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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Descriptions and extent of correlated...
 Management of crops on Norfolk...
 Management of pastures on Norfolk...
 Fertility and lime experiments...
 Effect of management on the chemical...
 Physical, chemical, and spectrographic...
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091550/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Norfolk soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Norfolk soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 63-1 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 30, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Leighty, R. G.
Caldwell, R. E.
Carlisle, V. W.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: September 1, 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 32-34).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "September 1, 1962."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091550
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310172964

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Introduction 2
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Descriptions and extent of correlated Norfolk soils in counties
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Management of crops on Norfolk soils
        Page 10
        Section
        Section
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Management of pastures on Norfolk soils
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Fertility and lime experiments on Norfolk soils
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Effect of management on the chemical content of Norfolk loamy fine sand
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Physical, chemical, and spectrographic analyses of some Norfolk soils
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Literature cited
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text


,c 636 6

DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 63-1 SEPTEMBER 1, 1962








BENCHMARK SOILS: NORFOLK SOILS OF FLORIDA








by


L. G. Thompson,
R. E. Caldwell


Jr., R. G. Leighty,
and V. W. Carlisle


Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville
/^2E^


1963







CONTENTS


Introduction..............................................................

General Characterization of the Series.....*........................I

Geology and Physiography*..........................................*1

Official Series Description........................................*2

Descriptions and Extent of Correlated Norfolk Soils in Counties..........6

Management of Crops on Norfolk Soils.......*............................10

Superior Management Practices for Best Yields of Crops.............11

Effect of Cropping and Management Practices on the Soil............12

Erosion Control........ ............. *..................*** ......** *14

Irrigation.......................................................... 15

Management of Pastures on Norfolk Soils.................................1

Fertility and Lime Experiments on Norfolk Soils.........................19

Sources of Nitrogen on Corn......................................19

Lime on Field Crops................................... ..... .** 19

Deep Placement of Nutrients in Norfolk Soils.......................19

Surface Placement of Nutrients on Norfolk Soils....................21

Effect of Management on the Chemical Content of Norfolk Loamy Fine Sand.24

Physical, Chemical, and Spectrographic Analyses of Some Norfolk Soils...29

Literature Cited............. .......................*****************.32









BENCHMARK SOILS: NORFOLK SOILS OF FLORIDA
Department of Soils Mimeograph Report 63-1 September 1, 1962

by

L.G. Thompson, Jr., R.G. Leighty
R.E. Caldwell and V.W. Carlisle

INTRODUCTION

General Characterization of the Series

The Norfolk series consists of deep, well-drained, Red-Yellow Podzolic

soils. They are strongly acid soils and occur on uplands in nearly level to

strongly sloping areas. These soils developed from thick beds of acid

sandy loam and sandy clay loam materials. They are commonly associated with

Ruston, Orangeburg, Goldsborq Lakeland and Tifton soils. Their subsoil is

yellow to brownish-yellow instead of yellowish-red or strong brown like that

in Ruston soils, or red as occurs in Orangeburg soils. Norfolk soils are

deeper to mottling and better drained than Goldsboro soils. They have finer-

textured subsoil than the Lakeland soils. Tifton soils contain many iron

pebbles and commonly have slightly finer-textured subsoils than the Norfolk

soils. The native vegetation consists of long-leaf and loblolly pines,

hickory, various oaks, shrubs and wiregrass. Norfolk soils have a medium

internal drainage and a medium surface runoff. Permeability is moderately

rapid to rapid in the sandy surface layers and moderate in the subsoil.

These soils are well aerated and have good tilth. They have a high

moisture-holding capacity, retain plant nutrients well and respond well to

fertilization. On the level to gentle slopes, they are well-adapted to a

large variety of cultivated crops,

Geology and Physiography

The Norfolk series consists of well-drained, well-developed soils that








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formed under forest vegetation in a climate that ranges from tropical humid

to warm temperate humid. They are zonal soils that reflect the influence

of the active factors .of soil genesis, such as climate and living organisms,

They generally occur on the divides between streams and are associated with

a wide range of slopes, but the largest percentage occurs on level to very

gently sloping topography.

During the early soil survey nearly all of the well-drained yellow

soils were included with the Norfolk series. As detailed mapping progressed,

the yellow, thick sandy soils were separated from those with a sandy loam or

sandy clay subsoils and recognized as the Lakeland series. Since that time

the Norfolk series has been described as soils having sandy loam or sandy

clay loam horizons within 30 inches of the surface.


Official Series Description

The Norfolk series consists of well-drained, Red-Yellow Podzolic soils

formed from unconsolidated stratified marine sediments, dominantly of inter-

mediate texture. These soils occur chiefly on the Upper and Middle terraces

of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. They are most commonly associated

With the Marlboro, Tifton, Ruston, Gilead, Orangeburg, Lakeland, Kershaw,

and Kensnsville soils and less frequently with the Bowie, Blanton, Susquehanna,

Boswell, Cuthbert, Caroline, and Shubuta series. Norfolk soils most closely

resemble the Marlboro, Tifton, and Kenansville series. They have thicker

A horizons, more friable B horizons, and sandier solums than do Marlboro soils.

They have lighter and less brown colors, less clayey B horizons, and fewer

concretions throughout the profile than Tifton soils. They have thicker,

finer-textured B horizons and greater depth of solum than Kenansville soils.








-3-
Norfolk soils may also grade into the Bowie, Gilead, Ruston and Lakeland

series. They lack the yellowish-red and red spots in the upper B horizon

(top 12 inches) normal to the Bowie soils, which also have finer-textured C

horizons. Compared with the Gilead series, Norfolk soils have much more

friable lower B horizons and coarser-textured C horizons. The B horizons

are yellow in color in Norfolk profiles as compared with yellowish-red

in Ruston soils. The series has been derived from less sandy sediments

than the Lakeland series, which has a lower degree of horizonation and is

sandier to greater depth. In drainage and general nature of parent materials,

Norfolk soils parallelthe Sassafras series of the North Altantic Coastal

Plain. The later, however, are thought to be less weathered and are con-

sidered members of the Gray-Brown Podzolic group intergrading to Red-Yellow

Podzolic soils. The Norfolk series is one of the most widely distributed

and extensive series in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and is also important in

the eastern half of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Used for a wide variety of

crops, the soils are of major agricultural importance.


Soil profile: Norfolk fine sandy loam-cultivated

Ap 0-6" Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy loam, often with "salt and
pepper" appearance because of white sand grains; weak fine and
very fine crumb structure; slightly hard when dry, very friable
when moist; many fine roots; abrupt smooth boundary. h to 8
inches thick.

A2 6-16" Light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/h) fine sandy loam with weak fine
crumb structure; very friable; roots numerous; some organic mater
in old root channels; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. 7 to
lh inches thick.

B1 16-20" Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) heavy fine sandy loam with weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary. 2 to 6 inches thick.

B2 20-32" Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam with weak medium







-L-

subangular blocky structure; faint patchy clay films on ped
faces; friable; roots common, some organic matter in old root
channels; strongly acid; gradual, irregular boundary. 12 to
14 inches thick.

B3 32-42" Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) to brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) heavy
fine sandy loam with few faint fine mottles of pale yellow; very
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; strongly acid;
gradual, irregular boundary. h to 12 inches thick.

C 42-h8" Light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine sandy loam mottled with
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and gray (10YR 6/1); mottles are
medium, common, distinct; strong brown mottles more common than
gray ones; massive; friable; strongly acid. Several feet thick.

Range in Characteristics

Principal types in the series are sandy loams and loamy sands. Where

the A horizon is between 18 and 30 inches thick, the soil is classified as

a thick surface phase, whereas no phase designation is used for profiles

with A horizons less than 18 inches thick. If the surface layer of sandy

sediments is more than 30 inches thick, the whole profile is commonly

sandier and has a lower degree of horizonation. A depth of 30 inches of

sandy sediments is therefore used as the approximate limit between the

Norfolk and Lakeland series where the two occur in association. In un-

disturbed forested areas, the profile includes A00 and AO horizons and an

Al horizon 1 to 3 inches thick which is dark gray (N h/0) to gray (5Y 5/1)

in color. The A2 horizon is then proportionately thicker as well. In texture

of the B2 horizon, the central concept of the series is placed in the lower

range of sandy clay loam. The texture range may extend into the lower part

of the sandy clay class and into sandy loams marginal to sandy clay loam.

Structure grade of the B2 horizon is commonly weak but may be moderate.

Small rounded quartz pebbles are present on the surface and throughout the

profile in places. Small rounded iron concretions may also be present in

the profile, especially where Norfolk and Tifton soils are associated.

Because it consists of stratified materials, the C horizon has variable










-5-

patterns in texture. Textures may be sand in one bed, and sandy clay in

the next. Colors are equally variable, though most C horizons are mottled

appreciably. Mottles are largely strong brown to red in color. Colors

given are for moist conditions. When soil is dry, values are one or two

units higher.


TLocjLraphy

Gently rolling to nearly level uplands (mildly dissected marine terraces)

with common slope ranges of 1 to $ percent and an extreme range of 0 to 15

percent.


Drai- nage _and er. rmability

Well-drained with medium to slow runoff and medium internal drainage.


Vegetat '*)

Longleaf, shortleaf, and loblolly pines and a few red oak, hickory,

dogwood, sweetgum and holly.

Use

Mostly cleared and in cultivation. The principal crops are cotton,

corn, peanuts, tobacco, watermelons, cantaloupes, wheat, oats, rye, velvet-

beans, soybeans, cowpeas, pecans, grapes, sugarcane, hay, and various

vegetables. Norfolk soils are among the best in the Atlantic Coastal Plain

for the production of bright leaf tobacco.


Distribution

North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,

Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and east Texas.










Type Location

Duplin County, North Carolina; 4 miles southeast of Warsaw.

Series established

Cecil County, Maryland, 1900.


Remarks

One of the first recognized in soil surveys in the USA, the Norfolk

series was long allowed wide ranges in texture, drainage, and degree of

horizonation. Over the years, mainly after 1920, the allowable range was

narrowed by recognition of the Marlboro, Bowie, Gilead, and other series.

The permissible range was further restricted in 1948 by the establishment of

the Laihland and Kershaw series (Ableiter, SSSA Proc. 14: 320-322) which

were set apart to include soils derived from sands with low degrees of

horizonation. With the gradual restriction in concept, the Norfolk series

is no longer being recognized in Cecil County, Maryland.

National Cooperative Soil Survey, USA
Rev. 10-17-56


DESCRIPTIONS AND EXTENT OF CORRELATED NORFOLK SOILS IN COUNTIES

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage and proportion-

ate extent of various mapping units of the Norfolk series appear in current

soil surveys:
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 0-2 percent
slope, Gadsden County, Florida (9)


Soil profile:

Al 0 to 2 inches. Dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand; weak, very fine,
crumb structure: very friable; many fine and common
medium roots; medium content of organic matter;
strongly acid; boundary abrupt and smooth.








-7 -


Am 2-8 inches



As 8-13 inches




B, 13-16 inches




Ba 16-47 inches



Bai 47-53 inches







Bs 53-64 inches






C 64-85 inches +


Gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; weak, fine, crumb
structure; very friable; many fine and common medium
roots; common fine root channels; strongly acid;
boundary clear and smooth.
Pale-brown (10YR 6/3) loamy fine sand; weak, fine,
crumb structure; very friable; common fine roots
and very few medium roots; few fine root channels;
few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary clear and
wavy

Brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sandy loam; moderate,
fine, subangular blocky structure that breaks readily
to moderate, coarse, crumb structure; friable; few
fine roots and very few fine root channels; common
fine pores; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.

Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam,
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
few fine roots and root channels; common fine pores;
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.

Yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sandy clay loam with common,
medium, .'aint, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles
and few, medium, distinct, yellowish-red (5YR 6/8)
mottles and few, medium, distinct, yellowish-red
(5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; very few fine root channels;
few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary gradual and
wavy.

Yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sandy clay loam with common,
medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles,
few, medium, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/1) mottles,
and few, common, prominent, slightly firm, red
(10R 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine pores; strongly
acid; boundary gradual and irregular.

Mottles white (N 8/0), red (10R 4/8), and reddish-
yellow (7.5YR 7/8) sandy clay loam; moderate, medium,
subangular blocky structure; friable; strongly acid.


The surface soil may range from fine sandy loam to loamy sand. The

subsoil usually is a friable fine sandy clay loam, but some areas are not as

friable and finer-textured as others. Mottles occur at a depth of 42 inches,

but some areas have strong brown and yellowish-red mottled at a depth of 24








-8-

to 30 inches. In these areas the subsoil is normally reddish-yellow at depths

below 30 inches. In some areas the depth to the parent material is slightly

less than 48 inches. This soil has a well-aerated root zone that extends

to the mottled material. It has a moderately high exchange capacity. The

moisture holding capacity of the surface soil is moderate and that of the

subsoil is high. This soil has a moderate amount of organic matter and has

good tilth.

Slopes mostly vary from 0 to 5 percent with a ferw slopes up to 12

percent.


Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Norfolk soils mapped in
Gadsden County, Florida (9).

Acreage Percent
Norfolk Loamy fine sand:

0-2% slopes 4,435 1.4
2-3% Slopes 5,973 1.3
2-5% slopes, eroded 2,006 .6
5-8% slopes 876 .3
5-0% slopes, eroded 1,004 .3
8-12% slopes 204 .1
pebbly, 0-2% slopes 1,818 .6
pebbly, 2-5% slopes 1,253 .4
pebbly, 2-5% slopes, eroded 469 .1

Norfolk loamy sand, thick surfaces:

0-2% slopes 3,286 1.0
2-5% slopes 4,512 1.4
5-8% slopes 1,056 .3
8-12% slopes 233 .1
pebbly, 0-2% slopes 561 .2
pebbly, 2-5% slopes 777 .2
pebbly, 5-8% slopes 264 .1

Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase, Escambia County, Florida (27)


Profile description:

0-5 inches. Grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak fine crumb
structure.










5-12 inches.


12-18 inches.


18-32 inches.


32-42 inches.


-9-

Yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak fine crumb
structure.

Brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; friable; weak, medium,
subangular blocky structure.

Brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; friable; moderate,
medium subangular blocky structure.

Brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with common, medium,
faint mottles of reddish-yellow in the lower part; friable;
moderate, medium subangular blocky structure.


The surface soil varies from grayish-brown to very dark gray. The sub-

soil, ranging from yellow to brownish-yellow, is a friable fine sandy clay

loam, and in most areas it has faint mottling in the lower part. A few areas

have materials of finer-texture below 30 inches.


Approximate scrzage and proportionate extent of the
soils mapped in Escambia County, Florida (27).

Acreage Percent
NoroI k fine sandy loam: Ac e Percen

Level phase 9,100 2.2

Very gently sloping phase 9,500 2.3

Gently sloping phase 1,600 0.4


List of major mapping units of Norfolk soils within Florida:

Norfolk loamy fine sand.

Norfolk loamy fine sand, eroded.

Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly.

Norfolk loarmy fine sand, pebbly, eroded.

Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly.

Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface.







-10-
Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase.

Norfolk fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.

Norfolk fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase.

The above soils may be mapped as slope phases for 0 to 2 percent slopes,

2 to 5 percent slopes, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and 8 to 12 percent slopes.


MANAGEMENT OF CROPS ON NORFOLK SOILS

Cropping removes plant nutrients from the soil and reduces the supply

of organic matter. The soil is conserved and protected from erosion by a

cropping system that provides annual cover crops and perennial grasses and

legumes between years of clean cultivation. Cover crops that are plowed

under help to maintain the supply of organic matter. When they are growing,

they protect the soil from erosion during intense rainfall. The length of

time soils should be in cover crops or in cultivated crops depends on the

nature of the soil.

Common legumes, nonlegumes, and both winter and summer crops can be

grown quite well on Norfolk soils. The summer crops are planted from March

to June and the winter crops from September to November. Corn should be

planted in March or early April, while soybeans should be planted in May

or June. Cover crops should be planted in September or October and oats

for grain should be planted in November.

Fertilizer should be applied to all crops on Norfolk soils. The amount

to use depends on the crop and the amount of residual fertilizer left in the

soil from previous cropping. The soilsshould be tested to determine the

amount and kind of fertilizer to use. As nitrogen is retained in the soil

only a short time, only enough should be applied for the crop grown. The

estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under two levels of

management are shown in Tables 1 and 2.








TABLE 1. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under two levels
of management (9).


Shade
Soil Corn Peanuts tobacco Oats Pasture

A B A B B A B A B
Norfolk loamy fine sand u. u. lb. 7 ITb bu. bu. Cow-days
Pebbly, 0-2% slopes 45 70 1200 1550 1500 O0 60 160 300
Pebbly, 2-5% slopes h5 70 1200 1550 1450 h0 60 160 300
Pebbly, 2-5% slopes, eroded 40 65 1050 100 150 35 55 1ho 280
0-2% slopes 4h 70 1200 1550 10 o h40 60 160 300
2-5% slopes 0 70 1200 1550 1300 4O 60 160 300
2-5% slopes, eroded h0 65 1050 1o00 1300 35 55 140 280
5-8% slopes 30 55 950 1250 1200 30 50 140 280
5-8% slopes, eroded 25 45 800 1100 1100 25 45 135 275
8-12% slopes -- -- ---- ---- ---- -- -- 130 270
Norfolk loaIy sand, thick surface
0-2% slopes 40 65 1100 1450 14OO 35 55 150 280
2-5% sl,'-,-:s 35 65 1100 lh50 1300 35 55 150 280
5-8% slorps 25 50 850 1200 1200 25 45 130 260
8-12% slo-es -- ---- --- ---- -- 120 250
Pebbly, 0-2% slopes 40 65 1100 1450 1400 35 55 150 280
Pebbly, 2-5% slopes 35 65 1100 lh50 1300 35 55 150 280
Pebbly, 5-8% slopes 25 50 850 1200 1200 25 h5 130 260




Yields in columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common
management; in columns B are those under the highest level of management
feasible. Estimates for only one level of management are listed for shade
tobacco because this specialized crop generally receives only the highest
level of management. Dashed lines indicate the crop is not generally grown
on the soil.













TABLE 2. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown in
Escambia County, Florida (27).



Soil Corn Cotton Soybeans Oats

A B A B A B A B
Norfolk fine sandy loam E u. "u. T'I e- bu. bu M. 5 bu.

Level phase h0 55 3/h 1- 25 30 35 60

Very gently sloping phase 40 55 3/4 1 25 30 35 60
Gently sloping phase 35 50 1/2 1 20 25 35 60




Yields in columns A are those expected under common management
practices; those in columns B, under good management practices.
Absence of yield indicates crop is not commonly grown and soil
is not physically suitable for it under the management specified.








-11-

Superior Management Practices for best Yields of Crops

A series of experiments was conducted by Thompson and Robertson (lh,

20) at the North Florida Experiment Station on Norfolk loamy fine sand over

a period of 11 years to determine management practices which result in highest

yields of certain cash crops (corn, peanuts and oats), and effects of these

practices on the soil. The management practices studied were crop rotation,

fertilizer level, liming requirement, and green manure crops lupiness, soybeans,

Crotalaria spectabilis, and in some cases, oats). A Summary of the results

obtained is as follows:

1. Peanuts should be grown in rotation for best yields. A 3-year

rotation found satisfactory was: peanuts in summer followed by

lupine in winter to be plowed under; corn in summer followed by

oats for grain in spring; and soybeans in summer followed by oats

for grazing or green manure.

2. Corn yields did not decline as rapidly as peanuts when grown con-

tinuously. Yields of continuous corn was increased by growing a

green manure crop in winter and plowing it under two weeks before

corn planting time.

3. Lupines did not grow well after peanuts. However, if they are grown

after peanuts they should not be grown more than once in three years.

b. When peanuts or soybeans were grown in a 3-year rotation such as

that referred to in number 1 above, they made about the same yields

when part of or all of the fertilizer was applied to the preceding

crop (oats for green manure and oats for grain) as when fertilized

directly.








-12-

5. Corn and oats grown in a 3-year rotation should be fertilized directly,

since this soil does not retain fertilizer in adequate amounts to

produce good yields of these crops.

6. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, oats, and lupine need supplemental fertiliz-

er. When grown in the 3-year rotation mentioned in number 1 above,

a good rate of fertilization for corn and oats is 600 pounds per acre

of h-12-12 at planting with 60 to 100 pounds per acre of nitrogen

as side-dressing for corn and 30 to hO pounds of nitrogen top-dressing

for oats for grain. When oats are grown for grazing nitrogen top-

dressing of 80 to 160 pounds per acre should be used. The nitrogen

may be reduced to one-half this rate when the crop follows a legume

cover crop making good growth. Soybeans, crotalaria, and lupine

should receive 450 pounds per acre of 0-lh-l1, and peanuts should

receive 200 pounds per acre of O-1-lh.

7. When peanuts were hogged-off and followed by native cover, yields

declined about the same as continuous peanuts harvested and followed

by lupine plowed under for green manure. This indicated that con-

tinuous peanuts, even when they are hogged-off, still had a detri-

mental effect on the soil.

8. Lime was required to produce good yields. After 11 years adequate

lime increased peanut yields 250 to 580 pounds per acre, corn

yields up to 26 bushels and soybeans yields as much as seven

bushels.

Effect of cropping and management practices on the soil

Norfolk loamy fine sand containing approximately 00 pounds per acre

of exchangeable calcium, was cropped for 7 years to a 3-year rotation. The

level of calcium in the soil was reduced to approximately 100 pounds per acre.








-13-
At this point a ton of lime improved yields of peanuts, corn, and soybeans,

but did not raise the pH above 5.7. It would require approximately a ton

of lime every 5 years to maintain the pH of the soil at about 6.0 when cropped

to a 3-year rotation with corn, peanuts, oats, and soybeans. Unless the pH

is maintained at or near pH 6.0, yields of general farm crops are usually

reduced due to lack of lime.

The organic matter and moisture equivalent values decreased when a

virgin soil was cropped regardless of the soil management practices. These

values decreased more when continuous peanuts were grown and the vines and

nuts removed than they did when continuous corn was grown and only the ears

of corn were harvested. These values for a rotation of corn and peanuts were

between those of continuous peanuts and continuous corn. The values for

rotational cropping depended on the magnitude of the ratio of peanuts to

corn in the rotation.

The levels of exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and potassium were

correlated with the organic matter. The organic matter in the sandy surface

soils is important, since it is the major component affecting the exchange

capacity. The detrimental effect of peanuts on the level of soil organic matter

as compared to corn is probably part of the reason why yields decreased more

rapidly when peanuts were grown continuously than when corn was grown con-

tinuously. Organic matter in the high fertilized corn plots was higher than in

the low fertilized plots.

Applied phosphorus remained in the surface 6 inches of soil. Calcium and

potassium moved down the profile but not below the root zone of most crops.

Magnesium moved down the profile to 30 inches and deeper and probably

part of it leached out of the soil. This means that on land which has been








-1h-

cultivated for many years and which has never been limed before, dolomitic

instead of calcic lime should be applied. After an application of dolomite,

calcic lime may be used in alternate years thereafter.


Erosion control

On bare soils, surface runoff must be controlled so as to prevent the

soil from washing away. If runoff is slowed down, erosion is reduced and the

water has more time to soak into the soil. Vegetative protection is superior

to mechanical means in retarding soil washing. Wide strips of close-growing

crops, contour cultivation, and terraces are generally used to control runoff

and erosion.

Terraces of the channel type are suited to Norfolk soils that have

uniform slopes of not more than 8 percent. A terrace of this kind is made

by digging a broad, shallow channel and using the soil to form a broad-based

ridge on the lower side. These terraces should be constructed across the

slope and should be nearly level. The water moving down the slope is inter* '-

cepted and carried slowly off the field. The spacing of the terraces varies

according to the kind of soil and the slope. Terraces are usually 50 to 110

feet apart. The water from the terraces should be discharged into well-

grassed waterways or into areas of dense vegetation. Natural draws make the

best waterways. If draws are not available, wide, shallow channels protected

with sod or other close-growing vegetation may be used. To prevent washing,

the gradient and the capacity of waterways should be determined by considering

the soil characteristics and the volume of water discharged from the terraces.

In contour cultivation, the furrows should be plowed across the slope

parallel to the terraces. The furrows serve as small terraces that slow the

water as it moves down the slope and the water flows across the slope








-15-
with little or no washing. In the gently sloping porous sandy soils, contour

cultivation is usually sufficient to control runoff of water. On some soils,

terraces are needed as a supplement to contour cultivation.

Wide strips of close-growing vegetation planted at intervals across

the slope are also used to intercept and spread the water. These strips

supplement contour cultivation and terraces. When they alternate with

strips of row crops, erosion is reduced.


Irrigation

Although rainfall is usually sufficient to supply the moisture needs

of most general crops, the use of irrigation for crops of high value is

increasing. Irrigation is profitable only with good management that provides

for the use of sufficient amounts of plant foods from fertilizers and manure,

the planting of cover crops, and the return of crop residues to the soil.

Small farm ponds, constructed in natural drains having small watersheds,

are used to store water for irrigation. The site for a farm pond should be

carefully studied, for it is necessary to know the amount of water available,

the storage capacity of the proposed pond and the suitability of the founda-

tion material. Dams and spillways should be carefully designed and cone

structed.

MANAGEMENT OF PASTURES ON NORFOLK SOILS

Many pasture plants can be groon successfully on Norfolk soils.

Bahiagrass and improved strains of bermudagrass will produce large amounts

of forage when grown on these soils. White clover, sweet clover, and crimson

clover are grown in mixtures with these grasses, but they are difficult to

maintain when they are grown with bahiagrass for a number of years.








-16-

Improved bermudagrass responds to large amounts of fertilizer, while

bahiagrass grows well on soils of medium fertility.

Tall fescue, a cool season grass, is suited to soils having a good

moisture-holding capacity. Most of the growth is in winter when the other

grasses are dormant. It responds to large applications of fertilizer.

Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are profitable on all pastures.

Clover-grass pastures can be grown on Norfolk soils but white clover

may be damaged by drought. Permanent pastures should be fertilized with

500 pounds per acre annually of 0-14-10 fertilizer. Nitrogen added in summer

stimulates the growth of grasses. Droughty soils that are suited to grasses

should be fertilized with nitrogen, phosphate, and potash. The grazing

capacity of these pastures depends to a great extent on the amount of fertilizer

used,

Norfolk soils generally need one ton of lime every 5 years if the growth

of pasture plants, especially clovers, is to be satisfactory. Soil tests

should be used to determine the rate and frequency of application.

Graz.ng should be managed so that the pasture plants have time to recover

after they are grazed. Grazing should be regulated to produce the most

forage, and conserve the fertility of the soil.

The steeper slopes of 5 to 12 percent of Norfolk soils are suited to

pasture, woodland, and wildlife habitats.

At the North Florida Experiment Station, Thompson (13), fertilized crimson

clover with 1000 pounds per acre of 20 percent superphosphate and 100 pounds of

50 percent muriate of potash per acre annually for two years and found

sufficient residual fertilizer in the soil the third year to produce luxuriant

growth of clover. Dolomitic lime, borax, and nitrate of soda each







-17-

gave a small increase in the yield of forage. Without fertilizer the yield

was almost nothing.

In a fertilizer test with Hubam clover, results indicated that 900 pounds

of 19 percent superphosphate and 125 pounds of 50 percent muriate of potash

annually, plus two tons of lime and 30 pounds of borax per acre every three

of four years would produce luxuriant growth. When the clover was well-

fertilized for two years, residual fertilizer was sufficient to produce a

good growth the third year.

In 1955 Wallace (28) initiated a crimson clover-Argentine bahiagrass

pasture experiment on Norfolk loamy fine sand. Three levels of phosphate and

potash and two levels of nitrogen and lime were used. The fertilizers were

applied differentially as follows: All in the spring, one-half in the spring

and one-half in the fall, and all in the fall. The results obtained showed

that the application of nitrogen decreased the yield of crimson clover but

increased the yield of Argentine bahiagrass. The total yield of both clover

and grass was increased by the application of nitrogen. The combined yields

of grass and clover from the application of 16 and 32 pounds of nitrogen were

10,393, and 11,718 pounds of dry forage, respectively, as compared to 9,508

pounds per acre from plots without nitrogen.
When applied at the rates of 30, 75, and 120 pounds per acre, phosphoric

acid had little influence on the total yield of clover and grass. Crimson

clover responded more to applications of potash than did Argentine bahiagrass.

The dry forage yields of clover from applications of 20, 60, and 100 pounds of

potash were 1,547, 3,228, and 3,485 pounds per acre, respectively. The clover

that received only 20 pounds per acre showed deficiency symptoms. The combined

yields of clover and grass from 20, 60, and 100 pounds per acre of potash were









-18-

8,782, 10,720, and 11,640 pounds per acre of dry forage, respectively.

On Norfolk loamy fine sand Thompson (11) found that because of mildew

and leaf spot in late winter, Oklahoma common alfalfa did not make good

growth. Results from the first cutting of forage indicated that 600 pounds

of 20 percent superphosphate, 125 pounds of 50 percent muriate of potash

and 2,000 pounds of lime are required to produce a fair growth of alfalfa.

In a Kentucky 31 fescue fertilizer test, potash gave a slight response

and nitrogen and phosphate gave large increases in the yield of forage.

Results indicate that three 50-pound applications of nitrogen as nitrate

of soda, 250 pounds of 20 percent superphosphate and 100 pounds of 50

percent muriate of potash were required to produce satisfactory growth

of this grass on Norfolk loamy fine sand (11). When seeded at weekly

intervals in November and December, this grass produced 18,513 and 11,979

pounds of green forage per acre, respectively. January plantings made fair

growth, but later spring plantings made very poor growth because of competi-

tion from weeds.

On virgin Norfolk fine sandy loam, Warner and Thompson (29) found that

Hubam sweet clover made excellent growth where fertilized with 600 pounds

of 20 percent superphosphate, 125 pounds of 50 percent muriate of potash,

two tons of calcic limestone and 15 pounds of borax per acre.

Warner and Thompson (30) planted Hubam sweet clover at weekly intervals

during September, October, and November and found that plantings in October

produced the most forage. Where Hubam sweet clover was well-fertilized for

two years, residual plant food was sufficient to produce a luxuriant growth

the third year.







-19-

FERTILITY AND LIME EXPERIMENTS ON NORFOLK SOILS

Sources of nitrogen on corn

Thompson and Robertson (18) found that the 5-year average yield of corn

on Norfolk loamy fine sand was about the same for all sources of nitrogen

used. Therefore, the most economical source of nitrogen would be the one

that costs the least per pound of nitrogen. Anhydrous ammonia may be applied

at planting time or when the corn is knee high with equally good results.

Since the nitrate ion leaches readily out of the soil, sodium nitrate and

ammonium nitrate should not be applied until the corn is knee high, Where

a good rotation is practiced and cover crops are turned under for green manure,

hO pounds of nitrogen is probably the most economical rate to use. On soil

where cor:n is gromn continuou:nsly and no green manure crops are turned under,

60 to 80 pounds of nitrogen may be applied profitably.

Lime on field crops

Robertson et al. (7) applied dolomitic lime to Norfolk loamy fine sand

at rates of 0, 2000, h000, and 6000 pounds per acre. This gave a range in

pH from 5$. to 6.6. Eleven years data shoved in general that 2000 pounds

per acre applied about every five years increased corn, peanut, and soybean

yields, but had no consistent effect on the yield of oats. Results from

soil tests indicated that peanuts reduced pH, calcium, and magnesium more

than corn or soybeans.

Deep placement of nutrients in Norfolk soils

Robertson et. E1 (8) conducted experiments on Norfolk loamy fine sand

for two years to test the response of corn to placement of superphosphate at

depths of 2, 8, lh, and 20 inches. Results are summarized as follows:







-20-

When total rainfall was adequate with dry periods during early growth,

corn roots penetrated to the 20-inch depth of placement and by tasselling

time there was generally no significant differences in phosphorus percentage

in the plant regardless of fertilizer placement. However, corn yields in-

creased significantly for depth of placement where residual phosphorus was

present in the surface soil. If it is assumed that the grain contained a

constant amount of phosphorus, this indicates that possibly the plants with

the deep phosphorus placements recovered more phosphorus than those with

shallow placements. It appeared that the depth of root penetration correlated

with the depth of placement because on Norfolk loamy fine sand calcium,

magnesium, and potassium levels in the plant material correlated with the

amount of these elements in the profile at the depth of placement. The deep

placement of superphosphate and the shattering of the plowsole possibly

helped in the formation of the deeper root system. The higher yields for

deep placement may have been the result of the deeper root system making

available the fertility and moisture in the deeper layers of soil. When

the rainfall was well-distributed and above average, depth of placement did

not affect corn yields.

Thompson (22) noted that on Norfolk loamy fine sand subsoiling and

placing lime and fertilizer in the soil lh inches deep gave 3 to h bushels

per acre increase in the yield of corn as compared with surface application.

On this soil type, Thompson (19) found that increasing the depth of placement

of superphosphate from 2 to 20 inches increased the yield of corn from 56

to 72 bushels per acre. The author observed no residual effect of deep

placed fertilizer over surface applied fertilizer when no more fertilizer

was applied, nor when 600 pounds of h-12-12 and 66 pounds per acre of nitrogen

were applied to the surface of the soil. However, there was a residual effect







-21-


of subsoiling over no subsoiling.

In 1955, Robertson et al. (6) studied the effect of deep placement of

fertilizer and lime on the yield of corn on Norfolk loamy fine sand. This

soil contained compact clay zones or plow soles beneath the surface. When

periods of drought were a week or 10 days, subsoiling and deep placed fer-

tilizer improved corn yields above the check. When the drought period was

25 days duration, the advantage of having a deep root system and a large

corn plant was not significant. The phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and

magnesium content of the ear leaf samples showed no significant differences.

The levels of these elements in the soil were not low and growth was re-

stricted because of rainfall distribution.

A new location was selected on Norfolk loamy fine sand in 1956 to study

the effect of deep placement of lime and fertilizers. Subsoiling alone gave

significant increases and fertilizer, fertilizer plus lime, and fertilizer

plus lime plus minor elements gave significantly more corn than subsoiling

alone. The 14-inch deep placement was significantly better than the surface

application.


Surface placement of nutrients on Norfolk soils

In a study of the effects of crop rotation, fertilizer and lime on soil

fertility and yields of crops on Norfolk loamy fine sand, Thompson (23)

found that during the years 1957 to 1960 highly significant increases in

yields of field crops have been obtained by applications of 2 tons of calcic

limestone to rotations and continuous crops. With lime soybeans yielded

16,262 pounds per acre of green forage, compared to 9,47h pounds without

lime (21).








-22-

Applying 5-10-10 fertilizer at rates of 200, 400, and 600 pounds per

acre produced soybean yields of 28, 31, and 36 bushels per acre, respectively.

When 10-10-10 fertilizer was applied at rates of 300, 600, and 900 pounds

per acre, corn yields of 79, 87, and 89 bushels per acre were produced,

respectively.

The same amounts of N-P-K derived from 0-1h-1h applied broadcast plus

anhydrous ammonia before planting or 4-12-12 applied in the row plus ammonium

nitrate sidedressing produced almost the same yield of corn.

A 10-10-10 fertilizer applied at 300, 600, and 900 pounds per acre

produced yields of 9, 11, and 14 tons per acre of green rye forage, re-

spectively.

An application of 0-10-10 fertilizer at rates of 200, 100, and 600

pounds per acre produced blue lupine green weight yields of 6, 7, and 8

tons per acre, respectively.

In a study of the availability of phosphorus from various phosphates,

Thompson (25) found that on Norfolk loamy fine sand, corn fertilized with

rock phosphate yielded about the same as corn fertilized *-ith a combination

of superphosphate and triple superphosphate. On soil well fertilized with

nitrogen and potassium, an application of 100 and 400 pounds per acre of

P205 as triple superphosphate applied 8 years ago is still producing 40
and 76 bushels of corn per acre, respectively. On soil well supplied with

all plant nutrients except phosphorus, rock phosphate at the rate of 100
of0 P0O,
and 800 pounds per acre/applied 8 years ago produced 62 and 71 bushels of

corn per acre, respectively.

Thompson (24) studied the effect of various rates of fertilizers on

the yield of oats for forage on Norfolk loamy fine sand and found that

nitrogen up to 160 pounds per acre gave a significant increase in the yield







-23-

of oats for forage. Phosphoric acid up to 40 pounds per acre and potash up

to 80 pounds per acre gave a significant increase in the yield of oats for

forage. The area used had received annual applications of superphosphate

for 15 years and there was a large build up of residual phosphate. Thus

there was very little response to superphosphate.

Thompson and Fiskell (26) studied the effect of gypsum, hydrated lime,

captain, memagon, manure, and fertilizer on the yield of peanuts on Norfolk

loaiy fine sand and found that gypsum, hydrated lime, and captain each gave

significant increases in the yield of peanuts.

Thompson and Neller (17) studied the effect of sulfur on the yield of

Crimson clover and corn. When sulfur was applied on virgin land before

planting, a significant increase in the yield of Crimson clover was secured.

However, sulfur did not increase the yield of corn.

On Norfolk loamy fine sand, Thompson (15) found that when grown in

rotations corn yielded 7 to 16 bushels more than corn grown continuously

with native cover. When grown continuously and in two- and three-year

rotations peanuts yielded 640, 1,139, and 1,547 pounds per acre, respectively.

Applying 8-10-8 fertilizer to corn at 250, 500, and 750 pounds per acre,

produced corn yields of 61, 76, and 86 bushels per acre respectively. Plots

fertilized in both spring and fall yielded 17 bushels per acre more corn

than those fertilized only in the spring.

In a study of the availability of phosphates applied to Norfolk loamy

fine sand, Thompson (16) noted that corn fertilized with rock phosphate and

gypsum as a source of sulfur made slow growth early in the season but at

the end of the season was nearly as tall and produced nearly as much as that

fertilized with superphosphate.







-24-

In 1958, Thompson (21) found that lime increased corn yields 19 to 36

bushels per acre in rotations, and 14 to 18 bushels per acre in continuous

corn.


EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT OF NORFOLK LOAMY FINE SAND

Thompson and Robertson (20) took soil and plant samples for chemical

study for all treatments in a fertility experiment and selected treatments in

a rotation and lime experiment. The purpose was to compare the concentrations

of some of the important nutrients in the soil with those in the plants and to

correlate both these sets of data with crop yield.

Results showed that increasing the rate of phosphate and potash increased

the phosphorus and potassium content of the soil and peanut plants, but did

not increase the yield of peanuts. When the rate of dolomitic lime was

increased, the phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium contents of the peanut

plants were increased, but yield was not affected.

Calcium and potassium contents of the soil and plants and yield of

peanuts were lower where peanuts were grown continuously than where peanuts

were grown every second year in a rotation. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium

contents of the soil and potassium content of the plants were lower where

peanuts were grown every second year than where peanuts were grown every third

year in rotation. Results indicated that the levels of calcium, magnesium, and

potassium in the soil and plant were indirectly correlated with the number

of times peanuts were grown in a given period.

The results for corn were somewhat different than those for peanuts.

As the rate of phosphate was increased, the phosphorus and calcium contents

of the soil and corn plants and the yield of corn increased. Where the rate







-25-

of potash was increased, potassium contents of soil and plants and yield of corn

increased.

Calcium and magnesium contents of soil and plants and yield of corn were

lower when corn was grown continuously than when corn was grown in rotation.

The phosphorus content of soil growing continuous corn was higher than that of

soil growing corn In rotation. The phosphorus content of the plant was the

reverse. This discrepancy may be correlated with the method of determining

available phosphorus. The phosphorus extracted with 0.002 N H2SO4 is primarily

inorganic phosphorus. In the continuous corn plots, the phosphorus was probably

in the inorganic form; but in the rotation plots where cover crops had been

grown over the winter, it is possible that considerable phosphorus was still

in the organic form during sampling time and this phosphorus was available to

the plants even though not extractable by the reagent used.

In another experiment, Pritchett (4) showed that Norfolk loamy fine sand

fixed a very large amount of inorganic phosphorus, which was partly made

available later. This may explain why corn shows phosphorus deficiency symptoms

early in the spring and later recovers. As this soil has the capacity to fix

large amounts of phosphorus, most crops need more phosphorus than nitrogen or

potassium fertilizers.

The rotation, fertilizer, and lime experiments were again sampled in 1957

for soil-yield correlations (20). The results showed that the pH, calcium,

potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus were generally lower on the continuous

peanut plots than on the continuous corn plots. Since both crops received the

same amount of fertilizer, 500 pounds per acre of 2-10-8 fertilizer annually,

it is evident that peanuts deplete the soil of fertility faster than corn.

The 2-year rotation plots, while not as low in fertility as the continuous








-26-

peanut plots, were significantly lower than the continuous corn plots.

Except for phosphorus which was about the same, all the other nutrients were

slightly lower in the 3-year rotation plots than in the continuous corn plots,

but higher than in the 2-year rotation plots.

These results indicated that continuous corn when well-fertilized did not

deplete the soil any more than a 3-year rotation. This explains the continued

high yield of corn even after 10 years of continuous cropping. Since corn

yields for the rotations continued to be slightly higher than for continuous

corn, even though chemical analysis of soil showed fertility in general some-

what lower on the rotation than continuous corn treatment, possibly some

other undertermined factor microbiological or chemical ----- was limiting

yields when corn was grown co-ntnuously.

From 1947 to 1955 when no lime was applied to the fertilizer experiment,

the calcium content decreased from 636 to 80 pounds per acre and the pH from

5.6 to h.8. For this period there was an increase of phosphate and potash

in the soil.

In a study of the soil to a depth of 30 inches, it was found that the

amounts of calcium and magnesium decreased in the surface soil and some

moved into the subsoil (20). Some of the potassium moved into the layers

below 12 inches, but most of it was in the top 6 inches. Most of the phos-

phorous remained in the top 6 inches of soil, with a slight movement into the

second 6-inch layer. The latter is probably due to plowing deeper than 6

inches.

There was an increase in the phosphate, potash, and calcium content of

the limed plots, but in the plots without lime there was a loss of calcium.

Two tons of lime applied approximately every 5 years would be required to








-27-

maintain a pH of 6.3 in Norfolk loamy fine sand.

Dolomitic lime influenced the movement of plant nutrients In the soil.

When one ton of lime was applied to the soil, there was very little movement

of calcium and potassium into the second 6-inch layer of soil. As more lime

was applied, there was a little more movement of calcium and potassium into

the 6- to 12-inch and 12- to 18-inch layers of soil, but no movement into

the 18- to 24-inch and 24- to 30-inch layers of soil.

There was a large movement of magnesium from the surface layer int6 the

18- to 2h1tinch and 24- to' 30-inch layers. Most of the magnesium had moved

into the 24- to 30-inch layer, and possibly a large quantity had been lost

from the soil in the drainage water. Since magnesium moved doln the soil

profile much faster than calcium, magnesium deficiency was found on many

more soils than calcium deficiency, and especially on land that had long been

under cultivation, but had never received dolomitic lime.

After virgin Norfolk loamy fine sand was put under cultivation, there

was a large loss of organic matter during the first 4 years for all treatments.

During the next 6 years there was a slight loss from the continuous peanut

plots and a slight gain on the continuous corn plots. There was practically

no change in the 2-year rotation plots, but the 3-year rotation plots gained

about twice as much organic matter as the continuous corn plots. These

results indicated that the 3-year rotation was the best system for maintaining

organic matter in the soil. They also showed that the poorest system of soil

management was continuous peanuts with or without lupine. Since lupine after

continuous peanuts was nearly a complete failure, it added practically no

organic matter to the soil.

Under conditions of the fertility'experiment there was a large loss of







28 -

organic matter during the first h years (20). During the next 6 years

there was no loss to a slight gain when low rates of fertilizer were used.

High rates of fertilizer produced high yields of vegetation which, when plowed

under, added more organic matter to the soil.

From these results it is clear that good soil management did not maintain

the organic matter content of this soil. The loss was largest for continuous

peanuts and less for 3-year rotations and continuous corn. Two-year rotations

fell between these two systems.

When high rates of fertilizer were applied to 3-year rotations, organic

matter loss was less than when the fertility level was low. Since the surface

soil of most Norfolk soils in Florida is very low in clay content, the humus

or deco;iposed organic matter makes up the main part of the cation-exchange

capacity of these soils. As cation-exchange capacity is a valuable soil

property from the standpoint of fertilizer retention, it is important that

practices be used that will keep organic matter at a high level.

Neller and Robertson (3) determined the residual availabilities of 100

to b00 pounds per acre of PsO2 from superphosphate and b00 to 800 pounds of

P2C5 per acre from rock phosphate on Norfolk loamy fine sand by applying 30

pounds of PO0s as superphosphate tagged with Ps3. Five years after applica-

tion, results indicated that 90 percent of the phosphorus in the corn leaf

was from residual phosphorus. There was no significant difference in the

availability between superphosphate and rock phosphate.

Neller (2) found that the sulfate content of shelled corn grown for the

fourth year on plots of Norfolk loamy fine sand was lower but not signifi-

cantly lower where a source of sulfur had not been used on the corn plots.

Thompson and Volk (10) studied the effect of different dates of turning








-29-

under blue lupine on the yield of corn and on the level of nitrate nitrogen

in Norfolk fine sandy loam. After blue lupine was turned under, the level

of nitrate nitrogen in the soil increased during periods of dry weather and

decreased during rainy weather. The higher the rainfall and the lighter the

soil texture, the greater was the decrease in the level of nitrate nitrogen

in the soil. Warm weather was more favorable than cold weather for an increase

in the level of nitrate nitrogen in the soil. Since cold weather slowed down

nitrification and heavy rains leached out available nitrate nitrogen, corn

showed a nitrogen deficiency under these conditions. The level of nitrate

nitrogen was lower and the corn showed a greater nitrogen deficiency on

Norfolk fine sand than on Norfolk fine sandy loam.

Thompson and Pritchett (:i2) found that where phosphorus was applied to

Norfolk loamy fine sand in rates up to 30,000 pounds of Ps05 per acre, as

much as two-thirds was fixed or unavailable. The capacity of this soil to

fix large amounts of phosphorus results in a general crop response to phosphate

fertilization.


PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF SOME NORFOLK SOILS

Results of physical, chemical, and spectrographic analyses of several

Norfolk profiles from Holmes, Washington, Jackson, and Walton counties were

reported by Gammon et al. (1). Mechanical analyse% 'p and moisture equiva-

lent are summarized as follows:

Fine sand and very fine sand are the dominant particlecsizes

in the sandy horizons. The surface layers contained 9.4 to

21.2 percent coarse silt and 5.1 to 11.7 percent clay. The

"B,horizons contain about the same amount of silt, but more

clay. The lower B horizons contain less silt but still

more clay than the upper B layers. The pH of the surface








-30-
layers varies from 4.92 to 5.$7 and the B horizons range

from pH 4.80 to 5.38. The moisture equivalent varies from

6.95 to 11.73 in the surface soil.

The chemical analyses of a Norfolk loamy fine sand are shorn in Table

3 (5). Exchange capacity is relatively low ranging from 1.4 to 3.9 me./lOOg.

Exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na are relatively low throughout the profile. The

dominant basic cation in the surface horizons is usually calcium, but it

decreases with depth. The values obtained for exchangeable manganese and

iron of four soils of Florida varied considerably. It appears that values

for available phosphorus reflect previous treatment. Organic matter content

averaged 2 percent in the surface horizon of virgin profiles and 1 percent

in the surface of cultivated soils. Values obtained for organic matter

content in all surface soils were markedly less in the lower horizons.

Major clay mineral types found in the Norfolk series vary among and

within profiles. Kaolinite and vermiculite are the major clay mineral

types in the surface layers of most soils. In others, illite and quartz are

found in large amounts. Kaolinite predominates at lower depths. Wide varia-

tions in minor components are common.

In the total rough estimate spectrographic analyses of Norfolk soils,

barium, iron, vanadium, chromium, manganese, nickel, zirconium, copper,

titanium, cobalt, boron, and zinc were found in small amounts (1).








TABLE 3. Certain properties of selected southeastern soils; chemical analyses of
Norfolk loamy fine sand (5).


Depth Organi:.
No. Horizon inches pH C.E.C. Exchangeable cation me./lOOg. matter $
me./lOOg. Ca Mg K Mn Fe
1 Al 0-6 5.1 3.9 .58 .35 .09 .03 .16 2.6
2 A2 6-11 4.9 2.5 .01 .02 .01 .02 .04 .7
3 A3 11-17 4.9 2.1 .02 .01 .01 .01 .09 .3
4 Bl 17-24 4.9 1.9 .01 .08 .01 .01 .09 .1
5 B2 24-36 5.0 1.4 .01 .03 .03 .01 .11 .1
6 33 36-50 5.0 1.9 .01 .01 .02 .03 .09 -
7 C 50-60 4.9 2.8 .05 .04 .01 .02 .06


Location: Sec. 10, T-5N,
Cover: Longleaf pine and


R-20W
wire grass


Physiography: Region Coastal Plain
Position Upland
Relief: Very gcrn.-ly sloping
Drainage: Well-d':. ined
Slope: 3%
Great soil group: Red-Yellow Podzolic
Phase: Very gently sloping
Parent material: Sandy loam-sandy clay
Date sampled: March 30, 1940
Correlator: W. E. Hearn








LITERATURE CITED


1. Gammon, Nathan, Jr., Henderson, J. R., Carrigan, R. A., Caldwell, R. E.,
Leighty, R. G., and Smith, F. B. Physical, spectrographic and chemical
analyses of some virgin Florida soils. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull.
524. 1953.

2. Neller, J. R. Sulfur requirements of representative Florida soils.
State Project 608. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 157. 1959.

3. Neller, J. R. and Robertson, W. K. Availability of phosphorus from
various phosphates applied to different soil types. State Project 428.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report., p. 153. 1958.

4. Pritchett, W. L. Unpublished data. Soils Dept., University of Florida.
1949.

5. Rich, C. I., Seatz, L. F., and Kunze, G. W., Editors. Certain properties
of selected southeastern United States soils and mineralcgical procedures
for their study. Southern Cooperative Series Bull. 61. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
1959.
6. Robertson, W. K., Fiskell, J. G. A., Hutton, C. E., Thompson, L. G.
Lipconb, R. W., and Lund,, H, W. Results from subsoiling and deep
fer t.ization of corn for.' t, o years. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 21:
340-.36. 1957.

7. Robe-tson, W. K., Hutton, C. E.,,Lundy, H. W., Thompson, L. G., and
Lip'. 1h, R. W. Effect of lime on some north Florida soils. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. Proc. 17: 72-85. 1957.

8. Robertson, W. K., Hutton, C. E., and Thompson, L. G. Response of corn
it superphosphate placement experiment. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 22:
431-h34. 1958.
9. Tho mas, B. P., Weeks, H. H., and Hazen, M. W., Jr. Soil Survey of
Gadsden County, Florida. U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
1961.

10. Thompson, L. G. Jr. and Volk, G. M. Dates of turning under bt-e lupine
for corn. Non-projected studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report,
p. 223. 1947.

11. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Alfalfa fertilizer test. Non-projected studies.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 235. 1948.

12. Thompson, L. G., Jr., and Pritchett, W. L. Soil management investiga-
tions. State Project 493. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 222.
1949.








13. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Pastures in north Florida. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
Proc. 12: 96-100. 1952.

14. Thompson, L. G., Jr. and Robertson, W. K., Effect of rotations, fertili-
zers, lime, and green manure crops on crop yields and on soil fertility.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 522. 1953.

15. Thomps6, L. G., Jr. Soil management investigations. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report, p. 269. 1954.

16. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Availability of phosphorus from various phosphates
applied to different soil types. State Project 428. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report, p. 269. 1954.

17. Thompson, L. G., Jr. and Neller, J. R. Sulfur requirements of representa-
tive Florida soils. State Project 608. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report, p. 271. 1954.

18. Thompson, L. G., Jr. and Robertson, W. K. Effect of time of application,
rate, and source of nitrogen on corn grown on Norfolk loamy fine sand.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 76-81. 1955.

19. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Subsoiling and deep placement of fertilizers.
State Project 764. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 324. 1957.

20. Thompson, L. G., Jr. and Robertson, U. K. Effect of rotations, fertili-
zers, lime, and green manure crops on crop yields and on soil fertility,
1947-57. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 614. 1959.

21. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Effect of crop rotations and soil amendments on the
fertility of Norfolk loamy fine sand. State project 871. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Annual Report, p. 332. 1959.

22. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Subsoiling and deep placement of fertilizers.
State Project 764. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 322. 1961.

23. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Effects of crop rotations, fertilizer, and lime
on soil fertility and yields of crops. State Projects 956. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p.326. 1961.

24. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Effect of various rates of fertilizers on the yield
of oats forage. hon-projected studies, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Progress
Report. 1961.

25. Thompson, L. G., Jr. Availability of phosphorus from various phosphates
applied to different soil types. State Project 428. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Progress Report. 1962.

26. Thompson, L. G., Jr. and Fishell, J. G. A. Effect of various treatments
on the yield of peanuts. State Project 792. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Progress
Report. 1962.










27. Walker, J. H. and Carlisle, V. W. Soil survey of Escambia County,
Florida. U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1960.

28. Wallace, R. W. Fertilization of grass-clover pasture. State Project
80h. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 323. 1961

29. Warner, J. D. and Thompson, L. G., Jr. Pasture Legumes. Bankhead-Jones-
Project 301. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 228. 1948

30. Warner, J. D. and Thompson, L. G., Jr. Pasture Legumes. Bankhead-Jones.
Project 301. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, p. 216. 1950




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