pr e va i l F ur t he r m or e S ka r d unde r s c or e s t he i m po r t a nc e of f ul l y a ppr e c i a t i ng t he dyna m i c s be t w e e n t r a di t i ona l a nd m ode r n va l ue s i n t he r e gi on be f or e i nt r oduc i ng ne w de ve l opm e nt a ppr oa c he s S uc h unde r s t a ndi ng e ns ur e s t ha t one bui l ds on i ndi ge nous a nd pos i t i ve pr a c t i c e s r a t he r t ha n r e i nve nt i ng t he w he e l S ka r d s uppor t s t hi s a r gum e nt w i t h e xa m pl e s of s uc c e s s f ul c om m uni t y a nd l oc a l i ni t i a t i ve s s uc h a s L e m de n W om e n s C oope r a t i ve i n t he a r i d B r a kna r e gi on of M a ur i t a ni a w hi c h w a s f ounde d i n 1985 by l oc a l e duc a t e d w o m e n ( p. 235 ) D e s pi t e t he ha r s h e nvi r onm e nt a nd s t r ong t r a di t i ona l a nd r e l i gi ous i nf l ue nc e s t he W om e n s C oope r a t i ve br ought r e m a r ka bl e s oc i o e c onom i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l i m p r ove m e nt s t o L e m de n vi l l a ge S ka r d a ppl a uds t he i ni t i a t i ve a nd a r gue s t ha t w i t h t he ne c e s s a r y f i na nc i a l a nd t e c hni c a l s uppor t s uc h t ype s of i ni t i a t i ve s c oul d t r a ns f or m t he c ont i ne nt e ve n i n a r e a s dom i na t e d by m e n a nd t r a di t i on D r a w i ng on pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e S ka r d m a ke s not e of a f e w s uc c e s s f ul de ve l opm e nt i nt e r ve nt i ons i n C e nt r a l a nd W e s t A f r i c a s pons or e d by U N I C E F A t t he s a m e t i m e s he gi ve s a de t a i l e d a c c ount of he r l e a de r s hi p a nd m a na ge r i a l c ha l l e nge s w i t hi n U N I C E F t ha t i n he r vi e w

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B O O K R E V I E W | 9 1 A f r i ca n S t u d i es Q u a r t er l y h t t p : / / w w w afri ca u fl ed u / a s q / v 8 / v 8 i 3 a2 1 h t m Sp ri n g 2 0 0 6 r e f l e c t e d a c l a s h of c ul t ur e be t w e e n W e s t e r ne r s a n d A f r i c a ns ( p 207; 208) S ka r d s i nt e r p r e t a t i on of c ul t ur a l c l a s h s e e m s t o be c onf us e d w i t h a n i ns t i t ut i ona l c ul t ur e t ha t i n m y vi e w be t t e r r e pr e s e nt s t he c ha l l e nge s de s c r i be d by S ka r d. F or i ns t a nc e pr obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he l oc a l s t a f f i nc l ude t he i na bi l i t y t o di s s oc i a t e bus i ne s s f r om pe r s ona l a f f a i r s ne pot i s m a nd unpunc t ua l i t y. T he f a c t t ha t t he p r i va t e s e c t or ope r a t e s w i t hi n t he s a m e e nv i r onm e nt a nd c ul t ur a l c ons t r a i nt s a nd ye t doe s not s uf f e r f r om t he s a m e p r obl e m s poi nt s t o t he i ns t i t ut i ona l no t c ul t ur a l va l ue of a c c ount a bi l i t y a nd pur pos e f ul l e a de r s hi p. J us t a s t he pr i va t e s e c t or a dhe r e s t o t he s e va l ue s t o s t a y i n bus i ne s s t he publ i c s e c t or c a n i m pa r t t he m t o t he i r hos t c om m uni t y a s pa r t o f t he de ve l opm e nt pa c ka ge r a t he r t ha n gi vi ng t he i r t a c i t e ndor s e m e nt t o una c c e pt a bl e pr a c t i c e s ( p. 208) S ka r d s a t t e m pt t o pul l t oge t he r a w i de r a nge of pe a c e a nd de ve l opm e nt i s s ue s i n C e nt r a l a nd W e s t A f r i c a i n a s uc c i nc t a nd e nga gi ng f a s hi on i s c e r t a i nl y t he s t r e ngt h of t h i s book. H ow e ve r due t o t he s he e r nu m be r o f t he m e s c ove r e d i n t hi s l i m i t e d vol um e s om e of t he ke y poi n t s a r e a ddr e s s e d i n a n a br upt a nd s upe r f i c i a l f a s hi on i nc l udi ng t he unde r l yi ng t he m e o f t he book w om e n a nd m ot he r s i n A f r i c a F u r t he r m or e t he bo ok s uf f e r s f r om b r oa d ge ne r a l i z a t i ons c onc e r ni ng A f r i c a ns a nd t he i r c ul t ur e of t e n ba s e d on i s ol a t e d i nc i de nt s s pe c i f i c ge og r a phi c l oc a t i ons i ns t i t ut i ona l c ul t u r e a nd t he de c i s i o ns of une l e c t e d of f i c i a l s T hi s r e s ul t s i n a n i nc om pl e t e a nd a t t i m e s i na c c ur a t e po r t r a ya l of A f r i c a ns a nd t he i r di ve r s e c ul t u r e a nd hi s t or y F or i ns t a nc e S ka r d c l a i m s t ha t i n s ub S a ha r a n A f r i c a I s l a m ha s s pr e a d f r om t he nor t h w hi l e C hr i s t i a ni t y c a m e m uc h l a t e r a nd pe ne t r a t e d s l ow l y f r om t he s out h ( p. 184) T hi s ge ne r a l i z a t i on i s a l t oge t he r e r r one ous w he n one e xa m i ne s t he hi s t or y of E t hi op i a a c ount r y t ha t a c c e pt e d C hr i s t i a ni t y i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y a nd ha s a n a nc i e nt c i vi l i z a t i on i nc l udi ng i t s ow n w r i t t e n l a ngua ge s t i l l i n of f i c i a l us e D e s pi t e c r i t i c i z i ng do nor s f or t he i r l a c k of s ophi s t i c a t i on i n ha ndl i ng di ve r s e a nd c om pl e x de ve l opm e nt i s s ue s i n A f r i c a a nd t he W e s t e r n m e di a f or t he i r s t e r e ot ype d i m a ge of t he c ont i ne nt S ka r d i s not i m m une t o he r ow n a c c us a t i ons A l t hough a f e w ge ne r a l i z a t i ons c a n be m a de r e ga r di ng c e r t a i n t he m e s i n A f r i c a s uc h a s i s s ue s of gove r na nc e a nd e c onom i c s t a t us not t o m e nt i on r a c e i t i s not on l y hypoc r i t i c a l but a l s o i n t e l l e c t ua l l y s ha l l ow t o ge ne r a l i z e A f r i c a ns w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he i r va r i ous c u l t ur e s r e l i gi ons hi s t or i e s a nd c i vi l i z a t i ons N e ve r t he l e s s t he book i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i ns i ght f ul f o r young a nd c om m i t t e d de ve l opm e nt pr of e s s i ona l s w ho a r e de di c a t e d t o f i ght i ng pove r t y a nd t he una c c e pt a bl e l e ve l o f vi ol e nc e t ha t s t i l l r a ge s on t he c ont i ne nt M or e ove r S ka r d s e xp e r t a c c ount of de ve l opm e nt pol i t i c s a nd w ha t i t ha s a nd ha s not c ha nge d on t he c ont i ne nt s houl d be a good r e s our c e f or r e s e a r c he r s a nd j uni or a nd s e a s one d de ve l opm e nt pr of e s s i ona l s a l i ke W hi l e i t w i l l i nt r o duc e ne w pr of e s s i ona l s t o t he c om pl e x w or l d o f de ve l opm e nt i t w i l l p r ovoke di s c us s i on a nd de ba t e a m ong ot he r s w i t h m o r e e xpe r i e nc e M a ke da T s e ga ye N ai r obi K e ny a


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