• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description of the major mapping...
 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical...
 Management of Pompano soils
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091535/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Pompano soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Pompano soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 64-1 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 22 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Carlisle, V. W.
Leighty, R. G.
Caldwell, R. E.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: October 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 21-22).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091535
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310750436

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Official series description
        Page 4
    Description of the major mapping units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Management of Pompano soils
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Estimated yields
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Literature cited
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text






DEPART T OF SOILS EORAPH RORT 6 OCTOBER 1963


DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 64-1 OCTOBER, 1963


BENCHMARK SOILS:


POMPANO SOILS OF FLORIDA


L. G. Thompson, Jr., V. W. Carlisle,
R. G. Leighty, and R. E. Caldwell






















Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville









CONTENTS


Page


Introduction . . . . . . . .
General Characteristics of the Series .
Geology and Physiography . . . .
Climate .. . . . . . .
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Pompano

Official Series Description . . . .. .


* f f f f f f ft
. ft .t .t ft ft f ft .
. . f . . . ft

and Associated Soils


t t *. a f o a f W f 0


Description of the Major Mapping Units . . . . . . . .


Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties .
Air and Moisture Regimes . . .
Table 1. Physical Properties of Pompano Fine
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Pompano Fine

Management of Pompano Soils . . . . .
Fertility Experiments on Pompano Soils . .
Peppers . . . ... . . .
Cucumbers . . . . . . .
Snap Beans . . . . ..
Sweet Corn ....... . ..
Field Corn . . . . . . . .
Grasses . . . . . . . .


Estimated Yields . . . . .


* f ft # f f ft f


Sand,
Sand,


Sa f ft # a y
Manatee County
Manatee County


ft t t t t t f f f f f f
ft t t t t t f f f f f f
ft t t t t t f f f f f f


ft t f
ft t f
ft t f


t f f f f f .
.t ft ft ft ft
t f ft ft ft ft ft


S O . f f .


Table 3. Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal Crops under Two
Levels of Management in Hillsborough County . . ...... 19
Table h. Estimated Average Acre Yields of the Principal Crops under
Prevailing Management in Manatee County . . .... 19
Table 5. Estimated Average Acre Yields of the Principal Crops under
Two Levels of Management in Orange County .. . . . 20
Table 6. Estimated Average Yields per Acre of Principal Crops under
Two Levels of Management in Sarasota County . . 20

Literature Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


. . 19







INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

Pompano series consists of poorly drained soils formed from moderately thick

beds of sands that overlie calcareous materials. They have gray to dark gray sur-

face soils and white to light gray subsurface layers. In some places the subsoil

is finer textured than the overlying materials. After heavy rains, the soil may

be covered with several inches of water for a short period of time. The water table

fluctuates from moderately deep to very shallow. Runoff from the surface is slow.

When the water table is not near the surface, water moves rapidly through the soil.

The surface soil is medium acid to neutral and the lower horizons are nearly neutral

to alkaline in reaction. Profiles of these soils usually consist of sandy materials

to a depth of h2 inches or more. Pompano soils are most commonly associated with

soils of the Felda, Fellsmere, Charlotte, Delray, Manatee, Adamsville, Leon, and

Immokalee series. The Pompano soils are sandy throughout their profiles in contrast

to Felda and Fellsmere soils which have fine-textured materials within 30 inches

of the surface. The Charlotte soils have brownish-yellow, reddish-yellow, or yel-

lowish-brown colored sands occurring at depths of h to 2h inches. The Manatee and

Delray soils have thick, dark-colored, surface layers. The Adamsville soils are

better drained. The Leon and Immokalee soils are also better drained and have or-

ganic pans. The Plummer soils are moderate to strongly acid in the lower horizons.

Pompano soils are fairly well distributed in South Florida. Large areas of

Pompano and associated soils occur in Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Osceola,

Okeechobee, Polk, Martin, and Palm Beach counties (13). In South Florida, Pompano

fine sand occupies more than half (318, 985 acres) of the wet sandy soils suitable

for cultivation (11). Some areas which have been mapped as Davie fine sand in the

past would now be classified as Pompano fine sand. Most of these soils remain in






2 -

forest and native pasture. Some areas have been cleared, placed under water manage-

ment, and are used mostly for improved pasture, citrus, and vegetables. Citrus trees

planted in areas receiving intensive water control and other good management prac-

tices produce fair to good yields.

The natural vegetation consists of saw palmetto, St. Johns-wort, cypress, pine,

and various kinds of grasses, sedges, and rushes. Some areas have a fair stand of

cabbage palms, water oak, live oak, sweetgum, and other hardwoods.

Geology and Physiography

Pompano soils have developed from a moderately thick formation, of water de-

posited sands overlying calcareous materials. They occur in level to nearly level

areas or in slight depressions. Many areas are in intermittent ponds that receive

seepage from surrounding higher areas. Where the water table is lowered, internal

drainage is rapid.

Climate

The climate of the Pompano soil areas in Florida is subtropical with a relatively

high humidity. These conditions are favorable for growing most crops and trees adapted

to the region. The coastal areas are warmer in winter and cooler in summer than

the interior. Occasionally, several years may pass without frost damage to plants.

Temperatures below freezing are not common and seldom occur more than once or twice

during the winter. However, killing frosts may occur in the spring, winter, or fall.

Along the coastal areas, the temperatures are particularly favorable for growing

fruits and vegetables.

The average annual temperature is approximately 720F., with temperatures aver-

aging about 620F. in January and February and about 81F. in July and August; although

temperatures have gone as low as 19cF. and as high as 1000F. at the weather station

at Bradenton, Florida (h).

The annual rainfall of about 55 inches is fairly well distributed with larger






-3-


-,


i

1

~
C .ji,,, q ;
i~,-,( gms
ai
tr


Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Pompano and Associated Soils


~


i





- 4-


amounts of precipitation usually occurring from June to September. Occasionally,

a short drought in winter or spring may cause considerable damage to crops.


OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION

The Pompano series consists of low Humic-Gley soils that occur chiefly in the
southern part of Florida. These soils are derived from thin to moderately thick
beds of marine sands overlying moderately soft limestone. They are associated with
the Charlotte, Arzell, Broward, Delray, Felda, Keri, and Sunniland soils. Pompano
soils are lighter colored and less poorly drained than the Delray soils, and they
are less brown and not as well-drained as the Broward series. They are darker colored
in the upper profile than Arzell and have white or grayish lower layers as compared
to the brownish-yellow or yellowish-red of the Charlotte soils. Pompano soils differ
from the Felda and Sunniland series in lacking finer textured materials overlying
the limestone. Compared with the Keri, they do not have a marl layer and are more
poorly drained. The Pompano soils resemble the Plummer soils in most respects but
are neutral to alkaline rather than acid to very strongly acid throughout the pro-
file. The Pompano soils are of limited acreage and minor agricultural importance.

Soil Profile: Pompano fine sand

Al 0-3" Very dark gray (10YR 3/1) to black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid to neutral; boundary abrupt and smooth.
2 to 5 inches thick.

A2 3-27" White (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained, loose; slightly acid to
neutral; boundary gradual and irregular. 20 to 40 inches thick.

"Color 27-32" Grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; neutral;
B" boundary gradual and wavy. 0 to 7 inches thick.

C 32-48" White (10YR 8/1) fine sand with a few fine distinct mottles or streaks
of dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) in places; loose; neutral; boundary
gradual and irregular. 12 to 20 inches thick.
D 48"+ Soft limestone which becomes hard upon drying.

Range in Characteristics: Textures include fine sand and sand. Surface layer may
be and often is gray to light gray, especially where farmed for a short period.
The "Color B" horizon of grayish-brown is frequently not present or may be very thin.
In a few places a sandy loam or sandy clay loam layer may occur at 30 to 42 inches,
giving rise to a shallow phase. Colors given are for moist conditions. When soil
is dry, color values are one or two units higher.

Topography: Level to slight depressions.

Drainage: Poorly drained with ponded conditions common after heavy rains. Water
moves off slowly due to lack of slope.

Vegetation: Scattered cypress, gum, and a few slash pine on better drained areas;
undergrowth of palmetto and grasses. Some areas are free of tree growth.





5-

Use: Only small acreage cleared and planted to winter vegetables, such as squash,
peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, and string beans. A few areas are partially drained
and in pasture.

Distribution: Southern part of Florida.

Type Location: Sarasota County, Florida, about four miles northeast of Englewood.

Series Established: Everglades Project Area, Florida, 1945.

Remarks: Pompano soils were formerly included with the Plummer series.

National Cooperative Soil Survey
USA

Rev. AHH
8-29-56


DESCRIPTION CF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage, and proportionate ex-

tent of correlated Pompano soils in counties appear in current soil survey reports.

Hillsborough County

A profile description of Pompano fine sand, O to 2 percent slope, occurring'in

Hillsborough County (14) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, dark gray or dark grayish-brown loose fine sand; contains a small
amount of organic matter, which gives it a salt-and-pepper appearance;
slightly acid to neutral.
6 to 18 inches, grayish-brown loose fine sand; slightly acid to neutral.
18 to 24 inches +, light brownish-gray or light gray loose fine sand; neutral
to alkaline.

The surface soil varies from very dark gray to gray in color and from 4 to 8

inches in thickness. In some places, the 18 to 42 inch horizons are streaked with

brownish-yellow and brown. Surface runoff is slow and internal drainage is rapid

if not retarded by a shallow water table.

Pompano fine sand, shallow phase, resembles the typical Pompano fine sand in

many characteristics but differs in having a layer of mottled yellowish-brown, yel-

low, and light gray sandy clay loam or sandy clay beginning at depths between 30

and 42 inches.






-6-

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Pompano soils in this county

are as follows:

Pompano fine sand - - - - - - -- - ,2L9 acres - .6%
Shallow phase - - - - - - - - 27 acres - .1%


Manatee County

A profile description of Pompano fine sand, O to 2 percent slopes, occurring

in Manatee County (4) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, medium gray fine sand; medium to slightly acid.
6 to 12 inches, light gray fine sand; medium to slightly acid.
12 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown and gray fine sand; medium to slightly
acid.
36 to 42 inches, light brownish-gray fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay
loam; neutral to mildly alkaline; marl or shell may occur between
depths of h0 and 60 inches.

This soil includes a few small areas in which the finer-textured layer lies

at shallower depths. In places, this horizon occurs below h2 inches. In all areas

the soil is less acid than Plummer soil and lies within or adjacent to other cal-

careous soils.

Pompano-Delray fine sands are so intricately mixed with the Pompano and Delray

soils that an accurate separation of these soils could not be made on a map of the

size used. The Delray soil has a thicker and usually darker surface layer than the

Pompano soil.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Pompano soils in this

county are as follows:

Pompano fine sand - - - - - - - - 468 acres - .1%

Pompano-Delray fine sands - - - -- - - 2,260 acres - .5%

Orange County

A profile description of Pompano fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occurring

in Orange County (15) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) nearly loose fine sand.
4 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loose fine sand.






7 -
12 to 20 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) loose fine sand.
20 to h2 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) loose fine sand.

The surface horizon varies from grayish-brown to very dark gray in color and

from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. In some places the horizons from 12 to h2 inches

have fine streaks of brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) and yellow (2.$Y 7/6). In other

places, the horizon below h2 inches is a gray (10YR 5/1) and yellowish-brown (10YR

5/6) fine sandy clay loam which may contain limestone fragments.

Pompano fine sand, shallow phase, is similar to the Pompano fine sand, except

that mottled light gray, grayish-brown, yellow, and yellowish-brown fine sandy clay

loams or fine sandy clays are encountered at depths between 30 and L2 inches.

Pompano fine sand, overflow phase, has similar profile characteristics as Pom-

pano fine sand, shallow phase, but it occurs on the outer part of the St. Johns River

flood-plain.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Pompano soils in this county

are as follows:

Pompano fine sand - - - - - - - 16,h16 acres - - 2.8%
Shallow phase - - - - - - - 1,968 acres - - .3
Overflow phase - - - - - - 1,279 acres - - .2%

Sarasota County

A profile description of Pompano fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occurring

in Sarasota County (23) is as follows:

0 to 5 inches, gray or dark gray, nearly loose fine sand; has a very small
content of organic matter; slightly acid to neutral; this layer ranges
from 3 to 8 inches in thickness.
5 to lh inches, light gray to light brownish-gray, loose fine sand; slightly
acid; ranges from 7 to 12 inches in thickness.
14 to 35 inches, light gray or white, compact, very friable fine sand; a few
to common, medium, distinct, yellow, and brown mottles; slightly acid to
neutral; ranges from 18 to 30 inches In thickness.
35 to h2 inches, gray, nearly loose fine sand with fine seams of light gray
fine sand; neutral; this layer may be lacking in places.
h2 to 58 inches, dark grayish-brown, compact fine sand mottled with gray and
light gray.





-8-

Within short intervals there are many minor changes in color, mottling, thick-

ness, and reaction of each horizon. In some places, a complex pattern is formed

with Plummer and Charlotte fine sands. Small areas of these soils are included with

Pompano fine sand. In slough areas, some inter-beddings of shell, marl, or clay

occur in the substratum.

Pompano fine sand, shallow phase, differs from Pompano fine sand by having a

fine-textured layer beginning at depths between 30 and 42 inches. This layer is a

gray or light gray fine sandy clay loam mottled with yellow and brown.

Pompano fine sand, shallow phase Adamsville fine sand is a mapping unit which

contains mostly Pompano fine sand, shallow phase, and small islands of Adamsville

fine sand. The Adamsville soil has a layer of uniform yellowish sand in its sub-

soil. This soil occurs on slightly higher elevations, has slightly deeper water

table levels, and is better drained than the Pompano soil.

Pompano-Adamsville fine sands is a soil complex which consists mostly of Pom-

pano fine sand and Adamsville fine sand. The small islands of the Adamsville soil

have a layer of uniform yellow in its subsoils and have slightly deeper water table

levels than the Pompano soil.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Pompano soils in this county

are as follows:

Pompano fine sand - - - - - - - 39,535 acres - - 10.5%
Shallow phase - - - - -- - 13,023 acres - - 3.5%

Pompano fine sand, shallow phase Adamsville
fine sand - - - - - - - - 1,102 acres - - .3%

Pompano-Adamsville fine sands - - - - 3,331 acres - - .9%


Collier County

A profile description of Pompano fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occurring

in Collier County (12) is as follows:





-9-
0 to 6 inches, dark gray or dark grayish-brown loose fine sand; contains enough
organic matter to have a salt-and-pepper appearance; slightly acid to neutral.
6 to h1 inches, grayish-brown loose fine sand; slightly acid to neutral
1L to 30 inches, light brownish-gray to light gray loose fine sand; slightly
acid to neutral.
30 to 54 inches, white loose fine sand; slightly acid to neutral.
54 inches +, limestone.

The surface soil varies in color from very dark gray, dark gray, and dark

grayish-brown to gray. At times, the third and fourth horizons are faintly mottled

with yellow or brown and a thin layer of gray or light gray fine sandy clay loam

may be found overlying the limestone. The depth to the limestone varies from 48 to

80 inches. Most of this soil is in natural vegetation and is used for grazing cattle

and hogs. The carrying capacity for one cow ranges from 10 to 20 acres.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Pompano soils in this county

are as follows:

Pompano fine sand - - - - - - -- 61,036 acres - -.7%

Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Osceola, Polk, Martin and Palm

Beach counties

A typical profile description of Pompano fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,

occurring in these counties (13) is as follows:

0 to 8 inches, dark gray (10YR h/l) loose fine sand.
8 to 24 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loose fine sand.
2h to 42 inches +, light gray (10YR 7/2) streaked or slightly mottled with
brownish-yellow (TOYR 6/8) loose fine sand.

Dade County and the Everglades Region

In Dade County (6), there are approximately 23,176 acres of Davie fine sand

and 558 acres of Davie fine sand, shallow phase. Extensive areas of Davie soil have

been mapped in the Everglades Region (11). The Davie soils are now classified with

the Pompano soils.in most areas.





10 -

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MIERALOGICAL PROPERTIES

Data of physical and chemical analyses of several Pompano soil-profiles from

Manatee County were reported by Gammon et al. (7). Particle size distribution of

a typical profile is shown in Table 1. Fine sand and medium sand were the dominant

particle sizes. Fine sand varied from 58.4 to 74.8 percent in the surface soil.

Medium sand ranged from 10.3 to 19.8 percent and very fine sand from 8.5 to 12.7

percent. The surface layers contained 2.3 to 3.9 percent silt and 1.2 to 2.0 per-

cent clay. The lower layers contained less silt and clay than the surface horizons.

The 38 to 42 inch layer varied from 0.4 to 11.6 percent clay.

Table 2 contains chemical analyses of the same Pompano soil profile. Reaction

for'several surfade.soils. varied from pH 5.5 to pH 5.8 and the moisture equivalent

ranged from 4.05 to 6.68. The organic matter content varied from 1.30 to 3.12 per-

cent in the surface soil. The cation exchange capacity ranged from 2.30 to 3.72

milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizon. Calcium varied from 1.51

to 2.57 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. All horizons in the profile were

very low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; however, the surface layers had

larger amounts of these elements than the other horizons. Magnesium was higher

below 22 inches than in the upper horizons.

Air and Moisture Regimes

The relief of Pompano soils is nearly level to level. Many areas are in inter-

mittent ponds that receive seepage from surrounding soils. Internal drainage is

rapid if the water table is lowered. Most areas are covered by water-tolerant grasses,

shrubs, and weeds. The soil layers are rapidly permeable to air and permit deep

rooting except where inhibited by a high water table. Moisture supplies are very

low in dry periods and evaporation rates are high.






Table 1. Physical properties of Pompano fine sand, Manatee County (7).


Horizon
Depth Very Very
In Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Inches .iahd Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
0-6 0.3 3.7 16.5 65.8 11.6 0.6 0.1 1.L
6-18 o.4 4.9 17.5 64.4 11.2 0.2 0.3 1.1
18-22 0.4h .0 15.8 62.1 10.5 1.0 0.5 5.6
22-38 0.6 4h. 15.5 60.3 9.7 0.7 0.8 8.0
38-42 1.2 5.2 25.7 14.5 8.3 4.0 2.4 11.6








Table 2. Chemical properties of Pompano fine sand, Manatee County (7).

Horizon Moist- Solu- Or- Total Total Base* Exchangeable Bases
Depth ure tion ganic Nitro- Phos-. Exchange Ca K ig
In Equiv- Loss Matter gen phorus Capacity m.e./ m.e./ m.e./
Inches pH alent % % .% nm.e./100 gm. 100 g.. 100 gm. 100 gm.
0-6 5.51 5.60 2.3 2.33 .093 .013 3.72 2.57 .051 .0
6-18 5.38 2.67 0.7 .56 .039 .012 1.20 1.76 .021 .11
18-22 5.05 5.10 0.2 .21 .016 .016 4.84 4.45 .022 .91
22-38 7.4L 6.89 0.1 .10 .008 .015 5.96 5.46 .024 1.00
38-42 8.11 9.89 0.2 .32 .008 .022 5.06 56.22 .054 1.19





12 -

MANAGEMENT CF POMPANO SOILS

Water-management practices are essential for desirable yields of cultivated

crops or improved pastures on Pompano soils. Cultivated crops require a more in-

tensive water management than improved pastures. The level to nearly level relief

and the open porous texture of Pompano soils make them well-suited to tile water

control systems which may be used for both subirrigation and drainage. Properly

designed ditches and dikes and simple control structures are usually adequate for

cultivated crops.

During the dry winter and spring, many areas are diked and are planted to to-

matoes and other vegetables. The dikes prevent flooding and retain irrigation water

during the growing season. Under conditions of favorable weather and intensive soil

management, good yields may be obtained. After harvesting vegetables, the areas are

generally planted to improved grasses for pasture. Some areas have been partly drained

and planted to improved pasture grasses which furnish good grazing. In areas used

for citrus, the trees are planted on ridges to obtain better drainage.

In Brevard, St. Lucie, and Indian River counties (13), large areas of Pompano

fine sand and associated soils have been placed under water management and are used

for tomatoes and other vegetables, improved pastures, and citrus. With good manage-

ment and favorable weather, good yields are obtained from these crops. If adequate

water management is provided, large additional areas of these soils in Palm Beach,

Martin, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Indian River, and Brevard counties could be used for

vegetables, citrus, and improved pastures.

The suitability of these soils for cultivated crops is limited by their deep

sandy texture and low content of organic matter which results in a very low moisture-

holding capacity and a low nutrient-holding capacity. Therefore, these soils need

intensive treatment such as rotations, sod and cover crops, fertilizer and lime,

and carefully managed water control systems. Pastures require less intensive management






13 -

Under natural conditions, Pompano soils are poorly suited to pine trees or

citrus. They are well-suited to wildlife and could be used advantageously for this

purpose.

Fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphate, and potash supplemented with cop-

per, zinc, manganese, and other micro elements are essential for cultivated crops

and improved pastures on these soils. Vegetables require from 1000 to 2000 pounds

and improved pastures from 500 to 1000 pounds per acre of mixed fertilizer per year.

No definite system for rotating crops is used. Often the crop is repeated on

the same acreage for several years. In such areas, a cover crop or green-manure

crop is frequently planted after the last crop of the season is harvested. Vege-

tables may be alternated from one field to another. Sometimes a field may be idle

for a year or more. One or two vegetable crops may be grown on the same land during

one year.

Soil-improving crops generally used in rotations with truck crops are ses-

bania, cowpeas, crotalaria, beggarweed, hairy indigo, and native weeds. The cover

crop is plowed under several weeks before the new crop is planted.

In a sod rotation, the land is cleared and planted to vegetables for two years.

The residue from the second crop is plowed under and the land is planted to pangola-

grass, bahiagrass, or other improved pasture grasses. The improved pasture is al-

lowed to remain for 3 to 5 years after which the land is plowed and planted to vege-

tables. The cycle is then repeated.

Most of the cleared acreage is in improved pasture. A few small areas are in

truck crops and the rest is in range pasture. About 15 to 30 acres of range pasture

are needed to graze one animal for a year. The improved pastures are planted to

pangolagrass, bahiagrass, or bermudagrass, each of which provides a fairly good

pasture. If the water table is properly managed, white clover, Hubam clover, and

hairy indigo can be planted with these grasses to improve the quality of the forage.






14 -

Regular use of fertilizer is necessary to maintain a productive pasture. The carry-

ing capacity of the improved pastures is one cow per two to three acres.

In most areas, the forests are under-stocked. To restock these areas, seed-

lings should be planted and natural reproduction should be increased through thin-

ning of undesirable species. If seed trees are well-distributed (about 6 or 8 per

acre) and if time is not a factor, slash pine will restock itself by natural repro-

duction; but fires must be kept out.

Another method more frequently used is to plant pine seedlings. The seedlings

may be obtained at small cost from the Florida Forest Service or from a district

forester. The trees should be planted in fairly moist soil as soon as possible after

they are received in December and January. The hole should be big enough to allow

the roots to spread and the soil should be well-packed around the seedling. A mulch

of grass or pine straw around the trees will help prevent too rapid drying of the

soil.

The Florida Forest Service (5) recommends spacings of 8 by 8 feet for all pur-

poses, 10 by 10 feet for early returns, and 12 by 12 feet for naval stores. Proper

thinning is necessary to prevent overcrowding and to hasten the production of a good

crop of timber. The trees should be thinned so that the tops will meet in about

five years.

In open forest, running is more beneficial than in close stands. As a pine

grows, the lower limbs die because they have not received enough sunlight. In thick

stands, the side limbs are shaded sooner and break off earlier. In an open stand

the side limbs get much more sun and live longer. Consequently, the trees are

shorter and more knotty, and the lumber is of lower grade. Sound, straight, and

even spaced trees should be pruned as they are more likely to make high quality

lumber. The limbs should be cut close to the tree trunk so as to leave no stub.

Prune no more than the lower one-third of the live crown or top. Prune a second






15 -

time, if necessary, and scatter the limbs away from the base of the trees to lessen

the danger of fire and to lessen insect attack.

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service has suggested a system of timber

growing with grazing, which forms a basis for better land use (16). This system

also provides for adequate protection from fire and the production of game, fish,

and other wildlife. In this system, improved pasture grass strips from 100 to 200

feet wide should be established around and through the more extensive areas of forest

land. Because these pasture grass strips are closely grazed by cattle, they provide

effective barriers to fire. Where fire risk is high, as much-as 20 percent of the

forest land should be converted to strips of improved pasture.

Advantages of this system are:

1. Effective fire protection.

2. Annual profit from cattle instead of annual expense for fire protec-

tion.

3. Larger money return from the land.

h. Earlier return from the land.

5. Retention and expansion of cattle industry even on land used for ;,.

timber growing.

6. Conservation of soil and water resources.

7. A feasible, constructive, and profitable program that can be done

gradually according to the means of the land owner.

8. Applicable to farm forest and woodlands.

Fertility Experiments on Pompano Soils

Peppers: On Davie fine sand (now classified as Pompano fine sand), Ozaki et

al. (22) found that the yields of marketable peppers were not significantly'influenced

by increasing the rate of nitrogen from 20 to hO pounds per acre applied at two week

intervals. Increasing the rate of nitrogen application increased blossom-end rot,





16 -

but decreased the amount of sunburning. Potash applied every two weeks at 30 pounds

per acre produced the highest yield of marketable peppers. In general, 30 pounds

per acre each of nitrogen and potash applied every two weeks or a total of 300 pounds

each per acre produced the highest yield of harvested peppers.

Ozaki and Hamilton (17) found that bronzing of pepper leaves was correlated

with low levels of applied potassium. Each 100 pounds per acre increase in potash

decreased bronzing and significantly increased the potassium content of the leaves.

Phosphorus applied at different levels had no influence on bronzing. The total

yields of marketable peppers were significantly affected by the rate of applied

nitrogen and potassium. The yield response to potassium and nitrogen was interre-

lated. The phosphorus level had no significant influence on yield.

Ozaki and Hortenstine (19) reported that liming gave a significant increase

in the yield of peppers on Davle fine sand only when the acid soluble soil calcium

level was below 300 pounds per acre. The treatment of 2000 pounds per acre of agri-

cultural limestone gave the highest yield of marketable peppers.

Ozaki and Hortenstine (21) studied the effect of phosphorus on the yield of

peppers using plots that varied from a trace of water soluble phosphorus in Delray

fine sand to L pounds per acre in some plots on Pompano fine sand. They found that

the total yield from check plots receiving no phosphorus was 180 bushels per acre

on Delray fine sand and 00 bushels on Pompano fine sand. However, phosphorus fer-

tilized plots of Delray fine sand outylelded phosphorus fertilized plots of Pompano

fine sand.

Cucumbers: Hortenstine and Ozaki (10) found that applications of lime and iron

or manganese compounds to Davie fine sand (now classified as Pompano fine sand) had

no significant effect on the yield of cucumbers. Applying manganese to the soil

resulted in a significant increase in the uptake of manganese by the cucumber plants.

Lime at rates of 0, 3000, 6000, and 12000 pounds per acre resulted in pH values of





17 -

5.h, 6.1, 6.4, and 6.7, respectively and soil calcium values of 1100, 1800, 2600,

and 4300 pounds per acre respectively, six months after incorporation into the soil.

In a fertilizer test on Davie fine sand, Ozaki and Hortenstine (20) recorded

increased yields of cucumbers using 60 pounds of nitrogen and 60 pounds of potash

per acre as compared to 20 pounds of nitrogen and 20 pounds of potash per acre.

Snap Beans: On Davie fine sand, Hortenstine and Ozaki (9) reported that lime

at 3000 pounds per acre gave a highly significant increase in the yield of the Har-

vester variety of bush snap beans. The 6000 and 9000 pound levels gave a signifi-

cant decrease in yields over the rate of 3000 pounds per acre. There was no effect

from manganese or iron applied to the soil and the bean foliage showed no deficiency

symptoms.

In an experiment with the Harvester variety of beans, Hortenstine and Ozaki

(8) found no significant response in yields from iron or manganese in pelleted or

powdered form. However, lime gave a highly significant increase in the yield of

Harvester beans.

Sweet Corn: In winter grown sweet corn, Ozaki (18) noted that iron, manganese

and a mixture of manganese, iron, boron, zinc, and molybdenum sprays failed to sig-

nificantly increase the height of the corn.

Field Corn: On Pompano fine sand (formerly classified Davie fine sand), Boyd

(2) found that two crops per year of field corn could be grown successfully. The

seed was planted l- to 2 inches deep in shallow listed furrows in firm, damp soil.

After the corn seedlings emerged, the middles were deepened to provide aeration and

protection against flooding. It was found advantageous to plant corn with row spacing

alternating 30 and 42 inches wide. Fertilizer was side-dressed within the 30-inch

centers and the furrows were deepened only in the 42-inch spacing. This permitted

easy passage of tractors and equipment wheels in the wider 42-inch furrows without

damage to the growing crop. Highest yields were obtained idth 18 to 24-inch water

tables.





18 -

Grasses: Boyd (3) found that St. Augustinegrass on Davie fine sand produced

the highest total forage yields and the most growth during the winter. However,

it was adversely affected by dry weather, low temperatures, and by high rainfall

intensity. On soil with adequate surface moisture or when followed by moderate rains,

fall fertilization gave good results.

Boyd (1) also studied the fertilization of St. Augustinegrass grown on Davie

fine sand and reported that this grass fertilized three times a year with a 16-h-6

fertilizer at the rate of 1000 pounds per application produced about 22 tons of green

forage per acre. When nitrogen was increased from 2h0 pounds to h80 pounds per acre,

the yield increased 5.5 tons per acre.

All plots received Es-Min-El at 50 pounds per acre, which contained 6.25 per-

cent CuO, 12.90 percent MnO, and 6.22 percent ZnO.





- 19 -


ESTIMATED YIELDS


The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on Pompano fine sand

in Hillsborough County (14), Manatee County (4), Orange County (15), and Sarasota

County (23) are shown in Tables 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively.


Table 3. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops
under two levels of management in Hillsborough County.

Soil Tomatoes2 Sweet Corn Green Peppers Polebeans Cucumber
A B A B A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu
Pompano fine sand 150 250 425 550 175 275 150 225 200 30
Shallow phase 150 250 425 550 175 275 150 225 200 30
Squash Lettuce Cabbage Eggplant Corn
A B A B A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Crates Crates Tons Tons Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu
Pompano fine sand 80 125 80 150 6 10 250 400 30 4
Shallow phase 80 125 80 150 6 10 250 400 30 6
lYields in columns A obtained under common farming practices; those in columns B
under more intensive management.
2Yields of unstaked tomatoes; staked tomatoes give approximately 50 percent higher
yields.


Table 4. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops
under prevailing management in Manatee County.

Truck Crops Snap Permaren
Tomatoes Cabbage Lettuce Peppers Cucumbers beans Pasture
cow-acre
Bu. Tons Crates Bu. Bu. Bu. days_
Pompano fine sand 250 8 200 200 150 125 300-450
Pompano-Delray fine
sands 300 9 225 225 150 150 325-475






- 20 -


Table 5. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops
under two levels of management in Orange County.1


Snapbeans Cabbage Sweet Corn Cucumbers
Soil A B A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Tons Tons Crates Crates Bu. Bu.
Pompano fine sand 125 160 6 10 110 140 175 250
Shallow phase 125 160 6 10 110 140 175 250
Overflow phase 125 160 6 10 -- --- ---
Lettuce Endive or Radishes Permanent
escarole pasture
A B A B A B A B
Soil Crates Crates Crates Crates Bu. Bu. Cow-acre days
Pompano fine sand 1--0 160 375 h75 110 160 275 350
Shallow phase 110 160 375 475 110 160 275 350
Overflow phase --- --- 375 475 110 160 275 350
IYields in columns A are those to be expected under common management practices;
those in columns B are to be expected under good management practices. Absence of
yield figure indicates the crop is not commonly grown.


Table 6. Estimated average yields per acre of principal crops
under two levels of management in Sarasota County.


Soil dative Pensacola Pangolagrass Whiteclover
range2 bahiagrass
A B A B A B
cow-acre cow-a re cow-acre
days_ days days
Pompano fine sand 15-30 125 195 14h 230 75 150
Shallow phase 15-30 150 240 160 250 75 150
Pompano-Adamsville
fine sands 15-30 -- -- -
Pompano fine sand,
shallow phase-
Adamsville fine
sand 15-30 --- --- --- --- --.
-Yields in column A are to be expected under present management; those in columns
B are to be expected under good management. Blank spaces indicates that the pasture
crop is not grown under the management specified, or the soil is not suited to its
production.
2Number of acres required to carry one animal one year.
3Cow-acre days is the number of days one acre Will graze a cow without injury
to the pasture.




- 21 -


LITERATURE CITED
1. Boyd, F. T, Nitrogen Fertilization of St. Augustine Grass Grown on Davie Fine
Sand. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15:82-85. 1955.

2. Boyd, F. T. Cultural Practices Useful in Growing Field Corn on South Florida
Sandy Soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Florida Proc. 17:226-230. 1957.

3. Boyd, F. T. Fertility Responses of St. Augustine, Pangola, and Pensacola Bahia
Grasses on South Florida Sandy Soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 21:
74-80. 1961.

4. Caldwell, R. E., 0. C. Olson, J. B. Cromartie, and R. G. Leighty. Soil Survey
of Manatee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1947, No. 8.
1958.

5. Florida Forest and Park Service, Florida Farm Forestry. Fla. Forest Service
Bul. 14, 1942.

6. Gallatin, M. H., J. K. Ballard, C. B. Evans, H. S. Galberry, J. J. Hinton,
D. P. Powell, E. Truett, W. L. Watts, G. C. Willson, Jr., and R. G. Leighty.
Soil Survey (Detailed-Reconnaissance) of Dade County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Series 1`947, No. 4. 1958.

7. Gammon, N., Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell, R. G. Leighty,
and F. B. Smith. Physical, Spectrographic and Chemical Analyses of Some Virgin
Florida Soils. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 524. 1953.

8. Hortenstine, C. C. and H. Y. Ozaki. Response of Crops on Organic and Sandy Soils
in South Florida to Soil and Foliar Applications of Minor Elements. State Proj-
ect 1009. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 296. 1961.

9. Hortenstine, C. C. and H. Y. Ozaki. The Effects of Liming on the Availability
of Fe and Mn and on Soil Ca and pH on Davie Fine Sand. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 21:44-50. 1961.

10. Hortenstine, C. C. and H. Y. Ozaki. Response of Crops on Organic and Sandy
Soils in South Florida to Soil and Foliar Applications of Minor Elements. State
Project 1009. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 274. 1962.

11. Jones, L. A., R. V. Allison, G. D. Ruehle, J. R. Neller, J. R. Henderson,
R. D. Marsden, J. G. Steele, C. K. Davis, B. S. Clayton, J. C. Stephens, M. H.
Gallatin, and A. R. Stephens. Soils, Geology and Water Control in the Everglades
Region. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 442. 1948.

12. Leighty, R. G., M. B. Marco, G. A. Swenson, R. E. Caldwell, J. R. Henderson,
0. C. Olson, and G. C. Willson, Jr. Soil Survey (Detailed Reconnaissance) of
Collier County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Series 1942, No. 8.
1954.

13. Leighty, R. G., L. C. Murphee, E. D. Matthews, E. H. Evenson, S. H. McCollum,
F. Matanzo, and G. M. Thompson. Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Kissimmee and
Upper St. Johns Valleys in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 580. 1957.





- 22 -


1h. Leighty, R. G., V. W. Carlisle, 0. E. Cruz, J. H. Walker, J. Beem, R. E. Caldwell,
J. B. Cromartle, J. L. Huber, E. D. Matthews, and Z. T. Millsap. Soil Survey
of Hillsborough County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1950,
No. 3. 1958.

15. Leighty, R. G., D. T. Brewer, W. R. Smith, 0. E. Cruz, E. H. Evenson, F. Matanzo,
D. S. Taylor, R. M. Craig, W. G. Diamond, E. D. Matthews, M. S. Morgan, and
H. 0. White. Soil Survey of Orange County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Series 1957, No . 960.

16. Neiland, L. T. Timber-Grazing-Game. Fla. Agr. Ext. Serv. Bul. 127. 1945.

17. Ozaki, C. T. and M. G. Hamilton. Bronzing and Yield of Peppers as Influenced
by Varying Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 1.:185-189. 1954.

18. Ozaki, H. Y. Response of Crops on Organic and Sandy Soils in South Florida to
Soil and Follar Applications of Minor Elements. State Project 1009. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 273. 1960.

19. Ozaki, H. Y. and C. C. Hortenstine. Effect of Lime on Yield of Peppers and on
Soil Calcium. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 21:50-55. 1961.

20. Ozaki, H. Y. and C. C. Hortenstine. Fertilizer Studies of Vegetable Crops Grown
on the Sandy Soils of the Lower East Coast. State Project 806. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Annual Report p. 294. 1961.

21. Ozaki, H. Y. and C. C. Hortenstine. Effect of Applied Phosphorus on Yield and
Growth of Peppers. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 22:89-92. 1962.

22. Ozaki, H, H. H. E. Ray, and C. T. Ozaki. Yields and Quality of Peppers as
Affected by Ammonium Nitrate and Sulfate of Potash Treatments. Soil and Crop.
Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 17:210-215. 1957.

23. Wildermuth, R., J. L. Huber, R. G. Leighty, 0. E. Cruz, V. W. Carlisle, J. H.
Walker, and D. P. Powell. Soil Survey of Sarasota County, Florida. U.S.D.A.
and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Series 1954, No. 6. 1959.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs