Title: effect of high fiber concentrates on young calves
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Title: effect of high fiber concentrates on young calves
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Wing, J. M.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Copyright Date: 1958
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Bibliographic ID: UF00091687
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 312494782 - OCLC

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FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Gainesville, Florida

Dairy Science Mimeo Report 59-1
December 9, 1958

The Effect of High Fiber Concentrates on Young Calves

J. M. Wing
/


The future of any dairy herd depends largely upon the ity of re ents.
Hence, any expense which promotes vigor of the calves is ea justi@d. o ever,
some of the usual costs of producing replacements seem unne pary Last y fthe
Florida Station reported a system for raising calves without '~r able mi\ h
Whole milk was replaced by a mixture of colostrum and remade Mik.

Calves raised by the extended-colostrum method have gained .;.perent of
normal consistently and have been almost entirely free of abnormalities including
common scours. Good-quality grass hay produced by use of a rotary mowing machine
was readily consumed by these calves. They grew just as well as on more expensive
legume-grass mixtures which previously were considered almost essential. It should
be emphasized that this was very green, leafy hay of highly fertilized forage which
was cut in an immature stage of growth.

Concentrate feeds for young calves usually are rather complex mixtures con-
taining many low-fiber ingredients including a considerable quantity of dry milk
solids. Five percent of fiber is the maximum generally recommended, but no
experimental evidence is available to prove that this limit is necessary. In fact,
many good commercial calf starters contain slightly more. Recent work at the
Georgia Station indicated that feeds containing as much as 13 percent fiber were
easily utilized. The mixture was still rather complex, however, and contained dry
milk solids and degossypolized cottonseed meal. Recently workers at the North Caro-
lina Station showed that hydrolic-processed cottonseed meal was toxic to young calves.
They attributed this trouble to the gossypol in the feed.

At the Florida Station a rather extensive study showed that the entire
digestive system of young calves becomes functional at 20 to 30 days of age. Solid
feed has been found in the rumen of some calves less than a day old.

It seemed possible that an ordinary cow-herd concentrate mixture would be
satisfactory for young calves. Work at the Kentucky Station indicated that the
protein content would be adequate. Sixteen young calves were used in the present
study. All calves were raised by the extended colostrum-grass hay method. One
member of each pair received a complex concentrate mixture. The ingredients were:
ground oats, 50 parts; shelled corn, 30 parts; wheat bran, 38 parts; dry milk solids,
30 parts; cottonseed meal (extraction process), 0U parts; salt, 2 parts; and steamed
bone meal, 2 parts. This mixture contained 18 percent protein and 6 percent fiber.

All the calves were normal. No digestive upsets or other trouble was ob-
served. Two calves in the high-fiber group selected the finer parts of the feed.
They seemed to avoid as much of the corn-cob particles as possible. They consumed
a normal amount of feed. The other six calves ate the cow mixture very readily.

The results in Table 1 show that the two groups were about equal with respect
to feed consumption, growth, and general health. Special concentrate feeds do not
seem to be necessary for calves on the extended colostrum diet. Hydrolic-processed
cottonseed meal must be avoided, of course, and all factors relating to sanitation
and management still apply as they always have.


500








Table l.--Effect of High Fiber Feeds on Young Calves


Body Weight


Height


Feed Consumed


Initial Gain


Initial Gain


Concentrate Hay


Calculated
T. D. N. Per
Pound of Gain


lbs, cms. _____bs._
Control
1 87 99 72 10 111.5 6.9 1.5
3 102 92 77 9 59.6 28.0 1.4
5 85 75 74 12 66.4 6.7 1.7
7 81 63 79 8 54.8 9.6 1.6
9 56 42 68 7 66.8 14.7 1.5
11 78 62 75 10 51.5 6.0 1.8
13 60 60 68 11 52.1 12.3 1.6
15 53 49 64 10 45.5 12.5 1.6


Average 75 68 72 9.6 63.5 12.1 1.6


High Fiber
2 84 85 70 11 91.0 5.1 1.5
4 102 95 81 9 54.8 31.7 1.3
6 85 80 73 10 83.5 5.9 1.5
8 81 53 75 11 74.1 10.6 2.1
10 57 46 66 9 47.8 9.1 1.7
12 78 50 74 7 38.5 4.5 1.6
14 60 52 66 8 59.5 14.9 1.7
16 55 57 66 9 74.4 13.5 1.8


Calf
Number


_1__1_____11____1___I


-- -I---------L-~----CI----


-


9.3 65,5


11.9 1.7


Average




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