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 Title Page
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 Introduction
 Official series description
 Descriptions and extent of major...
 Physical, chemical and mineralogical...
 Management of Arredondo soils
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091552/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Arredondo soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Arredondo soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 63-5 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 31 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Caldwell, R. E.
Leighty, R. G.
Carlisle, V. W.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: May 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 28-31).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091552
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310117140

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Official series description
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Descriptions and extent of major mapping units
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties
        Page 7
    Management of Arredondo soils
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Literature cited
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text










DEPARTMENT OF SOILS IITMEOGRAPH REPORT 63-5 HAY, 1963


BENCHMARK SOILS:


ARREDONDO SOILS OF FLORIDA


L. G. Thompson, Jr., R. E. Caldiell,
R. G. Leighty and V. U. Carlisle


r -
" :0


Department of Soils
Agriculture Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville


FBS:dms
1/21/64
Soils
510 Copies








CONTENTS

Introduction ................ ....... .
General Characteristics of the Series ............... 1
Geology and Physiography ..... ......... ... . . 2
Climate .. . *. . . . . .. . . . 2

Official Series Description ....... ... . . 2

Description and Extent of Major Mapping Units . . . . . . .
Alachua County . . . . . . . . . *
Gadsden County ...... .. .. .... . . .
Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . . . 6
Suwannee County . . . . . . . . . 7

Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties . . .. . . 7

Management of Arredondo Soils............. . . 8
Erosion Control . . . . . . . . . . 10
Irrigation 1. .. . . . . . 10
Rotations, Green Manure Crops and Poultry Manure .. .. . 1.
Microbial Activities . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Placement of Nutrients ..... . .. . .. 19
Retention and Levels of Boron . . . . . . . . 20
Fertility Experiments . . . . . . . . . . 21
Pastures . . .......... . . . 21
Corn . . . . . . . .. .. 24
Oats .. . . .. . . . . .. . 2
Lupine . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Peanuts . . . . . . 26
Vegetables . . .. . . .** . . 26
Tung Trees .. . ........... . . . . 26

Literature Cited . . . . . . . . 28





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IINTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

The Arredondo series consists of deep, well-drained, medium to strongly

acid soils. They have developed from deep beds of unconsolidated sands and

loamy sands which are mixed with phosphatic materials. They occur on level

to gently rolling uplands with a few small areas of steeper slope. These

soils have gray to dark grayish-brown surface layers from h to 8 inches

thick. They are underlain by yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow horizons

that extend to depths of more than l2 inches. The subsoil is underlain by

a mottled fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. Arredondo soils are

associated with the Gainesville, Fellowship and Zuber soils. They have a

lighter colored subsoil than Gainesville soils and a thicker, coarser

textured subsoil than the Fellowship soils. In Arredondo soils the fine-

textured materials occur at depths of more than 30 inches, whereas they

are at depths of less than 30 inches in the Fellowship and Zuber soils.

In profile characteristics the Arredondo soils are similar to the Lakeland

soils but have a higher content of phosphorus. They are more brown than

the Lakeland, less brown than the Gainesville and much less gray than the

Fellowship soils. The native vegetation consists of longleaf and loblolly

pines, various oaks, hickory and native grasses. Arredondo soils have good

surface and internal drainage, a.low available moisture-holding capacity

and are somewhat drought. They are used mainly for corn, peanuts, small

grains, vegetables and pastures. The native fertility is usually low, but

where the slopes are gentle and good management is practiced, these soils

are moderately well-suited to general farm crops. They are well-suited to

woodland and improved pastures of deep rooted, drought-resistant bahia-

grass and similar grasses.


















S -,


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LOCATION OF MAJOR AREAS OF ARREDOIDO AND ASSOCIATED SOILS IN FLORIDA


\





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Geology and Physiography

Arredondo soils have developed from the Hawthorn geological formation,

which consists of deep beds of unconsolidated loamy sands that are influ-

enced by phosphatic materials. These soils are associated with the Gaines-

ville, Fellowship and Fort Meade soils, all of which have a higher content

of phosphate than most other soils of Florida.

Arredondo soils occur in nearly level (0-2 percent) to undulating

(2-8 percent) areas, but some small areas have 8 to 20 percent slopes.

Climate

The climate of the Arredondo soil areas in Florida is characterized by

long, warm summers, short mild winters and high humidity. These conditions

are very favorable for growing most crops and trees common to the area.

The average annual temperature is 700 F., with maximums of about 900 F.

during the months of June to August and minimums near 350 F. in January

and February. Temperatures have gone as high as 1030 F., and as low as

60 F., but such extremes are rare.

The annual rainfall averages h9 inches, and is fairly well distrib-

uted (37). Somewhat larger amounts of precipitation usually occur in July

and August. An occasional short drought in late spring or in the fall may

cause damage to crops, grasses and trees.


OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION

The Arredondo series consists of sands and loamy sands that have Red-
Yellow Podzolic color profiles. These soils are derived from beds of uncon-
solidated sands and loamy sands, in places mixed with residuum from phosphatic
materials. The Arredondo soils commonly occur associated with the closely
related Gainesville, Fellowship, Fort Meade, Kanapaha, Hague and Zuber soils.
They have lighter-colored profiles than the Gainesville, are coarser textured
in the lower part than the Fellowship, are better drained than the Kanapaha,
and have lighter-colored surface horizons than the Fort Meade soils. The
Arredondo soils in the past included the Zuber soils which, along with the
Hague, are shallower (less than 30 inches) to fine-textured materials than





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the Arredondo soils. The Arredondo soils differ from the Lakeland series
in being affected by or overlying phosphatic limestone. They occupy a rel-
atively small acreage but have local agricultural importance.

Soil Profile: Arredondo loamy fine sand
Ap 0-6" Dark gray (10YR h/l) loamy fine sand, gray (10YR 5/1) when
dry; weak fine crumb structure or single grained; nearly
loose; boundary clear, smooth; strongly acid. 3 to 8 inches
thick.
A2 6-15" Light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/h) loamy fine sand, pale brown
(10YR 6/3) when dry; weak fine crumb structure; nearly loose;
boundary gradual and wavy; medium acid. 8 to lh inches thick.
B2 15-h0" Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) loamy fine sand, light yellowish-
brown (10YR 6/h) when dry; weak fine crumb structure; nearly
loose: boundary gradual and wavy; medium acid. 20 to 30
inches thick.
B3 h0-56" Brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy fine sand, pale brown (10YR 6/3)
when dry: weak fine crumb structure; nearly loose; boundary
gradual and irregular; medium acid, slightly acid in lower part.
10 to 20 inches thick.
D 56-76"+ Light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam,
very pale brown (10YR 8/3) when dry; distinct medium mottles
of white (10YR 8/1) are common; weak fine to medium subangu-
lar blocky structure; friable to firm; slightly acid to
neutral.

Range in characteristics: Types include fine sand, loamy fine sand, sand,
and loamy sand. Average combined thickness of horizons above the D usually
ranges from about h2 to 72 inches. Where the total ranges from about 30
to h2 inches, a shallow phase is recognized, and where greater than 72
inches, a deep phase. The A2 and B2 horizons may range in color from yel-
lowish-brown to browmish-yellow (1CYR 6/6) or yellow (2.5Y 8/6). In places,
especially in the shallower spots, limestone fragments may be encountered
in the D horizon. Weathered phosphatic pebbles usually occur on the surface
and in the profile.

Topography: Level to strongly sloping.

Drainage: Well to somewhat excessively drained. Crops may suffer for lack
of moisture on the more sandy spots during dry seasons.

Vegetation: Slash, loblolly and longleaf pines, red, live, laurel and water
oaks, magnolia,.sueetgum, dogwood and hickory.

Use: Approximately 75 percent cleared and used for the production of pea-
nuts, corn, watermelons, oats, bright tobacco, sweet potatoes and pasture.

Distribution: Scattered in a fairly narrow belt from the eastern part of
Hillsborough County, Florida, north nearly to the Georgia line, A few small
areas may occur as far west as Tallahassee, Florida, and in Thomas, Brooks,
and Lowndes County, Georgia.


Type location: West part of Marion County, Florida.





-Ir-

Series established: Alachua County, Florida, 1942.

Soil Survey Soil Conservation Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture

REV. AHH
12-1h-55


DESCRIPTIONS AND EXTENT OF MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

Arredondo soils occur chiefly in the north central portion of the State

in Alachua and Marion counties. Smaller areas are also found in Hillsborough,

Polk, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Gadsden, Madison, Hamilton and Suwannee Counties

Descriptions of correlated mapping units of Arredondo soils from published

soil surveys are presented below.

Alachua County

A profile description of Arredondo loamy fine sand, 2 to 7 percent slope,

occurring in Alachua County (37) is as follows:

0 to 8 inches, light brown or bro-wnish-gray nearly loose loamy fine
sand containing a small amount of organic matter.
8 to 16 inches, light broiun or light yellowish-brown nearly loose
loamy fine sand.
16 to 20 inches, light yellouish-brown or brownish-yellow friable loamy
fine sand.
20 to 40 inches, light yellowish-brown or grayish-yellow moderately
friable loamy fine sand.

The surface soil varies from grayish-brown to dark gray and contains

considerable organic matter. Where areas border Gainesville soils, Arredondo

soils are browner in both the surface soil and subsoil than the typical

Arredondo. In some areas fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam occurs at

depths of 20 to 30 inches or more below the surface. In places some chert

gravel is scattered over the surface and mixed with the soil.

Arredondo-Fellow:ship loamy fine sands is a complex consisting mainly of

Arredondo loamy fine sand, with small areas of Fellowship loamy fine sand

and soils intermediate in characteristics between the two soils. Most





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areas have a slope of 2 to 7 percent, but some small areas have 7 to 15

percent slopes.

Arredondo loamy fine sand-fine sands is a soil complex occurring in

the western part of Alachua County in association with Gainesville and

Lakeland soil. This complex consists mainly of Arredondo loarmy fine sand,

but there are small areas of Arredondo fine sand that could not be readily

separated on the soil map. Most of the areas are undulating to gently

sloping.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Arredondo soils in

this county are as follows:

Arredondo-Fellowship loamy fine sands - 2,567 acres - - 0.Vi

Arredondo loamy fine sand-fine sand - -27,430 acres - -.8

Gadsden County

A profile description of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent, occurring

in Gadsden County (38) is as follows:

Ap 0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR h/2) fine sand; weak, fine
crumb structure; loose; medium content of organic matter; few
fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and smooth.
A2 5 to 16 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak, fine crumb
structure; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; boundary clear
and wavy.
C1 16 to 34 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/h) fine sand; weak, fine
crumb structure; loose; few small pebbles, medium acid; bound-
ary clear and wavy.
C2 34 to 43 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/L) fine sand; weak,
fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine pores; few fine
roots: very few medium to large pebbles of moderately hard
sandstone; medium acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
D1 b3 to 51 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy fine sand;
common, medium, faint, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) and common,
medium, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate,
fine crumb structure; friable; common fine pores; few root
channels; few small, medium and large pebbles; medium acid;
boundary gradual and irregular.
D2 51 to 66 inches plus, gray (I(0R 6/1) sandyclay loam with common,
medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) and common, fine
prominent, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate fine, sub-
angular blocky and moderate, medium crumb structure; friable;
common fine pores; few fine root channels; few small, medium
and large pebbles; medium acid.





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The surface layer ranges from dark grayish-brown to dark gray in color

and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The subsurface layer ranges from

grayish-brown to gray in color and from 4 to 11 inches in thickness. The

C horizon is light yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown. Fine-textured materials

are generally below a depth of h2 inches.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Arredondo soils in

this county are as follows:

Arredondo fine sand, O to 5% slopes - - -143 acres - 0.1%

Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8% slopes - - -3h2 acres - - 0.1%

Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils,
8 to 12% slopes - - - - - -- -231 acres - - 0.1%

Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils,
12 to ho slopes - - - - - - 204 acres - - 0.1%

Hillsborough County

A profile description of Arredondo fine sand, level phase occurring in

Hillsborough County (25) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish-brown to grayish-brown fine sand;
contains a moderate amount of partly decayed organic matter and
a few small rounded pebbles; a few small rounded pebbles are
scattered on the surface.
6 to 28 inches, dark yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown fine sand;
contains a few phosphatic pebbles.
28 to 42 inches plus, yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow fine sand;
contains a few phosphatic pebbles.

In some places the surface layer is up to 8 inches thick. The horizons

below the surface layer vary from light yellowish-brown to yellowish-

brown or yellow to brownish-yellow. This soil is slightly acid to medium

acid. Internal drainage is rapid and surface runoff is medium. The gently

undulating phase has 2 to 5 percent slopes, but short slopes near sinkholes

and streams may be steeper.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Arredondo soils in

this county are as follows:






7 -
-7-

Arredondo fine sand, level phase - - - 10,251 acres - - 1.5%

Arredondo fine sand, gently undulating phase -4,777 acres - - 0.7%

Suwannee County

A profile description of Arredondo fine sand on 0 to 5 percent slopes

occurring in Suwannee County (22) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, loose, dark grayish-brown fine sand with a few small phos-
phatic pebbles.
6 to 60 inches, loose, brownish-yellow fine sand -ith a few small phos-
phatic pebbles.

The color of the surface soil ranges from gray to dark grayish-bron.

This layer also ranges in thickness from about 4 to 7 inches. The color of

the subsurface layer ranges from pale brown to brownish-yellow. Texture of the

subsurface layer is usually fine sand but a fetw loamy fine sand areas are in-

cluded. In a few small areas, phosphatic pebbles are much more numerous than

typical. Fine-textured or gravelly substrata underlie some areas at 48 to 60

inches below the surface.


The approximate acreage and proportionate extent

this county are as follows:

Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5% slopes - - -

Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8% slopes - - -

Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12%f slopes----

Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow,
0 to 51 slopes - - - - - - -

Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow,
5 to 8% slopes - - - - - - -


t of Arredondo soils in


4,428

2,168

288


acres -

acres -

acres -


531 acres -


539


- - 2.2%

- - 0.5%

- - 0.1%


- - 0.1%


acres - - 0.1%


PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MIIERALOGICAL PROPERTIES

Results of physical, chemical and spectrographic analysis of several

Arredondo profiles from Alachua, Madison and Suuannee Counties Iere reported

by Gammon et al. (12). Mechanical analysis, pH and moisture equivalent are

summarized as follows:








Table 1 Chemical Analysis of a typical Arredondo Loamy Fine Sand Profile in Alachua County (12).


Horizon Depth Organic Matter Total Nitrogen Total Phos-
phorus
Inches Percent Percent Percent


o-4

4-9

9-22

22-42

42-54

54-72


4.67

1.98

0.80

0.36

0.17

0.13


0.126

0.044

0.121

0.009

0.008

0.008


0.288

0.296

0.275

0.262

0.253

0.275


Moisture Cation Exchange
Equivalent Capacity
Percent me./10g.


13.69

9.60

7.31

6.38

6.47

6.70


11.68

6.37

4.13

3.55

3.42

3.64


Exchangeable
Ca K
me./ me./
100g. 100g.

1.13 0.124

0.58 0.089

0.35 0.065

0.36 0.068

0.74 0.065

0.83 0.065


Bases
MC
me./
100g.

o.41

0.30

0.32

0,42

0.l42

0.30


Reaction

pH


5.17

5.61

5.70

5.59 0

5.71

5.39


*


I


__






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Medium sand and fine sand are the dominant particle sizes throughout the

entire profiles, and all horizons are sandy in nature. The surface layers

range from 85.2 to 89.t percent sand, h.9 to 9.3 percent silt, and 2.5 to 9.0

percent clay. The pH of the surface layers varies from 5.17 to 6.20 and the

B horizons range from 5.28 to 5.97. The moisture equivalent varies from 6.22

to 13.69 in the surface soil.

A representative chemical analysis of an Arredondo loamy fine sand profile

is shown in Table 1. The surface soils of three different Arredondo profiles

have cation exchange capacity values varying from 10.98 to 11.68 me./l00 g.

The exchangeable calcium varies from 1.13 to 3.82 me./100 g. in the surface

soil, and generally decreases with depth. Exchangeable potassium and mag-

nesium are relatively low throughout the profiles, while total phosphorus var-

ies from 0.030 to 0.296 percent. Organic matter contents range from 3.32

to l.67 percent in the surface horizons, but are markedly less in the lower

horizons.

In the total rough estimate spectrographic analysis of Arredondo soils,

strontium, barium, iron, vanadium, chromium, manganese, nickel, zirconium,

copper, titanium, boron and zinc were found in small amounts.


MANAGEMENT OF ARREDONDO SOILS

In Alachua County, about 70 percent of the Arredondo-Fellowship loamy

fine sand is cultivated. A small percentage is in pasture and the rest is

in hardwoods and loblolly pine. This soil is used to group corn, peanuts, vel-

vet beans, sugarcane and vegetables.

If the soil is well managed, crop yields are fair to good and improved

pastures are generally good. Liberal applications of mixed fertilizers are

needed each year for crops and pastures. Lime is needed every third or fourth

year on citrus groves and pastures. Some crops such as vegetables need to be





- 10 -


irrigated.

Air drainage is generally good because of the gently undulating relief.

Therefore, the soils on slopes are better suited to citrus than the level areas.

During intense rainfalls cultivated soils on slopes greater than 5 percent may

be damaged by erosion. Because of low content of organic matter, low moisture-

holding capacity and rapid leaching of plant nutrients: this soil is not well-

suited to most tilled crops. Good management practices should include cover

crops, irrigation, lime and liberal application of fertilizer.

Average acre yields of crops that may be expected over a period of years

on each soil in Alachua County, Floridal (37), are shown in Tables 2 and 3.

Tables L and 5 show yields of principal crops that may be expected on

Arredondo soils in Gadsden and Hillsborough Counties, respectively.

Erosion Control

Because of the favorable surface relief and the nearly loose character

of the soil, nearly all of the rainfall is absorbed. However, during intense

rains, clean-cultivated sloping areas may have some runoff and erosion.

Surface runoff should be controlled on bare soil. The cover of plants

retards runoff when rainfall is intensive and also reduces the movement of

soil particles during strong windstorms. Vegetation is better than most

mechanical means of retarding soil erosion. Contour cultivation and strips

of close-growing crops should be used on sloping cultivated areas to control

runoff and soil washing.

Irrigation

Although rainfall is usually sufficient to supply the moisture that is

needed by most general crops, the use of irrigation for crops of high value

is increasing. Hammond and Popenoe (1) made a soil moisture study of Arredondo


IBased on prevailing management practices.






Table 2 Estimated Yields of Principal Field Crops (based on prevailing management practices).

Corn Peanuts Corn & peanuts1 Cowpeas Bright tobacco Sugarcane for
Soil Type Nuts Hay interplanted for hay syrup
Corn Nuts
Bu? Bu Lb. Tons Bu. Lb. Tons Lb. Gal.4

Arredondo-Fellowship
loaiy fine sands 18 30 650 .7 15 550 1.0 --- 250
Arredondo loamy fine
sand-fine sand 16 25 650 .7 12 550 1.0 50 250

iPeanuts with corn in every other row of peanuts.
2yields of corn expected without use of fertilizer.
yields expected when fertilized at planting time uith 200 pounds of 5-7-5 or similar mixture containing 75
pounds of zinc sulfate per ton and 100 pounds of nitrate of soda or sulfate of ammonia O0 to 50 days after
planting.
With improved varieties, syrup yields may be doubled.

Table 3 Estimated Yields of Pasture and Truck Crops (based on prevailing management practices).

Permanent Beans Beans Cabbage Cucumbers Eggplant Pepers Sweet Okra Squash
Soil Type pasture lima string Potatoes
Cow days1 Crates Crates Tons Crates Crates Ccates Bushels Crates Crates

Arredondo-Fellor ship
loamy fine sands 150-300 85 90 8 150 135 175 100 125 135
Arredondo loamy fine
sand-fine sand 125-250 80 90 7 150 125 175 100 125 135

1Number of days per year that 1 acre of pasture will support a cow without injury to the pasture.






12 -

Table h Estimated Acre Yields of Principal Crops and Carrying Capacity of
Pasture under Two Levels of Management in Gadsden County, Florida (38


Soil Type Corn Peanuts Oats Pasture
A B A B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow Cow
days days

Arredondo fine sand,
0-5% slopes 25 45 1000 1250 20 0 h10 2h0

Arredondo fine sand,
5-8% slopes 15 30 800 1000 15 35 120 220

Arredondo-Fellowship-
Gainesville soils,
8-12% slopes --- -- -- 120 2W0

Arredondo-Fellowship-
Gainesville soils,
12-l.0 slopes- ---- -- --


In Columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common management;
in Columns B are those under the highest level of management feasible. Dashed
lines indicate that the crop is not generally grown on the soil.
lNumbers of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury
to the pasture.

fine sand in a citrus grove and found that tensiometers were as useful as oven-

drying for estimating the soil-moisture content over most of the available

moisture range. At soil moisture conditions ;,here precise measurement for irri-

gation timing would normally be desired, the variance of sample means for the

tuo methods were about the same. With a uniform decrease in the soil-moisture

content, the variances of both methods decreased. Irrigation is profitable

only with good soil management that provides for the use of adequate amounts of

commercial fertilizer and manure, the planting of green manure crops and the

return of crop residues to the soil.

Small farm ponds, constructed in natural drains that have small water-

sheds are used to store water for irrigation. The site for a farm pond should

be carefully studied for it is necessary to know the storage capacity of the











Table 5 .


Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal Crops under Two Levels of Management in
Hillsborough County, Florida (2h).


Sweet CroTider Citrus
boil Type Tomatoes Corn Polebeans Watermelons Corn Peas Fruit
A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Doz. Doz. Bu. Bu. No. No. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu.

Arredondo fine
sand:
Level phsse 110 180 400 500 100 160 275 00 20 40 110 190 330 500

Gently undu-
lating phase 110 180 400 500 100 160 275 400 20 40 110 190 330 500


Yields in columns A obtained under common farming practices; those in columns B under more
intensive management.





14 -

proposed pond, the amount of water available and the suitability of the founda-

tion material. Spillways and dams should be carefully designed and constructed.

Rotations, Green Manure Crops and Poultry Manure

Crop rotation practices and the use of green manures are varied (37). In

pecan groves, inoculated clover for pasture and nitrogen has gained some accep-

tance. In a test of various green manure crops groun in a two-year rotation

with corn, Stokes et al. (35), found that the yield of corn following Cro-

talaria striata was 16.6 bushels; velvetbeans, 16.8 bushels; beggarweed, 12.0

bushels; cowpeas, 14.2 bushels; and Florida Pussley, 8.7 bushels. On coarse

sandy soils, continuous use of green manure crops is necessary for maintenance

of productivity.

When grown on the same plots every year, Stokes et al. (36) found that

interplanted corn and runner peanuts without zinc or fertilizer yielded 6.3

bushels of corn and 523 pounds of peanuts per acre, but 11.55 bushels of corn

and 89h pounds of peanuts when the land uas allowed to grow in native weeds

and crotalaria every other year.

Green manure crops and crop rotations are valuable for increasing or main-

taining the productivity of the soil (37). On the coarse sandy soils, green

manure crops are especially important to reduce losses of nutrients by leach-

ing and to protect the soil against erosion of the sloping areas of finer

textured soils.

Pot studies using millet and oats in Arredondo fine sand were used by Eno

(6) to evaluate three kinds of dry poultry manure ranging in amounts from none

to 20 tons per acre. A series of pots were also used that had nitrogen, phos-

phorus, potassium and calcium added in amounts equivalent to that contained

in 2, 4, 8 and 12 tons of manure. The 16- and 20-ton rates of manure reduced

the yield on the first crop of oats. Thereafter the yields increased with each

increase in application of manure. In general, the inorganic nutrients increased





15 -

the yields more than the same amounts supplied as manure. Laboratory nitri-

fication studies showed that not more than one-half of the nitrogen in these

manures became available during the first 6 weeks. This was much slower than

the conversion to nitrate from inorganic sources of nitrogen such as urea and

ammonia.

Microbial Activities

On Arredondo fine sand having a pH of 6.0 and an exchange capacity of

1'.7 me. per 100 grams, Smith, Thornton, Eno and Blue (32) found that the nitri-

fication of anhydrous ammonia was better than equivalent amounts of ammonium

sulfate at rates below the toxic level. Nitrification of anhydrous ammonia

and ammonium hydroxide were about the same, except at rates above 500 pounds

per acre where it appeared that anhydrous ammonia was slightly more toxic to

nitrification than ammonium hydroxide. This toxic effect may be caused by the

active combining properties of anhydrous ammonia. For all the materials tested,

the most nitrate was produced at about 500 pounds per acre of ammonia nitrogen;

higher rates inhibited nitrification.

Eno, Blue, Thornton and Smith (10) found that the nitrification rate of

anhydrous ammonia and ammonium sulfate in Arredondo fine sand was much higher

than in either Klej fine sand or Leon fine sand. They also compared the

nitrification of a solution composed of 66.8 percent ammonium nitrate, 16.6

percent anhydrous ammonia and 16.6 percent water with the nitrification of an-

hydrous ammonia and ammonium sulfate in Arredondo fine sand and found that

this solution nitrified less rapidly than either anhydrous ammonia or ammonium

sulfate. However, there was considerably more nitrate present in soils treated

with this solution, because a part of this solution was ammonium nitrate. A

reduction in the rate of nitrification of this solution might be expected be-

cause of nitrate ------ the end product of nitrification. On the other hand, the

rate of nitrification should be increased because of the increase in pH caused





- 16 -


by the ammonia content.

Smith, Thornton, Ross and Eno (3L) found that Aldrin at rates of 2, h,

8 and 50 pounds per acre and Lindane (gamma isomer of benzenehexachloride) at

rates of 25, 50, 100 and 200 pounds per acre applied to Arredondo fine sand

in the laboratory had no effect on numbers of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes

or on the evolution of carbon dioxide. These insecticides also did not affect

the germination of peas and beans. Aldrin had no effect on the germination

of oats. When treated with 25 or more pounds per acre of lindanereduction of

nitrification was highly significant in Arredondo fine sand; while 50 pounds

or more of this material significantly stimulated ammonification of cottonseed

meal. At the rates used, aldrin had no effect on either nitrification or ammoni-

fication. Lindane at rates of 100 and 200 pounds per acre decreased signifi-

cantly the growth of oats in greenhouse pots.

Smith, Thornton and Eno (31) made a greenhouse screening test of 10 insect-

icides (heptachlor, chlordane, methoxychlor, lindane, aldrin, toxaphene, diel-

drin, TDE, DDT and benzenehexachloride ) added to Arredondo loanm fine sand at

the rate of 12.5, 50 and 100 ppm. of the active ingredients. Benzenehexachloride

at 50 and 100 ppm. reduced the numbers of bacteria and increased the numbers

of fungi in the soil. About a month after application, the opposite effect

was observed.. Plate counts showed little effect on microorganisms from the

other insecticides.

Ross (29) applied DDT, aldrin and chlordane to Arredondo fine sand at rates

of 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 parts per million and found no significant effect on

nitrification. DDT stimulated ammonificatnion and chlordane had a slight effect,

but aldrin showed no effect,

Horn (20) noted that application of DDT to Arredondo fine sand resulted

in significant increases in the numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi;

but the increases were not directly proportional to the amount of DDT applied.





17 -

Applications of chlordane up to 50 ppm. increased the number of bacteria, re-

duced the number of fungi and had no significant effect on the number of ac-

tinomycetes. Aldrin applied at rates of 25 ppm. had no effect on the numbers

of bacteria, whereas 1, 2, h and 25 ppm. increased significantly the actino-

mycete population. Aldrin had little effect on the numbers of fungi.

Thornton (39) found that D-D was a toxic soil treatment and depressed

nitrification for the longest period, uhile EDB and chloropicrin were not as

toxic. The temperature of the soil had little effect on nitrate production.

There was a very rapid recovery of certain original microbial species or new

introductions of microbes quickly established themselves. This made respiration

studies of little value in studying the effects of fumigants on soil population.

Eno (7) made a laboratory study of nitrate production rates from 11 or-

ganic and inorganic sources of nitrogen during a six months period using

Arredondo fine sand. The original pH of the soils was 5.5. All soils received

calcium carbonate at the rate of 2000 ppm. Each source was added at rates

equivalent to 200 ppm. of nitrogen. The amount of conversion of the applied

nitrogen was calculated after subtracting the nitrate produced in the soil

without added nitrogen. In the six months period, between h0 and 6h percent

of the organic nitrogen and 65 and 82 percent of the inorganic nitrogen was

converted to nitrate.

Eno and Popenoe (11) found that the percentage survival of bacteria and

fungi in Arredondo fine sand exposed to gamma radiation decreased with each

increase in radiation dose to less than h percent at 1,02h kr. Bacteria re-

covered much more rapidly and completely from irradiation than the fungi.

After one month, the numbers of bacteria in the soil irradiated at the high-
gt
est level greatly exceed the bacterial population in tie control. Algae were

not reduced in numbers as much as bacteria and fungi and some survived at 2,018

kr. Two days after irradiation with 1,02L kr., few nematodes remained in the






18 -

soil. Nitrate production decreased with each increase in dose of irrad)htion.

Carbon dioxide evolution and production of sulfate from elemental sulfur were

also reduced by irradiation.

Smith, Thornton and Killinger (33) studied the effects of soil-borne

organisms, seed-borne organisms and contaminants in commercial humus cultures

in a greehnouse experiment using virgin Arredondo fine sand and Alta bitter

blue lupine. The results showed that a pure culture lupine root-nodule bac-

teria gave a highly significant increase in the yield of lupine compared to

commercial humus culture. An application of clover-gras. hay at the rate of

four tons per acre significantly reduced the yields of I:.-.neon non-sterile

soil, greatly reduced nodulation of lupine plants inoculated with a commercial

humus culture, but had no effect when a pure culture was used. When grown on

soil which had been fumigated for three years consecutively with D-D and Dow-WJ

40, beans were poorly nodulated. The nodules were small in size, dull in color

and found mainly on the lateral roots; while plants grown on soils which were

not fumigated were well-nodulated and the nodules were larger in size, brighter

in color and distributed on both the tap and lateral roots.

Eno and Blue (9) compared the nitrification rates of Arredondo fine sand

for 28 days using various amounts of anhydrous ammonia, ammonium sulfate and

ammonium sulfate plus two tons of calcium carbonate per acre. They found

that nitrification proceeded best at 291 ppm. for anhydrous ammonia and ammo-

nium sulfate uith lime. The ammonium sulfate without lime was nitrified at a

low rate. The applications at 570 and 762 ppm. were nitrified at a very low

rate.

Eno (5) found that the rate of nitrification in soil contained in poly-

ethylene bags was equal to that contained in ventilated bottles, but no ni-

trate diffused through the polyethylene bags in 2h weeks. Field studies on

Arredondo fine sand showed that soil temperatures above freezing varied suffi-






19 -

ciently to result in considerable changes in the rate of nitrate production.

Eno and Blue (8) studied the effect of anhydrous ammonia on nitrification

and the microbiological population in Arredondo loamy fine sand. When applied

at rates of 100 and 250 pounds of nitrogen per acre, the numbers of fungi,

bacteria and actinomycetes were decreased. They concluded that none of the

changes are likely to disturb permanently the ecological balance in the soil.

Placement of Nutrients

Blue and Eno (1) made a study of the effects of variations in soil mois-

ture and pH on retention of anhydrous ammonia by Arredondo loamy fine sand,

and found that both moisture content and pH affected the retention of ammonia.

Arredondo soil, with relatively high exchange capacities and pH values near

5.5 held large amounts of ammonia. Losses during application were probably

negligible. Low moisture content, high pH and low exchange capacity was the

poorest combination for retention of ammonia. Sweeps welded to the knife-

type injectors made lateral openings in the soil which allowed the ammonia to

come in contact with a greater volume of soil and increased absorption.

The distance of movement of ammonia was relatively small. The capacity

for retention of ammonia by most soils was rather large. The actual concen-

tration in the soil near the injector row was in excess of 10 times the per

acre rate. Field retention of ammonia was found to be quite variable among

soils and the loss of ammonia may be as much as 75 percent on the coarser,

sandy soils. In some cases this loss may prevent the economical use of anhy-

drous ammonia.

Blue and Eno (2) studied the retention of anhydrous ammonia in sandy soil

and found that Arredondo loamy fine sand held 893 ppm. of ammonia nitrogen by

the laboratory procedure at 10 percent moisture. A field sample contained

7hSppm. of ammonia nitrogen which showed that the retentive capacity of the

soil was approached at the point of injection. At l.4 percent moisture the





20 -

percentage of retention was only 30 percent of the amount at 10 percent mois-

ture using the 100 pound rate of application.

Retention and Levels of Boron

Winsor (43) applied borax to Arredondo loamy fine sand at rates of 0, 100,

h00 and 1600 pounds per acre. After four months, analysis of the boiling water

extractable boron showed penetration into the subsoil of Arredondo loamy fine

sand. The maximum amount from the 100 pound rate was found in the 21 to 28-

inch depth. The maximum amount was not found at the 3h to k2-inch depth until

2h months after application of the borax.

In Arredondo loamy fine sand, Winsor (l1) found that the penetration of

boron was rather rapid for ki months and portions of a one pound application on

the surface were detected by soil analysis from the 35 to h2 inch depth. Dur-

ing an 11i month period, penetration continued but at a reduced rate. There

was a large loss of boron from the topsoil, but the fine-textured subsoil re-

tarded further penetration. From an application of 100 pounds of borax per acre,

65 percent of the boron was retained in the 0 to 42 inch zone.

Winsor (42) noted that hogging-off of corn and peanuts for 12 consecutive

years on Arredondo fine sand either maintained or increased the boiling-water

extractable boron; but where the soil was planted to crotalaria every second

year through the 12-year period and the crotalaria plowed under before the crop

of corn and peanuts, the boron was increased an average of t7.3 percent. This

result was obtained without the use of lime, fertilizer or other minor elements.

Samplings of Arredondo loamy fine sand throughout the rainy season remained con-

stant at 0.17 ppm. of boron, while the boron in this soil decreased to 0.1 and

0.12 ppm. in the dry months when plants most often exhibit boron-deficiency

symptoms.

Winsor (kI) found that the growth of Jackson soybeans on Arredondo fine

sand was from poor to medium at 0.06 ppm. of boron, but maximum heights and





21 -

yields were obtained at 0.12 ppm. He (45) also found that butterbeans and Ford-

hook limas failed in 1959 with native boron at 0.08 ppm., but yielded well in

1960 with boron supplemented to 0.12 and 0.17 ppm. on Arredondo fine sand.

Fertility Experiments

Pastures: Ruelke (30) established plots of Pensacola and Argentine bahia-

grass, Coastal and Suwannee bermudagrass and pangolagrass on Arredondo loamy

fine sand on the Agronomy Farm at Gainesville, Florida. The effect of three

rates of nitrogen (100, 200 and 00 pounds per acre) and two management treat-

ments (continuous grazing, simulated by cutting, and reserved grazing, simu-

lated by leaving a cover of grass in the fall) were studied.

The results showed that the total annual yield of forage was essentially

the same on plots which were cut continuously as on those plots which produced

reserve forage. Under similar management and fertilizer treatments, there was

little difference between the productive capacity of the various grasses. The

yield of grasses was nearly doubled when nitrogen was increased from 100 to

400 pounds per acre. The greatest response to nitrogen occurred when the rates

were increased from 122 to 200 pounds per acre. Increasing nitrogen to 400

pounds gave smaller increases in the yield of forage. Increasing the rates of

nitrogen usually increased the amount of winter injury in pangolagrass. Despite

this fact, an application of nitrogen up to 200 pounds per acre annually pro-

duced more forage at the first cutting of pangolagrass than where 100 pounds

of nitrogen were used. Winter injury occurred in bermudagrass and bahiagrass

which received high rates of nitrogen, but these grasses were able to recover

without serious reductions in yield.

In an experiment on Arredondo loamy fine sand, Hoveland and McCloud (23)

found that the yield of forage increased as pearlmillet was permitted to grow

taller before clipping. The yield continued to be high over a longer period

of time with taller growing plants. Frequent cutting decreased the yield





22 -

throughout the season. When clipped at 12, 18 or 30 inches tall, height of the

stubble had no influence on the yield of plants. For plants 5h inches tall,

forage yield decreased as the cutting height was increased. In general, the

protein decreased as the plants were permitted to grow taller before clipping.

The height of stubble had little influence on the content of protein. It

was concluded that close grazing does not materially reduce forage yield or

protein content. The main factor affecting yield and protein content was the

height of the plants when grazing was begun.

Working with pot cultures, Harris, Clark and Gilman (17) found that sul--

fur in the fertilizer doubled the forage yield of oats. Without sulfur in

the fertilizer, the plants were a pronounced yellow color similar to symptoms

of nitrogen deficiency. Leaving phosphorus out of the fertilizer had no appar-

ent effect on the yield or growth of the oats.

Good and Blue (13) noted that the yields of Ladino clover were reduced

and plants were severely injured by the sting nematode Belonoleimus gracilis,

and yields were slightly reduced when Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was associated

with the sting nematode. It was concluded that the progressive decline in

yields and plant densities during the late summer was found to be associated

with plant parasitic nematodes and to a lesser extent with S. sclerotiorum.

Ladino clover in the check treatment remained vigorous during the late summer.

West and Prine (hO) studied the effect of climate on the carbohydrate

level in alfalfa and found that the total carbohydrate content of the roots

decreased in the summer from h0 to lh percent. They concluded that the fail-

ure of alfalfa to persist in Florida may be due to the long duration of warm

night and day temperatures. Alfalfa cut at the h-inch height had a cooler

microclimate and a higher carbohydrate content of the roots than when cut at

a 2-inch height.

Choate, McCloud and Hammond (3) conducted a pasture irrigation experiment





23 -
on Arredondo loamy fine sand near Gainesville which involved four depths of

wetting, two soil moistures ranges and four pasture species. The zone of

moisture withdrawal varied with the species. White clover withdrew little

moisture beyond a depth of twelve inches, whereas Hubam, bahiagrass and

pangolagrass withdrew some moisture to a depth of twenty-four inches. The

yield was greater for most of the species when moisture tensions were main-

tained at 200 cm. than at tensions of 800 cm. When irrigation was con-

trolled by tension measurements in the 18 to 2h inch zone, yields were only

slightly greater than the yields from the non-irrigation treatment. The

irrigation treatments did not extend the growth period of the clovers.

In a study of nutrient movement in St. Augustine grass growing on

Arredondo fine sand, Robertson (27) noted that movement was greatest in

the direction of moisture stress. Phosphorus moved away from and back to

the mother plant, but calcium did not move in the runners regardless of

moisture stress. Nitrogen movement was greatest away from the mother plant.

Pritchett and Nolan (26) grew coastal bermudagrass on Arredondo loamy

fine sand which was fertilized with various sources of potassium. They

found that finely divided materials of less than 35-mesh and of low water

solubility became available at a sufficiently rapid rate in the soil to

supply potassium to the plant in amounts equivalent to that from soluble

sources' (PL and K2SOh). In a short term experiment, increasing the size

of the particles decreased the crop yield and potassium uptake from soluble

materials as well as those of low water solubility. In a long term green-

house lysimeter experiment, leaching losses of potassium from KCL were 31

times as much as from slowly soluble sources such as IPO3 and K2CaP207.

Yields of the three crops increased as the size of the particles increased.

This was especially true for the slowly soluble materials, where the slower

rate of availability resulted in more uniform yields for the three successive






- 24-


crops.

Corn: Homer, McCloud and Wofford (21) studied the effect of nitrogen

on corn yields and found that applicationsof nitrogen greater than 200 pounds

per acre failed to produce significantly higher yields, even with high popu-

lations. When spacing was varied at high nitrogen rates, yields of corn

leveled off at about 17,000 plants per acre. Four or five inches of supple-

mental irrigation in May and June did not increase the yield of corn sig-

nificantly. Early March plantings produced higher yields than late March

or mid-April planting. It was recommended that farmers plant less than

13,000 plants per acre on soil of good fertility unless they are entering

a corn growing contest. Nitrogen applications in excess of 100 to 130

pounds per acre (including that from a leguminous green manure crop) probably

would not be economical.

Harris, Bledsoe and Clark (16) grew corn on Arredondo loamy fine sand

in a greenhouse experiment and found that corn with a complete fertilizer

including the micronutrients appeared to grow normally. Where zinc was

not in the fertilizer, white bud developed; but all plants were not affected

and the affected plants tended to grow out of this condition. Without sulfur

in the fertilizer, the corn developed a fine stripe when it was about 5 inches

tall. As the plants grew, the stripes disappeared rather quickly and the corn

became a pale yellow color with the base and mid-ribs of the plants a pur-

plish color. Without zinc or sulfur, there was a significant decrease in

yield. In the second harvest from the same experiment, the lack of zinc

had no effect on the yield; but the lack of sulfur gave a highly significant

decrease in the yield of corn.

Using Arredondo fine sand, Robertson, Schroder, Lundy and Prine (28)

studied the effect of carbon dioxide on the yield of corn. In this experi-

ment, corn plants were grown in fiberglass-walled enclosures 8 feet square








and 8 feet high in which CO2 was released from tanks at rates up to one liter

per minute. Carbon dioxide at one liter per minute increased the yield of

corn 15 bushels per acre which was about equal to the drop in yield caused

by the enclosures. Chicken manure applied at the rate of 45 tons per acre

in the enclosures increased the yield 11 bushels per acre, but none of

these increases in yield were significant.

Oats: Harris and Gilman (18) grew oats on Arredondo fine sand using

complete and incomplete fertilizer treatments. The results show that nitrogen

and sulfur had a pronounced effect on the yield of oats. An application of

magnesium sulfate corrected in ten days the yellow color in oats due to sulfur

deficiency. Lime and phosphorus had no effect on yields even though no fer-

tilizer treatments had been applied to this soil since 1930. Nitrogen and

sulfur had an inverse effect on the chemical composition of the oats. That

is, suWfur decreased the nitrogen content while nitrogen decreased the per-

centage of sulfur.

Harris, Bledsoe and Clark (16) conducted field experiments on Arredondo

loamy fine sand and found that copper in the fertilizer materially increased

the yield of oats, which showed marked deficiency symptoms when copper was

not in the treatment. A small amount of copper was sufficient and a spray

was effective on oats. In one case, oats developed "grey speck" in an over-

limed situation. The overliming injury was corrected by an application of

manganese.

Lupine: Harris, Bledsoe and Clark (16) planted blue lupine on Arredondo

loamy fine sand and observed that copper gave a highly significant increase

in the yield of lupine. In general, an application of an element tended to

increase the percentage composition of that element in the plant. They con-

cluded that many factors influence the composition of a plant; but the results

indicated that unbalanced nutritional conditions, such as may occur in Florida,


- 25 -





26 -

materially affected the chemical composition of plants.

Peanuts: Harris and Bledsoe (15) found that an application of copper
chloride to Arredondo loamy fine sand greatly increased the yield of Dixie

Runner, G-FA Spanish and Alabama Runner peanuts. The copper treatment improved

the grades of the peanuts by decreasing shrivels and increasing the size or

number of plump and sound nuts. Analysis of the plump and sound nuts indicated

that the copper treatment had no effect on the content of oil and nitrogen.

Copper sulfate applied in 1942 produced a pronounced beneficial residual
effect on the yield of Dixie Runner peanuts planted in 1945.

In a field experiment conducted on Arredondo loamy fine sand, Harris,
Schroder and Clark (19) found that close spacing was more effective on increas-

ing yields than fertilizer; but, at close spacings, fertilizer had an appre-

ciable effect on yield. Early Runner peanuts grown with fertilizer in close-

ly spaced rows produced the highest yield and grade of peanuts, with a yield

of 4,759 pounds per acre.

Vegetables: In a study conducted on Arredondo'soil, Jamison (24) noted

a very definite increase in yield of vegetables with irrigation. One-half
inch every six days was found to be satisfactory except for sweet corn, which

showed maximum increases with larger amounts of water. The weight and number

of ears of sweet corn increased as the amount of water applied increased.

With no irrigation, 10,708 ears per acre were produced; but with frequent water-

ing the number of ears increased to 28,344. Green beans with no irrigation

yielded only 24 bushels per acre, but with a heavy rate applied in split appli-

cationsthe yield was 291 bushels per acre.

It was also observed that aphid infestation and several important diseases

were more severe on the non-irrigated than on the irrigated crops.

Tung Trees: Drosdoff (4) noted that on some soils, such as the Arredondo

series, it was difficult to correct zinc deficiency of young tung trees by





27 -
applications of zinc sulfate to the soil. Generally a soil application of

2 ounces per tree was sufficient to control zinc deficiency, but in some cases

this did not give satisfactory control. In these instances it was necessary

to spray the trees with a mixture of 8 pounds of zinc sulfate plus 8 pounds of

hydrated lime in 100 gallons of water. Plantings of tung trees on newly cleared

land of the Arredondo series have shown severe zinc-deficiency symptoms.

Copper deficiency on tung trees has been reported on Arredondo sand and

loamy fine sand. About one ounce of copper sulfate per tree applied to the

soil was recommended to control copper deficiency of young tung trees. Soil

applications of copper sulfate often did not control copper deficiency, es-

pecially for the first two or three years of growth. Complete control was

obtained by spraying with a mixture of 8 pounds of copper sulfate plus 8 pounds

of hydrated lime in 100 gallons of water.

Manganese deficiency of tung trees has been observed on Arredondo loamy

fine sand. A soil application of 2 pounds of manganese sulfate per tree was

required to control the deficiency. Generally, when there was only a slight

manganese deficiency, 2 to 4 ounces of manganese sulfate per tree per year ap-

plied to the soil was sufficient. It has not been demonstrated that the con-

trol of slight manganese deficiency symptoms increased yield.







- 28 -


LITERATURE CITED
1. Blue, W. G. and Eno, C. F. Some aspects of the use of anhydrous ammonia
on sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 12: 157-164. 1952.

2. Blue, W. G. and Eno, C. F. Distribution and retention of anhydrous
ammonia in sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 18: 420-424. 1954.

3. Choate, R. E., McCloud, D. E. and Hammond, L. C. Depth and frequency
of supplemental irrigation of pastures. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc.
12: 143-153. 1952.

4. Drosdoff, M. Effect of soil type and fertilizer treatment on minor
element nutrition of tung trees. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc.
14: 37-46. 1954.

5. Eno, C. F. Nitrate production in the field by incubating soil in
polyethylene bags. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 24: 277-279. 1960.

6. Eno, C. F. The value of chicken manure as a fertilizer. State Project
759. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 176. 1961.

7. Eno, C. F. Nitrification in Florida soils. State Project 771. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 177. 1961.

8. Eno, C. F. and Blue, W. G. The effect of anhydrous ammonia on nitrifi-
cation and the microbiological population in sandy soils. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Amer. 18: 178-181. 1954.

9. Eno, C. F. and Blue, W. G. The comparative rate of nitrification of
anhydrous ammonia, urea, and ammonium sulfate in sandy soils. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Amer. 21: 392-396. 1957.
10. Eno, C. F., Blue, W. G., Thorntong G. D. and Smith, F. B. Interrelation-
ship of microbiological action in soils and cropping systems in Florida.
State Project 328. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 140. 1955.

11. Eno, C. F. and Popenoe, H. The effects of gamma radiation on soil
microorganisms, their metabolic processes and.the fertility of the soil.
State Project 1059. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 186. 1961.

12. Gammon, N., Jr., Henderson, J. R., Carrigan, R. A., Caldwell, R. E.,
Leighty, R. G. and Smith, F. B. Physical, spectographic and chemical
analyses of some virgin Florida soils. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull.
524. 1953.

13. Good, J. M., Jr. and Blue, W. G. Relationships between plant parasitic
nematodes, pathogenic fungi, and ladino clover yields in experimental
pot studies. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 14: 159-166. 1954.

14. Hammond, L. C. and Popenoe, H. L. Soil moisture measurement for timing
irrigation. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 154-164. 1955.






- 29 -


15. Harris, H. C. and Bledsoe, R. W. Nutrition and physiology of the peanut.
R. M. A. Project 488. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 52. 1949.

16. Harris, H. C., Bledsoe, R. W. and Clark, Fred. The influence of
micronutrients and sulfur on the yields of certain crops. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. Proc. lh: 63-80. 1954.

17. Harris, H. C., Clark, F. and Gilman, R. L. Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B,
S, and Mg on the growth of grain crops, forage crops, pastures and
tobacco. Bankhead-Jones Project 4h0. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report. p. 46. 1994.

18. Harris, H. C. and Gilman, R. L. Effect of mineral deficiencies on
yield and chemical nature of certain crops. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 16: 198-220. 1956.

19. Harris, H. C., Schroder, V. N. and Clark, Fred. Nutrition and physi-
ology of the peanut. Hatch Project 488. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report p. 49. 1960.

20. Horn, G. C. The effect of certain insecticides on the flora of Arre-
dondo fine sand. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 12: 62-67. 1952.

21. Horner, E. S., McCloud, D. E. and Wofford, I. M. Plant populations
and nitrogen fertilization for field corn in north Florida. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 19: 197-208. 1959.

22. Houston, T. B., Hazen, M. W. Jr., Mathews, T. C. and Brown, 0. A.
Soil survey of Suwannee County, Florida. U. S. Dept. of Agr. SCS and
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. In press.

23. Hoveland, C. S. and McCloud, D. E. Plant management influences forage
yield. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 240-243. 1955.

24. Jamison, F. S. Irrigation of vegetablesin Florida. Soil Sc~. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 15: 173-175. 1955.

25. Leighty, R. G., Carlisle, V. W., Cruz, 0. E., Walker, J. H., Beem, J.,
Caldwell, R. E. Cromartie, J. B., Huber, J. S., Mathews, E. D., Millsap,
Z. T. Soil Survey of Hillsborough County, Florida. U. S. Dept. of
Agr. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1958.

26. Pritchett, W. L. and Nolan, C. N. The effects of particle size and
rate of solution on the availability of potassium materials. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 20: 1L6-153. 1960.

27. Robertson, W. K. Nutrient Movement in St. Augustine grass. Non-projected
study. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 188. 1961.

28. Robertson, W. K., Schroder, V. N., Lundy, H. W. and Prine, G. M.
Carbon dioxide, as it affects corn yields. The Soil and Cro4 Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 21: 229-237. 1961.







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29. Ross, H. F. Effects of DDT, chlordane and aldrin on nitrification
and ammonification in Arredondo fine sand. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
Proc. 12: 58-61. 1952.

30. Ruelke, 0. C. Fertility as a limiting factor for pastures in Florida.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 20: 23-28. 1960.

31. Smith, F. B., Thornton, G. D. and Eno, C. F. Effect of certain insecti-
cides on microbiological action in soils. State Project 614. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 149. 1955.

32. Smith, F. B., Thornton, G. D., Eno, C. F. and Blue, W. G. Interrela-
tionship of microbiological action in soils and cropping systems in
Florida. State Project 328. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 13$.
1953.

33. Smith, F. B., Thornton, G. D. and Killinger, G. B. Factors affecting
the growth of legume bacteria and nodule development. Bankhead-Jones
Project 368. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 12$. 1952.

34. Smith, F. B., Thornton, G. D., Ross, H. F. and Eno, C. F. Effect of
certain insecticides on microbiological action in soils. State Project
614. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 146. 1953.

3$. Stokes, W. E., Barnette, R. M., and Hester, J. B. Effects of summer
cover crops on crop yields and on the soil. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
301. 1936.

36. Stokes, W. E., Camp, J. P. and Richey, G. E. Crop rotation studies
with coztn, cotton, crotalaria and Austrian peas. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report p. 27. 1934.

37. Taylor, A. E., Leighty, R. G., karco, M. B., Lounsbury, C., Henderson,
J. R. and Gall, 0. E. Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida. U. S.
Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1994.

38. Thomas, B. P., Weeks, H. H. and Hazen, M. W., Jr. Soil survey of
Gadsden County, Florida. U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. 1961.

39. Thornton, G. D. Some effects of D-D, EDB and Chloropicrin on micro-
biological action in several Florida soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
Proc. 12: 68-71. 1952.

40. West, S. H. and Prine, G. M. Alfalfa persistence studies. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 20: 93-98. 1960.

41. Winsor, H. W. Retention and utilization of boron in Florida soils.
State Project 433. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 102. 1947.

42. Winsor, H. W. Retention and utilization of boron in Florida soils.
State Project 433. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 108. 1951.





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43. Winsor, H. W. Penetration and loss of heavy applications of borax
in Florida mineral soils. Soil Sci. 74: 459-466. 1952.
14. Winsor, H. W. Levels of boron in Florida soils. State Project 785.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 154. 1957.

h5. Winsor, H. W. Levels of boron in Florida soils. State Project 785.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 154. 1960.




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