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Brief version of the 2007 Manual
2011 Manual and Appendices ( Related Link )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091653/00003
 Material Information
Title: Brief version of the 2007 Manual
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC)
Publisher: Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC)
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 2007
 Record Information
Source Institution: FIU: Digital LIbrary of the Caribbean
Holding Location: FIU: Digital LIbrary of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: UF00091653:00003

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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN


Digitization Training

Manual


Table of


Contents


Credits


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


In this Manual
1. Project Overview
2. Recommended Equipment and Software
3. Software Toolkit Overview
4. Selection and Copyright
5. Metadata Standards and Creation
6. Image Theory and Specifications
7. Scanning
8. Image Manipulation
9. Performing Quality Control


Funding for this Manual was made available in part by the United States Department of
Education's Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access
(TICFIA) Program.
For more information about the TICFIA Program, see the Program's web site at
http://www.ed.gov/programs/iegpsticfia/index.html
Funding for content contribution and other services supporting the Digital Library of the
Caribbean (dLOC) was made available by institutions through out the Caribbean Basin.
For more information about dLOC, see its web site at http://www.dloc.com







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




SECTION 1

Project Overview



Bienvenidos! Bienvenue! Welcome!

As a member of the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC), you are part of a consortia of agencies
working to increase access to valuable resources for the study of the Caribbean. Together,
institutions from across the Caribbean providing content will be building a truly international library to
be used by young school students, college-age researchers, and university professors. dLOC resources
will serve the continuing learning interest of average citizens, government officials, and tourists. The
content we provide will tell the stories of our peoples, their history, the lands they populate, and the
cultures they've constructed and maintain.

For more information about the Digital Library of the Caribbean, visit the dLOC web site at
http://www.dloc.com


About the Digital Library of the Caribbean

The Digital Library of the Caribbean embodies research interest in cultural identity. The collections it
comprises and the research it is intended to engender illuminate the confluence of cultures, languages
and governmental systems in the Caribbean basin.

Caribbean culture, with localized variation, reflects the world and portends the world's future. Three
major cultures (races) converge here: Indigenous; European; and African. And, within locales,
Semitic, and Asian cultural influences have been formative.

The region's languages represent the principal cultures of these areas. While the region linguistically
is more patchwork than shared ground, its creoles and patois and, perhaps, none more so than
Papiamento reflect cultural convergence, and it is not at all uncommon for an individual to speak
more than one tongue. Language, and specifically translations, can often be used to track the
introduction of new concepts and cultural cross-currents.

Regional customs and practices are indicative of the means and methods by which cultures come to
live together. The language of cooking for example is intimately tied to the land as much as to
culture, and can reveal "genetic" markers based on race and ethnicity that may indicate first where
cultures are influenced by environment and second where experience and adaptation are shared
among cultures. Agrarian life-styles converge and diverge throughout the region, their junctions and
conjunctions mapping cultural highways. While concrete highways may map cultures in regions
beyond the Caribbean, such tangibility masks the making of culture that lays bare in the Caribbean.

The cultural map is nowhere more diverse than in our urban centers. Mexico City, for example, draws
together indigenous and European cultures, mixing a working class raised in the fields with a white
collar elite. No city in North America is home to more immigrants than Miami, Florida where more
than two-thirds of the population has been born elsewhere. Both cities, with all their ills and
innovation, represent the future of North and South America. Within their fragile ecosystems, each
can provide vital clues to the stresses that population growth places on the ability of natural systems


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


to sustain life. In this sense the Caribbean is truly a biosphere. Climatologists and archaeologists have
begun to publish findings that help us understand the fate of the Maya world's great cities. Mindful
that only a handful of ancient codices survive, these scientists in particular have suggested that we
mine our cultural heritage for evidence of the past that would serve us into the future.

These examples merely touch the surface of the content available in the Digital Library of the
Caribbean. Increasing contributions from the rich landscapes and diverse populations of the Caribbean
bring forth an every increasingly detailed understanding of the region.

Project Team & Contact Information

A complete list of the project team is available online at http://www.dloc.com.

Project co-Directors:


Judith Rogers, Manager,
Library & Faculty Technology Services
University of the Virgin Islands
Phone: (340) 692-4132
Email: irogers@uvi.edu

Technical Director:
Laurie Taylor, Digital Library Center
University of Florida Libraries
Phone: (352) 273-2900
Email: kesse@ufl.edu

dLOC Programmers and Trainers:

Mark Sullivan, Systems Department
University of Florida Libraries
Phone: (352) 273-2900
Email: marsull@uflib.ufl.edu


Gayle Williams, Head,
Latin American and Caribbean Information Ctr
Florida International University
Phone: (305) 348-2228
Email: gayle.williams@fiu.edu

Project Coordinator:
Brooke Wooldridge
Florida International University
Phone: (305) 348-3008
Email: bwooldri@fiu.edu


Lourdes Santamaria, Digital Library Center
University of Florida Libraries
Phone: (352) 273-2900
Email: Lousant@uflib.ufl.edu


Advisory Board

The Advisory Board is comprised of scholars of Caribbean Studies working in the Humanities, Social
Sciences, and Sciences. Members are appointed to direct content development, suggest granting
opportunities, identify other sources of funding, and assist in the development of both promotional
materials and educational resources.

Members serve a two-year term with possibility for reappointment and attend the dLOC Advisory Board
meeting at the annual Caribbean Studies Association conference.

For a list of current members see the dLOC web site (http://www.dloc.com).


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SECTION 2

Recommended Equipment and Software

Recommended Minimum Equipment


Computer workstation
o PC with Windows 2000, NT, or XP ; 1 GB RAM; CR-RW; 17 inch monitor

Scanner Recommendations
o Large format, graphic arts quality scanner that will support digitization of
photographs, book pages, maps, etc. Scanner will need to be calibrated
periodically.
o Recommended Scanners
Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner or similar
Panasonic KV-S2046Cor KS-S2026C sheet-feed scanner


Recommended Minimum Software

Image Capture Software
o Digital image capture software is supplied by scanner manufacturers. Not all
image capture software is the same however. Epson image capture software
supports a full range of image settings for flatbed scanning, where as most
consumer market scanner software does not.

Image Processing Software
o Used to perform image editing (crop and deskew digital masters images) and to
perform batch conversion of derivative images.
o Recommended Image Processing software:
Adobe Photoshop (v.7, CS, CS2, CS3, or CS4) or Adobe Elements

dLOC Applications
o A toolkit was written specifically for the Digital Library of the Caribbean, and is
freely available to all partners. See the next section for detailed information
about this software.
o The latest version of this software can be downloaded from the following URL:

http://www.dloc.com/downloads/toolkit/

Archive Applications
o Archiving ensures that digital files may be protected. dLOC institutions are
encouraged to archive both locally on CD or DVD and remotely in the dLOC
Archive. Recommended software both copies files from PC to CD or DVD and
verifies full and accurate copy.
o Recommended Local Archiving Software.
RecordNow
Nero


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




SECTION 3

Software Toolkit Overview



Introduction

The freely distributed dLOC Toolkit allows each partner to track the digitization of items
and collect data about the digital resources. It is available at:


http://www.dloc.com/downloads/toolkit/


For instructions on installation and configuration, see Appendix 3 or the included
installation CD.

The toolkit includes the following:
o A local database
o A central tracking and processing application

The application tracks the digitization of a resource through each of the required milestones.

Due to the local database, only one machine in each institution is likely to have the dLOC
Toolkit installed. This should be the machine attached to the scanners.

The application will check the web for updates on a regular schedule.


Directory Structure

During initialization of the toolkit, the following directory structure is created:
o C:\DLOC\ Root folder. You should scan into folders at this level.
C:\DLOC\FTP Once an item is completed, it will be moved here
C:\DLOC\Archive Once an item is FTP'd from the Complete folder, it will
be moved here.

Using this directory structure allows the tracking database to locate each item, and
suggest the next processing step.

Each of these folders will be discussed during the workflow sections.


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SECTION 4

Selection and Copyright


Selection

The Digital Library of the Caribbean seeks to build a cooperative digital library among partners
within the Caribbean and circum-Caribbean that will provide users with access to Caribbean
cultural, historical and research materials currently held in archives, libraries, and private
collections. In addition to facilitating access, the dLOC will also provide an additional layer
preservation for the information submitted to the library since the high resolution files associated
with the contributions will be archived in the Florida Digital Archive.

dLOC welcomes collections that address the histories, cultures, languages and governmental
systems of Caribbean countries. The types of collections appropriate for dLOC include but are not
limited to: newspapers, archives of Caribbean leaders and governments, official documents,
documentation and numeric data for ecosystems, scientific scholarship, historic and contemporary
maps, oral and popular histories, travel accounts, literature and poetry, musical expressions, and
artifacts. If you have another collection that you think may be appropriate, please contact us to
discuss the collection.

We encourage partners to develop a digital collection plan to ensure that the content is converted
into digital format based on its anticipated user demand and its need for digital preservation.



Copyright

Copyright law varies from country to county. Though many of the Caribbean Basin countries
are Berne International Copyright Convention signatory nations, it is often difficult to
determine which set of laws to apply or what the term of protection may be from one country
to another or, for that matter, from one year to another.
The copyright laws of the European Union and the United States represent the Caribbean's
most challenging and longest lasting copyright protections. When in doubt it is often a safe
bet to apply the laws of those countries. For assistance understanding United States copyright
legislation and duration of protections see: Cornell University's Copyright Term and the Public
Domain in the United States at

http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle Public Domain.htm
When an item selected for digitization is scanned in its country of origin, the laws of the
country of origin should be understood to apply. However, when an item selected for
digitization is scanned away from its country of origin, consider both the laws of the country
of origin and the laws of the location from which the digital resource will be made accessible
via the Internet and apply those laws that afford the item the longest protection. For
content providers using the centralized services of the Digital Library of the Caribbean, the
laws of that location are the laws of the United States. Applying the longest protections may


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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)



not be to the advantage of archives, libraries and museums, but this policy affords the Digital
Library of the Caribbean the greatest protection under the international law.

Resources Protected by Copyright

Before copyrighted works can be digitized, Internet Distribution Rights must be procured from the
copyright holder assuming the work has not passed into the Public Domain. Distribution rights
transfer a privileged use of a copyrighted work rather than the copyright, which remains with the
copyright holder.

Note: Publications often include separately copyrighted illustrations. Check illustration credits,
verify their copyright status, and seek additional permissions as necessary.

The digitization agency most frequently seeks "non-exclusive" "Internet Distribution Rights" for an
unlimited term. A grant of non-exclusive rights leaves the copyright holder in control of his or her
rights as guaranteed under national and international copyright laws and with the ability to grant
distribution rights to others. Internet Distribution Rights limit dissemination to the Internet.

If rights to other distribution formats are sought or anticipated, those rights should also be
requested with specific mention of the distribution format, e.g., "CD-ROM/DVD Distribution
Rights", "Print Distribution Rights", or more broadly, "Electronic Distribution Rights".

Sample permissions request letter and grant of permissions documents are available online at
the project website.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.









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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


SECTION 5

Preparing for Digitization

Now that you have selected your items for conversion to digital media, we will prepare for the
digitization. This section will cover:

Starting a new item
Describing your item (creating the bibliographic metadata)

Before continuing you will want to collect any information you have about the items chosen: catalog
records, spreadsheets, cards, finding aids.

Starting a new item


We will need to enter some basic information about your item.

1. Open the dLOC toolkit.
2. Create a new item by selecting 'Start a new item' from the main from
3. A blank item form will appear


1. Describe 3. Prepdre for 4. Quali

General Information Subjects and Keywords
Title Information
Title: l
Add Afternate Title Add Series Title Add Uniform Title


Physical Description
Resource Type'
Physical Description
Language
Identifier
Holding Location'


LBook v




University of Florida


Name Authorities
Creator:
Publisher:
Publication Date: .


(M Cancel ) I


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


Save Forward >I


5. Srrbmit








DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


4. On this first tab, fill in this basic bibliographic information


Title
Resource type
Physical Description
Language of the material
Identifiers


1. Describe
Item

General Information Subjects and Keywords
Title Information
Title: Theory of the Haitian Meringue
Add Alternate Title


IB I
Book v


English


Holding Location
Author or Creator
Publisher
Date of Publication


Add Uniform Title


Physical Description
Resource Type:

Physical Description:


Identifier: 00074523 Tpe: ALEPH v+

Holding Location: University of Florida Libraries, Special Collections


Name Authorities
Creator:
Publisher:


Publication Date:


Thomas, Jerry C.
I ]


1 Exit Back


SSave ) Forward 0)


5. On the next page, you can enter additional subject information about your material


Subject Keywords
Geographic Coverage
Coordinate (latitude and longitude)


Abstract(s)
Descriptions


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


"i~i i~i


Add Series Title


-I +


Language:









DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


1. Describe
Item A "

General Information Subjects and Keywords
Subjects
Subject Keyword: Caribbean

Dance

Geographic Coverage: Haiti


Coordinates:

Notes


Abstract:


Latitude:


SScheme

SSch


Longitude: I


Language: V

Detailed description of the basic steps to the Haitian Meringue, with illustrations and footwork.


Note: (Funding) Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.


1M Exit) P


Save Forward l)


6. You can hit the 'Save' button at any time to save your work. You will be given the dLOC
identifier for your item.


Your new dLOC ID is 'CIFNAL0008'.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


:

me:I v+
i+


Guntrul
i I~~~~ .j -








0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


7. Press 'Forward' to move to the next step.


2. Scan Item Pre f



The dLOC ID for your new item is 'CA03500001',
To add the required image files you may either:
Digitize your item now
Add existing files
CA03500001 00001.mets


4 Qua,,lity
4ot~l j i


Qaerd


If the item has already been digitized, you can use the links to either copy or move the
existing images into this new folder.

If the item has not been digitized, continue to Section 7 for instructions on scanning your
item.


Tracking Report


1. If desirable, you can print a tracking report which can be kept with the item to be
digitized.


2. A sample tracking report is available online at http://www.dloc.com.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


(--4 Back







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




SECTION 6

Basic Theory and Specifications


dLOC Requirement for Digital Master Files.

8-bit Grayscale or 24-bit RGB Color (depending on whether original has significant color)
300 dpi for standard text or 600 dpi for stand-alone images (photographs, maps)
Save archival files as uncompressed TIFFs



Bits Depth

In digitization three levels of Bit Depth are widely used: 1 Bit, 8 Bit, and 24 Bit images.

A 1 Bit image is referred to as "bi-tonal" or, less precisely, as "black-and-white". The picture
elements of a 1 Bit image are expressed in stings of one bit. That bit may be either one color or
an alternate and, frequently either black or white.

An 8 Bit image is referred to as "grey-scale", though an 8 Bit image may represent a very limited
color spectrum as well. Most scanning equipment defaults 8 Bit imaging to grey-scale. The
picture elements of an 8 Bit image are expressed in strings of eight bits, for example: 00001111.
8 Bit images allow for as many as 255 shades or colors. (N.B. Technically, 8 Bit images allow for
256 shade/color values, but one of these is reserved as a check-digit and is not used to express a
shade/color value.)

An 24 Bit image is referred to as "true color" or, less precisely, as a "color" image. The picture
elements of a 24 Bit image are expressed in strings of twenty-four bits. 24 Bit images allow for as
many as 16,777,216 shades or colors. You may hear digitization specialists using the short-hand
"sixteen million colors". The 24 bits are divided into three 8 Bit channels, one for each of three
composite colors (Red, Green, and Blue.)


Color Space

Color fidelity is fundamental to accurate reproduction of source.

Digitization, faithful to original colors, requires a basic understanding of color and how color
reproduction differs from printing technology to digital technology. Fundamental to these
differences is the media on which a color image is printed.
The color space most commonly used by digitization projects and required by dLOC, is a
standardized Red/Green/Blue (sRGB) color space.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.










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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Choosing the Appropriate Bit Depth and Color Space


1 Bit Image

PRO P 14
SANCTORUMK '
PFrl 'l mnulk.
1i' ,xx...i ii l 0,11110,


I,. Il SU.n.- ..Li. J.. ElloS.-.i f H ,





r.. ...'.... . ,,.'._.
,'- '.l i- ', ;nll r~h '.S r







amg- -r.4 ..-,r
}.1 i :1 l r il H .J It
f c M F+ h r 'nll c ll i l ly l I I l l a

B r, rLl, ,.L,, rt Tl li t
..... ..... .. ^ i. .... B *".


iIki i a* Tn Uil r,. irll ......
]tlmi lnaitp lldo l i npi tltlfcia
ow."''^~f~av "L Ci ,*.


8 Bit Image

PROQPR?
SANCTORUMj-
Pf HIftaliw .: ,
Mni WIIOVUXMD. DI l xi.lHOVU13.
Si.iL SrliIJE* djUk 1 P. ; S ,.JaI k LtWl
L :,.iluu a liJ. *1r1 Dulpl'
iM ,, i 1i -M'l4l. t*d Ia i am .
-Ipwr, t l il O l I I.

pi-r-i r, d wll tI. I,( lMw


a. ,m. -r nItn A"L0 li
Oi-v D *irt ., .. ir. l .

..'..i.. n ,m .. ....
Btl;- It cMrtU- U ai 'lkMll4'


24 Bit Image


SANCTORUM! I
31 ~ XMJI~. BR~ 14II. fIs iB lliol
rillI Sfl.r .'S 1 r..kA T I**tOtl heh
,f P, Os ... ... ,WL

I X.*t*r I 11 p"I I -. DI 'S.liO'Mtt__
L+,, ,o s .,.- a ;' :i
-'. 4 srul-.u i llnU k.ll
I1~l1i I~njihn 1Y'L lll.)iel l,
2 .. ... ....... ...... S.*
i L sri sfll s I +.!1

It a0jlffl l

*|ui-af 'r r i m I .ir Abq illr> i.r RUL "11 i
rTIl ; *4 4 it I



lt"tlLlil^ r n ,r urr"a ,iB .:'a
4l-r "."ru TB' -lf: i"^ n-'" S

irrm. Y e*~l
b: .t.. *8.-r' .u *U



Rnitlc al*ld i in Si .1 r& l k

mts-JJLi.L1 l 14A- -
IBC. T~..J, n. ".- murml.-Hn.


Il. i u, ,, ., t .d-M. j ..l,,=.
Bl.It"'' '' L Ih '""'Hm


dLOC recommends that 1 Bit


imaging should not be used. 1 Bit images, even at very high


resolution (see, Resolution below), tend to pixelate text. Imperfections on the page or artifacts
of age may read as black, obscuring text in 1 Bit images. In the 1 Bit page image above, bleed
through from the text printed on the inverse page as well as artifacts of age obscure the text.
Obscured text will introduce imperfections that reduce the accuracy of text conversion by optical
character recognition (OCR) software.

The 8 Bit grayscale image above captures the textual information. And, the reader of the page
can make sense of the text.

Readers of Latin religious texts, such as that seen above, will recognize the red text as
instructions to the faithful, commentary on the spoken text of a religious service, or the narrative
of the priest as opposed to that of the congregation's response.

dLOC advocates preserving meaningful color. Meaningful color is color required to interpret the
text. In the case of a newspaper with colored images, a color image accompanying an article
demonstrates meaningful color, while a color advertisement may not.

It is true that "The greater the Bit Depth the greater the size of the digital image file". But,
digitization technicians are encouraged to produce images that meet the reader's needs rather
than the needs of the digitization technician to conserve space.


Resolution

The resolution of digital images is expressed in terms of pixels. A pixel is a picture element or,
simply, a block of solid shade or color that, together with other picture elements comprises a
digital image.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Trinidad and Tobago's Coat of Arms


(Zoom area in black box.)


I RE~SOLTO USSO


300 pixels per inch (ppi)
118 pixels per centimeter (ppc)


Printed text with normal sized fonts
Oversized documents and maps
Manuscripts with legible script


600 pixels per inch (ppi) Photographs and select graphic arts
OR Printed text with very small fonts
236 pixels per centimeter (ppc) Manuscripts with difficult scripts

The dLOC's minimum digital resolution standard for printed text with normal sized fonts is 300
pixels per inch (ppi) or 118 pixels per centimeter (ppc). This threshold is based on both the
characteristics of printed graphics and optical character recognition (OCR) tests.

300 ppi / 118 ppc

The Rationale for Printed Graphics
In general, the resolution of printed graphics does not exceed 300 dots per inch (dpi) or 118
dots per centimeter (dpc). Dots per inch/centimeter are rough equivalents of pixels per
inch/centimeter; so comparison is appropriate.


Carifesta '72 logo printed in Guyana's Sunday Post and Weekend Argosy (Zoom area in red box.)


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Graphics printed in newspapers, for example, often have 80 to 100 dpi (32 to 40 dpc). Most
graphics in magazines are printed with 120 dpi (48 dpc) print resolution while graphics in
high-end magazines and on post-cards are printed with 300 dpi (118 dpc) print resolution.
Digitization of printed graphics at resolution greater than 300 ppi (118 ppc) would be
excessive.
The Rationale for Optical Character Recognition (Text Generation)
When a document page is digitized an image of the page is created. All text page images
sent to the dLOC's central servers are subject to Optical Character Recognition (OCR).
OCR is a process by which page images are converted to searchable text. Several OCR
programs are in common use. Most are optimized for the conversion of images digitized with
200, 300, 400 or 600 ppi (80, 118, 158 or 236 ppc). Images created with other resolution can
be converted to searchable text but, generally, with less accurate results.


75 ppi Image 150 ppi Image 300 ppi Image 600 ppi Image

Labu C Label C Label C Label C

of d of d of d ofd

Laid Pa Laid P Laid Pa Laid P
OCR results OCR results OCR results OCR results
Lo~iC Label C Label C Label C
ud ofd ofd ofd
L-ddPa Laid Pa Laid Pa Laid Pa


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




the Latin won:rd c. -Geo-don-ss
1 Bit Image

1 This letter may be any of the
S. following: c e o 0


S8 Bit Image

SThis letter may be any of the
J following: c e o 0



S24 Bit Image

SThe letter e appears now to
be more probable.



dLOC central servers use the Prime Recognition OCR system, configured with six OCR engines
to ensure a high level of accuracy in text generation. For printed texts with normal size
fonts, whether plain (sans serif) or embellished (serif), tests demonstrate that the average
modern printed document is accurately recognized at 200 ppi (80 ppc).
dLOC sets a slightly higher standard, 300 ppi (118 ppc), for printed texts with normal size
fonts to compensate for occasional uses of small fonts or colored, aged (discolored), or
blemished paper.
Digitization of normal printed texts at higher resolution (e.g., 600 ppi/236 ppc), in tests,
generally showed no increase in text conversion accuracy. 600 ppi/236 ppc images result in
higher conversion accuracy only when the source document is printed with very small fonts.

600 ppi / 236 ppc

dLOC recommends digitizing at 600 ppi (236 ppc) only when working with printed texts with
very small fonts; photographs and other continuous-tone graphics, and manuscripts with
difficult scripts.

Photographs
Photographs, unlike printed graphics, have continuous-tone. In the source document, one
shade or color blends into adjacent shades and colors. Continuous-tone images may be
digitized at any resolution. dLOC recommends 600 ppi (236 ppc) resolution to facilitate
special uses of images.


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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Users of digital photographs frequently consult images for their various subjects as for the
whole image. A user may want to zoom on the jewelry or hair braids in the photograph of a
woman or on shop sizes in the photograph of a street scene. dLOC central servers use JPEG
2000 technology to facilitate zoom. Images digitized at 600 ppi (236 ppc) produce clearer,
sharper, and more readable images than do 300 ppi (118 ppc) images.


Saving Files and Image Compression

Once the digital image is created, there remains the issue of saving or archiving the file. The
digitization technician prefers not to loose a quality image to the imperfections of file saving and
image compression routines.

TIF JEGGI


Cesloslo pe asko


TIFF contains all image data.


JPEG compresses the image,
seen here at leaf edges.


GIF also compresses the image,
seen here in color patches.


Saving Files

When saving an image file, the technician has a choice of file types, commonly including GIF,
JPEG and TIFF. GIF and JPEG (sometimes: JPG) are Internet deliverable file formats. dLOC
creates these derivative or secondary file formats for participating institutions from a digital
master. Institutions either not participating in dLOC or not using dLOC's central servers,
should observe similar practice.

Only the TIFF (sometimes: TIF; Tagged Image File Format) is considered archival within the
international digital library community. It alone serves as a digital master. There are several
reasons for this, primarily: image compression. The illustration above demonstrates image
quality issues as a factor in file choice.


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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)






Image Compression

When saving an image file, often regardless file type, the technician will be given the
opportunity to compress the image. Compression saves file space but has produces other and
unwelcome artifacts.

There are two classes of compression: lossy and lossless.

Lossless compression is an oxymoron. Technically, a lossless image has no compression. A
lossless image contains every bit of information created during the scanning process. Here is
another simplification: when the scanner captures the bit-stream 1 1 1 1 the lossless file
saves 1 1 1 1. Though this makes for large files, it also makes for an ideal archival format
and, therefore, optimal for file recovery should the digital master ever be damaged in use or
degrade in storage.

Lossy data compression technologies attempt to eliminate redundant or unnecessary
information, storing a mathematical representation of the eliminated data. Here is yet
another simplification: when the scanner captures the bit-stream 1 1 1 1 the lossy file saves
a representation of 4. Because lossy images generate smaller files, they can be delivered to
readers via the Internet quickly. The human eye compensates for image loss by filling in the
gaps. But, because there is image loss, recovery from damage or degradation is more
difficult and, in many cases, may be impossible without great expense.


0% Compression
9 KB file size

No image artifacts
Shown here:
Both as scanned and
color enhanced
versions.








50% Compression
5 KB file size

Image artifacts appear
as dark discoloration at
the bridge of the nose,
and lightening together
with slight blockiness at
the temple.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.









DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




Shown here:
Both as scanned and
color enhanced
versions.






85% Compression
3 KB file size

Image artifacts appear
as blocky discoloration.
Compression brings
similar colors together,
resulting in the block
effect.

Shown here:
Both as scanned and
color enhanced
versions.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.







0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


SECTION 7
Scanning

Creating Directories
Before scanning, the toolkit should create the folder(s) in which you save the scanned
images. For each item a separate folder is created at C:/DLOC/ with the appropriate dLOC
ID, for example
o C:/DLOC/CA00000001/O0001
o C:/DLOC/CA00000002/00001
o C:/DLOC/CA00000003/00001

dLOC Requirement for Digital Master Files.
8-bit Grayscale or 24-bit RGB Color (depending on whether original has significant color)
300 dpi for standard text or 600 dpi for stand-alone images (photographs, maps)
Save archival files as uncompressed TIFFs


Flatbed Scanning: Epson Expression 10000 XL

The following screenprints are specific to the Epson Expression scanner, but the same settings apply
to any flatbed scanner.


Scan Settings
Scan documents using Adobe Photoshop rather than using the scanner's stand-alone image capture
software and check the scanner settings with each new document.

Before opening Adobe Photoshop, turn on the scanner and make sure that the bed is clean and
free of any dust, debris, etc. If necessary clean the glass with a lint free cloth and a very small
amount of glass cleaning fluid.
1. Launch Adobe Photoshop
2. Select: File Import Epson Expression 10000 XL


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.









DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)





File Edit Image Layer Select Filter View Window Help
New... Ctrl+N Ant-aha Styl: Noral
Open... CtrC+0
Browse... Alt+Ctrl+O
Open As... Alt+5Nft+Ctrl+O
Open Recent
Edit in Imagc~eady h5Nft+Ctrl+M
Close Ctrl+W
Close All Alt+Ctrl+W
Close and Go To Bridge... Shift+Ctrl+W
Save Ctrl+5
Save As.. Shift+Ctrl+5
Save a Version...
Save for Web... Alt+Shift+Ctrl+S
Revert F12
Place..


Variable Data Sets...


Export ~ Annotations...
Automate
Scripts Lolgtech Camara...
WrA Support...


The scanning interface will then open two windows: a scan settings window and a preview
window (as seen here)





IFI ,-




-j .. I









3. Select the appropriate settings for your document
a. At the top of the scan settings windows select PROFESSIONAL MODE
b. Always select the following settings
1. Documents Type: REFLECTIVE
2. Document Source: DOCUMENT TABLE
3. Auto Exposure Type: PHOTO
4. Document Size: DO NOT ADJUST
5. Target Size: ORIGINAL
c. Select the appropriate color space and bit depth
1. 8-bit grayscale for items without significant color
2. 24-bit RGB color for all other items
d. Select the appropriate resolution
1. 300 dpi for mostly textual items
2. 600 dpi for stand-alone image items (photographs, maps, etc..)
e. Click the I CONFIGURATION | button (below the Preview and Scan buttons)


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Click the COLOR tab
Select NO COLOR CORRECTION
Click OK


Scanning


1. Place item, image down, on scanner glass. Be careful to place item as straight as possible in
order to save time later. Close the scanner lid as much as item permits.











2. Click the PREVIEW button in the Scan Settings window. A small preview of your image will
appear in the preview window. Make sure the entire document is visible, if not reposition on
glass and re-preview.
3. Draw a bounding box around your entire image. If your original has 2 pages facing each other,
draw a second box by selecting the dual marquee button Arrange each box to completely
include each side of the item. Once you are satisfied with the boxes positioning click the ALL
button. DO NOT move the boxes or change settings after pressing this button!

4. Click the SCAN button


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


Preview Color Other
C Color Control
F o u auto exposure
rF,-pi,, -, -, -7- 1
r ICM


r Lliola, preview uijng frionPor corliperj:a Oin
( No Color Correction
Auto Exposure Level --- Recommended Value
Low High
SCancel Help I
77 W72









DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




Saving Files

1. Save your image by selecting: File Save

2. Select the dLOC ID folder that corresponds to which the image being saved belongs. E.g.,
In separates folder at C:/DLOC/ with the appropriate dLOC ID, for example
C:/DLOC/CA00000001/00001
C:/DLOC/CA00000002/00001
C:/DLOC/CA00000003/00001

3. Type in a sequential four digit file name, such as 0001, 0002, 0003, etc.

4. Select TIFF from the file format drop down menu

5. Always uncheck the ICC profile box

Color: e oof Selup i
] ICC Profile: Gray Gamma 2.2

6. Click Save

For TIFF Options select same as below


Image Compression
NONE
OLZW
OZIP
03PEG
Qualt" I I


Pixel Order
SInterleaved (RGBRGB)
OPer Channel (RRGGBB)
SByte Order
GIBM PC
O Macintosh
] Save Image Pyramid
Save Transparency
Layer Compression
RLE (fdste Sdves, bigger filres)
ZIP (slower saves, smalleE flies)
Discard Layers and have a Copy


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


SECTION 8
Image Correction

The intent of any digitization should be a faithful reproduction of the original document. Toward
this goal, images will need to be deskewed and cropped to fit the in-hand original. In addition, it
may be desirable to perform color correction either to reproduce the in-hand original, or the
original state of the document. Applying these techniques in Adobe Photoshop is the topic of this
section.


Image Correction in Adobe Photoshop


1. To straighten drastically skewed images:

a. Click and hold the Eyedropper Tool in the
Photoshop tool box -
Select the Measure Tool

b. Click and draw a line to follow the bottom of any
printed text, line or image
(line is red, here, for purposes of illustration)


PA3



h, T,



sf Eyedropper Tow
Clj"T o


c. Select: Image Rotate Canvas Arbitrary (DO NOT change the angle) click
OK
2. Crop the image to remove any excess borders added during straightening
using the crop tool

3. If necessary (e.g., if the image is muddy), adjust the levels/histogram by selecting
Image Adjustments Levels


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


ram, trabalharam para um complete conhecimento, para powder haver
assim resultados positives.
Entrando no verdadeiro assnntn de qne vnou tratar dir-vnv-ei nue
Angola 6 formada a sul do rio Zaire, pelo territ6rio de Angola prb-
priamente dito, com uma configuraoao quadrangular e, a norte
do mesmo rio, pelo enclave de Cabinda. A sua superficie 6 de
1246.700 Kmi' ou .ia- narn faz 7 .... A.; -- ...:. .r:.- ..-








DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


-ii .jI L E i II







*J'Ll LI


[ :~r:1

SL Ci d



[ Jj r


Adjust the black, white and midpoints to improve your image quality and contrast.

If the image is COLOR, you may make histogram adjustments for each RGB channel: Red,
Green and Blue.

But, do not over correct and eliminate detail. A histogram shows the distribution of
tones over a range. The image characterized by the histogram above is predominantly
white. While the image contains shades of gray, deeper tones of black are almost
entirely absent.

4. Images with good, thick printed text can also be quickly corrected by selecting the
document's white point. This is done by opening the levels/histograms by selecting Image
Adjustments Levels. In the levels window select the eyedropper furthest to the
right and then select the point in your image that should be the brightest white. The
images below show this effect before and after the white point selection.
o u


i . i .. -- i *

L '"" ,'" -'- :'

.... ._
i.. .. .... .. i




You will notice that the background becomes almost uniformly white, but the text is also
lightened. Before selecting OK in the levels/histograms you will need to bring in the black
point in order to improve the text. This is done by moving the arrow furthest to the left,
in towards the right. You will notice that the numbers in the Input Levels boxes increase.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


I









DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


.................~.. ...... ~m
Ginlrio IJllir. Yld ID*UI' I(O In

\li .-. ..,. ~I
ii.
I ;,
Ir
DSuul %d


It is helpful to perform this correction while zoomed in to 100% on your image, as shown
below.


que nada faila dos I..
]a ao ilut re e zeloc.- SaI


o temple da Antiga I
,stinado aros instrunlcnI I
reservado an fugo pjra a destruicaio del
tmelhanlenrinte, ho c. no, vortice de it
levam-se dols altars :o d3 cducayio
e hua ,cntc. nnrid actL-itados pelo An
2ont;ticam ns Sake~ianos: c u da instruc54
rcligios3 da mesnla 6ente. under, acoiit;


Li lOe nalai~i ifala clds 'U
(11 1 1It I-A C zAU I :' ~ -



21 "1 ( it(Jfl Fit1 j(ll)I. 11 R

du I

1C sua "C1 ondc ;II
d I Lt ('dti


L dregao atual de tais
a que nada falta dos '-
da ao ilustre e zeloso Sa 1


;o temple da Antiga I .
estinado aos instrument os (i imolaqao d
reservado ao fogo para a destruiiAo de
,emelhantemente, hoje, no v6rtice de J
elevam-se dois altares: o da cducagao
le sua gente, onde acolitados pelo an
.ontificam os Salesianos; e o da instruqa



5. If the image is extremely stained the document should be scanned in RGB and if possible,
the stains should be lightened using Image Adjustments Replace Color


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


iMei
iolw-i
rr/








DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)




-"^ .. ^ "' Pepl.ire CO








R I ep cement*

Lightness:60 L~o












Select "Image" and not "Selection" in the Replace Color Window. Then using the
eyedropper tool select the darker color of the stain. Adjust the Lightness, Saturation and
( -- '- - --- I ----I I e ,

















Hue slider bars as needed to minimize the stains. The fuzziness meter indicates how
closely a color must match the selected color to be replaced. Be aware that stains may
be similar in color to text and therefore too much manipulation is undesirable in order to
not ose information.ma

Often it is useful to zoom into one section of text while performing the color replacement









One must be careful not to make the text harder to read for the OCR engine.
6. Remember that any adjustments done to images can be undone as ultong as the file
Lightness:










remains open. Maintain your history wind the Replace Windowen in dow History in
eyedropper tool select the darker color of the stain. Adjust the Lightness, Saturation and
Hue slider bars as needed to minimize the stains. The fuzziness meter indicates how




closely a color must match the selected color to be rep done. You canBe aways go back severtains may
be similar in color to text and therefore too much manipulation is undesirable in order to




steps and re-correct your image.


Other AdOften it is useful to zoom into one section of text while performing the color replacement.

The original Adomust be Photoshopcareful not to make the text harder to read for the OCR engine.oftware you






purchased.
In addition, AdoRemember tha an on-ine resource at the foto images can be undone as RL:ong as the file
remains open. Maintain your history window open by selecting Window -> History in
Photoshop, then simply select the previous step done. You can always go back several
steps and re-correct your image.


Other Adobe Photoshop Resources


The original Adobe Photoshop installation package should include a tutorial of the software you
purchased.

In addition, Adobe has an on-line resource at the following URL:

http://www.adobe.com/products/tips/photoshop.html

Adobe, the Adobe Logo, and Photoshop are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.







0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


SECTION 9
Performing Quality Control


Prepare for QC


Once the scanning is complete, the next step is to prepare your item for QC processing.
This assembles the metadata file for the package, and also creates the JPEG derivatives. The
JPEG derivatives are used for the internet, as well as the QC step.


3. Prepare for h tdiCY


(- Exit 4)


Sbril It tni


Forward I


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


Please wait as your item is prepared for quality control....

Processing image 'aOOll.tif'

it it is it lltll$ll l


Once complete, your item will be moved to the next step.

Quality Control








0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


The Quality Control step allows you to view all the images and add structural metadata.

Once the resource is opened for this step, you will see an image of each page from the original
resource. The first time a package is QC'd, all of the pages will be added to a single, main
chapter.


-. Quality Control
Package Parq E dr i e ,
H D 0 [1 0 P tt B @ 3 B

aOO0l a0002 a0003
a0004 a0002 a0003

*i .... .
I HAMllAN M"RINGUI





<.
4 +









4 ... ,.t
Paglrnat Ic ,r', Pa- ror. agIIn r lhO
DlIr Is ,# r,15. ,I l tr', .1 ,I-,io n r1.1,i-


a0004 a0005 a0006


__.... .. ". _--_ nor** .....

el (il E Exit ) Back Save Forward ,)



*The toolbox in the upper right hand corner gives the user access to a number of features.


o o O s p I :9 3V B


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


* The table on the next page shows the function of each of the icons.

SThis saves all of the entered data into the
metadata file for this digital resource.

O n This selects the size for the thumbnail
S I L images.

SThis is the default cursor.

P This cursor allows you to zoom into any
page image.
This cursor allows you to select two pages
to switch, or to insert one page in front of
another.
This cursor allows you to set the image that
will be used as the main thumbnail for your
item.
These arrows take you to the previous and
I next page image that already had a QC
error associated with it.
E This views the metadata for the current
digital resource

Next, you will assign division information and page numbering information to each page of this
book. When you mouse over each image, a toolbox will appear below that image.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)



a0001 O














iN1,


PaLrinati..n

D [A.j. L IP

This toolkit can be used to get additional information about this image, zoom into the
image, or delete the image. The table below shows the function of each element of
this toolbox:


-A Indicates that there is text on this page. Clicking this
icon toggles the text-indicating 'A'
O This provides technical details about the original page
image.

) This zooms into this page image

This deletes this page image and remove it from the list
of images
This indicates that there was an page in the original
ii which was not scanned either before or after this page.

The pagination text box allows you to name, or number, each page.

The division check mark indicates this page is the beginning of a new division. Once
that is selected, you can choose the division type from the combo box.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


aO001












P .gnTi.on
I I



i I





P.,3,ncion


Drli", i n


DAA

Conclusion
Contenidos
Dedicaci6n
LE, i T..:7 i7 -,.', :


The following are the main division types available:
Abstract Errata List of Tables
Acknowledgement Foreward Methodology
Advertising Front Cover Poem*
Appendix* Front Matter Preface
Back Cover Frontispiece Prelude
Back Matter Half Title Reference
Bibliography Index* Spine
Chapter* Interview Table of Contents
Conclusion Introduction Title Page
Copyright List of Figures
Dedication List of Illustrations


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


0







DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


In addition to the divisions listed above, there are seven more available divisions.
These are:
Subdivision Level 1*
Subdivision Level 2*
Subdivision Level 3*
Subdivision Level 4*
Subdivision Level 5*
Subdivision Level 6*
Subdivision Level 7*


These elements are available to suggest a
deeper hierarchy. For example, if the table of
contents of a book looks like:

Elephants in Nature
Species
African
Asian
Diets
Vegetarian Diets
Carnivorous Diets

These divisions would be entered as:

Chapter 'Elephants in Nature'
Subdivision Level 1 'Species'
Subdivision Level 2 'African'
Subdivision Level 2 'Asian'
Subdivision Level 1 'Diets'
Subdivision Level 2 'Vegetarian Diets'
Subdivision Level 2 'Carnivorous Diets'

Then, the on-line table of contents of this
resource will appear as a hierarchical tree.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
...Fi ont Covel
.Title Page
...Elephants in Captivity
El Elephants in Nature
E--Species

i. Asian
E Diets
...Vegetarian Diets
i..Carnivorous Diets
iReferences
SBack Cover


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


0










DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Pc i age Pie .EI .,e"


4. Quality Control


Paoinalionr


a0004




C4w


1-dull ,ji,.~.i, I
Li'iii**r. ~l


L..a0 F, :.-,



aOO05


r, .. I .. ... .... -,








a. ....ir .I..:.I ,I ..


LIi -: l = i ..i i,
Lie i In~i r lir ",1, "rl,-


Pagindnon i I
Pi :a 06ir .-



a0006


- otes



1 -


F j.rjiria,3njn i .i 4
" = l.. 1 nh r :",1, "r,,-,i, __.


iD Dedication
Errata
Foreword


Some of the divisions (those with astericks on the previous tables) can be given a
resource-specific name. When you select any of these divisions the following form is
displayed to allow the name to be entered.


Type: Chapter I


Name: iNotesl


[ Multiple Divisions on Page OK


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


-









0


DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Below is an example of a page with a named division.


a0010


THE STEP
OF THE HAITIANr MERIINUE


na. I-. ~ IuI 44S


*II F


S.trrl *,J irw Iwn
1-irl nrd mTr Tl




I .m.w.. ..Wi Ikrt-risd mranrm n
kRiln Iknr




r..IJ, RIl. i -.


Pagination:

Division: ,0


Page 0

The ctep- of the Halti~n...


You can view an image zoomed in by double clicking on the image, or selecting the zoom from
the image toolbar.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.








DIGITAL LIBRARY OF THE CARIBBEAN (dLOC)


Package Page 1 Edi Vew Help
Page: P c W rPtada Deatera v


Et Im A All To: t V
Editlmae Edit All Images Tool. J


S= !


II


*1



M--i


From this form, selecting 'Edit Image' will allow you to edit the original TIFF image.


Package Page Image Edt View Help


Page: Ivion Type Portada Delantera v

Save Edts Done Editing Tod: .

= ^ ^ m iv


Cld / Comple


8%,I


U a moL
4ttfU-NlBS~


You can click 'Save' at any time to save your work. Moving to the next, and final, step will
also save all of your changes.

Creation of your digital resource is now complete and you will be asked for your preference
for submittal. You can either submit immediately or wait to submit later.


2009, Digital Library of the Caribbean, All rights reserved.


0


Ji 1OtA X


Cbse / Complete


:W FeN a x1




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