Osteology and paleontology of the passerin birds of the Reddick pleistocene.

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Title:
Osteology and paleontology of the passerin birds of the Reddick pleistocene.
Series Title:
Osteology and paleontology of the passerin birds of the Reddick pleistocene.
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Book
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Hamon, J. Hill,

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University of Florida
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alephbibnum - 000577093
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Descriptive osteology
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    The reddick fossil locality
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    Systematic paleontology
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    Discussion
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    Summary
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    Literature Cited
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    Biographical sketch
        Page 293
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    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text










OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF

THE PASSERINE BIRDS OF THE

REDDICK PLEISTOCENE









By
J. HILL HAMON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


August, 1961













ACiKTOLE'DC LMk' E


I am indebted to Dr. Pierce Brodkorb, the chairman of

my committee, who directed this study. His constant aid,

inspiration, stimulation, and genuine concern was invaluable.

For their many helpful criticisms I also wish to thank

the other members of my committee, Dr. Lewis Berner, Dr. E.

C. Bovee, Professor H. K. Brooks, and Dr. J. R. Redmond.















TABLE OF COil1Tri)TS


AC-IO:YLLDGIMENTS . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . .

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . .

INTRODUCTION . . . .

DESCRIPTIVE OSTEOLOGY . .

Family Tyrannidae . .
Family Hirundinidae .
Family Corvidae . .
Family Sittidae . .
Family Troglodytidae
Family Mlimidae . .
Family Turdidae . .
Family Laniidae . .
Family Parulidae . .
Family Icteridae .
Family Thraupidae . .
Family Fringillidae .

THE ~ .LEDDICI; FOSSIL LOCALITY .

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY . .

DISCUSSION . . . .

SUMMARY . . . . .

LITErATUr.2 CITED . .

BIOPGR:P:IICAL SKETCH . .


Page

. . . . . . ii

. . . 9 . iv



. . . . . . . 1

. . . . 4 . . 3

. . . . . . . 4
. 9 . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . 31
. . . . 60
. . . . . . 72
. . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . .. 119
. . . . . . . 131
. . . .. 9. . 143
. . . . . 192
. . . . . . 204

. . . . . 9 . 234

. . . . . . . 246

. . . . . . . 257

............. 266
. .. . . . . 266

. . . . . . . 267

. . . . 9. . . 293
r r


iii













LIST OF TMIPES


Table Page

1. Stratigraphic section at Reddick, Florida . . 236

2. Measurements of Pandanaris floridana . . . 255

3. Extinction ratios of Pl1ictoccne sites . 264













LIST OF TTiLUPTT:ATIOUS


Figure Page

1. Aerial photograph of the Reddick, Florida, area 274

2. Map of the Reddick fossil locality . . . .276

3. Map of the main fossil-bearing quarry . . 278

4. Map of present distribution of northern and
southern elements of the Reddick fauna . 280

5. Photograph of humerus of Corvus brachyrhynchos 282

6. Photograph of distal end of humerus of Corvus
brachyrhynchos . . . . . . . 284

7. Photograph of carpometacarpus of Corvus
brachyrhynchos . . . . . . 286

8, Photograph of coracoid of Corvus brachyrhynchos 288

9. Photograph of tibiotarsus of Corvus
brachyrhynchos . . . . . . . 290

10. Photograph of tarsometatarsus of Corvus
brachyrhynchos . . . .... 292













ITraODUCT I01o


Although the order Passeriformes (perching birds) in-

cludes over half of the 8,650 snccies of birds known in the

world today, little is known about their fossil record.

Only 32 extinct passerine species have been described, as

cor.prcd with 801 extinct non-passerine forms. In nUorth

mcerican Pleistocene deposits 225 species of birds have been

listed, and of this number only G3 are passerine. :oz.t of

these passerines represent species still living today, with

10 of them being extinct.

The reason for the scarcity of p ascerine remains is

that most of these birds are small, and have very fragile

bones that do not preserve well as fossils. They are apar-

ently plentiful as fossil, but paleontologists have often

discarded matrix rich with minute bones of small birds and

other small animals while searching for larger and more

spectacular vertebrate fossils.

The Pleistocene fossil beds of Reddick, Florida, bear

a tremendous vertebrate fauna, probably representing the

richest bed of its age in eastern 7TorLh America. The enor-

mous concentration of well-preserved small vertebrate bones

makes this locality unique. P soerine remains are partic-

ularly abundant.






2

By far the most rewarding method of collecting small

vertebrate fossils is by the washing technique (Hibbard,

1949). Matrix is washed in a fine screen and the concen-

trate thoroughly dried. After drying, the remaining clayey

matrix breaks down much more readily upon rewashing. In

sandy matrix two washings usually suffice, but a clay matrix

may require repeated washings and dryings. Dones are then

picked out of the concentrate with forceps under a low-power

binocular microscope.

Identification of fossils was hampered by lack of

knowledge of osteology of passerines. in order to identify

the fossils, it was necessary first to define osteological

characters for the majority of families of passeriform birds

found in eastern lNorth America and to differentiate osteo-

logically those gcncri occurring in Pleistocene deposits

east of the Mississippi.













DESCRIPTIVE OSTEOLOGY


An original description of the anatomical characters

of five post-cranial skeletal elements is presented below

for each family in the order Passeriformes found in eastern

North American Pleistocene deposits. These elements are the

humerus, carpometacarpus, coracoid, tibiotarsus, and tarso-

metatarsus. For easy reference the characters of each ele-

ment have been numbered consecutively. The reader should

understand that the osteological characters of the families

are based only on those genera and species known as fossils

in Pleistocene deposits east of the -i ssissippi.

At the generic level the distinguishing characters are

described, and the character numbers are those used in the

family descriptions. The osteological terminology follows

that of Howard (1929), and the names of muscles follow those

of Fisher (1946).


Hypotarsal Formulas

In order to describe the arrangement of calcaneal

canals and grooves in the hypotarsus of the tarsometatarsus,

the following code is used.

Hypotarsal canals and grooves occur in two general

anteriorly to posteriorly arranged lines. Beginning with

the most anterior internal canal, designated "D" for M.

flexor digitorum longus, each next posteriorly arranged

3






4

canal is designated "E", "F", and "G", respectively. In the

external line the most anterior canal is designated "H", for

M. flexor hallucis longus, and its next posteriorly arranged

canal is designated "I".

Capital code designations indicate closed canals.

Lower case letters indicate canals that are confluent.

Lower case primed letters indicate that the calcaneal canal

is open to a margin, i.e., it is a groove. Letters sepa-

rated by a slant indicate that the two canals are located on

the same, or almost the same, level.

The formula is begun with D, the anterior internal

canal; and reads posteriorly, E; F; and G, if present; con-

tinuing with I, the anterior external canal; and its next

posterior canal, I. As an example, a hypotarsal formula for

Corvus is De/FGHi'.


Family T OidTlLTID2rE


Humerus

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

head thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuber-

osity distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracora-

coideus slightly excavated, oval; (3) internal tuberosity

prominent, with rounded border, with attachment of M. sub-

scapularis an indistinct, slightly convex, oval scar, the

scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly ex-

cavated, elliptical, its distal external surface with the

scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior distinct,

moderately excavated, elliptical; (4) capital groove






5

straight, deeply excavated, perforated along its length by a

row of tiny foramina without a small foramen near its exter-

nal margin; (5) scar for insertion of IM. proscapulohumeralis

brevis indistinct, shallow, elongate; (6) capital-shaft

ridge short, straight, slightly elevated, not extending to

head; (7) deltoid crest slightly curved, thin, with proximal

end above level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (8)

deltoid surface slightly concave; (9) latissimus ridge ob-

scure; (10) deltoid notch sharply angular; (11) median bar

short, curved, forming an angle of about 67 degrees with the

internal tuberosity, its palmar end extending to internal

medial surface of shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa single, incom-

plete, deep, its opening oval in shape, with scar for inser-

tion of Il. proscapulohumeralis on a shelf, a slightly exca-

vated, oval depression, not undercutting the shaft; (13)

pneumatic fenestra small, with complex strutting; (14) bicip-

ital crest angular, with edge thick, bearing the scar for

insertion of M. biceps large, distinct, moderately elevated,

oval; (15) shaft robust, with external border slightly con-

vex in middle, internal border gently concave throughout its

length; (16) line of J;. latissimus dorsi anterioris obsolete.

In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ec-

tepicondylar process prominent, slightly produced externally,

pointed, without accessory process on its surface, without

excavation between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18)

scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialia (anconal

branch) small, distinct, slightly excavated, elliptical;

(19) external condyle prominent, with distal border rounded;






6

(20) external tricipital groove moderately excavated, wide;

(21) olecranal fossa shallow, not undercutting the internal

condyle, oval; (22) internal condyle slightly rounded, ex-

tending only slightly below level of external condyle; (23)

internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle prom-

inent, angular, its distal end truncated bearing scar for

the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) mod-

erately excavated, oval, and extending below level of both

internal and external condyles.

In palmar view, humerus with proximal end with (25)

ligamental furrow wide, curved, moderately excavated; (26)

bicipital furrow moderately excavated, curved, without fora-

mina, bounded externally by the large, moderately elevated,

concave, wide, elliptical scar for insertion of M. del-

toideus minor; (27) bicipital crest rounded; (28) bicipital

surface convex; (29) external boundary of M. deltoideus ma-

jor obsolete.

In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) de-

pression for insertion of IM. brachialis anticus large, mod-

erately excavated, oval, its internal margin without a bor-

dering ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor

metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately produced, con-

vex, elliptical; (32) shaft without ridge on external sur-

face, with distal end with a number of small foramina with-

out depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of anterior

articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pronator

brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical,

located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the palmar






7

surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, irregular in outline,

with scar for origin of iM. pronator longus moderately exca-

vated, elliptical, the oval scar for origin of M. flexor

carpi ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly excavated; (35) shelf

for attachment of anterior articular ligament large, slightly

convex, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded, its distal bor-

der nearly straight, moderately concave at tricipital groove;

(37) intercondylar furrow slightly rounded, slightly exca-

vated, without a pit medial to external condyle, perforated

medially to external condyle by a number of small, distinct

foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded, its ex-

ternal margin bearing a few tiny foramina without depression

medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle moderately de-

veloped, pointed, not excavated on palmar surface, its prox-

imal end bearing scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii

brevis small, convex, oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence

with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum commnunis mod-

erately excavated, oval, the scar for origin of M. flexor

metacarpi radialis moderately excavated, elliptical, the

scar for the origin of M. supinator brcvis small, moderately

elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the origin of

M. anconeus distinct, large, moderately excavated, oval.


Carpometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a small

distinct foramen in a moderately excavated depression proxi-

mal to the internal ligamental depression; (2) depression





8

for radiale large, distinct to indistinct, elliptical, sad-

dle-shaped; (3) external carpal trochlea prominent, somewhat

pointed, its anterior corner slightly undercut by the scar

for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct,

moderately excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depres-

sion large, distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process mod-

erately produced internally, its anterior border somewhat

pointed, its anterior surface bearing scar for ligamental

attachment moderately convex, oval, its proximal surface in

anterior view square, its distal surface slightly concave,

without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I prominent, angular, its

proximal end projecting anteriorly at about a 35 degree an-

gle with metacarpal II, its distal surface above pollical

facet slightly to moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion

of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, ellip-

tical; (8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex,

triangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight, with groove

for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus slightly exca-

vated, slightly undercutting pisiform process along its an-

terior border, with scar for origin of M. adductor pollicus

obsolete, not in a depression, with scar for origin of M.

interosseus palmaris wide, very long, slightly excavated,

with distal end expanded, truncated, with facet for digit II

slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and

curved, the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare deeply

excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti

III slightly excavated, wide, long, running from the level

of the distal end of internal carpal trochlea down the






9

entire length of the metacarpal, the scar for origin of M.

interosseus palmaris slightly excavated, wide, very long;

(11) intermetacarpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal

metacarpal symphysis prominent, slightly to moderately exca-

vated, expanded, extending beyond level of metacarpal II,

its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III distinct,

slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external

ligamental attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, el-

liptical; (15) metacarpal I prominent, angular, with scar

for insertion of IM. extensor pollicus longus obsolete, with-

out a depression; (16) depression for ulnare deeply exca-

vated, oval; (17) metacarpal II robust, wide, straight, with

groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus moderately

excavated, straight on its proximal end, becoming deeply ex-

cavated and moderately curved on its distal end, open

throughout its entire length, with scar for origin of M. in-

terosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal

III thin, curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus

dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuber-

osity large, triangular, extending slightly beyond the pos-

terior surface of and ankylosing with metacarpal III, with

scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct, slight-

ly convex, elliptical, located on proximal edge at tip at

level of external face of intermetacarpal tuberosity and at

level of external surface of metacarpal III; (20) distal

metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.








Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, some-

what pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of

M. coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, dis-

tinct, slightly excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar

very small, slightly excavated, oval; (3) scar for origin of

long head of M. biceps large, distinct, slightly excavated,

oval; (4) brachial tuberosity small, narrow, slightly exca-

vated and hooked, with a few tiny foramina adjacent to the

scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of gle-

noid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, slightly

elevated ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft

robust, gently curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coraco-

brachialis large, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along

lateral border of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp,

slightly elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M. supra-

coracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its surface some-

what irregular; (9) internal distal angle pointed, without a

projection on shaft dorsal to it; (10) sternal facet small,

distinct, slightly convex, elliptical, without a shelf; (11)

sterno-coracoidal process thin, gently rounded, with pointed

corner.

In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small,

somewhat pointed, bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-

furculare indistinct, elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing

scar for common attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare

and the ventral L. coraco-capsulare flat, oval, without a

depression ventral to scar; (14) furcular facet small, with






11

its surface slightly irregular, bearing large, deep, ellip-

tical fossa, with complex strutting; (15) glenoid facet

large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly irregular;

(16) area of triosseal canal shallow, slightly concave

throughout; (17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid,

its surface greatly convex, its distal edge forming a slight-

ly to moderately elevated ridge bearing the scar for attach-

ment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid

large, thin, sharply pointed, its surface bearing scar for

attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft

with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet bearing a

number of small, distinct foramina, its medial surface bear-

ing the indistinct, very long, slightly elevated line for

attachment of 1iembrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis, slightly

to moderately excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar for

origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal

depression for insertion of M. sternocoracoideus large, dis-

tinct, slightly excavated, triangular, its dorsal end form-

ing a sharp, moderately elevated projection, its lateral bor-

der straight down to a level slightly above sternal facet,

then curving gently to corner of bone; (22) scar for attach-

ment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal

facet with surface for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum

large, distinct, moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical,

in ventral view the shelf extending about one-third the width

of the bone, elliptical in shape, expanded near the middle

so that the medial portion is slightly wider than the

lateral.







Tijbiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial

crest small, straight, slightly hooked, originating well

above level of origin of inner cnemial crest, slightly con-

vex, its proximal margin with scar for insertion of M. vas-

tus lateralis long, curved, slightly convex, its lateral

border with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus

obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest large, straight, sharply

rounded, with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus

moderately excavated, with scar for insertion of M. vastus

lateralis curved, convex, with scar for origin of M. gastro-

cnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for insertion of

M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior slightly excavated, el-

liptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick, wider at distal

end than at proximal, with proximal margin slightly concave,

its distal margin very strongly concave, its lateral border

straight, without groove at anterior distal margin; (4) shaft

moderately robust, straight, with intermuscular line dis-

tince, the scar for origin of M. peroneus brevis obsolete;

(5) tendinal groove slightly to moderately excavated, wide;

(6) distal scar for oblique ligament located on lateral

proximal corner of supratendinal bridge, highly elevated,

rounded; (7) supratendinal bridge with its surface gently

convex, its proximal border moderately concave, its distal

border slightly concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus

brevis bordered by moderately elevated, parallel ridges,

with the lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial ridge;

(9) external condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral






13

view smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, without protu-

berance forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis;

(10) anterior intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, ellipti-

cal, without small foramina, its distal border slightly con-

vex in the middle, its medial and lateral borders slightly

undercutting the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide,

straight, in medial view smoothly rounded, slightly exca-

vated, without a protuberance.

In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests

moderately elevated; (13) internal articular surface small,

slightly convex, elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly

beyond edge of external articular surface; (14) external

articular surface small, moderately convex, oval; (15) inter-

articular area with a very slightly elevated protuberance;

(16) area between the internal articular surface and inner

cnemial crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-

tibialis internus moderately excavated, oval; (17) area be-

tween the external articular surface and outer cnemial crest

bearing distinct, deeply excavated fossa, without strutting;

(18) shaft with scar for origin of M. plantaris large, ellip-

tical, the scar for attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posti-

cum long, slightly curved, slightly elevated, the scar for

origin of M. flexor digitorum longus, indistinct, very long,

wide, with irregular surface; (19) border of external con-

dyle slightly exflected; (20) border of internal condyle

slightly inflected; (21) posterior intercondylar sulcus wide,

nearly straight.








Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence large, highly elevated, rounded, its external bor-

der moderately sloping, its proximal border moderately slop-

ing, the scar for attachment of external ligament slightly

excavated, elliptical; (2) external cotyla small, moderately

concave; (3) internal cotyla small, deeply concave, ellipti-

cal, its anterior border extending slightly anteriorly beyond

edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor

digitorum longus absent; (5) proximal foramina distinct,

with outer foramen about same size as inner, with inner

foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal end of

shaft moderately robust, straight, without a foramen distal

to intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M.

tibialis anticus distinct, moderately elevated, flat, the

external margin above level of scar of IM. tibialis anticus

moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of external

cotyla, the internal margin above scar moderately expanded,

slightly concave to rim of internal cotyla, the scar for

origin of M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct, long,

slightly excavated, smooth, the scar for origin of M. exten-

sor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly excavated,

smooth; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin of

facet of metatarsal I moderately excavated, with outer ex-

tensor groove slightly excavated, the distal foramen small;

(8) trochlea for digit II moderately inflected, moderately

expanded, forming an angle of about 20 degrees with the

shaft, its distal margin straight, extending below level of






15

external trochlea, its internal anterior surface without an

excavation; (9) trochlea for digit III small, slightly ex-

panded distally, slightly c::cavoted medially, moderately ex-

cavated laterally, its distal margin moderately concave in

the middle, extending slightly below level of internal troch-

lea; (10) trochlea for digit IV slightly inflected laterally,

moderately excavated medially and slightly excavated lateral-

ly, its distal margin straight; (11) internal intertrochlear

notch very wide, with proximal end rounded, originating at

about same level as proximal end of external intertrochlear

notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch very wide, with

proximal end rounded.

In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotar-

sus small, with formula Defg'II, the scar for insertion of

II. peroneus brevis small, saddle-shaped, elliptical, the

posterior face flat and square for insertion of H. gastro-

cnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft with outer proximal fora-

men larger, distal to the smaller outer proximal foramen,

with scars for origin of M. abductor digiti IV and In. flexor

hallucis brevis slightly excavated, with external ridge

highly elevated, very long, without roof over metatarsal

groove, with scar for M. gastrocnemius slightly convex; (15)

distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply exca-

vated, elliptical, slightly above level of proximal end of

the distal foramen, the distal foramen small, the area proxi-

mal to trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16) internal in-

tertrochlear notch with proximal end rounded, below level of






16

proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (17) external

intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.


Family HIRUIDINIDAE


Humerus

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

head thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuber-

osity very distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supra-

coracoideus slightly to moderately excavated, elliptical;

(3) internal tuberosity very prominent, with sharply rounded

border, with attachment of :I. subscapularis indistinct to

distinct, convex, oval to elliptical, the scar for insertion

of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly to moderately excavated,

elliptical, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis

posterior distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical to oval;

(4) capital groove straight, deeply excavated, perforated

along its length by a row of tiny foramina without a small

foramen near its external margin; (5) scar for insertion of

M. proscapulohumeralis brevis a shallow, oval basin; (6)

capital-shaft ridge short, slightly curved, slightly curved,

slightly elevated, not extending to head; (7) deltoid crest

greatly expanded, nearly straight to curved, thick, with

proximal end at level of proximal end of internal tuberosity;

(8) deltoid surface moderately concave; (9) latissimus ridge

short, indistinct, irregular, slightly elevated, located on

external surface of shaft distal to the deltoid notch; (10)

deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar short, curved, forming






17

angles between about 70 and 88 dccgrec with the internal tu-

berosity, its palmar end extending into internal medial sur-

face of shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa single, incomplete, wide,

deep, its opening oval in shape, with scar for insertion of

M. proscapulohumeralis obsolete; (13) pneumatic fenestra con-

sisting of a small, single foramen or a few small foramina;

(14) bicipital crest rounded, with edge thick, bearing scar

for insertion of II. biceps small, indistinct, slightly exca-

vated, cresentoid; (15) shaft strongly robust, with external

border slightly convex in middle, internal. border gently con-

cave throughout its length; (16) line of i:. latissimus dorsi

anterioris obsolete.

In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17)

ectepicondylar process prominent, strongly produced external-

ly, pointed, with a small to very 1c;ill, distinct to indis-

tinct, pointed to rounded accessory process on its internal

anconal surface, without excavation between shaft and ecte-

picondylar process; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor

metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) small, distinct, moder-

ately excavated, elliptical; (19) external condyle prominent,

with distal border angular; (20) external tricipital groove

moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa very deep,

not undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal

condyle rounded, extending below level of external condyle;

(23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle

prominent, angular, its distal end truncated bearing scar

for the origin of ::. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)






18

shallow, slightly convex, elliptical scar with short groove

and extending below the level of both internal and external

condyles.

In palmar view, humerus with proximal end of humerus

with (25) ligamental furrow wide, curved, slightly excavated;

(26) bicipital furrow shallow, curved, without forcmina,

bounded externally by scar for insertion of M. deltoidcus

minor large, moderately elevated, concave, very wide, oval;

(27) bicipital crest rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex;

(29) external boundary of M. deltoideus major obsolete.

In palmar view with distal end of humerus, with (30)

depression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large,

slightly to moderately excavated, elliptical, its internal

border with a weakly elevated ridge; (31) prominence for in-

sertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch)

slightly produced, convex, elliptical; (32) shaft without

ridge on external surface with distal end with small fora-

mina without depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of

anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of 1'.

pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated, ellip-

tical, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the pal-

mar surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, irregular in out-

line, with scar for origin of M. pronator longus moderately

excavated, elliptical, scar for origin of M. flexor carpi

ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly convex, elliptical; (35)

shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament large,

slightly concave, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded, its

distal border nearly straight to moderately coiicave;






19

(37) intercondylar furrow rounded, moderately excavated,

wide, without a pit medial to external condyle, perforated

medially to the external condyle by a few tiny foramina;

(38) external condyle prominent, sharply rounded, its ex-

ternal margin perforated by a few small foramina, without

depression medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well

developed, pointed, not excavated on palmar surface, its

proximal end bearing the scar for insertion of M. tensor

patagii brevis small, slightly convex, oval; (40) ectepi-

condylar prominence with scar for the origin of M. extensor

digitorum communis slightly excavated, oval, the scar for

origin of H. flexor metacarpi radialis moderately excavated,

elliptical, scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis small,

slightly elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the

origin of M. anconeus indistinct, small, shallow, oval.

Progne.--Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar

for insertion of M. supracoracoideus moderately excavated;

(3) internal tuberosity with attachimcnt of M. subscapularis

indistinct, oval, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus

slightly excavated, the scar for insertion of M. coraco-

brachialis posterior elliptical; (7) deltoid crest curved;

(11) median bar forming an angle of about 88 degrees with

the internal tuberosity; (13) pneumatic fenestra consisting

of a small, single foramen; (17) ectepicondylar process with

a very small, indistinct, pointed accessory process on its

internal anconal surface; (30) depression for insertion of

M. brachialis anticus slightly excavated; (36) internal con-

dyle with distal border moderately concave.





20

Tachycineta.--IHumerus with (2) external tuberosity

with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly to

moderately excavated; (3) internal tuberosity with attach-

ment of M. subscapularis distinct, oval to elliptical, with

scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus moderately excavated,

the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior,

oval; (7) deltoid crest nearly straight; (11) median bar

forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the internal tuber-

osity; (13) pneu.utic fenestra consisting of a few small

foramina; (17) ectepicondylar process with small, distinct,

rounded accessory process on its internal anconal surface;

(30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus

slightly to moderately e::cavated; (36) internal condyle with

distal border nearly straight.


Carpometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, rounded, with a few small fora-

mina in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the

internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale

large, distinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external

carpal trochlea prominent, rounded or somewhat pointed, its

anterior corner slightly undercut by the scar for insertion

of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, slightly exca-

vated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large, dis-

tinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced

internally, its anterior border straight, its anterior sur-

face bearing scar for ligamental attachment slightly convex,

elliptical, its proximal surface in anterior view moderately






21

concave, its distal surface slightly concave, perforated by

a distinct, elliptical foramen; (6) metacarpal I very promi-

nent, pointed, its proximal end projecting anteriorly be-

tween angles of about 65 and 75 degreen with metacarpal II,

its distal surface above pollical facet moderately concave;

(7) scar for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis

distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent,

large, slightly convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II ro-

bust, straight, with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum

profundus moderately to deeply excavated, deeply undercutting

p:1.ciform process along its anterior border, with scar for

origin of M. adductor pollicus obscure, not in a depression,

with scar for origin of M. interosseus pnlrr-ris wide, very

long, slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, trun-

cated, with facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical;

(10) metacarpal III thin and curved, the scar for ligamental

attachment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval, the scar for

insertion of M. flexor digiti III obsolete on its proximal

surface, but moderately excavated, wide and long near its

middle, running the remainder of the length of the metacar-

pal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly

excavated, wide, very long; (11) interrnetac.rpal space long,

elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, mod-

erately excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of meta-

carpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III

distinct, slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea sore&:.-.t pointed or rounded; (14) surface






22

for external ligamental attachment large, distinct, moder-

ately concave, elliptical; (15) metacarpal I prominent,

pointed, with scar for insertion of M. extensor pollicus

longus obsolete, without a depression; (16) depression for

ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal I robust,

wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor indi-

cus longus moderately excavated, straight throughout its

length, covered by a small bony bridge on its distal end and

open throughout the rest of its length or open throughout

its entire length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus

dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin,

curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis

slightly excavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity

large, triangular, extending to and ankylosing with metacar-

pal III, with scar of -. flexor metacarpi radialis small,

distinct, slightly concave to convex, elliptical, located

on proximal edge at tip at level of external face of inter-

metacarpal tuberosity and at level of external surface of

metacarpal III; (20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent,

its surface gently convex.

Progne.--Carpometacarpus with (3) external carpal

trochlea somewhat pointed; (6) metacarpal I with its proxi-

mal end projecting anteriorly at about a 75 degree angle

with metacarpal IX; (13) external carpal trochlea somewhat

pointed; (17) metacarpal II with groove for tendon of M.

extensor indicus longus covered by a small bony bridge on

its distal end and open throughout the rest of its length;






23

(19) intermetacarpal tuberosity with scar of M. flexor meta-

carpi radialis slightly concave.

Tachycineta.--Carpometacarpus with (3) external carpal

trochlea rounded; (6) metacarpal I with its proximal end

projecting anteriorly at about a 65 degree angle with meta-

carpal I; (13) external carpal trochlea rounded; (17) meta-

carpal II with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus

longus open throughout its entire length; (19) intermetacar-

pal tuberosity with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis

slightly convex.

Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, some-

what pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin

of M. coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large,

distinct, moderately excavated, elongate, oval, the medial

scar very small, slightly excavated, oval; (3) scar for ori-

gin of long head of M. biceps large, indistinct to distinct,

slightly excavated, oval; (4) brachial tuberosity very small

to small, narrow, slightly excavated and hooked, without

tiny foramina adjacent to the scar for origin of long head

of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid facet expanded, forming a

short, distinct, greatly elevated ridge along the lateral

edge of the bone; (6) shaft weak to robust, straight to

gently curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis

large, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along lateral

border of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp, slightly

elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M. supracoracoideus






24

large, indistinct, triangular, its surface somewhat irregular;

(9) internal distal angle bluntly rounded, without a small

projection on shaft dorsal to it or with small medially-

projecting process on shaft at level of :internal sternal

f'cet; (10) sternal facet large, distinct, slightly convex,

oval, with or without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process

thin, straight or very irregular, with pointed corner.

In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, some-

whut pointed, bearing acar for attachment of L. coraco-

curculare indistinct, elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing

scar for common attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare

and the ventral L. coraco-capsulare slightly elevated, oval,

without a depression ventral to scar; (14) furcular f.cot

small, with its surface slightly irregular, bearing large,

very shallow, elliptical fossa, without strutting; (15) gle-

noid facet large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly

concave; (16) area of triosseal canal shallow, flat or

slightly concave throughout; (17) scapular facet large, dis-

tinct, crescentoid; its surface convex, its distal edge form-

ing a highly elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment

of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid very

small, thick, rounded, its surface bearing scar for attach-

ment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft with

dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet without small

foramina, its medial surface bearing the indistinct to dis-

tinct, long, slightly excavated scar for attachment of Mem-

brana sterno-coraco-clavicularis, moderately excavated along

its ventral end; (20) scar for origin of M. subcoracoideus






25

obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal depression for insertion of

M. cternocoracoideus large, distinct, moderately excavated,

triangular, its dorsal end forming a sharp, moderately ele-

vated projection, its lateral border straight; (22) scar

for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete;

(23) sternal facet with surface for attachment of L. sterno-

coracoideum large, distinct, deeply excavated, elliptical,

in ventral view without a shelf, or with a shelf extending

about one-third the width of the bone, elliptical in shape,

expanded near its middle so that the medial portion is

slightly larger than the lateral.

Progne.--Coracoid with (3) scar for M. biceps indis-

tinct to distinct; (4) brachial tuberosity very small;

(6) shaft robust, straight; (9) internal distal angle with-

out a small projection on shaft; (10) sternal facet without

a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process straight; (14) furcu-

lar facet with very shallow fossa; (16) area of triosseal

canal slightly concave throughout? (23) sternal facet in

ventral view with a shelf.

Tachycineta.--Coracoid with (3) scar for 1M. biceps

distinct; (4) brachial tuberosity small; (6) shaft Ceak,

gently curved; (9) internal distal angle with small medially

projecting process on shaft at level of internal sternal

fact; (10) ctcrnal facet with a shelf (11) sternocoracoidal

process very irregular; (14) furcular facet with shallow

fossa; (16) are, of triosseal canal flat; (23) sternal facet

in ventral view, without a shelf.








Tibiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial

crest small, straight, weakly hooked or bluntly rounded,

originating slightly above or below level of origin of inner

cnemial crest, slightly convex, with scar for insertion of

M. vastus lateralis long, curved, slightly convex, the scar

for origin of M. extensor digitorutm longus obsolete; (2) in-

ner cnemial crest large, straight, sharply rounded, its lat-

eral surface with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum

longus moderately excavated, its proximal margin with scar

for insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, with

scar for origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, flat to

convex, and the scar for insertion of M. extensor ilio-

tibialis anterior slightly excavated, elliptical; (3) fibu-

lar crest small, thick, wider at distal end than at proximal,

with proximal margin moderately concave, its distal margin

slightly concave, its lateral border slightly irregular,

nearly straight, without groove at anterior distal margin;

(4) shaft weak:or moderately robust, slightly curved, with

intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of U. pero-

neus brevis obsolete; (5) tendinal groove slightly to moder-

ately excavated, very wide; (6) distal scar for oblique liga-

ment located on lateral proximal corner of supratendinal

bridge, slightly elevated, straight; (7) supratendinal bridge

with its surface gently convex, its proximal border moder-

ately to strongly concave, its distal border moderately con-

cave; (8) groove for tendon of N1. peroneus brevis bordered

by slightly elevated, parallel ridges, with the lateral






27

ridge at about same level as medial ridge, or be a moderately

elevated medial, and a slightly elevated lateral ridge, par-

allel, with the longer medial ridge partly proximal, to the

lateral ridge; (9) external condyle wide, with border

straight, in lateral view, smoothly rounded, slightly exca-

vated, without a protuberance forming a groove for tendon of

M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar fossa deeply

excavated, elliptical, without small forarina, its distal

border straight, its medial and lateral borders slightly un-

dercutting the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide, straight,

in medial view smoothly rounded, slightly excavated, without

a protuberance.

In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests

highly elevated; (13) internal articular surface large,

slightly convex, elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly

beyond edge of external articular surface; (14) external ar-

ticular surface small, moderately convex, oval; (15) inter-

articular area with a slightly elevated protuberance; (16)

area between the internal articular surface and inner cnemial

crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-tibialis

interns moderately excavated, oval; (17) area between the

external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing

distinct, slightly excavated depression, without fossa; (18)

shaft with scar for origin of Mi. plantaris small, elliptical,

the scar for attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long,

curved, moderately elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor

digitorum longus, indistinct, very long, wide, with irregular

surface; (19) border of external condyle straight or slightly





28

exflected; (20) border of internal condyle straight or

slightly inflected; (21) posterior intercondylar sulcus wide,

concave in middle.

Progne.--Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest

weakly hooked, originating slightly above level of origin of

inner cnemial crest; (4) shaft moderately robust; (7) supra-

tendinal bridge with its proximal border moderately concave;

(8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by a

moderately elevated medial, and a slightly elevated lateral

ridge, parallel, with the longer medial ridge partly proxi-

mal to the lateral ridge; (19) border of external condyle

straight; (20) border of internal condyle straight.

Tachycineta.--Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest

bluntly rounded, rounded or weakly hooked, originating

slightly below the level of origin of inner cnemial crest;

(4) shaft weak; (7) supratendinal bridge with its proximal

border strongly concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. pero-

neus brevis bordered by slightly elevated, parallel ridges,

with the lateral ridge at about same level as medial ridge;

(19) border of external condyle slightly inflected laterally;

(20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected medially.


Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence large, highly elevated, pointed, its external bor-

der sharply sloping, its proximal border sharply sloping, the

scar for attachment of external ligament slightly to deeply

excavated, elliptical; (2) external cotyla small or large,





29

moderately excavated or saddle-shaped; (3) internal cotyla

large, deeply concave, elliptical, its anterior border ex-

tending slightly anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla;

(4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus small,

moderately convex; (5) proximal foramina distinct, both about

the same size and at the same level. (6) proximal end of

shaft moderately to strongly robust, straight, without a

foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar for in-

sertion of M. tibialis anticus distinct, moderately to highly

elevated, flat, the external margin above level of scar of

M. tibialis anticus moderately expanded, slightly concave to

rim of external cotyla, the internal margin above scar moder-

ately expanded, straight to rim of internal cotyla, the scar

for origin of M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct, long,

slightly excavated, smooth, the scar for origin of M. exten-

sor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly c::cavated,

smooth; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin of facet

of metatarsal I moderately excavated, with outer extensor

groove slightly excavated, the distal foramen small or ab-

sent; (8) trochlea for digit II moderately inflected, moder-

ately expanded, forming an angle of about 30 degrees with

the shaft, its distal margin straight, extending below level

of external trochlea, its internal anterior surface moder-

ately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III large, straight,

slightly expanded distally, deeply excavated medially and

laterally, its distal margin slightly to moderately concave

in the middle, extending slightly below level of internal

trochlea; (10) trochlea for digit IV straight, deeply





30

excavated medially and slightly excavated laterally, its

distal margin straight; (11) internal intertrochlear notch

wide, with proximal end rounded, originating below level of

proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (12) external

intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.

In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsue

large, with fo-rulas De'f'VI, or de/fGHi', the scar for in-

sertion of M. peroneus brevis small, slightly convex, ellip-

tical, the posterior face flat ard square for insertion of

M. gantrocnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft with outer pro:'-

imal foramen about the same size as the inner, and at about

the same level, with scars for origin of M. abductor digiti

IV and N. flexor hallucis brevis slightly excavated, with

external ridge moderately elevated, very long, without roof

over m ctatar.al groove, tith scar for M. gastrocnemius

slightly convex; (15) distal end of shaft with facet for

metatarsal I deeply excavated, elliptical, located at a

point about one-fifth up the length of the /shaft, the distal

foramen small or absent, the area proximal to trochlea for

digit III unexcavated; (16) internal intertrochlear notch

with proximal end rounded, below level of proximal end of

e:ternA~ intertrochlcnr notch; (17) external intertrochlear

notch wide, with proximal (nd rounded.

Progne.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promi-

nence with the scar for attachment of external ligament

slightly excavated; (2) external cotyla large, saddle-shaped;

(6) proximal end of shaft strongly robust, with scar for





31

insertion of M. tibialis antics moderately elevated; (7)

distal foramen absent; (13) hypotarsus with formula De'f'1I.

Tachycineta.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence with the scar for attachment of external ligament

deeply excavated; (2) external cotyla small, moderately ex-

cavated; (6) proximal end of shaft moderately robust, with

scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus highly elevated;

(7) distal foramen small; (13) hypotarsus with formula

de/fGHi'.

Family CORVIDAE


IHumerun

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

head thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuber-

osity distinct, scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus

shallow, oval to elliptical; (3) internal tuberosity promi-

nent with rounded border, with attachment for M. Qubsca-ru-

laris distinct to indistinct, slightly convex, triangular

with short groove, or oval, the scar for insertion of M. sub-

coracoideus small, slightly to moderately excavated, circular

or oval, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis pos-

terior distinct, slightly excavated to slightly convex, oval;

(4) capital groove straight, deep, perforated along its

length by a row of tiny foramina without a small foramen

near its external margin; (5) scar for insertion of M. pro-

scapulohumeralij brevis a shallow, elongate basin, (6) capi-

tal-shaft ridge short, straight to angular, slightly elevated,

not extending to head; (7) deltoid crest slightly curved,





32

thick, with proxiral end at or slightly above level of distal

end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface slightly con-

cave; (9) latissimus ridge short, distinct, curved, slightly

to moderately elevated, running longitudinally along deltoid

curface as a line to the deltoid notch; (10) deltoid notch

angular to sharply rounded; (11) median bar short, straight

to curved, forming angles between about 40 and 70 degrees

with the internal tuberosity, its palmar end inserted on in-

ternal anconal surface of shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa cing2e,

incomplete, deep, its opening oval in shape, with scar for

insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis on a shelf, a slightly

excavated, oval to circular depression not undercutting the

shaft; (13) pneumatic fenestra small to large, with complex

strutting; (14) bicipital crest rounded to angular, with edge

thick, bearing scar for insertion of iM biceps small to large,

distinct, slightly to moderately elevated, oval to ellipti-

cal; (15) shaft robust, with external border slightly convex

in middle, internal border gently concave throughout its

length; (16) line of Mi. latissimus dorsi anterioris an in-

distinct, slightly elevated ridge, originating at distal end

of capital-shaft ridge and running diagonally over anconal

surface to a point on the external surface just above level

of brachial depression.

In anconal view, with distal end of humerus with (17)

ectepicondylar process prominent, with a small, anteriorly

projecting, pointed process on its anconal medial surface,

without excavation between shaft and ectepicondylar process;

(18) scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis





33

(anconal branch) small, distinct, slightly to deeply exca-

vated, oval to elliptical; (19) external condyle prominent,

with distal border rounded; :(20) external tricipital groove

moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa doop,

Lightly undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) in-

ternal condyle rounded, extending belo:u level of external

condyle; (23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24)

entepicondyle prominent, rounded, its distal end truncz'ted

bearing scar for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaric

(anconal branch) shallow, slightly convex, oval to ellipti-

cal with groove and extending below level of both internal

and external condyles.

In palmar view, with proximal end of humerus :ith (25)

ligarental furrow wide, slightly curved, moderately excavated;

(26) bicipital furrow deep, curved, perforated near middle

or distal end by two short longitudinal rows of small fora-

mina, bounded externally by the scar for the insertion of M.

deltoideus minor large, moderately elevated, slightly con-

cave, wide, elliptical; (27) bicipital crest rounded to an-

gular; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary

of M. deltoideus major an indistinct ridge extending from

deltoid notch distally to unite with the distal end of ridge

of latissimus dorsi anterioris.

In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) de-

pression for insertion of H. brachialis anticus large,

slightly excavated, oval to elliptical, with internal border

forming an obsolete to moderately elevated ridge; (31) promi-

nence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis






34

(palmar br ch) slightly to moderately produced, convex,

oval; (32) h;aft without ridge on c:eternal surface with dis-

tal end bearing one or more small Zcrxairinn, without coprea=-

sion, adjacent to the 7h1elf for att'c.~r, r.t of -ntcrior artic-

ular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M.'pronator brevis

small, distinct, moderately c::cavateo, elliptical, located

on the entepicondylar prominence near the middle or near the

palmar surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, rounded in out-

line, with scar for origin of M. pronator longus moderately

excavated, oval to elliptical, scar for the origin of M.

flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly c;:cavated;

(35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament

large, slightly concave, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded,

its distal border irregular; (37) intercondylar furrow

rounded, deep, forming a pit medial to external condyle,

where perforated by a number of small foramina; (38) external

condyle prominent, rounded, its external margin perforated

by small, distinct foramina without depression medial to

ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, angular,

not excavated on palmar surface, its proximal end bearing

the scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis, slightly

concave, flat to slightly convex, oval; (40) ectepicondylar,

prominence with scar for origin of ';. extensor digitorum

communis slightly to moderately excavated, elliptical, the

scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly

to moderately excavated, oval, scar for the origin of M.

supinator brevis large, slightly elevated, slightly concave,

oval, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus distinct to





35

indistinct, large, shallow to moderately excavated, oval.

Corvus.--Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar

for insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval; (3) internal tu-

berosity with attachment for M. subscapularis distinct to

indistinct, oval or triangular scar with short groove, its

distal external surface with scar for insertion of M. coraco-

brachialis posterior slightly convex, oval; (7) deltoid

crest with proximal end at about level of distal end of in-

ternal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge slightly to moder-

ately elevated; (10) deltoid notch angular to sharply

rounded; (11) median bar forming an angle between 40 and 45

degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa

with opening oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M.

proscapulohumeralis circular to oval; (13) pneumatic fenestra

small to large? (14) bicipital crest rounded to sharply

rounded, bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps small to

large, slightly excavated, oval; (18) scar for origin of M.

extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) slightly to

moderately excavated, oval to elliptical; (24) entepicondyle

with the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal

branch) shallow, oval, with groove; (26) bicipital furrow7

with distinct to indistinct, moderately to deeply excavated

elliptical depression near its middle, perforated along its

length by two short longitudinal rows of small foramina;

(27) bicipital crest rounded to sharply rounded (30) depres-

sion for insertion of M. brachialis anticus oval, with in-

ternal bordering ridge obsolete to slightly elevated; (31)

prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis






36
palmarr branch) moderately produced, oval; (32) shaft with

distal end bearing one or two small distinct to indistinct

foramina adjacent to shelf for attachment of anterior artic-

ular ligament? (33) surface for origin of M. prbnator brevis

oval to elliptical, located nearest the palmar surface of

the entepicondylar prominence; (39) ectepicondyle angular,

bearing slightly convex scar for insertion of M. tensor

patagii brevis; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for

the origin of M. extensor digitorum communis slightly exca-

vated, the scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radi-

alis distinct, slightly excavated, the scar for the origin

of M. anconeus distinct, moderately ce:cavatcd oval.

_/Apelocor .--Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with
scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval, (3) internal

tuberosity with attachment for M. subscapularis an indis-

tinct, oval scar, its distal external surface with scar for

insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior slightly excavated;

(7) deltoid crest with proximal end slightly above level of

distal end of internal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge

slightly elevated; (10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median

bar forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the internal

tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with opening oval in rshpo,

with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis oval; (13)

pneumatic fenestra large; (14) bicipital crest rounded, bear-

ing scar for insertion of M. biceps large, slightly elevated,

oval; (18) scar for origin of M. e:.tensor mctacarpi radialis

(anconal branch) moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) en-

tepicondyle with its distal end bearing the scar for origin






37

of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) slightly convex,

elliptical with groove; (26) bicipital furrow without depres-

sion near its middle, without rows of foramina; (27) bicipi-

tal crest rounded; (30) depression for insertion of M. bra-

chialis anticus oval, with internal border forming a slightly

elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor

metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately produced, oval;

(32) shaft with distal end bearing a Emall, distinct foramen

adjacent to the shelf for attachment of anterior articular

ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis el-

liptical, located near the middle of the entepicondylar prom-

inence; (39) ectepicondyle angular, bearing scar for inser-

tion of M. tensor patagii brevis slightly concave; (40) ec-

tepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of M. ex-

tensor digitorum communis slightly excavated, the scar for

the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis distinct, slightly

excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus distinct,

moderately excavated.

Cyanocitta.---Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with

scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval; (3) internal

tuberosity with attachment for M. subscapularis an indis-

tinct, oval scar, with scar for inzertioni bf M. coracobra-

chialis posterior slightly excavatzc oval; (7) deltoid crest

with proximal end slightly above level of distal end of in-

ternal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge moderately elevated;

(10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar forming an angle

of about 60 degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneu-

matic fossa with opening oval in shape, with scar for





38

insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis circular; (13) pneumatic

fenestra small; (14) bicipital crest angular, bearing scar

for insertion of M. biceps small, slightly excavated, ellip-

tical; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis

(anconal branch) moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) en-

tepicondyle with its distal end bearing a scar with groove

for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)

shallow, oval; (26) bicipital furrow without depression near

its middle, perforated near its distal end by two short lon-

gitudinal rows of tiny foramina; (27) bicipital crest angu-

lar; (30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus

elliptical, with internal bordering ridge obsolete; (31)

prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis

palmarr branch) slightly produced, elliptical; (32) shaft

with distal end bearing a small, distinct foramen adjacent

to the shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament;

(33) surface for origin of n2. pronator brevis elliptical,

located near the middle of the entepicondylar prominence;

(39) ectepicondyle angular, bearing scar for insertion of

M. tensor patagii brevis, flat; (40) ectepicondylar promi-

nence with the scar for the origin of M. extensor digitorum

communis moderately excavated, the scar for the origin of M.

flexor metacarpi radialis indistinct, slightly excavated,

the scar for the origin of M. anconeus indistinct, slightly

excavated.

Protocitta.--fIumerus with (2) external tuberosity with

scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus elliptical; (3) in-

ternal tuberosity with attachment for M. subscapularis






39

indistinct, oval, with scar for insertion of M. coracobra-

chialis posterior slightly excavated; (7) deltoid crest bro-

ken in all speccimns; (9) latisimnt: ridge moderately ele-

vated; (10) deltoid notch broken in all succimens; (11) me-

dian bar forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the in-

ternal tuberosity; (12) pnounr-tic fossa with opening rhom-

bodial in shape, with oval scar for insertion of M. pro-

scapulohumeralis; (13) pneumatic fenestra small; (14) bicip-

ital crest angular, bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps

small, moderately elevated, oval; (18) scar for origin of M.

extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) deeply exca-

vated, oval; (24) entepicondyle with the scar for the origin

of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, oval

with groove; (26) bicipital furrow without depression near

its middle, perforated near its middle by two short longitu-

dinal rows of small foramina; (27) bicipital crest angular;

(30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis antics oval,

with internal border forming a slightly elevated ridge; (31)

prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis

palmarr branch) moderately produced, oval; (32) shaft with

distal end bearing a few small, distinct foramina adjacent

to the shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament;

(33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis elliptical,

located near the middle of the entepicondylar prominence;

(39) ectepicondyle sharply angular, bearing scar for inser-

tion of M. tensor patagii brevis slightly convex; (40) ec-

tepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of M. ex-

tensor digitorum conmunis moderately excavated, the scar for





40

the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis distinct, moder-

ately excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus dis-

tinct, moderately excavated.

Henocitta.--Humerus with proximal end missing; (18)

scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal

branch) moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) entepicondyle

with the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal

branch) slightly convex, oval scar with groove; (30) depres-

sion for insertion of M. brachialis anticus oval, with in-

ternal border forming a slightly elevated ridge; (31) promi-

nence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radinlic palmarr

branch) slightly produced, elliptical; (32) shaft with dictal

end bearing a small, distinct foramep adjacent to the shelf

for attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface

for origin of M. pronator brevis elliptical, located near

the middle of the entepicondylar prominence; (39) entepicon-

dyle angular, bearing scar for insertion of M. tensor pstagii

brevis, moderately convex; (40) ectepicondylar prominence

broken.


Caroometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, rounded to somewhat pointed, with

or Without a small distinct foramen in a moderately to deeply

excavated depression proximal to the internal ligamental de-

pression; (2) depression for radiale large, indistinct to

distinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal

trochlea prominent, somewhat pointed, scar for insertion of






41

M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, moderately exca-

vated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large, dis-

tinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced

internally, its anterior border rounded to somewhat pointed,

its anterior surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment

moderately convex to saddle-shaped, oval, its proximal sur-

face in anterior view square to moderately concave, its dis-

tal surface slightly to moderately concave, without a fora-

men; (6) metacarpal I prominent, angular, its proximal end

projecting anteriorly between angles of about 50 and 65 de-

grees with metacarpal II, its distal surface above pollical

facet moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion of M. ex-

tensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, elliptical;

(8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex, tri-

angular; (9) metacarpal II very robust, straight, with groove

for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus obscure to deeply

excavated, not undercutting or moderately to deeply under-

cutting the pisiform process along its anterior border, with

scar for origin of M. adductor pollicus longus indistinct,

slightly excavated, in a slightly to moderately excavated

depression just distal to pollical facet or not, the scar

for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long,

slightly to moderately excavated, its distal end expanded,

truncated, with elliptical facet for digit II slightly

curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and curved, the

scar for ligamental attachment of the ulnare deeply exca-

vated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III

moderately to deeply excavated, wide, very long, running





42

from the level of the middle of the acar for ligamental

attachment of the ulnare down the entire length of the mcta-

carpal, the scar for origin of 1. interosseus palnaris moder-

ately excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space

long, elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent,

deeply excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of meta-

carpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III

distinct, slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea somc ',nat pointed; (14) surfEcc for external

ligamental attachment small, distinct, flat, elliptical;

(15) metacarpal I prominent, angular, with scar for insertion

of M. extensor pollicus small, moderately elevated, flat to

lightly convex, oval, without a depression; (16) depression

for ulnare deeply c: crva.tcd, oval; (17) metacarpal II very

robust, wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. c::tensor

indicus longus moderately excavated, slightly straight on

its proximal end, becoming deeply excavated and curved on

its distal end, open throughout its entire length or with a

small bony bridge over proximal end, with scar for origin of

M. interosseus dorsalis slightly to moderately excavated,

long; (18) mntacarpal III thin, curved, with scar for origin

of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly to moderately excavated,

long; (19) intermetacarpal tubcrosity large, triangular, ex-

tending beyond posterior surface of and ankylosing with meta-

carpal III, with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small,

distinct, moderately convex, elliptical, located on proximal

edge at tip, at level of external face of intermetacarpal






43

tuberosity and at level of external face of metacarpal III;

(20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface

gently convex.

Corvus.--Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal

trochlea rounded, with a small, distinct foramen in a moder-

ately excavated depression proximal to internal ligamental

depression; (2) depression for radiale distinct to indis-

tinct; (5) pisiform process with anterior border round.cd,

its proximal surface in anterior view square, its distal sur-

face slightly concave; (6) metacarpal I with proximal end

projecting anteriorly between angles of about 60 and 65 de-

grees with metacarpal II; (9) metacarpal II with groove for

tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus obsolete to deeply

excavated, not undercutting, or moderately to deeply under-

cutting pisiform process along its anterior border, with

scar for M. adductor pollicus not in a depression, or in a

moderately excavated depression; (17) metacarpal II with

groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus open through-

out its entire length.

Aphelocoma.--Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal

trochlea somewhat pointed, with or without a small distinct

foramen in a moderate to deeply excavated depression proxi-

mal to the internal ligamental depression; (2) depression

for radiale indistinct; (5) pisiform process with anterior

border somewhat pointed, its proximal surface in anterior

view moderately concave, its distal surface slightly concave;

(6) metacarpal I with proximal end projecting anteriorly at

about a 50 degree angle with metacarpal II; (7) metacarpal II






44

with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus

moderately excavated, moderately undercutting pisiform pro-

cess along its anterior border, with scar for M. adductor

pollicus longus in a slightly excavated depression; (17)

metacarpal II with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus

longus open throughout its entire length.

Cyanocitta.--Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal

trochlea rounded, with small distinct foramen in a moderately

to deeply excavated depression proximal to internal liga-

mental depression; (2) depression for radiale distinct to

indistinct; (5) pisiform process with anterior border some-

what pointed, its proximal surface in anterior view square,

its distal surface moderately concave; (6) metacarpal I with

proximal end projecting anteriorly at about a 52 degree angle

with metacarpal II; (9) metacarpal II with groove for tendon

of M. flexor digitorum profundus moderately excavated, moder-

ately undercutting pisiform process along its anterior bor-

der, with scar for M. adductor pollicuc longer in a slightly

excavated depression; (17) metacarpal II with groove for

tendon of M. extensor indicus longus open throughout its en-

tire length.

Protocitta.--Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal

trochlea rounded, without a foramen in a moderately excavated

depression proximal to internal ligamental depression; (2)

depression for radiale indistinct; (5) pisiform process bro-

ken; (6) metacarpal I with proximal end projecting anteriorly

at about a 50 degree angle with metacarpal II; (9) metacar-

pal II with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum






45

profundus moderately excavated, moderately undercutting pisi-

form process along its anterior border, with scar for M.

adductor pollicus longus in a slightly excavated depression;

(17) metacarpal II with small bony bridge over proximal end

of groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus.


Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head large, pointed;

(2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coraco-

brachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct,

slightly to moderately excavated, elongate, oval, the medial

scar very small to large, slightly excavated, oval to ellip-

tical; (3) scar for origin of long head of 1. biceps large,

distinct, moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical or

crescentoid; (4) brachial tuberosity large, wide, not exca-

vated and hooked, bearing three small distinct foramina, or

a number of small distinct foramina adjacent to the scar for

origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid facet

expanded, forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated ridge

along the lateral edge of bone; (6) shaft robust, gently

curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis very

large, distinct, deeply excavated, lying along lateral bor-

der of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp, moderately

to greatly elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M. supra-

coracoideus very large, indistinct, triangular, its surface

somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle somewhat

pointed to pointed, with or without a small projection on

shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet






46

large, distinct, slightly concave, tria-ngular, with or with-

out a (helf; (11) sternocoracoidal process thin, rounded,

with pointed' corner.

In posterior view, coracoid with (22) head !F-rgo, some-

'hlat pointed, bearing indistinct, elongate scar for attach-

ment of L. coraco-furculare; (13) neck thick, bearing scar

for conimon attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and

the ventral L. coraco-capsulare slightly to nodoretely ele-

vated, elongate, curved, without a depression ventral to

scar; (14) furcular facet large, with its surface slightly

irregular, bearing pneumatic foramen, large, very deep, el-

liptical, with complex strutting; (15) glenoid facet very

large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly irregular;

(16) area of triosseal canal shallow, slightly concave

throughout; (17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid,

its surface :addlc-shaped, its distal edc; forming a highly

elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. cora-

coideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small, thick,

bluntly rounded to pointed, its surface bearing scar for

attachrent of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) chaft

with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet bearing a

small, distinct forvemn, surface bearing the scar for attach-

ment of .'r_,branL; sterno-coraco-clovicularis distinct, very

long, slightly excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar for

origin of M. subcoracoideus small, indistinct, slightly ex-

cavatcd, elliptical; (21) sternocoracoidal depression for

insertion of M. sternocoracoideus very large, distinct,

deeply excavated, triangular, its dorsal 6nd forming a sharp,





47

greatly elevated projection, its lateral border nearly

straight except for a moderately to greatly developed convex

area above level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment

of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale small, obsolete to moder-

ately elevated, convex, oval to elliptical, located at ven-

tral medial corner of sternocoracoidal depression; (23)

sternal facet with surface for attachment of L. sterno-

coracoideum large to very large, distinct, deeply excavated

elliptical, in ventral view the shelf extending. from about

half to two-thirds the width of the bone, elliptical in

shape, about the same width throughout, or constructed or

expanded near its middle, or tapered along its lateral edge

so that the medial portion is larger than, or about the same

width as the lateral.

Corvus.--Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar for

origin of M. coracobrachialis anterior slightly to moder-

ately excavated, the medial scar small to large, oval to el-

liptical: (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps el-

liptical or crescentoid; (4) brachial tuberosity bearing

three small, distinct foramina adjacent to the scar for ori-

gin of long head of M. biceps; (7) scar for origin of M.

coracobrachialis with medial border marked by a greatly ele-

vated ridge; (9) internal distal angle somewhat pointed,

without a small projection on shaft at level of internal

sternal facet; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (18) pro-

coracoid bluntly rounded; (21) sternocoracoidal depression

with its lateral border with moderately developed convex

area above level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment






48

of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale slightly to nodcrately ele-

vated; (23) sternal facet in ventral view with the shelf ex-

tending about half or two-thirds the length of the bone,

about the same width throughout or constricted near its mid-

die so that the medial portion is wider than the lateral.

Aphelocoma.--Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar

for origin of M. coracobrachialis anterior slightly exca-

vated, the medial scar very small, oval; (3) scar for origin

of long head of M. biceps elliptical; (4) brachial tubcr-

osity bearing three small, distinct foramina adjacent to the

scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (7) scar for ori-

gin of M. coracobrachialis with medial border marked by a

moderately elevated ridge; (9) internal distal angle pointed,

without a small projection on shaft at level of internal

sternal facet; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (18) pro-

coracoid pointed; (21) sternocoracoidal depression with its

lateral border with greatly developed convex area above

level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment of L.

sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal facet in

ventral view with the shelf extending about half the width

of the bone, expanded at its middle so that the medial por-

tion is about the same size as the lateral.

Cyanocitta.--Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar

for origin of 1l. coracobrachialis anterior slightly exca-

vated, the medial scar small, oval; (3) scar for origin of

long head of M. biceps elliptical; (4) brachial tuberosity

bearing a number of small, distinct foramina adjacent to the

scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (7) scar for ori-

gin of M. coracobrachialis with medial border marked by a





49

greatly elevated ridge; (9) internal distal angle pointed,

with a small projection lying on the medial surface of the

shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet

with a small shelf; (18) procoracoid pointed; (21) sterno-

coracoidal depression with its lateral border with moder-

ately developed convex area above level of sternal facet;

(22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale

slightly elevated; (23) sternal facet in ventral view with

the shelf extending about two-thirds the width of the bone,

expanded near its middle so that the medial portion is

slightly wider than the lateral.

Protocitta.--Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar

for origin of TI. coracobrachialis anterior large, the medial

scar large, elliptical; (3) scar for origin of long head of

M. biceps elliptical or crescentoid; (4) brachial tuberosity

bearing three small, distinct foramina adjacent to the scar

for origin of long head of M. biceps; (7) scar for origin of

M. coracobrachialis with medial border marked by a moder-

ntoly elevated ridge; (9) internal distal angle pointed,

without small projection on shaft at level of internal ster-

nal facet; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (18) procora-

coid bluntly rounded; (21) lateral border of sternocoracoidal

depression broken in all specimens; (22) scar for attachment

of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale moderately elevated? (23)

sternal facet in ventral view with the shelf extending about-

two-thirds the length of the bone, gently tapered on its

lateral edge so that the medial portion is wider than the

lateral.







Tibiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial

crest large, straight, pointed or moderately hooked, origi-

nating slightly above level of origin of inner cnemial crest,

moderately convex, with scar for insertion of M. vastus

lateralis long, curved, flat or convex, the scar for origin

of M. extensor digitorum longus, moderately excavated, ellip-

tical, or obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest large, straight,

rounded, sharply rounded, or hooked, with scar for origin of

M. extensor digitorum longus moderately excavated, the scar

for insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, the scar for

origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar

for insertion of M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior moder-

ately excavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest large, thick,

wider at distal end than at proximal, with proximal margin

slightly to moderately concave, its distal margin slightly

to moderately concave, its lateral border slightly irregular,

gently rounded; (4) shaft strongly robust, straight, with

intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of M. pero-

neus brevis very long, narrow, slightly convex, indistinct,

elliptical, running slightly anteriorly down the lateral

surface from a point just distal to the fibular crest to a

point about two-thirds down the length of the shaft; (5) ten-

dinal groove moderately to deeply excavated, wide; (6) dis-

tal scar for oblique ligament located on lateral proximal

corner of supratendinal bridge, moderately elevated, rounded;

(7) supratendinal bridge with its surface gently convex, its

proximal border moderately concave, its distal border





51

slightly to moderately concave; (8) groove for tendon of M.

peroneus brevis bordered by moderately to highly elevated,

slightly converging or parallel ridges, both at the same

level or with the lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial

ridge; (9) external condyle wide, straight, in lateral view

smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, with or without

small, moderately elevated protuberance forming a groove for

tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar

fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, with or without small,

deep foramina, its distal border slightly convex in the mid-

dle, its medial and lateral borders slightly undercutting

the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide, its proximal end

slightly inflected medially, in medial view smoothly rounded,

moderately excavated, with or without a slightly elevated

protuberance.

Tibiotarsus in posterior view with (12) cnemial crests

moderately to highly elevated; (13) internal particular sur-

face large, moderately concave, elliptical, extending slightly

posteriorly beyond edge of external articular facet; (14) ex-

ternal articular surface small, moderately to strongly con-

vex, oval; (15) interarticular area with a slightly to moder-

ately elevated protuberance; (16) area between the internal

articular surface and inner cnemial crest bearing the moder-

ately excavated, oval scar for insertion of M. femori-

tibialis internus; (17) area between the external articular

surface and outer cnemial crest bearing distinct, deeply ex-

cavated fossa, with or without strutting; (18) shaft with

scar for origin of M. plantaris large, elongate, elliptical,






52

the scar for attachment of L. cruiciatun genu posticum long,

curved, moderately elevated, the scar for origin of '. flexor

digitorum longus, indistinct, very long, wide, with irregular

surface; (19) border of external condyle straight; (20) bor-

der of internal condyle slightly inflected; (21) posterior

intercondylar sulcus wide, slightly convex in middle.

Corvus.--Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest

hooked, with scar for insertion of M. vastus latcralis con-

vex, with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus

distinct or obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest rounded,

sharply rounded, or hooked; (3) fibular crest with proximal

margin slightly concave, its distal margin slightly concave;

(5) tendinal groove moderately to deeply excavated; (6) dis-

tal scar for oblique ligament slightly to moderately ele-

vated; (7) supratendinal bridge with its distal border moder-

ately concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis

bordered by highly elevated parallel ridges, both at the same

level or with the lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial

ridge; (9) external condyle in lateral view with or without

protuberance forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus

brevis; (10) anterior intercond-'.- r fossa with foramino;

(11) internal condyle in medial view without protuberance;

(12) cnemial crests moderately to highly elevated; (15) in-

terarticular area with slightly to moderately elevated pro-

tuberance; (17) area between external articular surface and

outer cnemial crest bearing fossa with strutting.

Aphelocoma.--Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnneial crest

hooked, with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis






53

convex, the scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus

obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest rounded; (3) fibular crest

with pro::inal margin moderately concave, its distal margin

roG-rately concave; (5) tendinal groove r:.o e:,tely c::cavat-cd;

(6) distal scar for oblique ligament slightly elevated; (7)

supratendinal bridge with its distal border moderately con-

vex; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by

moderately elevated parallel ridge.:, both at the same level;

(8) external condyle in lateral view with protuberance form-

ing a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior

intercondylar fossa without foramina; (11) internal condyle

in medial view without protuberance; (12) cnemial crests

highly elevated; (15) interarticular area with a modcratcly

elevated protuberance; (17) area between external articular

surface and outer cnemial crest bearing fossa with strutting.

Canocitta.--Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest

pointed, with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis flat,

the scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus obsolete;

(2) inner cnemial crest rounded; (3) fibular crest with pro:-

imal margin slightly concave, its distal margin slightly

concave; (5) tendinal groove moderately excavated; (6) distal

scar for oblique ligament moderately elevated; (7) supraten-

dinal bridge with its distal border slightly concave; (8)

groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by moder-

ately elevated, slightly converging ridges, with lateral

ridge partly proximal to the medial ridge; (9) external con-

dyle in lateral view without protuberance forming a groove

for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar







fossa without foramina; (11) internal condyle in reidial view

with slightly elevated protuberance; (12) cnemial crests

moderately elevated; (15) interarticular area with a slightly

elevated protuberance; (17) area between external articular

surface and outer cnemial crest bearing forssn without

strutting.


Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercoty-

lar prominence large, highly elevated, pointed, its external

border vertical or slightly sloping, its proximal border

moderately to sharply sloping, the scar for attachment of

external ligament slightly, moderately, or deeply excavated,

elliptical; (2) external cotyla large, slightly to moder-

ately concave; (3) internal cotyla large, deeply concave,

oval, its anterior border extending slightly anteriorly be-

yond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of M.

extensor digitorum longus small to large, complete to incom-

plete, moderately convex; (5) proximal foramina distinct,

with outer foramen larger than inner, with inner foramen

slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal end of shaft strongly

robust, straight, with or without a small distinct foramen

just distal the intercotylar prominence, the scar for inser-

tion of M. tibialis anticus distinct, slightly, moderately,

or highly elevated, flat, slightly concave, or slightly con-

vex, the external margin above level of scar of M. tibialis

anticus moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of ex-

ternal cotyla, the internal margin above scar greatly





55

expanded, straight or slightly concave to a corner at level

of tendinal bridge, above tendinal bridge, or at level of

anterior edge of internal cotyla, then straight to rim of

internal cotyla, forming angles between about 30 and 50 de-

grocs with the proximal internal margin, the scar for origin

of M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct, long, slightly to

moderately excavated, smooth, the scar for origin of M. ex-

tensor brevis digit IV indistinct, long, slightly to moder-

ately excavated, with slightly irregular surface; (7) distal

end of shaft with internal margin of metatarsal I slightly

to moderately excavated, with outer extensor groove slightly

excavated, the distal foramen small to large: (8) trochlea

for digit II moderately inflected, moderately expanded, form-

ing an angle of about 40 degrees with the shaft, its distal

margin angular, extending slightly below level of external

trochlea, its internal anterior surface slightly to moder-

ately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III large, straight,

moderately expanded distally, deeply excavated medially and

laterally, its distal margin moderately to strongly concave

in the middle; extending below level of internal trochlea;

(10) trochlea for digit IV straight, moderately to deeply

excavated medially and deeply excavated laterally, its dis-

tal margin straight or slightly convex; (11) internal inter-

trochlear notch wide, with proximal end pointed, originating

below level of proximal end of external intertrochlear notch;

(12) external intertrochlear notch wide with proximal end

rounded.






56

Tarsometatarsus in posterior view with (13) hypotarsus

large, with formulas De/FGHi', De/g'lHi', deFGHI, DE/fGHI,

DFE7I, or DE/FGHi', the scar for insertion of M. peroneus

brevis large, slightly to moderately convc::, elliptical, the

posterior face flat and square for insertion of M. gastro-

cnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft with outer proximal fora-

men large, distal to the smaller outer proximal foramen, with

scars for origin of M. abductor digiti IV and M. flexor

hallucis brevis moderately excavated, with external ridge

highly elevated, very long, without roof over metatarsal

groove, with scar for insertion of M. gastrocnemius flat;

(15) distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply

excavated, elliptical, at about the same level as the proxi-

mal end of the distal foramen, the distal foramen large, the

area proximal to trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16) in-

ternal intertrochlear notch with proximal end rounded,

slightly below level of, about same level as, or slightly

above level of proximal end of external intertrochlear notch;

(17) external intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end

rounded.

Corvus.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promi-

nence with its c::ternal border vertical or sharply sloping,

its proximal border sharply sloping, the scar for attachment

of external ligament moderately excavated; (2) external cotyla

moderately concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor

digitorum longus large, complete or incomplete; (6) shaft

with foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar for

insertion of M. tibialis anticus slightly to moderately





57

elevated, flat, the internal margin above scar for M. tibialis

anticus straight to a corner at level of tendinal bridge,

forming an angle between about 30 and 35 degrees with the

proximal internal margin, the scars for origin of 14. exttencor

hallucis longus and 14. extensor brevis digiti IV slightly

excavated; (7) shaft moderately excavated on internal margin

for facet of metatarsal I, the distal foramen large; (8)

trochlea for digit II with internal anterior surface slightly

to moderately excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV moder-

ately excavated medially, its distal margin straight; (13)

hypotarsus with formulas De/FGIIi', or deFGHI, the scar for

insertion of M. peroneus brevis moderately convex; (16) in-

ternal intertrochlear notch with proximal end at about same

level as proximal end of external intertrochlear notch.

Aphelocoma.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence with its external border vertical, its proximal

border moderately sloping, the scar for attachment of ex-

ternal ligament moderately to deeply excavated; (2) external

cotyla slightly concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor

digitorum longus small, complete to incomplete; (6) shaft

without foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar

for insertion of M. tibialis anticus moderately to highly

elevated, slightly convex, the internal margin above scar

for M. tibialis anticus slightly concave to a corner above

level of tendinal bridge, forming an angle of about 50 de-

grees with the proximal internal margin, the scars for ori-

gin of M. extensor hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis

digiti IV moderately excavated; (7) shaft slightly excavated





58

on internal margin for facet of mctatnrsij I, the distal

foramen large; (8) trochlea for digit II with internal an-

terior surface slightly excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV

noc'crately e::cavatcd medially, its distal margin slightly

convex; (13) hypotarsus with formula DE&i:, the scar for in-

sertion of M. peroneus brevis moderately convex; (16) in-

ternal intertrochlear notch with pro::imal end slightly above

level of proximal end of c:ternal intertrochlear notch.

Canocitta.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence with its external border vertical, its proximal

border moderately sloping, the scar for attachment of ex-

ternal ligament slightly excavated; (2) external cotyla

moderately concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor

digitorum longus small, complete to incomplete; (6) shaft

without foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar

for insertion of M. tibialis anticus slightly elevated, flat,

the internal margin above scar for M. tibialis antics

slightly concave to a corner at level of anterior edge of

internal cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 dccroec with

the proximal internal margin, the scars for origin of M. ex-

tensor hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis digiti IV

slightly elevated; (7) shaft moderately excavated on internal

margin for facet of metatarsal I, the distal foramen small;

(8) trochlea for digit II with internal anterior surface

moderately excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV moderately

excavated medially, its distal margin straight; (13) hypo-

tarsus with formula DE/FGHi', the scar for insertion of M.

peroneus brevis slightly convex; (16) internal intertrochlear






59

notch with proximal end at about same level as proximal end

of external intertrochlear notch.

Protocitta.--Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar

prominence with its external border sharply sloping, its

pro::imal border moderately sloping, the scar for attachment

of external ligament deeply excavated; (2) external cotyla

slightly concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M, extensor digi-

torum longustlarge, complete; (6) shaft with foramen distal

to intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M.

tibialis antics moderately elevated, slightly concave, the

internal margin above scat for M. tibialis anticus slightly

concave to a corner at level of anterior edge of internal

cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the proxi-

mal internal margin, the scars for origin of M. extensor

hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis digiti IV slightly

excavated; (7) shaft moderately excavated on internal margin

for facet of metatarsal I, the distal foramen large; (8)

trochlea for digit II with internal anterior surface moder-

ately excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV deeply e::cavated

medially, its distal margin straight; (13) hypotarsus pith

formula DE/fGHI, the scar for insertion of M. perOneus brevis

moderately convex; (16) internal intertrochlear notch with

proximal end slightly below proximal end of external inter-

trochlear notch.






60

Family SIITIDAE


Humerus

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

hend thick, rounded, broader tln long; (2) external tuber-

osity distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracora-

coideus slightly excavated, elliptical; (3) internal tuber-

osity prominent, with irregular, rounded border, with attach-

ment of 1. subscapularis indistinct, slightly convex, oval,

the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly

excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrach-

ialis posterior distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical;

(4) capital groove straight, deeply excavated, perforated

along its length by a row of tiny foramina without a s n:Mll

foramen near its external margin; (5) scar for insertion of

M. proscapulohumeralis brevis absent; (6) capital-shaft

ridge very short, gently curved, slightly elevated, not ex-

tending to head; (7) deltoid crest gently curved, thin, with

proximal end at about level of distal end of internal tuber-

osity extending one-third the length of the shaft; (8) del-

toid surface irregular, both slightly concave and convex

locally; (9) latissimus ridge short, indistinct, irregular to

slightly elevated, running longitudinally along deltoid sur-

face, extending about half its length, ending at deltoid

notch; (10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar short,

straight, forming an angle of about 74 degrees with the in-

ternal tuberosity, its palmar end extending into the floor

of the pneumatic fosse; (12) pneumatic fossa double,





61

complete, with fossa I wide, slightly excavated, its opening

oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohu-

meralis deeply excavated, forming a distinct, oval depression

on its distal margin within the pneumatic fossa undercutting

the shaft, with fossa II moderately developed, slightly ex-

cavated, wide, its opening oval in shape, confluent with

fossa I; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent; (14) bicipital

crest angular, with edge thick, bearing the scar for inser-

tion of IH. biceps small, indistinct, slightly excavated;

(15) shaft moderately robust, with external border slightly

convex in middle, internal border gently concave throughout

its length; (16) line of M. latissimus dorsi anterioris ob-

solete.

In anconal view with distal end of humerus with (17)

ectepicondylar process prominent, moderately produced ex-

ternally, with very small, pointed, accessory process on its

internal anconal surface without excavation between shaft and

ectepicondylar process; (18) scar for origin on M. extensor

metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) small, distinct, moder-

ately excavated, oval; (19) external condyle prominent, with

distal border angular; (20) external tricipital groove moder-

ately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa deep, slightly

undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal con-

dyle rounded, extending below level of external condyle;

(23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle

prominent, rounded, its distal end truncated bearing the

scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)

shallow, slightly convex, elliptical with short groove and






62

extending below level of both internal and external condyles.

In palmar view with proximal end of humerus with (25)

ligamental furrow wide, curved, slightly excavated! (26) bi-

cipital furrow shallow, curved, without foramina, bounded

externally by the scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor

large, moderately elevated, concave, wide, elliptical; (27)

bicipital crest sharply rounded; (28) bicipital surface con-

vex; (29) external boundary of M. deltoideus major obsolete.

In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) de-

pression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, deeply

excavated, elliptical, with internal border forming a strongly

elevated, sharp ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M.

extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately pro-

duced, convex, oval; (32) shaft without ridge on external

surface with distal end with a few very small, indistinct

foramina without depression, adjacent to shelf for attach-

ment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin

of M. pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated,

elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the

palmar surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, angular in

outline, its internal median corner with scar for origin of

M. pronator longus moderately excavated, elliptical, its

distal internal corner with scar for origin of M. flexor

carpi ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly excavated, elliptical;

(35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament

large, nearly flat, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded, its

distal border gently rounded; (37) intercondylar furrow

rounded, moderately excavated, narrow, without a pit medial






63

to external condyle, perforated medially to external condyle

by small foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded,

its external margin bearing small foramina without a depres-

sion medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well devel-

oped, hooked, moderately excavated on its internal palmar

surface, its proximal end bearing the scar for insertion of

M. tensor patagii brevis small, slightly convex, oval; (40)

ectepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of M. ex-

tensor digitorum comnunis moderately excavated, oval, the

scar for origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly ex-

cavated, oval, the scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis

small, slightly elevated, slightly convex, oval, the scar for

the origin of M. anconeus indistinct, large, obscure.


Carometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a few

small foramina in a moderately excavated depression proximal

to the internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for

radiale large, indistinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3)

external carpal trochlea prominent, sharply rounded, its

anterior corner moderately undercut by the scar for insertion

of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, moderately exca-

vated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large, indis-

tinct to distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moder-

ately produced internally, its anterior border elliptical,

with scar for ligamental attachment moderately convex, oval,

its proximal surface in anterior view square, its distal





64

surface moderately concave, without a foramen; (6) metacar-

pal I prominent, rounded, its proximal end projecting ante-

riorly at about a 50 degree angle with metacarpal II, its

distal surface above pollical facet slightly concave; (7)

scar for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis dis-

tinct, grooved, elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent,

large, slightly convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II ro-

bust, straight, with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum

profundus deeply excavated, deeply undercutting pisiform

process along its anterior border, with scar for origin of

M. adductor pollicus obsolete, not in a depression, with scar

for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long,

slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated,

with facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical; (10)

metacarpal III thin and curved, the scar for ligamental

attachment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval, the scar for

insertion of M. flexor digiti III slightly to moderately ex-

cavated, wide, long, running from the level of the tip of

the pisiform process down the entire length of the metacar-

pal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly

excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space long,

elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent,

moderately to deeply excavated, expanded, extending beyond

level of metacarpal II, its distal end truncated, with faceL

for digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea sharply rounded; (14) surface for external

ligamental attachment small, distinct, slightly concave,





65

elliptical; (15) metacarpal I prominent, rounded, with scar

for insertion of M. extensor pollicus longus obsolete, with-

out a depression; (16) depression for ulnare deeply exca-

vated, oval; (17) metacarpal II robust, wide, straight, with

groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus moderately

excavated, straight on its proximal end, becoming deeply ex-

cavated and moderately curved on its distal end, open through-

out its entire length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus

dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin,

curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis

slightly excavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity

large, triangular, extending to and ankylosing with metacar-

pal III, with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small,

distinct, slightly concave, elliptical, located on proximal

edge at tip at level of external face of intermetacarpal tu-

berosity and at level of external surface of metacarpal III;

(20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gen-

tly convex.


Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small,

pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M.

coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct,

slightly excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very

small, slightly excavated, oval; (3) scar for origin of long

head of M. biceps large, distinct, slightly excavated, ellip-

tical; (4) brachial tuberosity small, narrow, slightly exca-

vated and hooked, with a few tiny foramina adjacent to the

scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of





66

glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, grr.atly

elevated ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft

weak, straight; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis

large, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along lateral bor-

der of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp, slightly

elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M. supracoracoideus

large, indistinct, triangular, its surface r:omn.what irregu-

lar; (9) internal distal angle pointed, with a small square

projection on shaft slightly above level of internal sternal

facet; (10) sternal facet small, distinct, slightly convex,

elliptical, without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process

thin, sharply rounded, with pointed corner.

Coracoid in posterior view with (12) head small,

pointed, bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare

indistinct, elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for com-

mon attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the

ventral L. coraco-capsulare slightly excavated, elongate,

straight, without a depression ventral to scar; (14) furcular

facet small, with its surface slightly irregular, bearing

large, shallow, elliptical fossa, without strutting; (15)

glenoid facet large, distinct, elliptical, its surface

slightly concave; (16) area of triosseal canal shallow, flat;

(17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid, its sur-

face convex, its distal edge forming a moderately elevated

ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-

scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small, thick, bluntly

rounded, its surface bearing scar for attachment of L. cora-

coideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft with dorsal surface






67

just ventral to scapular facet bearing a number of small,

indistinct foramina, its medial surface bearing the indis-

tinct, long, slightly excavated scar for attachment of Mem-

brana sterno-coraco-clavicularis, slightly excavated along

its ventral end; (20) scar for origin of M. subcoracoideus

obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal depression for insertion of

M. sternocoracoideus large, distinct, moderately to deeply

excavated, triangular, its dorsal end forming a sharp,

slightly elevated ridge, its lateral border running straight

to a point at level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attach-

ment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal

facet with large, moderately excavated, elliptical surface

for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum, in ventral view the

shelf extending about one-third the width of the bone, el-

liptical in shape, expanded so that the medial portion is

slightly wider than the lateral.


Tibiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial

crest large, curved, strongly hooked, originating slightly

below level of origin of inner cnemial crest, moderately con-

vex, its proximal margin with scar for insertion of M. vastus

lateralis long, curved, slightly convex, its lateral border

with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus obso-

lete; (2) inner cnemial crest small, slightly curved, sharply

rounded, with scar for origin of 1:. extensor digitorum longus

slightly to moderately excavated, the scar for insertion of

M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, the scar for origin of






68

M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for in-

sertion of M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior moderately ex-

cavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick, wider

at distal end than at proximal, with proximal margin moder-

ately concave, its distal margin moderately concave, its

lateral border slightly concave, without groove at anterior

distal margin; (4) shaft weak, gently curved, with intermus-

cular line distinct, the scar for origin of M. peroneus

brevis very long, narrow, slightly convex, indistinct, el-

liptical, running slightly anteriorly down the lateral sur-

face from a point just distal to the fibular crest, becoming

obsolete near the tendinal groove; (5) tendinal groove

slightly to moderately excavated, wide; (6) distal scar for

oblique ligament located on lateral margin of shaft slightly

below level of its proximal scar; (7) supratendinal bridge

with its surface moderately convex, its proximal border

moderately concave, its distal border strongly concave; (8)

groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by moder-

ately elevated, slightly converging ridges, with the lateral

ridge at the same level with the medial ridge; (9) external

condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral view smoothly

rounded, moderately excavated, without protuberance forming

a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior in-

tercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, without

small foramina, its distal border slightly convex in the mid-

dle, its medial and lateral borders slightly undercutting the

condyles; (11) internal condyle wide, straight, in ncdial






69

view smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, with a very

small, very slightly elevated protuberance.

In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests

very highly elevated; (13) internal articular surface small,

slightly convex, elliptical, not extending posteriorly to

edge of external articular surface; (14) external articular

surface small, moderately, convex, oval; (15) interarticular

area with a slightly elevated protuberance; (16) area be-

tween the internal articular surface and inner cnemial crest

bearing the moderately excavated, oval scar for insertion of

M. femori-tibialis interns; (17) area between the external

articular surface and outer cnemial crest bear ig indistinct,

slightly excavated surface, without a fossa; (18) shaft scar

for origin of M. plantaris large, elliptical, the scar for

attachment of L. cruiciatum genu po'iLcum long, straight,

very highly elevated, the scar for origin of I. flexor dig-

itorum longus, indistinct, very long, wide, with irregular

surface; (19) border of external condyle slightly reflected;

(20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected; (21)

posterior intercondylar sulcus wide, slightly convex in

middle.


Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercoty-

lar prominence large, moderately elevated, pointed, its ex-

ternal border moderately sloping, its proximal border moder-

ately sloping, the scar for attachment of external ligament

moderately excavated, elliptical; (2) external cotyla small,





70

saddle-shaped; (3) internal cotyla small, deeply concave,

oval, its anterior border extending slightly anteriorly be-

yond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of 1M.

extensor digitorum longus small, moderately convex; (5) prox-

imal foramina distinct, with outer foramen larger than in-

ner, with inner foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) pro::-

imal end of shaft moderately robust, straight, without a

foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar for in-

sertion of M. tibialis anticus distinct, slightly elevated,

slightly convex, the external margin above level of scar of

M. tibialis antics moderately c::pande-d, slightly concave to

beneath rim of cotyla, the internal margin above scar greatly

expa-:nded, slightly concave to a roun3cd corner slightly be-

low level of external cotyla, then straight to rim of inter-

nal cotyla, forming an angle of about 35 degrees with the

proximal internal margin, the scar for origin of M. extensor

hallucis longus indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth,

the scar for origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV indis-

tinct, long, slightly excavated, with smooth surface; (7)

distal end of shaft with internal margin of facet of meta-

tarsal I slightly excavated, the distal foramen small; (8)

trochlea for digit II strongly inflected, not expanded, form-

ing an angle of about 25 degrees with the shaft, its distal

margin rounded, not extend1inq bclow level of external troch-

lea, its internal anterior surface slightly excavated; (9)

trochlea for digit III small, straight, not expanded dis-

tally, rmoderately excavated medially and laterally, its dis-

tal margin deeply concave in the middle, with lateral border





71

slightly proximal to medial border, extending slightly be-

low level of external trochlea; (10) trochlea for digit IV

straight, deeply excavated medially and slightly excavated

laterally, its distal margin rounded; (11) internal inter-

trochlear notch extremely wide, with proximal end rounded,

originating at about same level as p-roximnl end of external

intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch

very wide, with proximal end irregularly rounded.

In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotar-

sus small, with formula dEfGHi', the scar for innertion of

M. peroncus brevis rmall, moderately elevated, O~ightly con-

vex, elliptical, the posterior face irregularly open and

square for insertion of M. gastrocnemius; (14) proximal end

of shaft with outer proximal foramen small, distal to the

smaller outer proximal foramen, with scars for origin of M.

abductor digiti IV and M. flexor hallucis brevis slightly

excavated, with external ridge very highly elevated, without

roof over metatarsal groove,with scar for M. gastrocnemius

slightly convex; (15) distal end of shaft with facet for

metatarsal I deeply excavated, elliptical, its distal mar-

gin located about one-fifth up the length of the shaft, the

distal foramen small, the area proximal to trochlea for

digit III unexcavated; (16) internal intertrochlear notch

with proximal end rounded, at about same level as proximal

end of external intertrochlear notch; (17) external inter-

trochlear notch wide, with proximal end irregularly rounded.





72

Family TPOGLODYTIDAE


umierus

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

head thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuber-

osity indistinct to distinct, with elliptical scar for in-

sertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly to moderately exca-

vated; (3) internal tuberosity prominent, with sharply

rounded border, its proximal end with attachment of M. sub-

scapularis indistinct, slightly convex, oval, with scar for

insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly excavated,

elliptical, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis

posterior slightly excavated, elliptical; (4) capital groove

straight, deeply excavated, perforated along its length by a

row of tiny foramina without a small foramen near its exter-

nal margin; (5) scar for insertion of 1M. proscapulohumeralis

brevis absent; (6) capital-shaft ridge short, straight,

lightly elevated, extending proximally into head, or be-

neath the distal border of the head forming the proximal

border of fossa II; (7) deltoid crest slightly curved or

slightly concave, thin, with proximal end at about level of

proximal end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface

gently concave; (9) latissimus ridge short, distinct,

straight, running diagonally across or longitudinally along

the external edge of shaft to deltoid notch; (10) deltoid

notch angular; (11) median bar short, curved, forming an

angle of about 70 degrees with the internal tuberosity, its

palmar end extending into internal medial surface of the





73

shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa double, incomplete; with fossa I

wide, slightly to moderately excavated, its opening oval in

shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis on

a shelf, a slightly excavated, oval depression not undercut-

ting the shaft, with fossa II slightly developed, slightly

excavated, wide, its opening oval in shape, partially con-

fluent with fossa I; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent or pre-

sent as two tiny foramina in fossa I; (14) bicipital crest

rounded to sharply rounded, with edge thick, bearing scar

for insertion of M. biceps small, indistinct, slightly ele-

vated, oval; (15) shaft weak to moderately robust, with ex-

ternal border slightly convex in middle, internal border

gently concave throughout its length; (16) line of M.

latissimunn dorsi anterioris obsolete.

In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ec-

topicondylar process prominent, moderately produced exter-

nally, slightly hooked or rounded, without accessory process

on its surface, without excavation between shaft and ectepi-

condylar process; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor meta-

carpi radialis (anconal branch) small, indistinct to dis-

tinct, moderately excavated, oval to elliptical; (19) exter-

nal condyle prominent, with distal border rounded; (20) ex-

ternal tricipital groove moderately excavated, wide; (21)

olecranal fossa deep, slightly undercutting the internal

condyle, oval; (22) internal condyle rounded, extending be-

low level of external condyle; (23) internal tricipital

groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle prominent, rounded, its

distal end truncated bearing the scar for origin of M. flexor





74

carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, slightly convc::,

oval with short groove, and extending below level of both

internal and external condyles.

In palmar view with proximal end of humerus with (25)

ligamental furrow wide, straight, slightly excavated; (26)

bicipital furrow slightly excavated, curved, without fora-

mina, bounded externally by the scar for insertion of M.

deltoideus minor large, moderately elevated, concave, wide,

elliptical; (27) bicipital crest rounded; (28) bicipital sur-

face convex; (29) external boundary of M. deltoideus major

obsolete.

In pal!.";r view, humerus with distal end with (30) de-

pression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moder-

ately excavated, elliptical to oval, with internal border

forming a moderately elevated ridge; (31) prominence for in-

sertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch)

moderately produced, convex, oval; (32) shaft without ridge

on external surface with distal end with two small foramina

without depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of an-

terior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M.

pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated, el-

liptical, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the

palmar surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, rounded in out-

line, with scar for origin of M. pronator longus slightly ex-

cavated, elliptical, the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi

ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly excavated; (35) shelf for

attachment of anterior articular ligament small, slightly

convex, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded, its distal





75

border slightly concave; (37) intercondylar furrow rounded,

moderately excavated, wide, without a pit medial to external

condyle, perforated medially to external condyle by a few

tiny foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded,

without foramina, without depression medial to ectepicondyle;

(39) ectepicondyle well developed, angular to slightly

hooked, not excavated on palmar surface, its proximal end

bearing the scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis

small, slightly convex, oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence

with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum communis moder-

ately excavated, the oval scar for origin of M. flexor meta-

carpi radialis slightly excavated, the scar for the origin of

M. supinator brevis small, slightly elevated, slightly con-

cave, oval, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus indis-

tinct, large, very shallow, oval.

Troglodytes.--Humerus with (2) external tuberosity in-

distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus

slightly excavated (6) capital-shaft ridge extending proxi-

mally into head; (7) deltoid crest slightly curved; (9)

latissimus ridge extending diagonally across external cJge

of shaft to deltoid notch; (11) median bar forming an angle

of about 70 degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneu-

matic fossa with fossa I moderately excavated; (13) penumatic

fenestra present as two tiny foramina in fossa I; (14) bicip-

ital crest rounded; (15) shaft moderately robust; (17) ec-

tepicondylar process rounded; (18) scar for origin of M.

extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) indistinct,

oval; (27) bicipital crest rounded; (30) depression for






76

insertion of M. brachialis anticus elliptical; (39) ectepi-

condyle angular.

Cistothorus.---umerus with (2) external tuberosity dis-

tinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus moder-

ately excavated; (6) capital-shaft ridge extending proxi-

mally beneath the distal border of the head forming the prox-

imal border of fossa II; (7) deltoid crest slightly concave;

(9) latissimus ridge extending longitudinally along external

edge of shaft to a point distal the deltoid notch; (11) me-

dian bar forming an angle of about 78 degrees with the inter-

nal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with fossa I slightly

excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent; (14) bicipital

crest sharply rounded; (15) shaft weak; (17) ectepicondylar

process slightly hooked; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor

metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) distinct, elliptical;

(27) bicipital crest sharply rounded; (30) depression for

insertion of M. brachialis antics oval; (39) ectepicondyle

slightly hooked.


Carpometacarpu

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a few

small foramina in a moderately excavated depression proxirirl

to the internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for

radiale large, distinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) ex-

ternal carpal trochlea prominent, somewhat pointed, its an-

terior corner very slightly undercut by the scar for inser-

tion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, slightly






77

excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large,

distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately pro-

duced internally, its anterior border pointed or elliptical,

its anterior surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment

moderately convex, oval, its proximal surface in anterior

view moderately to deeply concave, its distal surface slightly

to moderately concave without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I

prominent, angular, its proximal end projecting anteriorly

at about a 60 degree angle with metacarpal II, its distal

surface above pollical facet deeply concave; (7) scar for

insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved,

elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly

convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight, with

groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus slightly

excavated, slightly undercutting pisiform process along its

anterior border, with scar for origin of M. adductor pollicus

obsolete, not in a depression, with scar for origin of M.

interosseus palmaris wide, very long, slightly excavated,

with distal end expanded, truncated, with facet for digit II

slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and

curved, the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare deeply

excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti

III deeply excavated, wide, long, running from the level of

pollical facet down the entire length of the metacarpal, the

scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly exca-

vated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space long, el-

liptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, moder-

ately excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of





78

metacarpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for

digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea somewhat pointed or pointed; (14) surface

for external ligamental attachment small, indistinct or dis-

tinct, slightly concave, elliptical; (15) metacarpal I prom-

inent, angular, with scar for insertion of M. extensor

pollicus longus obsolete, without a depression; (16) depres-

sion for ulnare moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical;

(17) metacarpal II robust, wide, straight, with groove for

tendon of M. extensor indicus longus moderately excavated,

straight on its proximal end, becoming deeply excavated and

moderately curved on its distal end, covered by a small bony

bridge on its proximal end but open throughout the rest of

its length, with scar for origin of iP. interosseus dorsalis

slightly excavated, long? (18) metacarpal III thin, curved,

with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly ex-

cavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, tri-

angular, extending to and ankylosing with metacarpal III,

with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct,

slightly concave, elliptical, located on proximal edge at

tip at level of external face of intermetacarpal tuberosity

and at level of external surface of metacarpal III; (20) dis-

tal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.

Cistothorus.--Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process

with anterior border pointed, its proximal surface in ante-

rior view deeply concave; (13) external carpal trochlea





79

pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental attachment in-

distinct.

Troglodytes.--Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process

with anterior border elliptical, its proximal surface in an-

terior view moderately concave; (13) external carpal trochlea

somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental attach-

ment distinct.


Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small,

pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of i.

coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct,

moderately excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very

small, slightly excavated, oval; (3) scar for origin of long

head of M. biceps large, indistinct to distinct, slightly

excavated, oval; (4) brachial tuberosity very small to small,

narrow, slightly excavated and hooked, without tiny foramina

adjacent to scar for origin of long head of M4. biceps; (5)

edge of glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct,

moderately elevated ridge along the lateral side of the bone;

(6) shaft weak, straight; (7) scar for origin of M. coraco-

brachialis small, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along

lateral border of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp,

moderately elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of 4. supra-

coracoideus very large, indistinct to distinct, triangular,

its surface somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle

pointed, with a small triangular projection on shaft at level

of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet small, indistinct,





80

slightly convex, elliptical, without a shelf, (11) sterno-

coracoidal process thin, straight, with rounded corner.

In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small,

pointed, bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare

indistinct, elongate; (13) neck thic!:, bearing scar for com-

mon attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ven-

tral L. coraco-capsulare slightly elevated, elongate,

straight, without a depression ventral to scar; (14) furcular

facet small, with its surface slightly irregular, bearing

small, very shallow, elliptical fossa, without strutting;

(15) glenoid facet large, distinct, elliptical, flat; (16)

area of triosseal canal shallow, flat or slightly concave

throughout; (17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid,

its surface convex, its distal edge forming a moderately

elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. cora-

coideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small, bluntly

rounded or pointed, its surface bearing scar for attachment

of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferiusy (19) shaft with dorsal

surface just ventral to scapular facet without small fora-

mina, its medial surface bearing the distinct, long, slightly

excavated scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-

clavicularis, slightly to moderately excavated along its ven-

tral end; (20) scar for origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete;

(21) sterr;ocoracoidal depression for insertion of M. sterno-

coracoideus large, distinct, deeply excavated, triangular,

its dorsal end forming a sharp, slightly to greatly elevated

ridge, its latcr-l border nearly straight C:coept for a moder-

ately developed convex area above level of sternal facett






81

(22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale

obsolete; (23) sternal facet with surface for attachment of

L. sterno-coarcoideum large, distinct, deeply excavated, el-

liptical, in ventral view without a shelf, or with a cheif

extending about two-thirds the width of the bone, elliptical

in shape, e::anded in the middle so that the medial portion

is larger than the lateral.

Troglodytes.--Coracoid with (3) scar for origin of

long head of M. biceps distinct; (4) brachial tuberosity

small; (16) area of triosseal canal slightly concave through-

out; (18) procoracoid pointed; (19) shaft with scar for

attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis moderately

excavated along its ventral end; (21) sternocoracoidal de-

pression with its dorcal end forming a slightly elevated

ridge; (23) sternal facet, in ventral view, with a shelf.

Cistothorus.--Coracoid with (3) scar for origin of

long head of M. biceps indistinct; (4) brachial tuberosity

very small; (16) area of triosseal canal flat; (18) procora-

coid bluntly rounded; (19) shaft with scar for attachment of

Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis slightly elevated along

its ventral end; (21) sternocoracoidal depression with its

dorsal end forming a slightly to greatly elevated ridge (23)

sternal facet, in ventral view, without a shelf.


Tibiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial

crest small, straight, moderately hooked, originating

slightly below level of origin of inner cnemial crest,






82

moderately acnvex, its proximal margin with scar for inser-

tion of M. vastus lateralis long, curved, slightly convex,

its lateral border with scar for origin of M. extensor digi-

torum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest small,

straight, sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M. ex-

tensor digitorum longus slightly excavated, the scar for in-

sertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, the scar for

origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the

scar for insertion of M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior

slightly elevated, moderately excavated, elliptical; (3) fib-

ular crest small, thick, wider at distal end than at proxi-

mal, with proximal margin slightly to moderately concave,

its distal margin moderately concave, its lateral border

straight, without a groove at anterior distal margin; (4)

shaft weak, gently curved, with intermuscular line distinct,

the scar for origin of M. peroneus brevis obscure; (5) ten-

dinal groove slightly excavated, wide; (6)distal scar for

oblique ligament located on lateral proximal corner of supra-

tendinal bridge, slightly elevated, straight; (7) supraten-

dinal bridge with its surface gently convex, its proximal

border strongly concave, its distal border moderately con-

cave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered

by moderately elevated, slightly converging ridges, with the

lateral ridge at about same level as the medial ridge; (9)

external condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral view

smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, without a protuber-

ance forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10)

anterior intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical,






83

without small foramina, its distal border slightly convex in

the middle, its medial and lateral borders slightly under-

cutting the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide, straight,

in medial view smoothly rounded, slightly c.:cavated, with a

small, slightly elevated protuberance.

In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests

highly elevated; (13) internal articular surface large,

slightly convex, elliptical, not extending posteriorly to

edge of external articular surface, or extending posteriorly

to edge of external articular surface; (14) external articu-

lar surface small, moderately convex, oval; (15) interarticu-

lar area with a slightly elevated protuberance; (16) area

between the internal articular surface and inner cnemial

crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-tibialis

interns moderately excavated, oval; (17) area between the

external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing

distinct, deeply excavated fossa, without strutting; (18)

shaft with scar for origin of M. plantaris small, elliptical,

the scar for attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long,

curved, highly elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor

digitorum longus, indistinct, very long, wide, with slightly

irregular surface; (19) border of external condyle slightly

cxflected; (20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected;

(21) posterior intercondylar sulcus wide, slightly convex in

middle.

Trogloytes.--Tibiotarsus with (3) fibular crest with

proximal margin moderately concave; (13) internal articular






84

surface extending posteriorly to the edge of external articu-

lar surface.

Cistothorus.--Tibiotarsus with (3) fibular crest with

proximal margin slightly concave; (13) internal articular

surface not extending posteriorly to edge of external articu-

lar surface, or extending posteriorly to the edge of external

articular surface.


Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercoty-

lar prominence small, highly elevated, pointed, its external

border sharply sloping, its proximal border moderately slop-

ing, the scar for attachment of external ligament slightly

excavated, elliptical; (2) external cotyla small, Ezddlc-

shaped; (3) internal cotyla large, deeply concave, elliptical,

its anterior border extending slightly anteriorly beyond

edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor

digitorum longus large, moderately convex; (5) proximal fora-

mina distinct, with outer foramen larger than inner, with

inner foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal end

of shaft weak, straight, without a foramen distal to inter-

cotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of AI. tibialis

anticus indistinct to distinct, very slightly elevated or

slightly elevated, flat, the external margin above level of

scar of M. tibialis anticus moderately expanded, slightly

concave to rim of external cotyla, the internal margin above

scar greatly expanded, straight to a rounded corner slightly

below level of external cotyla, then straight to rim of






85

internal cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with

the proximal internal margin, the scar for origin of M. ex-

tensor hallucis longus indistinct, long, slightly excavated,

smooth, the scar for origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV

indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth; (7) distal end

of shaft with internal margin of facet of metatarsal I very

slightly to moderately excavated, with outer extensor groove

slightly excavated, the distal foramen small; (8) trochlea

for digit II slightly or very slightly inflected, not ex-

panded, its distal margin rounded, extending to about same

level as external trochlea or not, its internal anterior sur-

face moderately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III small,

straight, slightly expanded distally or not, deeply exca-

vated medially and laterally, its distal margin moderately

concave in the middle, extending slightly below level of in-

ternal and external trochlea; (10) trochlea for digit IV

straight, deeply excavated medially and slightly or moder-

ately excavated laterally, its distal margin pointed or

rounded; (11) internal intertrochlear notch wide, with proxi-

mal end rounded, originating slightly above or below level

of proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (12) ex-

ternal intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.

In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarEus

small, with formula de/fGHli', the scar for insertion of M.

peroneus brevis small, slightly convex, elliptical, the pos-

terior face flat and square for insertion of I. gastrocnemius;

(14) proximal end of shaft with outer proximal foramen small,

distal to the smaller outer proximal foremen, with scars for






86

origin of M. abductor digiti IV and M. flexor hallucis brevis

slightly excavated, with external ridge very highly elevated,

very long, slightly roofed over metatarsal groove, with scar

for M. gastrocnemius slightly convex; (15) distal end of

shnat with facet for metatarsal I deeply excavated, ellipti-

cal, at about the same level as the distal end of the distal

foramen, the distal foramen small, the area proximal to

trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16) internal intertroch-

lear notch with proximal end rounded, below level of prc::i-

mal end of external intertrochlear notch; (17) external inter-

trochlear notch wide with proximal end rounded.

Troglodytes.--Tarsometatarsus with (6) proximal end of

shaft with scar for insertion of M. tibialis antics dis-

tinct, slightly elevated; (7) distal end of shaft with in-

ternal margin of facet of metatarsal I slightly excavated;

(8) trochlea for digit II slightly inflected medially, ex-

tending to about same level as external trochlea; (9) troch-

lea for digit III slightly expanded distally; (10) trochlea

for digit IV moderately excavated laterally, its distal mar-

gin rounded; (11) internal intertrochlear notch with proxi-

mal end originating slightly above level of proximal end of

external intertrochlear notch.

Cistothorus.--Tarsometatarsus with (6) proximal end of

shaft with scar for insertion of M. tibialis antics indis-

tinct, very slightly elevated; (7) distal end of shaft with

internal margin of facet of mctatarcsl I moderately c:-cavateA;

(8) trochlea for digit II very slightly inflected medially,

not extending to same level as external trochlea;





87

(9) trochlea for digit III not expanded distally; (10) troch-

lea for digit IV slightly excavated laterally, its distal

margin pointed; (11) internal intertrochlear notch with proxi-

mal end originating slightly below level of proximal end of

external intertrochlear notch.


Family I:IIZDAE


Humerus

In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1)

head thick, rounded, broader than long? (2) external tuber-

osity distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracora-

coideus moderately excavated, ovalr (3) internal tuberosity

prominent, with irregular, angular to rounded borcdr, with

attachment of M. subscapularis distinct, slightly convex,

oval, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small,

slightly excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of J1.

coracobrachialis posterior distinct, moderately excavated,

oval to elliptical; (4) capital groove straight, deeply exca-

vated, perforated along its length by a few foramina, with

or without a small, distinct foramen near its external margin;

(5) scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis ab-

sent; (6) capital-shaft ridge short, straight, moderately

elevated, extending proximally beneath the produced distal

border of the head forming the proximal border of fossa II

or extending proximally into the head: (7) deltoid crest

straight to slightly curved, thin, with proximal end above

level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid sur-

face irregular, moderately concave? (9) latissimus ridge





88

short to very short, distinct, curved, moderately elevated,

extending along deltoid surface and ending at or medial to

the deltoid notch or limited to the posteromedial border of

the deltoid surface; (10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median

bar short, straight, forming angles between 77 and 85 degrees

with the internal tuberosity, its palmar end extending to

the internal medial surface of shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa

double, incomplete, with fossa I wide, deep, its opening

oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohu-

meralis on a shelf, a slightly excavated, oval depression

not undercutting the shaft, with fossC II slightly to moder-

ately developed, slightly to moderately excavated, wide, its

opening oval in shape, partially confluent with fossa It

(13) pneumatic fenestra absent or present in the form of two

small foramina deep in fossa I; (14) bicipital crest angular

to rounded, with edge thick bearing scar for insertion of M.

biceps large, distinct, slightly elevated, oval; (15) shaft

moderately robust, with external border slightly convex in

middle, internal border gently concave through its length;

(16) line of latissimus dorsi anterioris obsolete.

In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ec-

tepicondylar process prominent, moderately produced exter-

nally, rounded, with a small accessory process on its inter-

nal anconal surface, with or without moderately excavated

depression between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18)

scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal

branch) small, distinct, moderately excavated, oval; (19) ex-

ternal condyle prominent, with distal border rounded to





89

sharply rounded; (20) external tricipital groove moderately

excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa deep, slightly under-

cutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal condyle

rounded, extending below level of external condyle. (23) in-

ternal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle promi-

nent, angular to rounded, its distal end truncated bearing

the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal

branch) shallow, slightly convex, elliptical, with short

groove, and extending below level of both internal and ex-

ternal condyles.

In palmar view, proximal end of humerus with (25) liga-

mental furrow wide, gently curved, slightly to moderately ex-

cavated; (26) bicipital furrow slightly excavated, curved,

without foramina, bounded externally by the scar for inser-

tion of M. deltoideus minor large, moderately elevated, con-

cave, very wide, elliptical; (27) bicipital crest angular;

(28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary of M.

deltoideus major obsolete.

In palmar view humerus with distal end with (30) de-

pression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moder-

ately excavated, elliptical,, with internal border forming a

slightly elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M.

extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately pro-

duced, convex, elliptical; (32) shaft without ridge on ex-

ternal surface, with distal end with small foramen with or

without a shallow depression adjacent to shelf for attach-

ment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin

of 1. pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated,






90

oval to elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence

near the middle or near the anconal surface; (34) entepicon-

dyle prominent, angular to rounded in outline, with scar for

origin of M. pronator longus moderately excavated, ellipti-

cal, the scar for origin of M1. flexor carpi ulnarus palmarr

branch) moderately excavated, oval; (35) shelf for attachment

of anterior articular ligament large, slightly concave, oval;

(36) internal condyle rounded, its distal border nearly

straight; (37) intercondylar furrow rounded, moderately ex-

cavatcd, wide, without a pit medial to external condyle,

perforated medially to external condyle by a few tiny fora-

mina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded, its external

border bearing one or more small foramina, without depression

medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed,

rounded to sharply rounded, not excavated on palmar surface,

the scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small,

convex, oval to elliptical; (40) ectepicondylar prominence

with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum communic moder-

ately excavated, oval, the scar for origin of M. flexor meta-

carpi radialis shallow to moderately excavated, oval, the

scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis small, moderately

elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the origin of

M. anconeus distinct to indistinct, large, slightly concave

to slightly convex, elliptical.

4imus.--Humerus with (3) internal tuberosity with angu-

lar border, with scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis

posterior elliptical; (4) capital groove without small fora-

men near external margin;(6) capital-shaft ridge extending





91

proximally beneath distal border of the head forming the

proximal. border of fossa II; (7) deltoid crest thin, with

proximal end slightly above level of distal end of internal

tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge very short, limited to the

posteromedial border of the deltoid surface: (11) median bar

forming an angle of about 77 degrees with the internal tuber-

osity; (12) pneumatic fossa with fossa II moderately devel-

oped, moderately excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra present

in the form of two small foramina deep in fossa I; (14) bici-

pital crest rounded; (17) ectepicondyle without an excava-

tion between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (19) external

condyle with distal border rounded; (24) entepicondyle

rounded; (32) shaft with distal end with small foramen in a

shallow depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of ante-

rior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pro-

nator brevis elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence

near its mid-line; (39) ectepicondyle rounded, with scar for

insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis oval; (40) ectepicon-

dylar prominence with scar for origin of M. flexor metacarpi

radialis slightly excavated, the scar for the origin of M.

anconeus distinct, slightly convex.

Toxostoma.--Humerus with (3) internal tuberosity with

irregular, rounded border, with scar for insertion of M.

coracobrachialis posterior oval; (4) capital groove with or

without small foramen near external margin; (6) capital-shaft

ridge extending proximally into head; (7) deltoid crest moder-

ately thick, with proximal end above level of distal end of

internal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge short, extending
4





92

along deltoid surface and ending at or medial to the deltoid

notch; (11) median bar forming an angle of about 85 degrees

with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic.fossa with fossa

II slightly to moderately developed, slightly to moderately

excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent; (14) bicipital

crest angular; (17) ectepicondyle moderately excavated be-

tween shaft and ectepicondylar process; (19) external con-

dyle with distal border sharply rounded; (24) entepicondyle

angular; (32) shaft with distal end with small foramen with-

out shallow depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of

anterior particular ligament; (33) Surface for origin of M.

pronator brevis oval, located on entepicondylar prominence

nearest its anconal surface, (39) ectepicondyle sharply

rounded, with scar for insertion of M. tensor pataii brevis

elliptical; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for

origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis moderately excavated,

the scar for the origin of 1M. anconeus indistinct, slightly

concave.


Carpometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal

carpal trochlea prominent, angular, with a few small fora-

mina in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the

internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale

large, distinct to indistinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped;

(3) external carpal trochlea prominent, somewhat pointed, its

anterior corner moderately undercut by the scar for insertion

of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis moderately excavated, oval;






93

(4) internal ligamental depression large, distinct, wide,

oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced internally,

its anterior border somewhat pointed to elliptical, its an-

terior surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment moder-

ately convex, oval, its proximal surface in anterior view

square, its distal surface slightly to moderately concave

without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I prominent, angular, its

proximal end projecting anteriorly at angles between about

55 and 57 degrees with metacarpal II, its distal surface

above pollical facet moderately concave; (7) scar for inser-

tion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved,

elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly

convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight,

with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus

moderately excavated, moderately undercutting pisiform pro-

cess along its anterior border, with scar for origin of M.

adductor pollicus obsolete, not in a depression, with scar

for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long,

slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated, with

facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical; (10) meta-

carpal III thin and curved, the scar for ligamental attach-

ment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval, the scar for inser-

tion of M. flexor digiti III slightly excavated, wide, long,

running from the level of the proximal end of scar for ori-

gin of ligamental attachment of ulnare down the entire length

of the metacarpal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus

palmaris slightly excavated, wide, very long; (11) inter-

metacarpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal





94

symphysis prominent, moderately c::cavated, o::panded, c::tcnd-

ing beyond level of metacarpal II, its distal end truncated,

with facet for digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external

carpal trochlea somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external

ligamental attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, el-

liptical; (15) metacarpal I prominent, angular, with scar

for insertion of M. extensor pollicus longus very small to

small, moderately excavated, elliptical, with or without a

moderately excavated depression surrounding it; (16) depres-

sion for ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal II

robust, wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor

indicus longus moderately excavated, straight on its proxi-

mal end, becoming deeply excavated and moderately curved on

its distal end, covered by a small bony bridge on its proxi-

mal end but open throughout the rest of its length, with

scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly exca-

vated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin, curved, with scar for

origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long;

(19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending

to and ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar of M. flexor

metacarpi radialis small, distinct, slightly to moderately

convex, elliptical, located on proximal edge at tip at level

of external face of intermetacarpal tuberosity and at level

of external surface of metacarpal III; (20) distal metacarpal

symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.

,Mimus.--Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process with

its proximal surface in anterior view square to deeply





95

concave, its distal surface moderately concave; (6) meta-

carpal I with its proximal end projecting anteriorly at

about a 55 degree angle with metacarpal II; (15) metacarpal I

with scar for insertion of M. extensor pollicus longus very

small, not in a depression.

Toxostoma.--Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process

with its proximal surface in anterior view moderately to

deeply concave, its distal surface slightly concave; (6)

metacarpal I with its proximal end projecting anteriorly at

about a 57 degree angle with metacarpal II; (15) metacarpal

I with scar for insertion of M. extensor pollicus longus

small, in a moderately excavated depression.

Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small,

pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M.

coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct,

moderately excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very

small, slightly excavated oval; (3) scar for origin of long

head of 1M. biceps large, distinct, slightly excavated, oval;

(4) brachial tuberosity small, narrow, slightly excavated

and hooked, with a few tiny foramina adjacent to the scar

for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid

facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated

ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft robust,

gently curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis

large, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along lateral

border of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp,