/ 6-2" FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Dairy Science Mimeo Report DY69-2
October 28, 1968
FLAVORING ICE CREAM WITH
E. L. Fouts,l S. E. Malo2.;& C. W. Campbell3
All food manufacturers and processors are constantly in search for new
forms of food products to tempt consumers to buy more of their products.
People tend to buy mostly the same food items in the market unless they
are tempted by good advertising or impusle buying suggestions to try
something new. In other words, with ice cream, vanilla, strawberry, and
chocolate are still the favorites.
Even though vanilla represents over 50% of all ice cream sold, followed
by chocolate at 12% and strawberry at 8%, the remaining 30% of the pro-
duct sold represents an enormous quantity of frozen desserts made up
into over one hundred other flavors. A flavoring material that could
be used to flavor 1/2% or even less of the total amount of product sold
would utilize a substantial amount of flavoring ingredient.
It was with this thought in mind that certain tropical fruits, some
tried previously and some not heretofor used as a flavoring ingredient
for ice cream, were tried for this purpose. Some of the fruits tried
are grown in small quantities because at this time the market for them
is limited. Production of most tropical fruits could be expanded
readily if a market could be found for them. Some of the flavor sensa-
tions produced by these unusual fruits are extremely pleasant, others
acceptable, and others totally unacceptable.
Arrangements were made with a fruit processor4 and with the Sub-Tropical
Experiment Station at Homestead to send a supply of fruit, when in
season, of several varieties to be tried as flavoring ingredients for
ice cream. Arrangements were also made with Food Service on Campus to
offer the experimental ice cream products for sale. Sales served as a
guide to their acceptability.
*OEC 1 0 ^3
1Dairy Technologist, Department of Dairy Science. 2,3Ass't and Assoc.
Horticulturist, respectively. Sub-Tropical Station. 4Parman Kendall
Corporation. Goulds, Florida. 33170.
The preliminary work with any fruit tried was simply to determine its
potential as a flavor for ice cream, that is, to find out by simple
trials whether or not it was comparable with frozen ice cream considering
flavor, texture, and color. A small amount of the fruit was prepared by
peeling, seeding, cutting, mashing, sweetening, cooking, or any other
necessary type of processing, then adding some of it to vanilla ice cream
In general, any fruit that has a pleasant, pronounced flavor and would
normally be eaten with milk, cream, or ice cream would probably be a
suitable flavor ingredient for ice cream. A suitable fruit should have
a pleasant feel in the mouth; most fruits, but not all, possess this
quality. Color of the fruit is important. It should be appealing and
attractive. In some instances this may be adjusted by the addition of
If a fruit met the compatability test, then further work was done with
it to determine whether it should be blended into the ice cream during
the freezing process as is usually done with peaches, cherries, straw-
berries, or banannas; or whether it should be made into a syrup and then
injected into the soft ice cream as it comes from the continuous freezer
such as normally done with rasberries and various other royale or ripple
Among those fruits which were found to have good potential as flavoring
ingredients for ice cream were:
MANGOS.were prepared by the processor by peeling, removing the seed,
slicing, and quick freezing in 40 lb. cans. These mangos were mixed
varieties, not all the best but acceptable and characteristic of good
quality fruit. The fruit was macerated in a blender, sweentened and
stabilized. Citric acid or lemon puree was added for tartness and to
enhance the flavor of the syrup. The mixture was heated to 160F for
30 minutes, stirring frequently, and then cooled. After chilling the
syrup to 360F, it was injected into soft, vanilla flavored ice cream as
it was drawn from the continuous freezer at a rate of about 15% by weight.
The product was hardened in a low temperature room at -170F for 48 hours
and then sampled.
This product like all other fruits tested was sweetened with varying
increments of cane sugar and/or corn sugar and/or honey, and stabilized
with pectin and/or products containing pectin. An effort was made to
include sufficient sweetening agents and stabilizers so that the syrups
would have a desirable melting point after being frozen. The melting
of the syrup should precede the melting of the frozen ice cream just
slightly to give the product the appearance of an ice cream sundae.
This was accomplished by varying the kind and amount of sweeteners
and stabilizers. Citric acid was added to the syrup to enhance the
flavor of the fruit. All other fruits tried were sweetened, stabilized,
acid added if needed and liandled in a suim lar jmanner.
The first run of mango injection syrup was left with the normal mango
color, a rather golden yellow, and the finished product was simply
called, "mango ice cream". Little interest was shown in this product
even though most people who tasted it thought it was good. A second
run was made, the injection syrup was colored a rather bright red and
the frozen product was called "Tropical Delight". This new product
met with considerable interest and repeat orders came in from the Food
Services where the product was being offered for sale. From data avail-
able it is thought that ice cream flavored with this fruit could become
a good sales item. The fruit is relatively plentiful in South Florida
and more could be grown if there was more demand for it. The cost of
the mango syrup would compare favorable with other good quality fruit
The BARBADOS CHERRY is a fruit which has been used very little com-
mercially, but which is known to make good jam and jelly. The material
received from the packer was the pulp of the whole fruit after the
skin and seeds had been removed. This pulp was treated in a manner
similar to the mango and the resulting syrup produced a quite acceptable
ice cream flavor. It is thought to be a good possibility for future
studies and development.
The LOQUAT is a fruit grown in most any sub-tropical climate. The fruit
is firm-fleshed and juicy, oblong and yellow in color. The fruit may
be eaten fresh or used in jellies and preserves. A tree of a specially
good variety was selected to provide the fruit used in these trials.
This fruit was heated in a small amount of water and the juice was
separated. A syrup was prepared as described previously. It was
colored light red and then injected into vanilla ice cream. Cinnamon
was added and the resulting flavor resembled apples in the vanilla ice
cream. Florida grows no apples and for the want of a more appropriate
name, the frozen product was named "Florida Apple". It met favor by
everyone who tasted it. It is our feeling that this could become a best
seller among the special fruit ice creams.
The CARAMBOLA is a fruit quite tropical in it's requirements, yellow
with a shiny waxed appearance. Its juice is pleasant to taste and has
been used primarily for jellies and jams. The juice is golden yellow
and varies from quite sour to very sweet depending on the variety.
A syrup made from this fruit had a very unusual and attractive taste
and the ice cream made from it was liked by most people who tasted it.
The purpose of this article is to interest, if possible, people who
would be able to produce or process any of the various fruits mentioned.
As indicated, many of the tried, and no doubt many of the untried
varieties and species definitely have promise as ice cream flavors, if
someone cared to look into the production of these fruits and the
preparation of syrups that would be ready to use by ice cream manufact-
urers. Details of the composition and processing of the syrups
are not given in this article because such information would be useful
only for the varieties used in the experiments. Because of varietal
differences, diffclnt f-'un,-ii a would have to be determined by trials.
LIME PRODUCTS have long been used to flavor sherbets and ices, and
lime sherbet is among the best sellers. A paper entitled "Flavoring
Lime Sherbet" dealing specifically with the development of a procedure
for using lime products to flavor sherbets has been issued as Dairy
Science Mimeo Report DY69-1.
Some fruits or frlat products tried were not found to be suitable for
use as an ice cream flavor. Among these were:
GUAVA PULP is a commercial fruit product made from the whole guavas
except the seeds and skin with no sugar added. The pulp has a flavor
enjoyed by some, but generally not acceptable for flavoring ice cream.
It was not possible to separate the juice from the pulp, but earlier
experiments by some workers indicated that the clear juice of the
guava was a delicious flavor for ice cream. For the time being it
was felt that guava pulp was not a suitable flavor ingredient for ice
cream. Later, guava juice will be tried.
The CRNISTEL, a top shaped, orange-yellow tree fruit was found to be
undesirable as a flavoring ingredient for ice cream. It has a mealy
texture and a musky taste, both of which are undesirable in ice cream.
Florida grapes of several varieties were examined. Most varieties
tested had a mild flavor and were not thought to be especially adaptable
as a flavor for ice cream. It is possible that concentrating the
juice and making it into a syrup which could be injected into vanilla
ice cream might provide an improved product.
Any interested company or person wishing to pursue the findings
reported in this paper are encouraged to get in touch with the authors.
Additional information will be supplied on request.