FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
SDairy Science Mimeo Report 64-2
S April 28, 1964
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DiEb BAKERY PRODUCT IN DAIRY CATTLE RATIONS
Bakery products including crackers, bread, cakes and other items are
delivered to stores often enough to insure freshness. Those not sold
are returned and, although they are wholesome, business policy very
largely prevents their use for human consumption. Because of this,
they are available as feeds for livestock. Such a large volume of
bakery product returns have become available that a whole new segment
of the feed industry has emerged. Thus, it is possible for a very
large volume of materials to be gathered and processed into a uniform
product. The average composition of dried bakery product shown in
Table 1 indicates considerable nutritional value.
On the basis of chemical composition alone, this material would seem
to be an excellent feedstuff. It seems possible, however, that since
it contains 100% cooked ingredients there could be additional benefits
from its use. Thus the bakery product might make the ration especially
efficient as a source of energy (1). High energy rations have received
considerable study recently since modern dairy cattle produce large
amounts of milk and must therefore receive rations which contain the
required nutrients in a form which can be consumed readily. Dried
bakery product lends itself very well to such high energy mixtures
because of its high fat content.
On a nutrient basis, dried bakery product is competitive economically
with such carbohydrate feeds as corn and citrus pulp. Moreover, it
could be a more feasible feed for high energy rations. Thus, it
seemed desirable for comparative feeding experiments to be accomplished.
These were done by means of double reversal trials balanced for
carryover effects as shown in the model exhibited in Table 2. There
were 4 squares, each of which contained three cows of the same breed.
Six Jerseys and six Holsteins were used.
Three rations were investigated (Table 3). Rations 1 and 2 were
designed to be approximately equal in content of energy and crude
protein. Since the dried bakery product is especially high in energy
because of its fat content, ration 2 was somewhat difficult to
formulate and might not be considered practical, although practical
rations which do not have to be comparable to a given control feed
can be formulated easily. In ration 3 the dried bakery product
replaced other energy feeds on a pound for pound basis. It is
approximately equal to the others including protein but is considerably
higher in energy-producing nutrients.
Associate Dairy Husbandman.
Table 1. Analysis of daily production samples of
dried bakery product over a 90-day periodL/
Salt content (as NaCI)
Free fatty acid
(Converted back to original sample basis)
Protein digestibility (Almquist method)
Total digestibility (Almquist method)
Vitamin A (true)
Vitamin E (as a-tocopherol)
Pyridoxine (Vit. B6)
Niacin nicotinicc acid)
of total sugars
of total sugars
--These data were supplied by International
Fortrition Co., Inc.,
Table 2. Experimental model for comparing
ration with and without Dried Bakery Product
numbers for individual cows.
Rations used to compare dried bakery product
with other sources of energy
Ingredient Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3
Parts by weight
Corn 550 25 150
Citrus pulp 25 50 50
Dried brewers grain 25 600 100
Dried bakery product --- 300 300
Cottonseed meal, 41% 375 25 300
Wheat bran 25 --- 100
Bonemeal 10 10 10
Limestone 10 10 10
Salt 10 10 10
Trace mineral mixture
#1 (2) 10 10 10
All the animals received good quality corn silage on a free choice
basis. It was not possible to measure silage intake in this pre-
liminary study. Concentrate rations 1 and 2 were fed according to
the National Research Council requirements for body weight and milk
production (4). Ration 3 was fed at the same rate as the other rations.
Unless cows receiving this mixture consumed considerably less roughage,
their energy intake was very high. There were no readily apparent
differences in silage intake. Body weights were determined on two
days at the beginning of the trial and at monthly intervals. These
weights were used for determining feed requirements.
Total milk weight was recorded at each milking and samples were taken
for analysis at monthly intervals. No important feed refusals occurred
on any of the rations. The bakery product appeared to be especially
palatable. The primary observation was production of milk which was
corrected for fat content according to the method of Perkins (5).
The average production during the experiment by groups was as follows:
Table 4. Average daily production
of 4% Fat Corrected Milk
There were no significant differences among milk yields of the three
treatment groups (3). Experimental errors were at expected levels
for milk yields of dairy cattle.
Dried bakery product appears to be a very satisfactory feed in the
ration of lactating cows. Its main value appears to be as a source
of energy. The fact that a very large number of high quality nutrients
are available might make it more valuable than this experiment shows,
especially for calves and high producing dairy cows. Further research
into the fundamental effects of this product with both cows and calves
appears to be needed. If the price is favorable, however, it would
appear to be at least equal in value to other feeds which are used
as sources of energy,
The author wishes to thank T. R. Burton and A. L. Hammond for
management of the animals and tabulation of data; and C. J. Wilcox
for the statistical analysis. Dried bakery product was supplied by
International Fortrition Company, Inc.
1. Balch, D. A., and Rowland, S. J. Volatile fatty acids and lactic
acid in the rumen of dairy cows receiving a variety of diets.
British J. Nutr., 2:288. 1957.
2. Becker, R. B., Arnold, P. T. D., Kirk, W. G., Davis, G. K., and
Kidder, R. W. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bull. 513R. 1957.
3. Cochran, W. G., and Cox, G. M. Experimental designs. John Wiley
& Sons, Inc. New York. 1957.
4. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. National Academy of Sciences.
National Research Council Publication 464. 1958.
5. Perkins, A. E. A simplified procedure for calculating weights of
milk to their energy equivalent in milk of different fat content
in accordance with the Gaines Formula. J. Dairy Sci., 20:129. 1937.