Title: Better breeding techniques pay
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091689/00001
 Material Information
Title: Better breeding techniques pay
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Wing, J. M.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Dairy Science,
Copyright Date: 1959
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 312483927 - OCLC

Full Text

Department of Dairy Science
Gainesville, Florida

Dairy Science Mimeo 60-1
October 5, 1959

Better Breeding Techniques Pay

J, M. Wing

Repeat breeders cost their owners at least an extra dollar a day.

Hence, careful planning of the breeding program is one of the most im-

portant jobs at the dairy or ranch, otherr breeding is accomplished

through artificial insemination or natural service the following physio-

logical fundamentals should be considered.

1. Most cows stay in heat about 14 hours, but individuals vary from

6 to 36 hours.

2. The egg is shed from the ovaries of the cow 7 to 15 hours after

the heat period has ended,

3. Fertilization must take place right after ovulation for best


4. Spermatazoa are propelled through the genital tract mainly by

muscular contractions. These movements occur properly only if the cow

is comfortable, healthy, is not excited, and is in or very close to the

heat period.

5. About six hours are required for the spermatozoa to reach

the distal end of the genital tract whether breeding is done by natural

or artificial service, and they should be there before ovulation occurs. ,

Thus breeding should be done during the last part of the heat perio/~~

- 2-

6. The sperms may be shocked, thereby losing part or all of their

effectiveness by (a) direct sunlight, (b) cooling too rapidly, or (c)

contact with chemicals including soap or the residual sulfur in rubber


7. The cells are delicate, and it's easy to break the tails off

spermatazoa by rough handling. This includes pulling them into the

inseminating tube too quickly and driving over rough roads too fast.

8. About 60 days are required for the genital tract to recover

from calving.

9. About 10 percent of all cattle are likely to be unable to

conceive without treatment.

10. Most spontaneous abortions occur at 4 months and most pre-

mature births are at about 71 months of pregnancy.

11. Retained placentas may be caused by very mild to very severe

abnormalities of the uterus,

Based on these fundamentals, the responsibility for the breeding

may be apportioned approximately as follows:

A. The herd manager should:

1. Keep records of heat periods, breeding and calving dates,

difficult births, retained placentas, abortions or other

health data, and decide when each cow should be bred.

2. Call the technician in time for him to arrange the

proper time for breeding.


3. Provide catch pens for heifers and a shady, clean place

for for breeding.

4. Isolate cows to be bred and keep them as calm and com-

fortable as possible.

5. Wash the external portion of the reproductive organs.

6. Handle animals carefully at all times but especially at

4 and 71 months after breeding.

B. The inseminator should:

1. Examine the semen at frequent intervals using a good


2. Keep the semen at the proper temperatures (400 F. for

liquid and -1100 or -3200 F. for frozen semen).

3. Keep equipment clean. Wash all instruments with a deter-

gent (not soap). Rinse well in tap water then in double

distilled water. Dry in a dust free place.

4. Rubber parts are scrubbed than boiled in soda water to

neutralize any sulfur which may be present.

5. Use mineral oil or other nontoxic lubricant (not soap).

6. Handle semen carefully to prevent physical shock.

7. Keep semen out of direct sunlight.

8. Breed all animals quietly and quickly.

9. Use deep cervical deposition rather than entering the

uterus with the inseminating tube.

10. Use fresh semen as soon as it is removed from storage

and frozen semen as soon as it thaws.


11. Keep finger nails very short and never wear rings or

other possible injurious jewelry,

12. Disinfect his boots before leaving each farm.

Number twelve applies also to the veterinarian who in addition

should be reminded to:

1. Examine unbred heifers four to six weeks before the

breeding season to detect and treat potential causes of

difficult conception.

2. Examine all bred cows just before the second expected

heat since some cows which are with c olf will c ome into

heat and these must not be bred again.

3. Examine all bred cows for pregnancy before 60 days have

elapsed after breeding.

4. All cows should be examined shortly after calving, es-

pecially if difficult calving or retained placentas are


When these precautions are observed, at least nine out of ten cows will

conceive to one of the first three services. The remaining ten percent

should be examined and treated if advisable. Any cow which still is

open after five breeding should be culled except in rare, special

cases where further therapy is promising.

JMW: fl00

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