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Title: Journal of Caribbean archaeology
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Title: Journal of Caribbean archaeology
Series Title: SPARC (Organization)
Uniform Title: Journal of Caribbean archaeology (Online)
Alternate Title: JCA
Abbreviated Title: J. Caribb. archaelo.
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Language: English
Publisher: Christopher Ohm Clement ;
Christopher Ohm Clement
William F. Keegan
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 2010
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    A troumassoid site at Trois-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI funerary practices and house patterns at La Pointe de Grande Anse
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        Page 17
    An archaeology of black markets: Local ceramics and economies in eighteenth-century Jamaica
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
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Joumalof ( :::1-1. ::: .: 1:: *Hgy
( . .: 1.: 2010
ISSN 1524-4776



A Troumassoid site at Trois-Rivibres, Guadeloupe FWI
Funerary practices and house patterns at La Pointe de Grande Anse


Me n van 7 Bel
INRA P



mas Ro.
INRAP 2010
I .


Abstract
The site of La Pointe de Grande Anse, ... vibres, was.?. . .. ? in .. by members of '
French National Institute for Preventive A... 7.... .7. ...7 F. -.. ..rch (INRAP). 9... site is situated
on the : bank of ':. Grande Anse River in ':. ....* F.- of Basse-7 : : During and May
a preventive excavation was conducted by Inrap cov.-rty a total of 1784m and .7
a ..- .^ of a Precolumbian .
-: dates and aC : characteristic ceramics attributed -7... -- .........7 .... to .--
said .: : .. .' (650 1600 AD). The excavation o'....- showed various concentrations of,
burial clusters and numerous waste pits revealing at least 3 house locations. fl.-?....-: one house
location, a clear house plan was detected which also evidenced a burial cluster of 5 /.' in its
.. house and burial .- -... could be -:--. ........ ... -. ..... How-
ever, .*7.. > ..7.... --7-. dates suggest al., . in age between ':. house and .7.. burials ofat
least 500 years, -7... .. . .- 7-.- abnost .7.. whole .- -- .. :. --- -:.7 period 9... .....-7. r pose
the Late Ceramic 1 B buried dead at Early Ceramic 1 B sites
cemeteries.

Resume
Le site de La Pointe de Grande Anse, Commune de .. ivibres, a dtd dicouvert en .
une .'.;--:.--. de l'Institut National de RecherchesArchdolo . Priventives (INRAP). Le site
est situd sur la rive droite de la Rivibre de Grande Anse dans le sud de Basse-: :.. Pendant les
mois d'avril et de mai une fouille preventive ad td . .-.. par l '.7 .. de 17 2 et a mis
au .. .... une parties d'un
Les rdsultats des dates: ... carbones et .... --. dldments .': -...... ... caractdristiques ont
attribud 1'. :. ..'....- a 1''. ... -- ....- ... (650-1600 AD). Le . de ... .. a relevi
ensemblesdetrousde..- -...... des- --... ...-- de .'.---- et.--. ....... (-
cr -- ? .../ ivoquent au moins trois ensembles<. 7.-'...'.. .:.. distinct. Dans un de ces
ensembles, le .--7.... / un carpet .. .- -....7-. :: a dtd reconnu nettement. Dans 1'. c.: 7. nord-ouest du


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O





Van Den Eel & Romon


i Trou~rnassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


carpet se situait une concentration de 5 fosses sdpulcrales, -,g ,'; .,at la contemporanditd du car-
bet et des sdpultures. Pourtant, les datations radio carbones ont mis en evidence une Jill't..n....
. h; a .0, .!, ign.- entre le carpet et les policeica, d'environ 500 ans qui couvre ; I. -..,ts. 1'!nt,' -7:,!il.'
de la period post--.el..; J ramic B ont enterrd leurs morts dans les sites dards de I','; - cimetieres.

Rbsumen
El sitio La Pointe de Grande Anse, 70 / Ts'ivibres, fue descubierto en 2006 por miembros del h?-
stituto Nacional; at ..s la Investigacidn Arqueold gica Preventiva (INRAP en su acrdnimo francis).
El sitio estd situado en el banco derecho del rio Grande Anse, al sur de Basse-78rre. Durante los
meses de abril y mayo de 2008, Inrap condujo excavaciones preventivas <;;s..- cubrieron un total
de 1, 7847772 TBSultando er; la revelation de una parte de uria m ill precolombina.
Los resultados obtenidos de J. .. ita -: ; 0../3. ....oA lt it....r. y wk*; s u. -- f ..;;.-to,. vi. diagndsticos de
cerdmica sugieren para el sitio una ocupacidn del period F *,,,0.<- -, -i. (650-1600AD). El plan
de excavacidn mostrd varias concentraciones de huellas de poste, ..r.-; .. -0..7. -- de/ ...r. de enter-
ramientos y numerosos depdsitos de basural, revelando al menos 3 ubicaciones de casas. En una
de estas ubicaciones, la plant claramente definida de una casa/s..- detectada registrdndose en
ella un.,- i. :. ed con 5 fosos de enterramientos en su cuadrante norceste, -.;,qi i. a. 4 .7;,. la casa
y el;.v is; .. de entierros pueden ser t o<;/.. us; a, Jo... -. No obstante, los fechados 0..73. ....o 5.1, ..
plantean una separacian de al menos 500 ra, -. entre la casa y los entierros, cubriendo asi casi
todo el period post--Saladoide. Los authors proponent <;;e..- los amerindios de la Era Cerdmica
tardia B enterraron a sus muertos y crearon cementerios en sitios de la Era Cerdmica temprana
B.

Samenvatting
De indiaanse a la. !pl... getoond door medewerkers van het Frans Nationale Institute voor Preventieve A:..h... in 1,.
(IN1L4P). Deze site is gelegen op de rechter oever van de Grande Anse river in het zuiden van
Basse-Terre. Gedurende de maanden april en mel 2008 werd in total 1784m2 VGH &&# pre-CO-
lumbiaans dorp blootgelegd
De houtskool 1,to: />e.-,. o en enkele kenmerkende aardewerk scherven -.;e.- ...;..;.. a dat deze vind-
plaats aan de 70 *,,,0.: .- -1. A Periode kan worden toegekend (650-1600 AD). De sporenkaart van
de opgraving laat 1..? -...10li..n../.. palen-, 0.. *, as />e.---- en kuilen-concentraties zien die minimal
drie spoken zones weergeven. Edn zone laat duidelijk een huisplattegrond zien met, in de noord-
west hoek van het huis, een 4 ,.; .an>.. ha1. van 5 6.. *<<0 lu;.-,. o die doen vermoeden dat het huis en
de begr.-win- n li gn;. il g zijn. Echter, de resultaten van de houtskool dateringen -.o i. a een
///J-----est van minstens 500 jaar tussen de huizen en de begravingen die blina de gehele post-sal-
adoide period in beslag neemt. De auteurs willen aantonen dat de indianen uit de Late Ceramic
B period hun doden hebben be graven op vindplaatsen die ult de Late Ceramic A period stam-
men en zodoende begraaj>1aasten in het leven hebben geroepen.


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O






Van Den Bel & Romon


A Troumassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


Introduction

The Precolumbian site of La Pointe de Grande
Anse, Trois-Rivieres (Guadeloupe FWI) was
discovered in 2006 by members of the French
National Institute for Preventive Archaeologi-
cal Research (Inrap) (Van den Bel 2007) The
site is situated at the summit of a volcanic flow
in the south of the island of Basse-Terre on the
right bank of the Grand Anse River (Fig. 1).
In colonial times, the site housed a local pot-
tery production centre (Fils Fidelin) but also
a sugar cane factory. These colonial activities
have entirely disturbed the Amerindian archae-
ological level until the sterile yellowish brown
subsoil. The northern and southern slopes of
the site still evidenced an Amerindian archaeo-
logical layer but yielded very little material;
no midden area was encountered within the
perimeter of the excavation. In total, 1784m2
has been uncovered by means of a mechanical
shovel revealing over 1200 features ascribed
to both Precolumbian and colonial times. This
paper focuses on the Precolumbian features of
the site.


The Trois-Rivieres area, situated between the
Petit-Carbet and Grande Riviere River, is well
known for its high concentration of Precolum-
bian rock-art but few (contemporaneous?) hab-
itation sites have been recorded in the vicinity
(Ruig 2001). In 1994, the French Ministry of
Culture (DRAC) and the University of Leiden
excavated various test-pits near the petroglyphs
of Derussy, Romuald, Anse Duquery but also
on the left bank of the Grande Anse River
to collect archaeological material in order to
obtain a first chrono-cultural framework for the
rock art sites (Delpuech et al. 1994).
The latter site, situated opposite the exca-
vated area, was recorded in 1984 by Pierre
Bodu (Bodu 1984). In 1994, 12 test pits were
excavated by members of the University of
Leiden to the west and south of the present day
football field. In total, 441 sherds were found
Which were attributed to the Cedrosan-Sal-
adoid sub-series by the excavators (Delpuech,
Hofman and Hoogland 1994).
Another Precolumbian habitation site was
found on the island of Terre-de-Bas (Les Saint-
es) situated opposite Trois-Rivieres. In 1995, a


Figure 1. Aerial view of La Pointe de Grande Anse indicating the 2008 excava-


Journal of Caribbean Archaeology, 2010O






Van Den Eel & Romon


4 Troninassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


small-scale excavation, directed by the SRA of
Guadeloupe, yielded ceramics attributed to the
Suazan Troumassold sub-series dated between
1000 and 1450 AD (Delpuech et al. 1995).'

Description ofHouse Locations 1 and 2

The excavation yielded 211 features attribut-
able to the Precolumbian era. Most of the
features are concentrated on the longitudinal
summit of the volcanic flow (south-east to
north-west).
The post holes can be sub-divided into 2 types:
Type A is a large oval shaped hole, deeper than
80cm (Fig. 2). These holes have a clear post
mould and represent the principal or central
posts (>20cm in diameter) of the house. The

1 This hypothesis is confirmed by one radio carbon
date of 810 & 30 BP (GrN-20874) but also contradicted by a
second date on human bone from an older bunal dated 1210 &
50 BP (GrN-21562).


Type B post hole is smaller, has a roundish to
oval shaped hole which does not exceed 50cm
in depth and represents the secondary or sup-
porting posts (10-20cm) of the house. Both
types were dug into the volcanic bedrock and
both types were accompanied by additional
rocks that supported the posts. Small and large
amounts of pottery or lithic debitage were
found in numerous fills. The spatial distribu-
tion of the features revealed four principal
concentrations of features consisting of a mix
of burials, post holes and pits. These concen-
trations represent house locations of which
only House Location 1 and 2 will be discussed
since the radiocarbon samples were taken from
these locations.

House Location 2

We start with HL 2 since the house plan was
already recognizedd' in the field. Such a 'clean'


Figure 2. Schematic overview of the posthole types.








Van Den Bel & Romon


A Troumassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


St 214 St 216





St 239



1 t211 St238



tended)
St210


St90






tSt32




St 8b St St 7 t 34








@St 19
St 204 01
St 979 s

202 9

St 205 St 975
*
on 2 sesso
St 207 St 33
t351
t 352

seas
St 971

St 928



St 924

@St 5 1



St 906


St 902

St910 S


St 1040l


St 1087


St 10191


House Location

Post hole la

) Post hole la (ex
Post hole lb

Burial

C14 dateS



























House Locati

Post hole

Burial

C14 dates


St 1196


3ii


375


3"' "


**284


St 15


St 39

0 5m



St 26



St28




bt 118







120
*



St 123


St 125


lt914


Figure 3. Detail of the excavation plan showing House Location 1 and 2.


Journal of Caribbean Archaeology, 2010O


t4 OSt 42


S75






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


plan is a rarity in the Lesser Antilles since
most house plans are hidden within a 'cloud'
or palimpsest of potholes, as is the case for
HL 1. House Location 2 covers a surface of
132m2 and consists of four large central post
holes, one off centered post hole and an outer
peripheral circle of at least seventeen smaller
post holes (Fig. 3). The 4 central posts are situ-
ated in the middle of the outer circle and form
a rectangle of 2,70 x 2,70 meters. The fifth
central post is situated 2,5m north east of the
latter rectangle. The function of the latter post
is probably governed by a particular roof con-
struction. The posts of the outer circle are sepa-
rated by five meters. Archaeological material
was found in abundance in the fills of the cen-
tral post holes and assigns this house location
to a later phase of occupation which is stressed
by the slightly 'off to the side' position. The
wooden post in St 935 was carbonized and at-
tributed to the Cynotmetra / Hymenea species,
better known as courbaril.2 In the north west-
ern 'quarter' of the house, 5 burial pits (one
of which contains 2 individuals) were found
grouped together a s-_- _-edo _-, that the house and
the burials could be contemporaneous.

House Location 1

House Location 1 is situated at the longitudinal
summit of the site, slightly to the north of HL
2. This house location is also represented by a
concentration of post holes and a burial group
but is obviously less evident than HL 2 (Fig.
3). These kinds of feature densities are proba-
bly due to rebuilding of the first house forming
a rather clearly demarcated palimpsest which is
typical for Precolumbian habitation sites in the
Lesser Antilles (cf. Delpuech et al. 2001).
We estimate that the first plan (HL la) also
consists of four large central posts of which
one is located outside the excavation. The
additional off centered post can be post hole

2 Cesalpineacea family. Determination by Christophe
Tardy (Inrap) (cf van den Bel et al. 2009:32).


St 210 and the outer arc is touching HL 2 in
the south. The total surface is bigger by a few
square meters. In a second stage the central
framework is extended by 5 posts of which
one (St 8b) cuts into a burial (St 53) and one
is replaced (St 7). The outer circle of post
holes is extended to the north and its surface is
thereby enlarged (HL la 'extended'). Another
outer arc is visible (HL lb) but no central posts
could be ascribed to this arc which may be an
indication for a secondary function of these
post holes. They may even have functioned as
another extension to HL la or lb. The rebuild-
ing or re-constructions of this house location
are confirmed by the sectioning of Burial 1, the
position of Burial 2 on top of a post hole and
the presence of post hole fills without archaeo-
logical material evidencing the first installation
at this site. It should be noted that this recon-
struction remains hypothetical.

Brief comparison ofAmerindian house plans
on Guadeloupe

In the southern part of the island of Basse-
Terre, three contemporaneous Amerindian
habitation sites yielded similar house patterns:
Bisdary at Gourbeyre (Romon et al. 2006),
Moulin-a-Eau and L'Allee Dumanoir at Capes-
terre-Belle-Eau (Mestre et al. 2001; Etrich et
al. 2003). The latter two sites did not yield
burials but several oval-shaped pits with com-
plete vessel deposits which have been inter-
preted as inhumations. On the other hand, they
did reveal similar round or slightly oval-shaped
house plans. These round houses showed a
ring of either 15 (Bitiment N de Moulin-a-
Eau; Mestre et al. 2001:25) or ten external post
holes (BP 8, 9 and 13 at L'Allee Dumanoir;
Etrich et al. 2003:82) which were spaced some
five meters apart. Their total surfaces are esti-
mated at between 100 and 180ml and clearly
correspond to the estimated surfaces of the La
Pointe de Grande Anse plans. There are also
smaller house plans (<10m in diameter) with


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O











The co-existence of different house types on
Amerindian sites in the Antilles is common
when conducting large scale excavations.
These differences are generally interpreted as
architectural / functional differences and ex-

press various cultural functions such as ethnic
identity, socio-economic organisation and reli-

gious practices. For example, the house plans
at the Golden Rock site (Saint Eustatius), dated
to the 7th and 8th century AD, and the larger
house plans at Anse a la Gourde have revealed
a more complex plan than the Troumassoid
house plans of Basse-Terre. These house sur-
faces are larger and can be estimated between
250 and 360m2. Secondly, another peripheral

(semi) circle is situated on the outside which
has been interpreted as passage ways, veran-
showing four central posts with an outer ring of :.. .1:. .
. I ab ,-- 1995:151).


site code dimensions surface mZ central posts rings reference
Morulin a Fau N 9 x9m 81 2 Mestie et al 2001
Alli~e Dumanoir BP 5 11,5 x 11,5 132,25 2 1 Etrich et al 2003
Allie Dumanoir BP' 6 13 x13 169 2 2 Etrch et al 2003
Allee Dumanolr BP' 7 9 x9 81 0 1 Elrich et at 2003
All~e Dumanolr BP 8 13.5 x 13,5 182,25 2 1 E~rich et al 2003
Alli~e Dumanoir BP 9 9 x8 72 2 1 Etrich et al 2003
A116e Diarnanoni BP 10 6 x6 36 2 1 Etnich t al 2003
Allee Dumanoir BP 12 10 x l 100 2 1 Etnch et al 2003
Allee Dumianior BP 13 13,5 x 13,5 182,25 2 Etach et al 2003
Anse Ala Gourlde S 1 11,5 x 7 104 0 2 Morrink 2006
Anse Ba ~a Gurde S 3 10 x7 70 2 1 Molrsink 2006
An~se Ala Gocurde S 4 2 x8 96 1 2 Mocrsink 2006
Anse B1a Giourde So 11x 11 121 0 2 Morsink 2006
A~nse B1a Gourde S 8 10 x8 80 4 1 Morsinlk 2006;
Anse Ala Gourlde S 10 9 x7 8i4 4 1Morrink 2006
Ans~e ala Giourde S 17 18 x18 324 1 1 orsinkl 2006
Anse j1a Gourde S 18 8 xl 8 3241 2 2 Morsink 2006
Ans~e g1a Gourde S? 2010x 10 100 I Moiisink 2006
Anse Ala Gourlde S 21 20 x 18 360 2 2 Morrink 2006
P'ointe de Griande Anse HL la 12x 14 168 4 1 van denl Bel et al 2009
Pomte de Grlande Ainse HL lb 14x 16 224 1 2 van den Bel et al 2009
Pomte de Gjrande Anse HL: 2 7 x14 238 4 1 van den Bel et al 2009
Poine de Grander Anse HL 3 11 x11 121 2 1 van den Bel et al 2009

Figure 4. Short overview of (post-saladoid '?) house plans on Gruadeloup~e from large scale excavations.


Van Den Eel & Romon


i Trou~rnassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


eight peripheral or outer posts (Fig. 4).
A difference is observed concerning the posi-
tioning of the central house posts. The Capes-
terre-Belle-Eau plans showed in most of the
cases two central posts -or even one- where as
House Location 2 of La Pointe de Grande Anse
has four or five. On the other hand, the Anse a
la Gourde site, situated in the east of the island
of Grande-Terre clearly showed house plans
with 4 or more central posts in rectangular
constitution such as Structures 1, 4, 8, 10, 12,

20 (Bright "' 0 17-27; Morsink 2006:19-47).
The other constructions at this site have a
double peripheral ring and a larger total surface

(Structure 17, 18 and 21)".

3 Here, we would also like to point to the great resem-
blance between HL 2 of La Pointe de Grande Anse and the pre-
historic longhouse of FAL-7 in the Maticora Valley of Western
Venezuela. An ovoid longhouse measuring 18 x 13 m (2341n2


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


das, screens or walls. According to the authors,
the interior organisation of the house plan re-
flects the co-habitation of multiple families in
the same house (Versteeg and Schinkel 1992).
In general, the changing morphology of the
house plans coincides with the cultural changes
proposed for the Late Saldoid Period that
marks a socio-cultural differentiation between
the Saladoid and Troumassoid Periods in the
Lesser Antilles (Curet and Oliver 1998; Wat-
ters 1994; Keegan 2000; Bright 2003; Petersen
et al. 2004; de Waal 2006; Hofman et al. 2007).

Burials

First we have to mention that the presence of
(human) bone remains is a rarity for volcanic
soils due to its high ..ix.all8. DNA samples were
taken from all individuals but the low rates
of collagen in the human bone did not per-
mit analysis on genetic relationships between
the individuals within and between the burial
clusters to be performed. Gender could not be
determined for any of the individuals.
Spatial distribution
Thirteen of the 16 exhumed burials are clearly
grouped together into 3 distinct spatial units
(Fig. 3 and 5)4. The distribution of the remain-
ing 3 burials seems more random. This is
probably due to colonial and current activities
but can also be a result of different Amerindian
funerary practices.

The first concentration is situated along the
western limit of the excavation within the plan
of House Location 1 and consists of 4 burials.
The second spatial unit is situated to the south
of the first unit and located within the north-
western quarter of House Location 2 and con-
sists of 5 burials. The third unit is to be found
in the south eastern corner of the excavated
area within House Location 3 and comprises
4 burials. Spatial units 4 and 5 are localized
4 House Location 3 is not discussed in this paper (only
the burials) because no charcoal was sent for analysis but HL 3
is situated 30 rneters to the south east of HL 2 (cf Fig. 5).


in the northern part of the exaction and total 3
burials.

Burial types

Five of the 16 burials are incomplete which is
due to the bone conservation and later distur-
bances. One burial is strictly secondary. Three
burials show evidence of bones in both pri-
mary and secondary position which is related
to Amerindian activities once the tissue had
decomposed. Seven burials are strictly primary
and 3 burials yielded multiple individuals. The
orientation of the burials is rather heteroge-
neous: 6 are directed towards the north, 1 to
the south, 1 to the south-east, 1 to the south, 2
to the west and 1 towards the north-west. Only
one burial is associated with a ceramic vessel
which is partly destroyed. This is probably due
to ploughing during the colonial period. The
vessel was probably placed upside down over
the upper part (head?) of the nich alual as a lid
or cover.

Primary burials

Primary burials are the most common buri-
als at La Pointe de Grande Anse and also in
the (Lesser) Antilles. The Amerindians dug a
pit in which they deposited their dead and left
it untouched. This site yielded seven simple
primary burials and the five incomplete burials
can most probably be associated to this group.
Within this group (n=12), two neels ides.el -
were deposited in semi-seated position (St 1
for example), eight on their back (St 1197 for
example), and two on their sides (St 571 for
example). The upper limbs are bent and the
hands are placed on the abdomen either. The
lower extremities are bent or hyper flexed in
a vertical way (n=3), or the knees touch the
shoulders (n=3) or are in front of the individual
(n=2 on the decubitus side).
Primary burials with secondary disturbances
This burial type is less frequent than the cases


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O








Van Den Bel & Romon


A Troumassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


. P......rs de Gr.v.J trm
r-***.dds-rrian...rm..t it..R.rs ,
i.ni Gr...,p. 3,.0 H....-< L.. an .r.-










e
See
e.
. , e **


sesa *

*I ,








a *


*


ee

e *


*


g


gS *

.*
*


*


9*


.*


e

.. * *
so




Burial group 2

* Se a



* / 4 H

e we

** *





Burial group 3







Figure 5. Spatial distribution of features, Burial Groups and House Locations.


:Location 3


Journal of Caribbean Archaeology, 2010O


.






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


above presented. Once the deceased was buried
and the decomposition of the soft tissues was
fairly well advanced, the Amerindians returned
to the corpse, and generally moved it and / or
removed bones. This type of activity is mostly
encountered at Late Ceramic Age habitation
sites.
For burial 1096, the mandible was replaced
against the left upper limb and the cranium on
the left lower extremity but the remainder of
the individual was in primary position. Burial
351 contains an individual without cranium in
primary position and features two craniums in
secondary position. The individual in primary
position is buried on the back, similarly to the
simple burials, but it is not possible to deter-
mine if either of the two skulls belongs to this
neth alual Burial 33 is a double burial, though
the individuals were not buried simultaneously.
The first neels ides.il was deposited in a pit and
afterwards (after complete decomposition)
the same pit was re-used to deposit a second
individual. In doing so, some bones of the first
neels ides.il were taken and re-deposited in this
same pit. The remains of the first individual
which were still in primary position, indicating
that this person was buried on the back like the
other simple primary burials.

Secondary burials

Burial 727 is a true secondary burial. This
burial represents the bones of two individuals
that were collected after their complete de-
composition and re-deposited in a pit. Whether
this pit was one of the original pits is unknown
but all bones are clearly in secondary position.
The long bones were gathered in a bundle and
deposited against the eastern wall of the pit;
a cranium and a mandible were found in the
middle of the same pit. The absence of many
bones and in particular small sized ones speaks
for decomposition in a different place. At the
moment, it is difficult to attribute this phenom-
enon with certainty to Precolumbian activity


since several burials were disturbed by colonial
activities. However, strict secondary burials
are known from other Amerindian sites and are
usually dated to the post-Saladoid period.

Indications for grave goods and body
preparation.

Ten burials show evidence of grave goods and
preparation of the deceased. Hereby we want
to refer to objects of any perishable material
(eg. hammocks, basketry etc.) that may create
empty spaces. Burial 1 features such empty
spaces: a dislocated cranium and the collapse
of the ceramic vessel (Fig. 5 and 6). This burial
also revealed clogged spaces (the thorax was
supported to keep it in an upright position) and
secondary fillings (sediment between the left
humerus left and the ribs). This (perishable)
matter creates 'holes' which force certain parts
of the body to move independently such as the
thorax, the upper limbs and the lower extremi-
ties.
Burial 2 shows indications for independent
constraints concerning the left side of the body,
the upper limb and the lower left extremi-
ties. First of all the left ribs have been moved
forwards while there is lateral space under the
left elbow. Secondly, the left upper limb forced
the radius into an unstable position. Finally,
the left lower extremities are maintained in a
parallel position according to the body axis
while there is lateral space available on top of
the left elbow. These observations show that
the morphology of the various segments may
have moved in one "bloc".
Another example is burial 571. Here, the posi-
tion of the upper right limb is somehow main-
tained in an articulated position in spite of the
observed displacement and in this matter is an
obstacle between the upper limb and the lower
extremities. This object is not present anymore
and has been replaced by sediment, but clearly
affected the position of the thorax, the upper
limbs and the lower extremities. The residual


Journal of Caribbea, Alrchareologg: 2010






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


position of the corpse is a position clearly
desired by the Amerindians before burying the
individual.
The hammock is an object which answers to
the above mentioned criteria. Amerindian buri-
als in hammocks are well illustrated by chroni-
clers of the 17th century. Father Breton (who
resided in Guadeloupe from 1635-1653) stated:

They dig a round pit of 3 feet deep in the house floor. They wash
the body, dye it with roucou, oil his hair and dress him up nicely
just like for a great feast. They put him in a new bed [hammock]
and seat him in the fetal position, and cover the hole with a
plank (Verrand 2001)."

Conclusion

The number of burials remains very modest
when taking into consideration the number of
people that might have died at the site. The
absence of pre-adult individuals is also discon-
certing and may suggest that only a part of the
population was actually buried at the site. We
wonder what factors governed this choice and
which fate was reserved for the other part of
the deceased population ?

The ceramic assemblage

The ceramics collected during the excavation
were found in the feature fills since no midden
area was present within the excavated area of
the site, therefore creating a certain bias. In
total, we found 1.505 sherds (21 kilos) which
yielded 47 diagnostic elements (3%) consisting
of 3 complete vessel shapes and various deco-
ration modes (n=215 or 14%).
In general one can say that the ceramic assem-
blage is characterized by its simplicity. Vessel
shapes are mainly represented by large open
created bowls (85%) and small restricted

5 11s crescent une fosse ronde de 3 pieds de profondeur
dans le sol de la case. 11s lament le corps, le rocouent tout, lui
oignent les cheveux d'huile et le troussent aussi proprement
qu'd leurs grand festins.11s le mettent dans un lit neuf et
1'assoient dans la position du futus, et couvre le trou d'une
planche.


bowls. These vessels exhibit a preference for
rounded lips and diameters vary between 42
and 52cm with red slipping and scratching as
the most important finishing modes. Mineral
temper characterizes 88% of the ceramics.
Griddles feature a triangular section or are
legged. Decorated elements are fairly rare and
represented by red and black monochrome as
well as some polychrome (red/orange/white)
painted ware. Incision is represented by large
circles on the exterior or grooves (cannelures)
below the rim. Figuration is absent and all
handles are ribbed.
The small amount of ceramics does not permit
the assigning of the assemblage to a specific
period but it can be largely attributed to the
Troumassoid or Late Ceramic Age APeriod
as defined by Rouse and Morse (1999:49-50).
Both Mill Reef and Mamora Bay Styles are
present but a few diagnostic elements from
later periods have been found such as Early
Suazan Troumassoid. The latter period is for
example represented by a whole ceramic vessel
from Burial 1 and waste pit 3 which is con-
firmed by the radio carbon dates (Fig. 6 and 7).

Dating the burials and house locations

In total, 10 charcoal and 5 bone samples were
taken for radio carbon dating. Alas, only two
bone samples contained sufficient collagen for
dating. Consequently, we were not able to fully
compare the results of the charcoal samples
taken from the burials pits with the results of
the bone samples taken from the same burial
for correlation. In order to bridge this lack of
data we tried to date the apatite fraction of the
bone samples taken from burials 2, 33 and 71.6
6 The results are satisfying but radiocarbon dating of
bone apatite is still problematic. During the decomposition
of the sample material characteristic diagenetic changes take
place, such as decomposition of the organic content and crystal
reorganization within the apatite, which are again depending
on environmental conditions such as temperature and water
saturation. During this process, an apparent apatite crystal
growth is observed (indicated by the so called splitting factor
SF in the FT-IR spectra), which is related to crystal size. For
further detail see Trueman et al 2004, Journal ofArchaeologi-
cal Science 31(6):721-739.


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology; 2010






Van Den Bel & Romon


A Troumassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


The results show an occupation span of the
excavated area roughly between 650 and 1600
AD which was already mirrored by the mis-
cellaneous ceramic assemblage (Fig. 7). The
youngest date (KIA 36683) is interesting but
not of our concern at the moment but it does
reveal a very long occupation of this site into
colonial times. We concentrate on the samples
taken from House Locations 1 and 2.

Although we have difficulties in recognis-
ing the house plans in HL 1, we consider this
house location as a continuum in space and
time. In both house locations, the burials are
younger than the post holes which appear
somehow logic but the most astounding aspect
is probably the enormous time gap between the
house plans and burials in both house locations


(Fig. 8). If we put it boldly, the houses were
built in the Early Troumassoid Period whereas
the dead were buried in the Late Troumas-
soid Period (Early Suazan Troumassoid). We
observe a difference of at least 300 years and a
maximum of 500 years.
The perception of time for HL 2 is especially
puzzling since this house plan is undisturbed
by later constructions and the position of the
burials within the house does not appear ac-
cidental. Although there is very little archaeo-
logical evidence on the life span of Amerindian
houses, it is highly probable that HL 2 was
already abandoned at the time when the burial
pits were dug. Somehow, Suazan Troumassoid
Amerindians had an interest in burying their
7 Burial 571 is dated by apatite to the earliest occupa-
tion of the site. Alas, we do not have radio carbon dates for the
post holes surrounding this bunal group.


Figure 6. Ceramic vessel found upside down in Burial Pit 1 (drawing by Monique Ruig).


Journal of Caribbean Archaeology, 2010














House Location 1

no feature type no~Czel convent. BP cal,. 2D" ane(54)

7 post hole charcoal KIA 366;71 1230 i 30 761 -884 67%

32 post hole charcoal KIA 36672 1 340i i 25 64-6 -6943 89%

i burial charcoal KIA 366;73 945 & 35 1019 -1166 95%

1 ~burial "human bone, collagen" KIA 36675 915 i 50 10124- 1214 9i5%

2 ~burial "~human bone, collagen" KIA 366;76 565 i 25 130)8 -136;2 54%

2 ~burial "human bone, apatite A"~ KIA 36676 34-8 i 39 14-58 -1638 9i5%

2 ~burial "~human bone, apatite B" KIA 366;76 431 i 22 1430 1481 95%/

3 pit charcoal KIA 36674 94-5 i 30 10125 -1158 9i5%



House Location 2

935 post hole charcoal KIA 366;77 1245 i 30 683 870) 95%

8 1 post hole charcoal KIA 36678 10365 i 30) 937 -10123 76%

3(3 burial charcoal KIA 366;79 625 i 301 1291 -1398 95%

33 burial "human bone, collagen" KIA 36681

3(3 burial "~human bone, apatite A" KIA 36681 6201 i 25 1336 1398 57%

33 burial "human bone, apatite B"~ KIA 36681 625 i 25 1338 -1397 57%

3(51 burial charcoal KIA 36680i 690 & 301 1267 -1310 72%

351 burial "human bone, collagen" KIA 36682 650 i 140i 1(000 16501 95%



Other

26;5 post hole charcoal KIA 36683 330 & 25 1482 -1642 95%

834 post hole charcoal KIA 36684 100 (ii 30) 984 10150 75%

571 burial "~human bone, collagen" KIA 36685

571 burial "human bone, apatite A"~ KIA 36685 14-35 i 20) 586 -652 9i5%

571 burial "~human bone, apatite B" KIA 36685 1340 i 20 648 690 93%

9) pit charcoal KIA 31187 1210 & 20) 773 -89i0 94~%


Figure' 7Table writh the reiults ofthie radiocarblon diatei The calibrated age was calculated usng CAIBI rev 5 0, Data set Int~ail04, Retrner et al 20041 Radiiocarbon 46 (ppr 1029-1058) KIA 31 87 was taken duin g thie


Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


many researchers (eg. Curet and Oliver 1998,
Drewett 1999). The excavation plans of vari-
ous Late Ceramic sites in the Lesser Antilles
show that burials are most often situated within
(high) concentrations of potholes. Neverthe-
less, the designation of specific burials to a
specific house plan is very difficult despite the
results op multiple radio carbon dates for the
burials (Morsink 2006:49).
Although we must be cautious regarding
the results of the radio carbon dates from La
Pointe de Grande Anse, the time gap between
the house structures and the burials at La
Pointe de Grande Anse remains an interesting
fact. The burials are relatively well clustered
within the older houses and maybe be referring
to a specific desire among Suazan Amerindians
to bury their members in an old, abandoned
and maybe ancestral village. In this manner,
we hypothesis that this site was used at first as
a habitation site and later as a funerary site.
We have to remind you that only a part of the
site has been excavated. It is highly possible
that the whole Pointe de Grande Anse was oc-
cupied throughout the entire Troumassoid Pe-
riod and consisted of different diachronic habi-
tats. In this case, the abandoned parts of the
village may have been used as burial grounds
and they were actually part of the village.
It is remarkable that the different burial clus-
ters are found within a house plan. To our opin-
ion, this may be an indication for the marking
of this burial ground. The excavation did not
reveal landscape markers such as mounds or
stone slabs. Although these markers could
have been destroyed during colonial times, we
suspect that a wooden construction and / or the
remnants of the house represented the burial
site. Further, we also would like to stress the
idea that the site location itself was probably
remembered within their oral tradition.
Whether the deceased were family could not be
analysed but we assume that the burial clusters
correspond to a family or lineage tomb. The
spatial configuration of3 to 5 burials within a


house plan may en-_--_ .t kinship. Since we have
various burial clusters we can also submit the
idea that they represent a cemetery of differ-
ent lineages that may have inhabited (this part
of) the former village. Furthermore, a (partial)
separation of habitation and funerary locations
may also be an indication of hierarchy and
social stratification.
The best comparison at the moment for simi-
lar feature configurations on Guadeloupe is
the site of Anse a la Gourde at Grande-Terre
(Delpuech et al. 2001). The house plans were
attributed to the Troumassoid period (1025-
1515 AD) based on the radio carbon dates tak-
en from the burials (Delpuech et al. 2001:65;
Bright 2003:34). Earlier ceramics were en-
countered in the middens and older dates (600
- 800 AD) have been obtained from post holes
but the feature abundance within the excavated
part of the site did not make it possible to cor-
relate burials to any house plan. We observe
that the radio carbon dates of the potholes
also differ clearly from those of the burials. We
suppose that the site of Anse a la Gourde evi-
denced a similar change in site function around
1000 AD as may have been the case for many
other large multi component sites in the Lesser
Antilles during the Troumassoid period.

Conclusion

The excavation at La Pointe de Grande Anse
revealed that burials and house plans are not
necessarily contemporaneous as is the case for
other post-saladoid sites in the Lesser Antilles
(eg. Kelbey's Ridge, Saba; Port Saint Charles,
Barbados; Manzanilla, Trinidad). We learned
that one must be careful when dating post-
saladoid sites solely by samples (charcoal and
ceramics) taken from burials or either post
holes. We conclude that the site of La Pointe de
Grande Anse is setting an example of how
Troumassoid Amerindians re-used a (parts of)
abandoned village as burial grounds around
1000 AD. Somehow, these sites were probably


Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O





Van Den Bel & Romon


A Troumassold site at Trols-Rivieres, Guadeloupe FWI


Atnesphetic class InxnReimr et at (2004);< kCalv3.10 Thank Rancy (200% cub t5 scL12 pub usp[chen|
KIA 36671 1230 & 30 BP
Posthole 7 (charcoal)
KlA36672 1340125 BP
Posthole 32 (charcoal)
KIA36673 945+35 BP
Burial 1 (charcoal)
KIA 36675 915 + 50 BP
Burial 1 (collagen)
KlA 36676 565 & 25 BP
Burial 2 (collagen)
KlA 36676 318 + 39 BP
Burial 2 (apatite A)
KIA36676 431+22BP
Burial 2 (apatite B)



KIA 36677 1245 & 30 BP
Posthole 935 (charcoal)
KlA 36678 1065 & 30 BP
Posthole 81 (charcoal)
KIA 36679 625 & 30 BP
Burial 33 (charcoal)
KIA36681 620+25 BP
Burial 33 (apatite A)

KlA 36681 625125 BP
Burial 33 (apatite B)

KlA36680 690+30BP
Burial 351 (collagen)


1500 Cal. AD
This field report can be downloaded at www.
inrap.fr. The authors would like to thank the
other members of the Inrap field team: Pierre
Texier, Monique Ruig, Rosemond Martias,
Jer8me Briand and Jean-Jacques Faillot but
also Fabrice Casagrande and Christophe Tardy
(Inrap), Sebastiaan Knippenberg (Archol Bv,
University of Leiden), Sandrine Grouard and
Eric Pelle (Musee National d'Histoire Na-
turelle, Paris) and Matthias Hills (University
of Kiel, Germany) for their contributions to
the final report. Finally, we would like to thank
-
Alistair Bright for his corrections of our ter-
- -
rible franglish and Jaime Pagan Jimenez of our
horrible fragnol.


Figure 8 Radio carbon dates per House Location
still 'alive' in oral tradition and may have been
visualized in the landscape at that time. To our
opinion, this metamorphosis of places tends to
be a regional development in the Lesser Antil-
les that marks the separation of habitat and
ceremonial sites as has been suggested for the
Greater Antilles (Oliver and Curet 1998)

Acknowledgements

This paper is a condensed and interpretative
version of the Precolumbian features found
during the 2008 rescue excavation conducted
by the author (M. van den Bel et al. 2009).
Journal of Caribbean Archaeology, 2010






Van Den Eel & Romon


Ai T-lrouassold site at Trols-Rlivieres, Gu~adeloupe F~f


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Journal of Caribbean AIrchaeology 010O









Journal of Caribbean Archaeology


Book Reviews


The volume contains an introduction, six chap-
ters, an epilogue, and two technical appendi-
ces. In the Introduction, Hauser introduces the
concept of black markets, and addresses how
the study of such markets can provide valuable
insight on the history of Diasporic adaptations.

In Chapter 1, Hauser addresses how his-
torical archaeologists and historians have ad-
dressed the Caribbean plantation. He applauds
the movement away from "top-down" treat-
ments of the plantation system, and argues that
there is a strong need to consider institutions
(such as the Sunday markets) that involved
enslaved and free persons from many contexts
on the island.
Journal of Caribbean, Archaeology Book Reviews, 2010


Chapter 2 addresses the long history and
diverse roles of informal economies in the
development of Jamaica. Hauser (Page 40)
emphasizes that "the market system, as one of
these institutional forms, was at the nexus of
the global and the local." The author provides
a literature review of key studies in informal,
internal economies, as a basis for his conten-
tion that the markets were places of tension,
where the many contradictions of the Colonial
economy were highlighted.

Hauser addresses connections communica-
tion and commerce between the rural and
urban in Chapter 3. He cla.-n I the develop-
ment through time in the road/trail infrastruc-


An Archaeology of Black Markets:
Local Ceramics and Economies in

Eighteenth-Century Jamaica.
Mark W. Hauser. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 2008

Reviewed by Ch; li, y dre; T Ty ;--./ta,!
New 2n:ah Associates, Inc.
415-A .1 sub Edge mo th Street
Greensboro, 70 a 77, Carolina 27 //il


This volume is an excellent study that n til interest students of the African Diaspora,
Afican-influenced pottery of the Americas and Caribbean, and the economic -.il ri, i. ofslaves.
Hauser presents a detailed examination of how the pottery made by African-Jamaicans in the
!-:/u. ,ub century can be used to model the various interactions that occurred in the informal
market economy. Under this system, enslaved Africans and African-Jamaicans were provided
the opportunity to s. 17 or barter their excess garden produce and crafts at Sunday markets
th;. #:71. of the island. Hauser recognizes the distributions oflocal pottery as a reflection of
th, cv. b.-mye systems. He examines the phenomenon of my *; ai.,! African-Jamaican markets as
having both positive and negative .. /K ..i-: on the various actors in the plantation system. With a
strong backing in his data, Hauser goes so far as to re .t that the informal market system pro-
vided the opportunity for African-Jamaicans to coordinate the rebellion of 1831. Hauser draws
/ so In > -., data sources to provide an excellent context for his 6 -., a .1, on









ture that allowed increased interaction between
rural plantations and urban market locations.
Hauser introduces his major study sites in-
cluding four plantations (Drax Hall, Seville,
Thetford, and Juan de Bollas) and two urban
contexts of Spanish Town (Old King's House)
and Port Royal (Old Naval Dockyard and St.
Peter's Church).

For the fourth chapter, the author takes a
step back to survey the broad field of African-
American and African-Caribbean pottery tradi-
tions, and what those traditions may say about
the disruptive and creative forces associated
with the Diaspora. The review by Hauser is
shown to support his argument that the pottery
produced by African Jamaicans is an appro-
priate avenue toward "understanding of this
economy's scope or scale" (Page 119).

Hauser brings us back to Jamaica in Chap-
ter 5 with a detailed discussion of African-
Jamaican pottery from the eighteenth century
to today. The author blends historical accounts
and images, ethnographic accounts, ethnoar-
chaeological observations, and archaeological
examples from his study sites to capture the
tremendous variability in African-Jamaican
pottery. Considering the temporal trends in
vessel forms, vessel diameters, and vessel
decoration, Hauser (Pages 154-155) argues "It
is my belief that in the eighteenth century we
see the development of these yabbas as a trade
item which is produced in somewhat larger
scale than would be suggested by domestic
manufacture."

In Chapter 6, Hauser seeks to address how
those many pots spread through the island
economy. Petrography and Neutron Activation
Analysis are used to convincingly argue that
despite localized production, yabbas moved
extensively about the island. His case is
strengthened by the inclusion of clay samples
and African-Jamaican pottery produced in the

Journal of Caribbean, Archaeology Book Reviews, 2010


twentieth century. Hauser (Page 190) summa-
rizes:
"the petrographic .N.-rigion andNAA con-
fme that pots recovered archaeologically from
sites located on the aa th coast appear to be
made using the same ceramic recipe as pottery
recovered from the n vab coast and the central
part of the island "

This is a convincing analytical study, and the
findings serve as a strong basis for the consid-
eration of the role of the Sunday markets in
African-Jamaican life of the eighteenth cen-
tury. Hauser ends the chapter by reminding
us that pots do not move themselves over the
landscape.

In the Eph mus., the author recaps his evi-
dence for the scope of the ceramic trade net-
work on Jamaica. He emphasizes that the
scope of the market system, as evidenced in
part by the movement of pots, was important
for both economic and social reasons. The
very existence of these markets required a
blurring of social boundaries, and allowed
African-Jamaicans to mitigate in a limited way
the circumscription of the rural estate system.

I had only minor problems with this book.
I think the most troublesome is that Hauser
defines yabba two ways. Early in the book, he
defines yabba as "both a type and a form." He
says the form is a restricted bowl and the type
is a coarse, low-fired, hand-made Jamaican
ceramic. It would have been less confusing,
perhaps, to note the generalized use of yabba
to denote a form, and then have limited its use
in this study to the broader meaning (i.e., a
coarse, low-fired, hand-made Jamaican ceram-
ic). It is this latter definition that it most perti-
nent to the study, as trade was not restricted to
a single vessel form.

Another concern was Hauser's apparent con-
fusion or collapsing of the attributes of geo-









graphic scale and product volume, with regard
to the pottery distribution network. His data
are convincing that certain pots were indeed
traded over significant distances, thereby es-
tablishing the geographic scale of the system.
However, Hauser never really addresses how
many pots moved through this system. Did
the eighteenth century see 100 or 10,000 pots
per year distributed around the island? The
market images may be misleading, due to their
generally late dates and due to the fact that the
number of pots on di T.1x does not necessarily
equal the number sold. The conclusions on the
scope of the ceramic trade would have been
strengthened, even if the author could only of-
fer a ballpark estimate based on the estimated
number pots in use per household unit, the life
span of those pots, and the number of house-
holds on the island in various periods. Even
such a speculative exercise would serve to un-
derline that the network was both widespread
and heavily used.

This volume is a strong contribution to the
literature. Any minor weaknesses are over-
whelmed by the quall.. of Hauser's volume.
An Archaeology of Black Markets is a highly
readable, interesting, and important study.
Whether on your Caribbean shelf, or amongst
your sources on Diaspora archaeology, or in
the corner with your folk pottery studies, you
should have this book. As well, a creative
professor could do much with this volume in
a wide variety of graduate and undergraduate
courses.


Journal of Caribbean, Archaeology Booke Reviews, 2010O




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