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 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical...
 Management practices with yield...
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091545/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Lakeland soil of Florida
Alternate Title: Lakeland soil of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 61-5 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: ii, 44 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Carlisle, V.W ( Victor Walter ), 1922-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Victor W. Carlisle.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 42-44).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091545
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310172967

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Profile descriptions and extent of major mapping units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Management practices with yield data
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Literature cited
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text









DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 61 5 JUNE 1961






BENCHMARK SOILS:

LAKELAND SOIL OF FLORIDA

















by


Victor W. Carlisle






Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


I.


-
^^,*"


I


1 6/-5


\







CONTENTS



Introduction. . . . . . . .. . 1
General Characterization of the Series . . . 1
Geology and Physiography . .. . . . . . . 1
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Lakeland and Associated
Soils . . . . . . . o . . 2
Official Series Description . . . . .. . 3
Soil Phases .. . *. . 6

Profile Descriptions and Extent of Major Mapping Units 7 . 7
Alachua County .* .* * * . . a a * 7
Escambia County .. . . .. * 8
Gadsden County . .* . . . .* a . 10
Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . 12
Manatee County .... * * . . . . 13
Orange County . 1 . .. a. * * * l1
Sarasota County . . . . . 0 . 15

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties . 16
Table 1, Moisture Properties of Lakeland Fine Sand . . 19
Table 2. Bulk Density of Lakeland Fine Sand in the Upper 24
Inches Measured at 6 Inch Intervals in gm/cc. . .. 20
Table 3. Soil Moisture Content at Permanent Wilting
Percentage at Different Depths on Lakeland Fine Sand 20
Table 4. Range of Readily Available Moisture at Different
Depths on Lakeland Fine Sand , .. a a *. . 21
Table 5, Soil Moisture Constants for Lake1nd Fine Sand o . 21
Table 6. Effect of Extraction Time and Shaking Machine on
the Removal of Phosphorus from Lakeland Fine Sand by
Various Extracting Solutions . . . . 22
Table 7. Exchange Acidity of Lakeland Fine Sand . .. 23
Table 8. Exchange Acidity Studies on Surface Soils . . 23

Management Practices with Yield Data . .. a . 24
Table 9. Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal Crops
Grown Under Two Levels of Management , , . . 25
Table 10. Estimated Productivity, by Site Indices, for
Loblolly, Slash and Longleaf Pines on Lakeland Soils
in Gadsden County ,. # * # a * 28
Response to Treatment and Yields . . * * 29
(a) Nitrogen a . . * a * 29
(b) Minor Elements .. . . . 29
Table 11. Indication of the Tendency of Trace
Elements and Phosphorus to Accumulate in
Cultivated Soils . .. . . 30
Table 12, Boron in Lakeland Fine Sand from Surface
Applied Borax . . . . . . 31








(c) Citrus . .. .... ............ 31
Table 13. Effect of Soil Reaction on Retention of
Applied Manganese, Copper and Zinc in the 0-6
Inch Layer of Lakeland Fine Sand . . . 32
Table l. Mean Soil pH at Various Depths in a Marsh
Grapefruit Grove on Lakeland Fine Sand as Related
to Nitrogen Source, Nitrogen Rate and Dolomitic
Lime Rate ,. . v & . . .* 33
Table 15. Effect of Different Fertilizer Rates on
the Available Soil Nutrients in Lakeland Sand .. 35
(d) Corn . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 16. Response of Corn to Different Increments
of Potash and Phosphorus Applied to Lakeland
Fine Sand in Hamilton County .. . *, 37
Table 17. Prefertilization Analysis from Lakeland
Fine Sand and Yields of Corn in Suwannee County. 38
Table 18. Fertilizer Trials with Yields of Shelled
Corn in Bushels per Acre on Lakeland Fine Sand.. 39
(e) Cabbage . . . . . . . . 39
Table 19. Retention and Maintenance of Soluble
Phosphorus using a 4-7-5 Fertilizer Formula in
Lakeland Fine Sand under Cabbage at Leesburg . 40
(f) Pasture . . ... ,. . ... 41

Literature Cited . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 42










INTRODUCTION


General Characterization of the Series

The Lakeland series consists of somewhat excessively drained deep sands that

have little or no horizon differentiation These soils have been formed from

thick or moderately thick beds of unconsolidated acid sands and loamy sands, which

overlie sediments of finer texture that begin at depths greater than 30 inches.

They are associated.With the Eustis, Blanton, Orlando, Klej, Norfolk and Ruston

series The Eustis soils differ from the Lakeland soils in that they have a

strong brown or yellowish-red subsoil as compared to the yellow, yellowish-brown

or brownish-yellow subsoils of the Lakeland; the Blanton soils are paler and have

a light gray or pale yellow subsoil; the Orlando soils differ in having a darker,

thicker surface layer; the Klej soils have poorer drainage; the Norfolk soils con-

tain a higher content of clay within 30-inch depths; and the Ruston soils differ

primarily in being redder and containing more fine-textured materials throughout

the profile. The Lakeland soils occupy the greater part of the high sand ridges

in the Peninsula also the deep sands of North and West Florida. (Figure 1.)


Geology and Physiography

The geologic history of Florida records many fluctuations of the sea level

induced by advances and retreats of glaciers (9,21). Much of the Florida Plateau

was dry land during each glacial epoch; all but the highest part was submerged

during the first interglacial stage, though each successive submergence left a

larger and larger area above the sea. The ancient shore lines that are recognized

represent the maximum rises of sea level which are ascribed to each glacial oscil-

lation. The soils of the Lakeland series are developed from moderately thick beds

of sands which have been well worked and sorted. These deposits are of the Fleis-

tocene epoc and are thought to have been formed during interglacial stages. Where










































Figure 1. LOCATION OF MAJOR AREAS OF LAKELAND AND ASSOCIATED SOILS









the deposits were well drained they developed into soils of the Lakeland and

related series. Most of the Lakeland soils occur at elevations of 70 feet or

more and practically all Lakeland soils are 30 feet above sea level.

Lakeland soils generally occur on the interstream divides and are a part of

the higher areas. They are associated with a wide variety of landscapes and have

a wide range of slopes, butthe largest percentage occurs on level to very gently

sloping topography. Many irregular strips with slightly steeper slopes occur

along major drains.

During early mapping, the soils of the Lakeland series were included with

the Norfolk soils. Many differences were recognized as detailed mapping pro-

gressed and the Lakeland series was established in Alachua County, Florida, in

1947. Since this time the Norfolk series has been restricted to soils having

fine-textured horizons within 30 inches of the surface. Wherever they occur,

Lakeland soils are mapped in all Florida soil surveys issued after 1952.


Official Series Descriptions

The Lakeland series consists of deep sands occurring in the Red-Yellow

Podzolic zone. These soils have been formed in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal

Plains from thick or moderately thick beds of sands, which in many cases overlie

finer-textured sediments. They are closely associated with the Norfolk, Bowie,

Kershaw, Eustis and Blanton series. They differ from the Norfolk and Bowie soils

in having loose sandy materials to depths more than 30 inches. The Lakeland

soils are yellower and paler than the Eustis and Americus soils and are not so

pale as the Blanton soils. They resemble the Kershaw soils but have more color

and are less clean. The Lakeland soils are widely distributed, covering a large

acreage and are important to agriculture.










I. Soil Profile: Lakeland fine sand

0-3" Grayish-brown1 (10YR 5/2) loose fine sand containing some

organic matter; strongly acid; 2-l inches thick.

2. 0-36" Light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/5) loose fine sand; strongly

to very strongly acid; 10-40 inches thick.

3. 36-60" Brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) loose fine sand; strongly to

very strongly acid; 18 inches to several feet thick.

4. 60" + Mottled yellow, brown, and light gray friable fine sandy

clay loam; strongly acid; usually several feet thick.

II. Range in Characteristics: The principal types in the series are fine sand,

sand, loamy fine sand, and loamy sand. The color of layer 1 ranges from

grayish-brown to pale brown, and layers 2 and 3 from pale yellow to light

yellowish-brown and pale brown. Average combined thicknesses of layers 1,

2, and 3 commonly range from 42 to 72 inches, although they may range up to

30 feet or more and may be as little as 30 inches. Where these layers are

from 30 to 42 inches thick, a shallow phase is usually recognized and where

they are more than 72 inches thick, a deep phase may be recognized. The soil

may contain a few small rounded iron concretions or small round gravel, esp-

ecially on the surface. Layer 4 is usually distinctly mottled or streaked,

but it may be uniformly brown, yellow, or red. It is variable in texture and

and consistency from place to place.

III. Topography: Upland; nearly level to gently sloping for the greater part

with gradients ranging from,0-5 percent, but some areas have gradients rang-

ing up to 15 percent or higher.


Soil color names adopted by 1948 Committee; color of soil moist unless other-
wise stated; symbols express Nunsell notation.






-5-



IV. Drainage: Somewhat excessively drained; surface runoff, low to high, inter-

nal drainage, rapid.

V. Vegetation: Generally forested with pine, mainly longleaf pine, with an

undergrowth of scrub oaks. The present growth consists of scrub oaks, such

as blackjack, bluejack, post and turkey oaks, few water oaks, dogwood, scat-

tered longleaf pine; and a scant undergrowth of clumps of wiregrass. Areas

that have been cleared and abandoned are usually reforested to shortleaf,

loblolly, or longleaf pine.

VI. Use: Approximately 70 percent is in forest and 30 percent incrops. A

small percentage of the cultivated acreage is idle or abandoned. The princi-

pal crops :are, corn,. cotton -tobacco, peaches and- citrus -fruits. lnladdition,

some rye, oats, vetch, watermelons, grapes, dewberries, sweetpotatoes, velvet

beans, cucumbers, okra, cantaloupes, and sugar cane are grown. In the citrus

area of Florida this is considered the most important soil for the production

of oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines. A few lemons, limes, kumquates, and

figs are also produced. Tung trees are grown in north-central Florida and

the southern parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

VII. Distribution: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Virginia,

Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. Type location: three-

quarters of a mile northwest of Fairbanks, Alachua County, Florida. Series

established: Alachua County, Florida, 1947.

VIII. Remarks: The Lakeland soils were formerly included with the Norfolk series

which is now restricted to soils with sandy surface horizons less than 30

inches thick.
Division of Soil Survey
Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils
and Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural Research Administration
REV. ILM-EHT-RWS U. S. Department of Agriculture
2-10-49










Soil Phases

Lakeland soils have been mapped in Florida with a wide variety of surface

textures and slopes. Five surface textures are found in recent soil survey re-

ports, namely; fine sand, loamy fine sand, sand, loamy sand and coarse sand. Soil

phases have been differentiated on the basis of slope as follows:


SLOPE

0 to 2 percent .,***....*...**...*.....,

2 to 5 percent .........,....,,,.......

5 to 8 percent .*....,................,,

8 to 12 percent .............,,.......

12 to 17 percent ............,,.......


PHASE

Level or nearly level

Very gently sloping or gently undulating

Gently sloping or undulating

Sloping

Strongly sloping


In some instances Lakeland soils occur with finer-textured horizons between

depths of 30 to h2 inches. The finer-textured material usually is pale yellow

to brownish-yellow and in places mottled wth light gray and strong brown, The texture

ranges from fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay. When the depth to finer-

textured material is between 30 and 42 inches the soil is classified as a shallow

phase.


I






-7-


PROFILE DESCRIPTIONS AND EXTENT OF MAJOR MAPPING UNITS


The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage and proportionate

extent of various mapping units within the Lakeland series appear in current soil

surveys:


Alachua County (33)

Lakeland fine sand, undulating phase

Profile in a cultivated field:

0 to 6 inches, pale-brown to yellowish-gray loose fine sand with a

low content of organic matter; strongly acid.

6 to 60 inches, yellow to light yellowish-brown loose fine sand,

which in the lower part has a slightly loamy feel; strongly acid.

60 to 70 inches, pale-yellow or yellowish-gray loose to very loose

fine sand; strongly acid.

70 inches +, mottled light-gray, yellow, and yellowish-brown friable

fine sandy clay loam; strongly acid.


In wooded areas the surface soil to depths of 2 to 4 inches is a brownish-

gray fine sand with a high content of loose organic matter. The subsoil is pale

yellow to yellowish-brown, being lighter as it grades toward Blanton and browner

as it grades toward Arredondo and Gainesville The depth of fine sand over finer-

textured sediments is 40 to 90 inches.


Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils
Soil Acres Percent

Lakeland fine sand:
Deep phase 9,360 1.6
Undulating phase 60, 240 10,4










Escambia County (37)

Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase

Profile description:

0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very friable;

weak fine crumb structure; contains small amounts of organic matter,

4 to 16 inches, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very friable; weak

fine crumb structure.

16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow loamy fine sand; very friable;

weak fine crumb structure.


The surface soil varies from dark grayish-brown to brown in color and from

2 to 5 inches in thickness. This soil is underlain by materials of finer texture

below 42 inches and, in most places, within 72 inches.


Lakeland loamy sand, level phase

Profile description:

0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy sand; very friable; contains

small amounts of organic matter.

4 to 6 inches, yellowish-brown loamy sand; very friable.

16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow loamy sand; very friable.


The surface soil varies from dark grayish-brown to brown in color and from

2 to 5 inches in thickness. The second layer may be yellowish-brown or brownish-

yellow, and the rest of the profile is brownish-yellow. This soil contains fine-

textured materials at depths between 42 and 72 inches.


Lakeland sand, level phase

Profile description:










0 to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown sand; loose and single grained

(structureless); contains small amount of organic matter.

3 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown sand; loose and single grained

(structureless),

10 to h2 inches, brownish-yellow sand; loose and single grained

(structureless).

The surface soil ranges from dark grayish-brown to yellowish-brown in color

and from 2 to 4 inches in thickness. The second layer, a brownish-yellow or

yellowish-brown sand, merges with the yellow or brownish-yellow sub-soil.


Approximate Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils -
Soil Acres Percent

Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase 1,380 .3

Lakeland loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase 2,300 .5

Lakeland loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase 950 .2

Lakeland loamy fine sand, sloping phase 410 .1

Lakeland loamy sand, level phase 13,600 3.2

Lakeland loamy.sand, very gently sloping phase 14,900 3,5

Lakeland loamy sand, gently sloping phase 7,800 1.8

Lakeland loamy sand, sloping phase 3,100 .7

Lakeland sand, level phase 11,500 2.7

Lakeland sand, very gently sloping phase 2,000 .5

Lakeland sand, gently sloping phase 750 .2

Lakeland sand, sloping phase 650 .2









Gadsden County (33)
Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slope
Profile description:

A, 0 to 2 inches, dark-gray (10YR l/l) coarse sand; single grain

(structureless); loose; low content of organic matter; many fine roots;
strongly acid; boundary abrupt and smooth.
A2 2 to 5 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) coarse sand; single grain

(structureless); loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; boundary abrupt

and smooth.
Cl 5 to 11 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) coarse sand;

single grain (structureless); loose; fine roots and very few medium
roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
C2 11 to 42 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) coarse sand; single

grain (structureless); loose; few fine roots and very few medium roots;
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
C3 h2 to 4h inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) coarse sand; with

many, coarse, distinct, very pale brown (10YR 8/3) mottles; single grain
(structureless); loose; few fine root channels filled with gray (10YR 5/1)
sand; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
C 55 to 74 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/3) coarse sand; with

common, fine distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grain

(structureless); loose; very few fine root channels filled with gray
(10YR 5/8) sand; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
D 74 to 83 inches, mottles light-gray (10YR 7/1), yellow

0iOR, 7/8.)., strong-brown (7.5YR T5/X,,and-red (2,5YRP.5/8) light..
andy clayllQam; weak, medium,, subangular blocI:y,str.ucture that,
breaks'-readily to moderate, medium, crumb structir';, friable; few fine






-11-


root channels; few small pebbles of quartz; strongly acid.


The surface layer ranges from 2 to 3 inches in thickness and from dark gray

to grayish-brown in color. The subsurface layer is gray to pale brown and 2 to

4 inches thick. The top 2 to 5 inches of the subsoil (C horizon) is normally

light yellowish-brown. Below this the subsoil normally ranges from yellow to

yellowish-brown and is generally pale brown to very pale at depths of 50 to 56

inches.


Aprxmt h Pootint Etnto h'ol


... .. Approximate Acreage and Proportionate Extent
Soil

Lakeland loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes

Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes

Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes

Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5
percent slopes

Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 5 to 12
percent slopes


of th Soils
Acres

44,565

1,7441

1,6148

3,984

1,255

21,012

9,717

13,870

4,687

7,809


1,314


Percent

1.4

.5

.5

1.2

.4

6.5

3.0

4.3

1.4

2.4


I-,


- ~






-12-


Hillsborough County (19)

Lakeland fine sand, level phase

Profile description:

0 to 5 inches, dark-gray loose fine sand; low in organic matter.

5 to 12 inches, grayish-brown loose fine sand.

12 to 30 inches, yellowish-brown loose fine sand,

30 to l8 inches +, brownish-yellow loose fine sand.


The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to grayish-brown in color and

from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. In places the horizon immediately below the

surface layer is light yellowish-brown or pale brown. The rest of the profile is

yellow, yellowish-brown, or brownish-yellow. The fine-textured materials under-

lying the fine sand generally occurs at depths of 42 to 72 inches.



Approximate Acreage and Froportionate EKtent of the soils
Soil Acres Percent

Lakeland fine sand:

Level phase 15,227 2.3

Gently undulating phase 22,392 3.4

l adulating, phase 1,229 .2

Shallow phase 239 (1)

Level deep phase 1,493 ,2

Undulating deep phase 527 0.1


(1) Less than 0.1 percent.






-13-


Manatee County (8)

Lakeland sand, nearly level phase

Profile description:

0 to 4 inches, medium-gray nearly loose fine sand; contains some

organic matter.

4 to 12 inches, pale-olive to pale-yellow loose fine sand.

12 to 42 inches +, brownish-yellow to yellow loose fine sand.


In a few scattered areas the surface layer of Lakeland fine sand nearly

level phase, is darker gray, usually tinged with brown, and 8 to 10 inches thick.

In such places the subsurface soils are paler yellow.



Approximate Acreage and Proportionate Extent of thS Soils
Soil Acres Percent

Lakeland fine sand, nearly level phase 3,458 ..8

Lakeland fine sand, undulating phase 251 ..1







-12-


Orange County (20)

Lakeland fine sand, level phase

Profile description:

0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2), nearly loose fine

sand.

5 to 12 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/1)), loose fine sand,

12 to 48 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6), loose fine sand.

The surface soil is grayish-brown to very dark gray and is 3 to 8 inches

thick. The subsurface layer is light yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown. In

many places this layer is lacking and the surface lies directly above the brownish-

yellow, yellow, or yellowish-brown subsoil.



Approximate Acreage and Proportionate Extentof the Soils
Soil Acres Percent

Lakeland fine sand:

Level phase 5,502 .9

Very gently sloping phase 26,507 4.5

Gently sloping phase 10,617 1.8

Sloping phase 2,874 .5

Strongly sloping phase 258 (1)


(1) Less than 0.1 percent.










Sarasota County (39)

Lakeland fine sand, deep phase

Profile description:

0 to 4 inches, dark-gray, very dark gray, or very dark grayish-

brown, nearly loose fine sand; strongly acid; layer ranges from 2 to

5 inches in thickness.

4 to 14 inches, pale-brown or light yellowish-brown, loose fine

sand; strongly acid; ranges from 8 to l1 inches in thickness.

14 to 31 inches, brownish-yellow or yellowish-brown, loose fine

sand; contains a few, small, distinct lumps of slightly cemented fine

sand; strongly acid; ranges from 15 to 20 inches in thickness.

31 to 60 inches, brownish-yellow, loose fine sand; afew, small,

faint streaks of rust-colored material; strongly acid.


Approximate Acreage and 0oportionate Extent of th Soils
Soil. Acres Percent

Lakeland fine sand, deep phase 158 (1)


(1) Less than 0.1 percent.






-16-


PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES


Lakeland soils are predominantly composed of quartz sand particles. Particle

size distribution studies have been reported by Fowler, et al. (15), Gammon,

et al. (16), Taylor, et al. (34) and the Southern Regional Project S-l1 (32),

The sandy materials commonly extend to a depth of 72 inches or more and contain

90 percent or more sand and usually less than 5 percent clay. The clay content

frequently increases abruptly below a depth of 30 inches. These fine-textured

horizons usually contain 10 to 20 percent clay; however, in some instances the

clay content is much greater and may even exceed 30 percent.

Unpublished data listing the moisture properties and bulk densities are list-

ed in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Within the 72-inch profile, there is a range in

bulk density from 1.26 to 1.64. Approximate field capacity ranges from 1.66 to

7.07 percent and wilting point from 0.51 to 3.31 percent. One horizon in Polk

County at a depth of 1Lh to 147 inches had a bulk density of 1.69, a field capacity

of 18.73 percent and a wilting point of 8.47 percent.

Chemical analyses which include soil pH, cation exchange capacity, exchange-

able nutrients and organic matter content.for Lakeland soils have been reported

by Gammon, et al. (16), Peech (23), Fowler, et al. (15), Dyal and Drosdoff (11),

Breland and NeSmith (5) and Becker, et al. (3).

The reaction of the surface or A1 horizons ranges from pH 4.6 to 7.0,

Reaction of the soil below the surface ranges from 4.3 to 5.9. Virgin surface

soils usually range between pH 4.8 to 5.6. Undoubtedly, many pH values were

influenced to some extent by previous past management practices since most of

the samples were taken in citrus groves.

The cation exchange capacity of the surface horizons ranges from 0.72 to

9.09 me. per 100 grams of soil. Over 50 percent of the samples fall within a






417J-


range of 1.50 to 3.00 me./100 grams. Below the surface the cation exchange capa-

city is considerably lower with many samples having less than 1.00 me. per 100

grams of soil. There is a general tendency for the cation exchange capacity to

decrease with depth although this is not true where fine-textured sediments are

present.

Calcium is by far the dominant exchangeable basic cation in all profiles.

Relative small amounts of magnesium and even smaller amounts of potassium are

present. Most of the exchangeable cations are concentrated in the surface horizon.

Below the surface there usually is a decrease of exchangeable nutrients with depth.

Where fine-textured sediments occur in the subsoil there is a marked increase in

exchangeable cations.

The Lakeland soils contain very low amounts of phosphorus, copper, zinc, and

manganese. Usually these nutrients are less abundant in the subsoil than in the

surface. In citrus groves, however, there has been an accumulation of these ele-

ments which is particularly noticeable in the surface soil.

The organic matter content of the Al horizons ranges from 0.89 to 3.63%. A

majority of the values occur between 1.0 and 2.5'. The organic matter content

decreases rapidly with depth and is ordinarily less than 0.5% in the subsurface

layers. There is no noticeable increase in organic matter content in the fine-

textured layers when they occur within the profile. The climate of Florida allows

biological activity, leaching and translocation of insoluble material to be active

throughout the year. This is one reason why Lakeland soils contain little organic

matter and soluble plant nutrients.

Table 6 shows that differences exist in the amount of phosphorus extracted

when using various extracting solutions in contact with Lakeland fine sand.

According to these figures, a 10 to 15 minute extraction period should be puffi-

cient for most shaking machines that are presently being used by soil testing






-18-


laboratories.

Data for titrateable acidity and soil reaction for Lakeland soils are pre-

sented in Tables 7 and 8. Acidity factors and total analyses of Lakeland subsoil

samples from Citrus and Hernando Counties have been reported by Fiskell and

Rowland (14).

A total rough estimate spectrographic analysis was made of four Lakeland

profiles from Alachua County (16). Cobalt, lead, nickel and vanadium were not

detected in any of the horizons. Strontium was detected in one horizon of one

profile. Barium and chromium were detected in several profiles and not in others.

Iron, manganese, zirconium, titanium and copper were detected in all horizons of

all four profiles. Spectrographic analyses on Lakeland soils sampled in Lake,

Polk, Pinellas and Orange Counties have also been reported by Allison and Gaddum

(1).

Mineralogical data (14,32) for a number of Lakeland profiles showed that

kaolinite and vermiculite are the dominant clay minerals usually comprising 10

to 40%o of the clay fraction that is less than 2 microns in diameter. A wide

variety of minerals of minor importance occurs in lesser amounts. Illite, quartz,

halloycite, gibbsite, feldspar, montmorillonite and chlorite are among the minor

mineralogical components found in Lakeland soils that usually occur in amounts

less than 10% of the clay fractions.






-19-


Table 1.

MOISTURE PROPERTIES OF LAKELAND FINE SAND (17).
(Moisture Content -- Dry Weight Basis)


... Percent Moisture
Depth Bulk Density 50PcnH20 15 atm
.(gns/cc.) (field Capacity) (wilting point)


1.58
1.64


1.52
1.53
1,69


1.54
1.62
1.53
1.61


Polk County




Polk County


Polk County





Lake County


1.52
1.62


1.26
1.614
1.48


1.62
1.60
1.50


7.07
5.70


3.19
3.96
18.73


3.42
2.97
2.13
1.66


2.82 *
3.20


Orange County




Pasco County


3,31
1,01


1.23
.92
8.47


1.82
1.18
.78
.72


1.09
1.90


4.77
4.36
3.11


2.65
1.91
.88


1.87
3.7L
2.69


2.38
1.36
.73


* One determination only,


3-6
12-16


2-5
15-18
14u-1147


2 -5
9 -12
24-27
39-42


3-6
18-21


0-3
6-9
33-36


2 5
12-15
21-27


- --


-


all others two or more.





-20-


Table 2 ,
The Bulk Density of Lakeland Fine Sand In
The Upper 21 Inches Measured At 6 Inch Intervals
In gm/cc. (18).


Depth Replications
(inches) one two three four five Average
0 6 1.5 1.44. 1L.2 1.19 1.52 1.b6
6 -12 1.55 1.51 1.43 1.53 1.51 1.51
12-18 1.59 1.52 1.53 1.59 1.54 1.55
18-2A 1,51 1.51 1.5% 1.57 1.50 1.53







Table 3.
Soil Moisture Content at Permanent Wilting Percentage
at Different Depths on Lakeland Fine Sand (18).


Depth In Inches 0-6 6-12 12-48 48-72

Replications 1 0.69% 0.92% 0.70% 0.56%
2 0.91 0.74 0.68 0.69
3 0.7L 0.93 0.64 0.68
4 0.82 0.66 0.71 0.55
5 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.59
6 0.82 0.59 0.71 0.51
7 0.77 0.86 0.68 0.61
8 1.01 0.91 0.72 0.58
9 0.80 0.81 0,70 0.60
10 0,83 0.79 0.69 0.57

Mean 0o.82 0.80% 0.70% 0.60%7

L.S.D.*-.----.-1%: 0.152 percent 5.%: 0.113 percent






-21-


Table 1.


Range of Readily Available Moisture at Different
Depths on Lakeland Fine Sand (18).


Depth In Inches 0-6 6-12 12-148 18-72

Field Capacity 4.85% 14.73% 4.13% 3.48%
Permanent Wilting 0.82 0.80 0.70 0.60

Readily Available Moisture .037~ 3.93% 3.43% 288%





Table 5.

Soil Moisture Constants for Lakeland Fine Sand1 (25).


Depth of Permanent
Soil M~sture Field Capacity Wilting 15 Atmos.
(Inches) Equivalent field Laboratory _Point Tension


0-12
12-36


2.56%
2.26


4.93%
14.35


7.014
6.19


0.80%
0.70


1.54%
0.95


1
Each value given represents an average of at least five individual
determinations.






Table 6.


Effect of Extraction Time and Shaking Machine on the Removal
of Phosphorus from Lakeland Fine Sand by Various Extracting Solutions1 (28).


Extracting Solution Phosphoris ppm
Shaking Extraction time in minutes
Machine 2 5 10 20 30 45 60

0.025 N HC1 + 0.03 N NHhF 1 100.1 113.5 102.3 102.3 113.5 116.1 124.3
2 100.0 110.0 115.0 115.0 116.2 -
0.05 N HC1 + 0.025 N IH2SO 1 43.9 54.2 60.3 66.9 74.h 74.5 77.h
2 2L.9 32.1 39.0 1l.0 h8.9 -
0.5 M NaHC03 (pH 8.5) 1 10.8 12.0 13.9 lh.6 16.1 16.1 16,.
2 9.1 10.2 11.5 12.5 13,3
Sodium Acetate (pH I.8) 1 6.3 6.0 7.9 9.2 10.2 11.1 12.3
2 3.6 t.6 5.1 7.1 8.1 -
Ammonium Acetate (pH 4.8) 1 3.t 3.9 L.3 5.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
2 2.t 3.5 b.3 5.0 5.1
Distilled Water 1 1.6 1.5 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9
2 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.5 -
0.002 N H2SO4 (pH 3.0) 1 3.3 3.h 3.8 4.2 3.8 l.3 L.,
2 1.6 2.0 2.6 3.h 3. -
Carbon Dioxide-Water 1 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.8 0,8
2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 -
1 1,, ,1,1 ,,1, 1 4 d 2l60 i,, ,,,, d;,, ,,,k,+-- lA -I- -A/ TAt --l \


a ng mac ne num er opera e a rec proca
and machine number 2 at 180 reciprocations per minute and a


ull.LLu; CL a ;> -ot
stroke of 3 inches.


of i inches (Eberbac )


* Average of two replicates.





-23-


Table 7.
Exchange Acidity of Lakeland Fine Sand (41).


S-29-19-1


(Hillsborough County)


Depth in Organic pH C.E.C. ++
Inches Matter H0 K01 mal00g. Exch. H Exch. Al.

O 4 2.L9 b.29 3.10 5.54 0.82 0,78
h -20 0.49 5.27 4.60 0.62 0.22 0.l
20-0. 0.12 5.61 h,98 0.30 0.12 0.07





Table 8,
Exchange Acidity Studies on Surface Soils (13).


Titrateable acidity
No. Soil Type H20 KC1 me./l0 gas.
pH pH 'Total H+ Ai++T
1 Lakeland s. (virgin) 5.68 t.34 .85 .01 .89
2 Lakeland s. (virgin) 5.76 4.63 .57 ,00 .57
3 Lakeland s. (citrus) 6.95 6.76 .07 .06 .01
4 Lakeland s. (citrus) 6.60 6.33 .12 .0O .08
$ Lakeland s. (citrus) 6.86 6.66 ,07 .06 401
6 Lakeland s. (virgin) 5.66 4.62 .37 .00 .37
7 Lakeland s. (citrus) 6.48 6.28 .11 .08 .03








MANAGEMENT PRACTICES VITH YIELD DATA

Lakeland soils are not well suited to general farm crops or to commer-

cially grown truck crops. These sandy textured soils are somewhat exces-

sively drained, low in organic matter and highly leached. If irrigated

frequently and fertilized heavily, they are suited to small home gardens

and to ornamentals where injury from cold weather is not a problem.

Lakeland soils are well suited to citrus crops. Good yields of oranges

and grapefruit are obtained under a high level of management. Lime is need-

ed to correct soil acidity and supply calcium. Dolomitic limestone is fre-

quently used as this source supplies both calcium and magnesium. In ad-

dition, citrus crops require liberal applications of a complete fertilizer

containing small amounts of manganese, zinc, copper and boron.

Watermelons yield well on Lakeland soils. Most other crops return

only fair yields under good management when weather conditions are favorable.

If adequately fertilized and limed, Lakeland soils are moderately

suitable for improved pasture. The bahiagrasses, which are deep rooted and

withstand drought periods better than most other grasses, provide good

forage if adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are applied. Hubam clover,

hairy indigo, crotalaria and beggerweeds are legumes that grow well on

Lakeland soils and are often used as cover crops.

Estimated average acre yields for principle crops grown on Lakeland

soils have been compiled from recent soil survey reports and are listed

below. The yield estimates are based on observations made by members of

the soil survey party; interviews with local farmers, information obtained

from other agricultural workers who have had experience with Lakeland soils,

and, where available, records of crop yields. These estimates were made when

field work for each soil survey was completed and all estimates refer to

management practices in the county at that time.






Ta blb 9.


Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal
Crops Grown Under Two Levels of Management


Grape- Water-
Oranges fruit melons Corn Oats Peanuts
Soils A B A B A B A B A B A B
boxes boxes number bu. bu. lbs.


Alachua County (33)


Lakeland fine sand,
Undualting phase


300


10 18


650


Escambia County (37)


Lakeland loamy fine sand,
level phase
Lakeland loamy fine sand,
very gently sipping phase
Lakeland loamy sand, level
phase
Lakeland loamy sand, very
gently sloping phase



Lakeland loamy sand, 0-5%
slope
Lakeland loamy sand, 5-12%
slope
Lakeland loamy sand shallow,
- 0-2% slope
Lakeland loamy sand shallow,
2-5% slope
Lakeland loamy sand shallow,
5-8% slope


10 15 15
1O 15 15 20


10 15


15 20


8 12 10 15

8 12 10 15


Gadsden County (35)


20 40 20 hO 900 1200

15 30 15 35 600 1000.


25 45 25 45 1000


1300


25 45 25 45 1000 1300

20 35 15 35 900 1150





Table 9. Continued


Grape- Water-
Oranges fruit melons Corn Oats Peanuts
Soils A B A B A B A B A B B
boxes boxes number bu. bu. lbs.


Lakeland sand, 0-5% slope
Lakeland sand, 5-12% slope


Gadsden County (35) Cont.

15 35
15 30


Hillsborough County (19)


Lakeland fine sand:
Level phase
Gently undulating
phase
Undulating phase
Shallow phase
Level deep phase
Undulating deep
phase


330 500 330 500 275 400 15 30


330
330
330
330


500
500
500
500


330
330
330
330


500
500
500
500


275
275
275
250


hoo
1400
LOO
400
350


330 500 330 500 250 350
Manatee County1 (8)


Lakeland fine sand, near-
ly level phase o00
Lakeland fine sand,
undulating phase o00


Lakeland fine sand:
Level phase
Very gently
sloping phase
Gently sloping
phase


o00 625


Orange County (20)


500 750 290 hoo


IOO 625 500 750 290 400


500 750 290 100


10 20
10 20


600


800


280

280


00oo 625






Table 9. Continued


Grape- Water-
Oranges fruit melons Corn Oats Peanuts
Soils A B A B A B A B A B A B
boxes boxes number bu. bu, Ibs.

Orange County (20) cont.
Sloping phase 400 625 500 750 290 .00
Strongly sloping
phase 400 625 500 750 215 375

Sarasota County (39)

Lakeland fine sand,
deep phase 275 360 350 600 IbO 290


A Present management.
B Suggested management.


1 Figures were estimated for prevailing management only.





-28-


The site index is the average height, in feet, of dominant trees in the

stand at 50 years of age. Listed below are the normal yields for full-stocked,

unmanaged, naturally occurring stands of loblolly, slash and longleaf pines in

Gadsden County, Florida.



Table 10.

Estimated Productivity, by Site Indices, for Loblolly, Slash
and Longleaf Pines on Lakelald Soils in Gadsden County (35).


Lakeland loamy sand, O to 5 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, O to 2 percent

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent

Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent

Lakeland sand, O to 5 percent slope

Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slope

Lakeland coarse sand, O to 5 percent slope

Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slope

Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained,
0 to 5 percent slope

Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained,
5 to 12 percent slope


sil

slc

sl(


Loblolly


90

ope 90

ope 90

ope 90

85

85

80

80


Slash Longleaf
Site'Index


75 70
80 70

80 70

80 70

70 65

70 65

70 65

70 65

65 60


65 60





-29-


Response to Treatments and Yields

(a) Nitrogen


Lysimeters filled with Lakeland fine sand were used by Volk and Sweat (36)

to determine the relative losses of nitrogen from applications of urea, ammonium

nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The soil was leached immediately after application

of the materials. Using approximately one-eighth inch increments of water at

five minute intervals for five hours produced a total of five inches of leachate

in 24 hours and removed approximately 33 percent of the applied nitrate nitrogen,

15 percent of the urea nitrogen as urea, but no measureable ammonia nitrogen.

Eno and Pritchett (12) treated Lakeland soil with 600 pounds of nitrogen per

acre as ammonium sulfate prior to a 28-day laboratory incubation period, and

found that both pH and nitrate production increased with increased application of

lime. Cultivated soils produced more nitrates than their virgin counterparts.

Blue and Eno (4) reported that after anhydrous ammonia was applied to a

Lakeland fine sand with an exchange capacity of 2.03 me/100 gms at a rate of 100

pounds nitrogen per acre (5 inches deep) the loss of nitrogen ranged from 60 to

75 percent. A comparison of the amounts of ammonia held by the Lakeland fine

sand in the laboratory with that found after field application, with moisture

content approximately equal, showed that about twice as much could be held under

laboratory conditions as in the field.


(h) Minor Elements

Results of a pot experiment (2) using Lakeland surface soil indicated that

top growth of tung seedlings increased by increasing the concentration of zinc

up to 10 ppm. Concentrations of 50 pm. or higher resulted in reduced top growth.

Using Lakeland subsoil, top growth was restricted when the concentration of zinc









was 10 ppm. or greater. The weight of feeder roots in the surface soil increased

with increasing concentrations of zinc up to 100 ppm. Concentrations above this

resulted in reduced root weight. There was also a general downward trend in

feeder-root weight with an increase in zinc concentration.

Drosdoff (10) noted that tung leaves from trees on Lakelandfine sand without

zinc treatments showed severe zinc leaf deficiency symptoms and contained 12 ppm.

zinc calculated on a dry weight basis. Leaves from trees growing on soil treated

with zinc sulfate at the rate of 2 oz. per tree per year contained 73 ppm. zinc

and did not show any signs of leaf deficiency symptoms.

In a similar study Drosdoff (10) found the manganese content of tung leaves

from trees growing on Lakeland fine sand without manganese treatments and showing

slight leaf deficiency symptoms was 36 ppm. on a dry weight basis. Trees receiv-

ing a 2 oz. application of manganese sulfate did not show any leaf deficiency

symptoms and contained 402 ppm. manganese.

Allison and Gaddum (1) reported a very striking trend towards the accumu-

lation of copper, manganese, zinc, boron and phosphorus following cultivation.

The average total phosphorus (P205) content of cultivated Lakeland soils contained

three times as much P205 as virgin soils. Results are shown in Table 11.

Table 11.
Indication of the Tendency of Trace Elements and Phosphorus to
Accumulate in Cultivated Soils (1).

.... .. .. Lakeland Soils -
Element Virg~n* Percent Cultivated,'**Percent
Copper .0008 .003 .001 .005

Manganese .001 .005 .003 .008

Zinc .0008 .003 .003 .008

Boron .005 ro .01 .008 .03

P20g .027 .081
*Average of 11 samples -*Average of 30 samples





-31-


Winsor (o0), using unrealistically high amounts of boron, found that plow

depth retention by Lakeland fine sand 4 months after application of 100, 400, and

800 pounds of borax per acre was 3.7, 4.3, and 3.5 per cent, respectively. The

high amounts were applied to determine if any boron would be retained. Table 12

contains the results of this investigation.


Table 12.

Boron* in Lakeland Fine Sand from Surface Applied Borax (40).

Rainfall: 4 months, 16,56 inches; 12 months, 64.35 inches; 24 months, 128.45 inches

i, ,, ,, , , , , i , , ,, ,


Borax Applied

lb/a

100




400

8oo


800


Depth of Sample

in.

0-6
6-18
18-30
30-42

0-6
6-18
18-30
30-42

0-6
6.-18
18-30
30.-42


Native Soil
Boron
ppm.

0.08
0.04
0.03
0.03

0.08
0.03
0.03

0.08

0.04
0.03
0.03


Boron
I months 12
ppm.

0.29
0.19
0.11
0.09

1.05
0.58
0.33
0.23

1.65
0.97
1.03
0.58


Found1
months
ppm.

0.1.4

0.08


0.20
0.09
0.08
0.06

0,29
0.27
0.18
0.16


After
24 months
ppm.

0.08
0.02
0,02
0.01

0.14
0.06
0.04
O.1O

0.11
0.09
0.09


Boiling-water extractable from air-dried soil.
The net retention of boron from borax, for calculating percentage boron retained
in Table 4, was obtained by subtracting the mean values for native soil boron
shown in column 3.


(c) Citrus

Work by Wander (38) revealed that the retention of manganese, copper and zinc

in the surface soil of Lakeland fine sand was affected to a considerable extent by

the soil reaction as shown in Table 13.


I


I J


I,





-32-


Table 13.

Effect of Soil Reaction on Retention
Copper and Zinc in the 0-6 Inch Layer of


of Applied Manganese,
Lakeland Fine Sand (38).


Soil Mn in Cu in Zn in
Sample Location Reaction lbs/acre lbs/acre lbs/acre
No pH control:

Under tree 3.6 13.7 140 15.5
Under Drip 4.2 13.7 195 33.0
Under Middle 4.6 45.0 237 41.O

pH Control:
Under tree 5.0 137 358 35.0
Under Drip 5.6 494 496 94.0
Under Middle 6.0 590 560 152.0
*Element Additions Lbs/A. over 15 year period.

Mn Cu Zn

Fert. Spray Fert. Spray Fert Spray

b49 7L 397 107 38 77



Where the soil reaction was controlled between a pH of 5.5 to 6.0, 90% of the

copper, 69.5% of the manganese and 63.5% of the zinc was retained in the 0-6 inch
soil layer from applications made during a 15-year period.
Where the soil reaction ranged from a pH of 4.2 to 4.5, 46- of the copper,

7.8% of the zinc and 1.7% of the manganese was retained in the'O-6 inch*oil layer
from applications made over a 15-year period.
As reported by Smith and l4ft-Y (31) the effects of nitrogen source of pH
in a Marsh grapefruit grove on Lakeland fine sand were greatest at the 6-12 inch









depth as shown in Table 14. Ammoniacal sources affected the pH only to a depth

of 24 inches. The ammonium nitrate plots tended to have a slightly lower pH than

the calcium nitrate plots in the top 24 inches and slightly higher in the lower

36 inches,


Table 14.

Mean Soil pH at Various Depths in a Marsh Grapefruit Grove
on Lakeland fine sand as Related to Nitrogen Sources Nitrogen Rate
and Dolomitic Lime Rate (31).

0 6 6 12 12-24 -.2 42-60
Treatments iches inches inches inches

Source
ca (NO3)2 5.99 5.18 4.88 4.72 4.75
NHNO $.90 5.01 4.79 4.80 4.92
(N h) SO 5,71 4.79 4.64 4.67 4.74
F-Value *,e R2-Value 0.18 0.11 0.10 --- 0.15
R -Value 0.19 0.12 0.11 .-- 0.16

N Rate
1.75 #/tree 5.90 5.09 4.82 4.80 4.83
3,50 #/tree 5.83 4.90 4.72 4.67 4.70
F-Value N.S. HMe *
R2-Value 0-n 0.09 0,08 0.11 0.12

Dolomite Rate
None 5.26 4.81 4.67 4.61 h.65
5 tons/acre 6.8 5.18 4.88 4.85 4695
F-Value M4 mI 8H*** t 4=*
R2-Value 0.14 0.09 0.08 0.11 0,12
S Indstatitite titical significance at odds of 19:1
,sw Indicates statistical significance at odds of 99:1
*HH Indicates statistical significance at odds of 999:1
N.S. Difference found is not significant at odds of 19:1
R2 Is the usual LSD and is the shortest range necessary for significance in all
other mean comparisons at odds of 19:1
R3 Shortest significant range between largest and smallest of three means at
odds of 19:1










Work by Smith and Rasmussen (30) has shown that growth of Pineapple orange

seedlings in columns of Lakeland fine sand subsoil was reduced by acid-forming

sources of nitrogen unless the acidity was counteracted by additive substances

on the soil itself. Marked growth reduction occurred when the pH was 4.5 or less.

The pH changes indicated that acidity development occurs mostly in the upper soil

layers and progresses downward only after the exhaustion of the neutralizing capa-

city in the upper horizons. Determinations of pH by depths showed that, on the

average, acidity from ammonium sulfate nitrification moved twice as far into a

limed column of Lakeland fine sand as did that from ammonium nitrate. This con-

firmed considerations that nitrification of ammonium sulfate generates twice as

much acidity as the nitrification of ammonium nitrate.

According to Bryan (6), increasing the rate of fertilizer applied does not

necessarily increase the amount of available nutrients (see Table 15).

Bryan and NeSmith (7) reported that the ratio between total and available

nutrients in a citrus grove on Lakeland sand is not constant and that the ratio is

usually wider in the subsoil than in the surface. Regardless of the treatment or

ratio of application practically all of the available copper, manganese and zinc

existed in the surface 12 inches of soil. Yields of Pineapple oranges were re-

markably similar for different fertilizer treatments and only extreme variations

showed consistent differences from the standard check treatment which was composed

of a 6-4-8-2-.5-.25-.2-.1 (N-P 0 5K 20Mg0-MnO-CuO-ZnO-B203) fertilizer.





Table 15.

Effect of Different Fertilizer Rates on the Available Soil Nutrients in Lakeland Sand (6),

(Data taken from Short Researc' Grove)

Fertilizer was applied the first week in December, Soil samples
collected 2/16/60. Data represent-pounds per acre 12" of soil.


Treatment
Lbs. Per Tree

5.8





11.6





17.h


Soil
Depth

0-12

12-24

2h-36


0-12

12-2L

24-36


0-12

12-246

12-36


pH
6.1

5.3

5.0


6.0

5.3

5.0


6.0

5.1


Cal-
cium

672

96

48


720

96

12


861

48


Magne-
sium

132

22

6


154

14

Trace


165

3


Nitro- Phos,
gen Acid

6 84

4 29

3 22


113

26

11


122

43


Pot-
ash

58

214

24


58

43

19


67

29


Manga- Cop-
nese per

8 5

2 1

2 3


14.8 Trace Trace 6 U1 19 2


Zinc

20

Trace

Trace


17

Trace

Trace


31

Trace


h Trace


I-


I I


I





Table 15. Continued


Treatment* Soil Cal- Magne- Nitro- Phos. Pot- Hanga- Cop-
Lbs. Per Tree Depth pH cium sium gen Acid ash ese per Zinc


23.2


0-12


12-2h 5.7 576


132


48 10 18


3 1


159


67 8


38 38 2

12 29 2


U19


96 10


12-24 4.7 24 10 1I

2L-3 6 4.5 Trace 6 10


53 53 h

12 29 4


*Standard fertilizer consisted of .6-4-8-2-.5-.25-.3-.1 (N-P205-K20-MgO--inO-CuO-ZnO-BE0 ), respectively
applied in the following manner: 0s% of annual need in November and 30% each in February and June*
Seventeen percent of the Nitrogen in the Standard was derived from insoluble organic sources, and
the remainder derived equally from Ammonia and Nitrate Nitrogen. The Phosphorus was derived from
super phosphate and Potash from Sulphate and Muriate of Potash. The secondaries were derived from
Sulphates and Borates. Variations from Standard are shown under plot treatments.

Ammonium acetate (pH i.8) used as extracting solution with a 1:6 soil extractant ratio.


Rainfall during December and January was light.


29.0


0-12


5.6 672


Trace

Trace


Trace

Trace


24-36 b .9






-37-


(d) Corn

Unpublished data by Robertson (26) concerning the response of corn to potash

and phosphorus are shown in Table 16 below.

Table 17 contains more unpublished data by Robertson (26). Prefertilization

data as well as various treatments, stands and yields are included.




Table 16,

Response of Corn to Different Increments of Potash and
Phosphorus Applied to Lakeland Fine Sand in Hamilton County, Florida (26).


POTASH:

Exchangeable Potash Sidedress

Soil K20 Lbs/A. K20
0 30 60

Lbs/A. Bu/A.

67 30.0 33,6 3L.5


PHOSPHORUS:

Available Applied Phosphorus

Soil P20O Lbs/A. P205
30 60


Lbs/A. Bu./A.

7 29,5 3L.9
,




-38-


Table 17.

Prefertilization Analysis from Lakeland Fine Sand and Yields of Corn
in Suwannee County (26).


Lbs/Acre P20-

pH Ca K NH0Ac2 Bray3

5.66 L46 74 10 561


1 Average figures for soil samples.
2 Ammonium acdtate pH .18.
3 Strong Bray.

Corn planted on the above soil with different treatments responded as follows
1952


Fertilizer

P1 anting:

12-21-15

15-35-50

30-70-100

12-21-15

15-35-50

30-70-100

0


Application in Lbs/Acre

1st Cultivation: 2nd Cultivation:

0 0

5o-o-loo 35-0-0

100-0-100 70-0-0

0 0

5o-o-5o 35-0-0

100-0-100 70-0-0

0 0


12-21-15

15-35-50

30-70-100

12-21-15

15-35-50

30-70-100

0
1 Figures
2 Average


0

--o-5o

100-0-100



50-o-50

100-0-100

0
represent trends of N,
6 replications,


1953

0

35-0-0

70-0-0

----

25-0-0

70-0-0

0
P20o5-and K20.


Stand

10421

10655

10387

6647

7081

6981

7114


Yield in
Bu/acre 2

17.5

30.5

27.8

30.6

36.5

37,0

29.2


6300

6300

6300

6300

6300

6300

6300


21.2

37.4

40.4

28,7

1.1

42.8

29.9


-1~- -~ ~- --


f






-39-


It appears from these data that 6000 stalks of corn per acre fertilized

with 300 to 400 pounds of L-12-12 at planting time followed with 200 pounds

of 15-0-ll at second cultivation is adequate unless heavy rains necessitate

the application of additional nitrogen. Better rainfall distribution raised

the yields in 1953 but the same relative conclusions may be drawn from the

data as in 1952.

Yields of corn as affected by varying the amounts of nitrogen and pot-

ash have been compiled by Pritchett (24) and are shown in Table 18.

Table 18.

Fertilizer Trials with Yields of Shelled Corn in Bushels
Per Acre on Lakeland Fine Sand1 (214).


Base
Appli-
Cation Topdress Applications (pounds plant food/acre)
5-lo-10 0-0-0 30-0-0 30-0-30 30-a-60 60-0- 60-0-30 60-0-60 90-0-0 90-o-30 90-0-60

lbs/acre

300 23.6 27.8 24.9 26.3 33.5 31.4 30.4 21.6 37.1 38.8

600 31,4 35.2 37.3 38.4 33.8 35.5 36.8 28.,4 35.4 36.b

Ave. 27.5 31.5 31.1 32.4 33.6 33.4 33.6 25.0 36.3 37.6


1 Yields of shelled corn in bu/acre at approximately 13% moisture.


(e) Cabbage

Both increases and decreases of P recovery have been recorded by

Sims (29) in Lakeland fine sand planted to cabbage, Results of his inves-

tigation are shown in Table 19 below.









Table 19.

Retention and Maintenance of Soluble Phosphorus Using a h-7-5 Fertilizer
Formula in Lakeland Fine Sand Under Cabbage at Leesburg (29).


P applied in Lbs/A. Sol % Organic % 'oisture
Fertilizer P Found matter Equivalent pH


Preplant Harvest

55 65

66 80

59 97

60 81


Crop Yields
tons per acre


Preplant

0.96

1.07

0.98

1.00


Harvest



1.19

1.05

1.13


Preplant

3.34

3.25

2.97

3.19


Harvest

3.17

3.25

2,77

3,06


Preplant

5.67

5.7h

5.75

5,72


Harvest

5.58

5.73 '

5.62 '

5.64


P Recovery
(P applied plus preplant P
minus harvest P)


2.5

3.1

5.3

Ave. 3.6


11

21

32

Ave. 21


- --


I - ~-









(f) Pasture

Peacock (22) has reported the effects of nitrogen rates (33, 66, 132, and

26L pounds of N per acre), dolomite (two tons per acre) and minor elements (eight

pounds of ES-MIN-EL per acre) on forage yields of three species of Digitaria which

were tested in a split-split-split plot field trial on Lakeland fine sand. Yield

differences among grass strains were significant, with Kob Hill Digitaria yielding

4.73 tons, pangolagrass 3.83 tons and Leesburg #5 Digitaria 3.74 tons per acre on

a dry weight basis. Yield differences among nitrogen rates were significant also,

and a significant interaction between grasses and nitrogen rates resulted from

the more efficient utilization of nitrogen by pangolagrass. There was no signifi-

cant increase or decrease in 1957 forage yields after applications of dolomite or

minor elements. Interactions between nitrogen rates and minor elements or nitro-

gen rates and dolomite were not significant.








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.t4r-

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