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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series descriptions
 Description of the major mapping...
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Management of Chiefland, Hernando,...
 Estimated yields






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091529/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 65-1 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 25 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Carlisle, V. W.
Caldwell, R. E.
Leighty, R. G.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July, 1964."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091529
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310751228

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Official series descriptions
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Description of the major mapping units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Management of Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Estimated yields
        Page 24
        Page 25
Full Text


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T6314vL


DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 65-1 JULY, 196h



BENCHMARK SOILS:

CHIEFLAND, HERNANDO, AND

JONESVILLE SOILS OF FLORIDA


by


L. G. Thompson, Jr.,
R. E. Caldwell, and


V. U. Carlisle
R. G. Leighty


Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville


j










CONTENTS


Page

Introduction ................" '1
General Characteristics of the Series.....,................oo 1
Distribution. .............. ........ o*..o* o.o.. .......*.... 2
Geology .. ..................... ....o.. .... .... .... ...... -. 2
Physiography, .......................... .... ...*.. ........ 2
Climate........................o............... ........** 3
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Chiefland,
Hernando, Jonesville, and Associated Soils........ h

Official Series Descriptions........................... ****......... 5
Chiefland Series,............................ o...............
Hernando Series....... ........ o .......... ..**...........********* 6
Jonesville Series... ....o...... o......o ...O ...... ... .. .... 8

Description of the Major Mapping Units,...................... ... 9

Physical and Chemical Properties............. ........ ........... 13
Table 1. Physical Properties of Chief land Fine Sand,
Alachua County............. ...... ....... ........... l
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Chiefland Fine Sand,
Alachua County. ................. .... ......*. ....... 15
Table 3. Physical Properties of Hernando Fine Sand,
Alachua County,....... ...,.......... ............ 16
Table h. Chemical Properties of Hernando Fine Sand,
Alachua County...... ...... ........ ..... ......... 16
Table 5. Physical Properties of Jonesville Fine Sand,
Alachua County.............................**...***** 17
Table 6. Chemical Properties of Jonesville Fine Sand,
Alachue County..... .... ........ ... *.... .* ..* 17

Management of Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville Soils........... 18
Forest Management on Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville
Soils.... .. ... .. o o, 0..,..o0,.. ....... .,,, ..9 *......* 21
Fertility Experiments on Chiefland, Hernando, and
Jonesville Soilso..............9.... .......... ............ 23

Estimated Yields...................... ........... 21
Table 7. Estimated Acre Yields of Principal Crops and
Carrying Capacity of Pasture Under Two Levels
of Management in Suwannee County...,.............,. 25

Literature Cited................................................. 26









INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

The soils of the Chiefland and Jonesville series have moderately thick

layers of sands overlying thin layers of sandy clay loam or sandy clay and

limestone. In some places the sands lie directly on the limestone. Chief-

land soils have grayish-brown to dark gray surface layers and light gray,

very pale brown, or white sandy lower layers. The sandy layers range from

30 to 48 inches in thickness and are underlain commonly by a thin layer of

mottled reddish-yellow, yellow, and yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam.

Soft limestone underlies the thin layer of fine sandy clay loam, The Chief-

land soils have similar colored sandy layers as the Kanapaha and Blanton

soils. The Kanapaha soils are influenced by phosphatic materials and the

Blanton soils are acidic to greater depths than the Chiefland soils,

Jonesville soils have grayish-brown to dark gray surface il.'ers and

yellow, light yellowish-brown, yellowish-brown, or pale brown sand lower

layers to depths of 30 to 48 inches. The sandy layers are underlain by

yellow, yellowish-brown or pale yellow sandy clay loam or sandy clay, 3

to 18 inches thick over limestone. Jcnesville soils have similar colored

sandy layers as the Lakeland and Arredondo soils. The Lakeland soils are

acidic to greater depths than the Jonesville soils and the Arredondo soils

arep influenced by phosphatic materials.

The Hernando soils are derived from thin layers of sands overlying

sandy clay loam, clay loam, or sandy clay which have been developed wholly

or partly from the underlying limestone. Hernando soils have dark gray to

grayish-brown sandy surfaces, 3 to 8 inches thick, over pale brown to

yellowish-brown sandy subsurface layers. These sandy layers are 8 to 30








-2-

inches thick and are underlain by yellow to yellowish-brown or brown

clay loam, sandy clay, or heavy sandy clay loam. Limestone commonly occurs

within depths of 48 to 60 inches of the surface. The Hernando soils are

somewhat similar to Zuber and Archer soils in textural and color character-

istics. Zuber soils are influenced by phosphatic materials and the asso-

ciated Archer soils contain more red in their clayey subsoil.

Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils occur on level to sloping

relief. Chiefland and Hernando soils are considered well-drained to moder-

ately well-drained and the Jonesville soils are well-drained to somewhat

excessively drained.

Distribution

The Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils are found in Alachua,

G'lchrist, Levy, Marion, Sumter, and Suwannee Counties with large contin-

uous areas occurring in Alachua, Levy, Marion, and Suwannee Counties.

Geology

Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils have developed from moder-

ately thick to thin beds of sands over Ocala limestone of the Eocene age.

In some places, Ocala limestone is overlain by Hawthorn., limestone. In

Chiefland soils, the fine sand commonly rests directly on the limestone,

while Hernando and Jonesville soils have a sandy clay layer over limestone.

In some areas, the limestone is phosphatic.

Physiography

Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils occur mostly in broad,

nearly level to slightly undulating areas. The surface soil, subsoil, and

underlying limestone are open and porous, so drainage is good to excessive.

There are few streams in the area and virtually all drainage is internal







-3-


and subterranean.

Climate

The climate of the Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soil areas

in Florida is characterized by long warm summers, short mild winters,

high relative humidity, and abundant rainfall. The climate is very fav-

orable for growing 'most crops such as corn, peanuts, bright

tobacco, many vegetables, and a variety of pasture grasses. Oats, rye,

cabbage, lettuce, and English peas are grown in winter and are only occasion-

ally damaged by freezes.

The average annual temperature is approximately 70F., with maximums

of about 900F. during the months of June to August and minimums around

35F. in January and February. The average length of the frost-free season

is approximately 276 days from February 25 to November 29, but frost has

come as late as April 6 and as early as October 24.

The average annual rainfall is about h9 inches, with 33 inches for

the driest year and 65 inches for the wettest year. The seasonal distri-

bution of rainfall is fairly good with larger amounts of precipitation

usually occurring in June, July, August, and September. At times there

are periods, usually in the spring, when crops suffer from lack of water.

























u. (!Th.
I/


Location of Major Areas of Chiefland, Hernando,

Jonesville, and Associated Soils.


Figure 1.










OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION


Chief land Series

The Chief'and series consists of moderately well and well-drained
Regosols. These soils are developed from moderately thick beds of fine
sand resting on thin layers of sandy clay loam or sandy clay overlying
limestone. Chief land soils are associated with Jonesville, Archer, Hernando,
Blanton, and Lakeland soils. They have paler C horizon colors than the
Jonesville series. Chiefland soils are derived from coarser textured
sediments, have a lower degree of horizonation, and have paler colors than
the ArheAcer and Hernando soils. They have higher base saturation and are
less acid than the Blanton and Iakeland series, both of which lack lime-
stone substrata. In addition they have paler C horizons than the Lakeland
soils, A common characteristic associated with Chiefland soils is the
utnven surface of the underlying limestone formation. Small limestone
outcrops and lime sinks are common. The total acreage of Chiefland soils
is of limited extent and distribution but locally important to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Chiefland fine sand

Ap 0-6" Grayish-brown (2.5Y" 5/2) fine sand; loose; many fine grass
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary, b to 7 inches
thick,

CI 6-241" Pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) fine sand with few medium distinct.
brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) splotches; loose; slightly acids
gradual wavy boundary, 12 to 20 inches thick,

C2 24-412" White (10YR 8/2) fine sand with a few medium faint brownish-
yellow (10YR 6/8) and common coarse distinct very pale brown
(10YR 7/h) splotches; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary. 1h to 20 inches thick.

IIBb 42-46" Mottled reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6), yellow (10YR 8/6), and
yellowish-brown (1OYR 5/6) fine sandy clay loam; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; firm; neutral to alka-
line; clear irregular boundary. 0 to 18 inches thick.

1JR 616"+ Soft limestone.

Range in Characteristics: The principal type is fine sand; there are a
7iE areas~ of and 'Ci7or of the A horizon normally is gray or dark gray
in undisturbed areas. In cultivated areas the Ap horizon is grayish-brown
or dark gray. Colors of the Cl and C2 horizons range from white through
pale brown or pale yellow. Mottles, or splotches, inthe C1 and C2 horizons
range from few to common inclusive. The IIBb horizon is absent in some
areas And the sands rest directly on limestone. In other areas, the IIBb
horizon is yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) or mottled light gray (10YR 7/1),
gray (1OYR 5/1), and very pale brown (10YR 7/3). Total thickness of the
sand ranges from 30 to 48 inches. Where the thickness is between 20 and
30 inches, a shallow phase may be recognized. Colors given above are for






-6-


moist soil, When soil is dry, color values are one or two units higher.

Topography: Nearly level to sloping with gradients generally up to 12
percent.

Drainage and Permeability: Moderately well and well-drained. There is
little or no runoff. Permeability is papid to very rapid.

Vegetation: Longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines; live, turkey, and laurel
oaks;hickory,, and sparse growth of wiregrass are common in areas not cul-
tivated.

Use: About one-half is cleared and used for crops, such as corn, peanuts,
waermelons, and flue-cured tobacco. Some areas are used for pasture.

Distribution: Narrow belt from Dade City, Florida, north to near the
Georgia line.

Type Location: SuwanneecCounty, Florida; approximately one-half mile north-
east of Branford on the Lake City Highway.

Series Established: Alachua County, Florida, 198.

Rev. JRM-TBH-OCL-ILM National Cooperative Soil Survey
5-7-63 USA

Hernando Series

The Hernando series consists of well-drained and moderately well-
drained Red-Yellow Podzolic soils occurring in the west central and north
central part of Florida. These soils are derived from thin layers of marine
sands overlying sandy clay loam or sandy clays derived wholly or partly from
limestone residuum. They are associated with the Archer, Chiefland, Jones-
ville, and Kanapaha soils. The Hernando soils have fine-textured materials
within 8 to 30 inches of the surface whereas the sandy surface material
is more than 30 inches thick in the Chiefland, Jonesville and Kanapaha
soils. They are not as droughty as the Chiefland and Jonesville soils.
The Hernando soils are lighter colored and contain more yellow in the B
and C horizons in contrast with the reddish and brownish colors in com-
parable horizons of the Archer series. In most places they are free of
mottles to greater depths than the Archer soils and the mottling is not
so pronounced. A few stones and outcropping of silicious limestone occur
in places. Small depressions or lime sinks may occur. Some small areas
contain a minor amount of phosphatic material. The Hernando soils are
rather limited in acreage and distribution. They are of importance to
agriculture only locally.

Soil Profile: Hernando loamy fine sand -- forested

A I 0-3" Dark gray (10YR L/l) loamy fine sand; weak fine crumb
structure; very friable or loose; many fine roots; strongly
acid; clear irregular boundary. 2 to 8 inches thick.






-7-


A2


A3



B22



B23


3-8"1


8-12"



12-20"



20-30"


B3 30-38"




C 38-50"


Grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; structureless; loose;
many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
3 to 12 inches thick.

Brown (lOYR 5/3) fine sandy loam; moderate fine granular
structure; very few fine roots; slightly sticky, friable
and soft; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. 3 to 8
inches thick.
Yellowish-brown (10R 5/4) fine sandy clay with moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; sticky, firm and hard;
strongly to medium acid; clear and smooth boundary. 6 to
12 inches thick.

Light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine sandy clay with
common, fine, distinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) in lower part;
moderate medium and fine subangular and angular blocky
structure; sticky, firm and hard; medium acid; gradual
diffuse boundary. 8 to 14 inches thick.

Pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy clay with common, dis-
tinct medium mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and gray
(7.5YR 6/0); weak fine and medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; sticky, firm and hard; medium acid; gradual diffuse
boundary. 6 to 12 inches thick.

Pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy clay or clay with
common, distinct medium and fine mottles of light brownish-
gray (2.91 6/2); strong brown (7%5% 5/8) and light gray
(2.5Y 7/2); massive,plastic, very firm and very hard; a
few limestone fragments in lower part; medium to slightly
acid.


Range in Characteristics: Loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, and fine sand
are the principal types. Thickness of the sandy surface material ranges
from about 8 to 30 inches; where it is 18 to 30 inches thick the soil is
classified as a thick surface phase. Color of the A horizon ranges from
gray (10YR 6/1) to very dark gray (10YR 3/1). The B horizon ranges in
texture from heavy fine sandy loam to a heavy fine sandy clay and in color
from pale yellow (2.$Y 7/4) to yellowish-brown (10YR 5/1) or pale brown
(1IYR 6/3). Mottling ranges from faint to distinct. Thickness of the
fine-textured materials over limestone ranges from 6 to L8 inches. Colors
given above are for moist condition. When soils are dry, values are one
or two units higher.
Topography: Nearly level to gently sloping or sloping. Gradients are
mostly between 0 to 8 percent.






-8-


Drainage and Permeability: Well-drained to moderately well-drained.
Permeabbilty I rapid in the upper part of the profile and slow to mod-
erate in the lower part.

Vegetation: Longleaf and loblolly pine; post, turkey, and live oak;
bTac1igum, sweetgum, crabapple, hickory, dogwood, magnolia, iroznwood, ash,
elm, and holly.

Use: Largely cleared and planted to corn, peanuts, tobacco, watermelons,
7ay, oats, and vegetables. Some idle, some planted to slash pine and
some still in forest.

Distribution: West central and north central Florida.

Type Location: Alachua County, Florida, about 5 miles northeast of New-
'erry,-7TTIT~- of Sec. 20, T, 9S, R 18E.
Series Established: Hernando County, Florida, 1914.

Rev. AHH National Cooperative Soil Survey
3-13-58 USA


Jonesville Series

The Jonesville series consists of Regosols beginning to show a few
characteristics of Red-Yellow Podzolic soils. These soils have developed
from beds of acid sands overlying finer sediments which rest on limestone.
The finer sediments and probably some of the sand have come from weathering
of the sandy limestone. Jonesville soils are associated with and closely
related to the Hernando, Chiefland, and Archer series. The Jonesville and
Hernando series have been formed from similar sediments, but the sandy man-
tle is much thicker, on the average, where the Jonesville soils are formed,
Where the two series grade into one another, a lower limit of 30 inches
of sand has been set for the Jonesville series. The Chief land soils are
generally lighter colored in the subsoil than the Joneville end the sandy mater
.. in most places Zstsdireot1y uponrock with very little or no finer sedi-
ments between. Also, depth to bedrock is much more variable in the Chief-
land. The Archer soils have finer textured subsoils within 30 inches of
the surface than the Jonesville. The Jonesville soils are of limited ex-
tent but are locally important to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Jonesville fine sand

A 0-10" Gray to dark- gray (N t/0) fine sand, light gray to gray
(10YR 6/1) dry; single grained to weak fine crumb struc-
ture; loose; medium acid. 6 to 12 inches thick.

C11 10-38" Light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand, light gray (10YR
7/1) dry; single grained to weak fine crumb structure;
loose; medium acid. 20 to 35 inches thick.








C12 38-44" Pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) fine sand, pale yellow (SY 7/3)
dry; single grained to weak fine crumb structure; loose;
medium acid. 6 to 12 inches thick.
D Lt4-8" Very pale brown (10YR 7/4) light fine sandy loam, pale
yellow (2.5Y 7/4) dry; with a few faint mottles of reddish-
yellow in places; very friable; neutral to mildly alkaline.
2 to 12 inches thick.

Dr 48"+ Moderately hard to soft limestone.

Range in CharmPtristics: Fine sand is the most common type although
sanaTdua"n oayie ne saFn- may occur. Depth of sand over fine materials
ranges from 30 to 100 inches, Where the thickness ranges from 30 to 42
inches a shallow phase is recognized. Thickness of the finer material
between the sandy deposit and the underlying rock ranges from about 2 to
12 inches, but it is more commonly about 6 inches. Texture of this finer
material is usually a fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam. The C11
and C12 horizons may range in color from light brownish-gray (IOYR 6/2) to
yellow (2.5Y 7/8).
Topography: Level to strongly sloping.

Drainage: Somewhat excessively drained. Internal drainage is very rapid
n~TeiTre is little or no runoff. Crops often suffer from lack of moisture
except during wet seasons.

Vegetation: Longleaf, slash and loblolly pines; many scrub oak and some
gum, hickory, and dogwood.

Use: Mostly cleared and planted to corn, peanuts, annual hays, and water-
melons; some is in pasture.

Distribution: From about the northern edge of Hillsborough County, Florida,
north to the Georgia line south of Valdosta, Georgia. A few areas may
occur in Lowndes and adjoining counties in Georgia.

Type Location: Western part of Marion County, Florida.

Series Established: Alachua County, Florida, 1907.

Remarks: The series includes soils formerly classified largely as the fine
san3' and sands of the Hernando and Archer series.

Rev. AHH National Cooperative
4-9-56 Soil Survey USA



DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS
The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage, and pro-
portionats extent of correlated Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville soils






-10-

appear in current county soil survey reports.

Suwannee County

A profile description of Chiefland fine sand occurring in Suwannee

County (t) is as follows:

0-eo 7 inches, gray loose fine sand with many clean sand grains.
7 to 36 inches, light gray to very pale brown loose fine sand.
36 to 39 inches, yellowish-brown filable fine sandy loam; crumb
structure.
39 inches plus, soft limestone.

The surface soil is gray to dark gray in color and from h to 8 inches

thick. The subsurface layers are very pale brown to light gray. The sub-

stratum is a yellowish-brown fine sandy loam. In places, the thin loamy

substratum is absent and the sands rest directly on limestone. The soil

is strongly acid to within a few inches of the loamy substratum or lime-

stone where it becomes slightly acid to neutral.

Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, has similar characteris-

tics to Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but has steeper slopes.

In a few places, limestone outcrops at the surface and small gullies may

also be encountered.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Chiefland soils

in this county are as follows:

Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ... 2,571 acres,.. .6%
Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes - - 269 acres- .1%



A profile description of Hernando fine sand occurring in Suwannee

County (4) on 2 to 5 percent slopes is as follows:

0 to 12 inches, dark gray to brown loose fine sand.
12 to 2h inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam, with brownish-
gray mottles; subangular block structure.
21 to 38 inches, yellow sticky, fine sandy clay to marly clay
mottled with shades of gray and brown; angular and subangular
blocky structure.
38 inches plus, limestone.


~i~l~






-11-
The surface soil is a gray, dark gray, or dark grayish-brown fine sand,

from 3 to 6 inches thick. The surface texture is usually fine r~ud, but

in a few places loamy fine sand has been included. The sandy layer is

normally less than 18 inches thick, but small areas with 18 to 30 inches

of sand have been included. Also, a small acreage on slopes of less

than 2 percent is included. The subsoil ranges from a fine sandy clay

loam to clay in texture and from yellow to yellowish-brown in color. The

thickness of the subsoil is normally 6 to 12 inches. In some local areas

where underlying limestone has dissolved and the solution holes have filled

with clay, the subsoil is several feet thick.

This soil is strongly acid in the surface and medium acid in the

subsoil. It has medium organic matter content, moderate available mois-

ture capacity, and low inherent fertility. Permeability is moderately

rapid in the surface soil and slow in the subsoil.

Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is similar in most respects

to Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but occurs on steeper slopes.

Because of this, it is more subject to erosion and several eroded areas

are included, It is usually associated with sinks and sharp depressions,

and the total acreage is small.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Hernando soils

in this county are as follows:

Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -.-.- 1,555 acres - .b%
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---- 359 acres - .1%

A lachua County

A profile description of Chiefland fine sand occurring in Alachua

County (9) is as follows:

0 to 2 inches, brownish-gray loose fine sand with a small quantity of
organic matter.






-12-

2 to 15 inches, medium gray or brownish-gray loose fine sand.
15 to 50 inches, yellowish-gray to pale brown loose fine sand
with brownish-gray splotches.
50 to 53 inches, yellowish-brown friable but slightly sticky
fine sandy clay.
53 inches plus, limestone.

Variations occur in the thickness of the sandy clay subsoil and in the

depth to limestone below the surface. The sandy clay layer is absent in

many places, and the sands rest directly on the limestone.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Chiefland soils

in this county are as follows:

Chiefland fine sand - - - - - lh,681 acres - 2.5a


A profile description of Hernando loamy fine sand occurring in

Alachua County (9) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, light brownish-gray loamy fine sand containing con-
siderable organic matter.
h to 18 inches, yellow to light yellowish-brown nearly loose loamy
fine sand or fine sand.
18 to 2L inches, light yellowish-brown friable fine sandy loam.
24 to 36 inches, light yellowish-brown friable but slightly sticky
fine sandy clay.
36 to 38 inches, yellowish-brown calcareous fine sandy clay.
38 inches plus, Ocala limestone.

The surface soil is yellowish-gray, pale yellow or light grayish-brown.

Depth of the sandy material over sandy clay or sandy clay loam varies

from 6 to 30 inches. There are local areas of loamy fine sand and a

few spots of coarse-textured sandy loam. The clayey layer over lime-

stone varies from a few inches to several feet thick. The Jonesville

fine sand differs from Hernando fine sand in that the sandy material over

sandy clay is 30 to 60 inches thick or more. These Jonesville areas are

intricately mixed and not large enough to show on the map.

Included in the mapping are small areas that have a mottled light

gray and brown plastic sandy clay subsoil which has characteristics






-13-

similar to the subsoil of the Fellowship series. These small areas

are scattered throughout delineations mapped as Hernando-Jonesville

fine sands.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Hernando-Jones-

ville soils in this county are as follows:

Hernando-Jonesville fine sands - - 41,989 acres - 7.3


A profile description of Jonesville fine sand occurring in Alachua

County (9) is as follows:

0 to 1 inch, dark gray loose fine sand containing organic matter.
1 to 5 inches, yellowish-gray loose fine sand.
5 to h0 inches, light yellowish-brown or yellow loose fine sand,
40 to hh inches, light yellowish-brown friable heavy fine sandy loam
or fine sandy clay.
b4 inches plus, Ocala limestone.

The surface soil is light brownish-gray, pale brown, or yellowish-gray.

Within short distances, the depth to the limestone frequently ranges

from less than 3 feet to 8 or 10 feet. Gray clay, 1 to 10 inches thick,

overlies the limestone in many places. In other places, a yellowish-

brown or reddish-brown sandy clay overlies the limestone; but in a few

places, the fine sand lies directly on limestone. A few areas have irregu-

lar-shaped fragments of chert 1 to 12 inches in diameter on the surface and

mixed with the soil. Areas of Hernando fine sand included in this complex

have fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay subsoil at 12 to 30 inches below

the surface.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Jonesville-

Hernando soils in this county are as follows:

Jonesville-Hernando fine sands -- - - -47,~Il acres - 8.2%


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Data on physical properties of 2 Chiefland profiles from Alachua


j







-l1-
and Suwannee Counties were reported by Gammon et al. (3). Fine sand and

very fine sand were the dominant particle sizes. Fine sand varied from l2,.

to 55.8 percent in the surface soil. Very fine sand varied from 20.5 to
28.0 percent and medium sand from 11.3 to 17.8 percent. The surface layers

contained from 2.6 to 5.9 percent coarse silt and 0.3 to 1.2 percent fine

silt. The lower layers contained less silt and more clay than the surface

horizons.

Data on chemical properties of t2. Chiefland profiles from Alachua

County were reported by Gammon et al. (3). The reaction of the surface

soil varied from pH 5.66 to pH 5.91 and the moisture equivalent ranged

from 4.58 to 5.36 percent. The organic matter varied from 1.53 to 2.08

percent in the surface soil. The cation exchange capacity in me./lOOg.
varied from 3.6 to 5.0 in the topmost horizon. Calcium ranged from 1.82

to 2.34 me./100g. of soil. All the horizons were very low in nitrogen,

phosphorus, and potassium; however, the surface layers had larger amounts

of nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium than the other horizons.

Table 1. Physical properties of Chiefland fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Very Med- Very
Horizon Coarse Coarse ium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Depth In Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
Inches % % % % % % % %

0-2 0.1 1.7 11.3 55.7 25.6 3.1 1.2 1.2
2-6 0.0 1.6 10.5 56.9 26.6 2.3 0.4 1.5
6-16 0.1 1.6 12.1 58.1 24.1 2.0 0.4 1.5
16-30 0.1 1.4 10.3 57.8 26.4 2.1 0.4 1.2
30-48 0.0 1.5 11.1 58.1 25.9 1.8 0.1 1.4
48-54 0.0 1.3 9.8 50.7 21.4 2.0 0.0 1h.7








Table 2. Chemical properties of Chief land fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Cation
Moist- Organ- Total Total Exchange Exchangeable Bases
Horizon ure Solu- ic Phos- Nitro- Cap. Ca K .1
Depth In Equiv- tion Matter phorus gen me./ me./ me./ meo/
Inches pH alent Loss % 1% 00. 100g, 10g. 10Clg.
0-2 5.66 $.36 2.1 2.08 .015 .047 5.0 2.34 .074 1.88
2-6 5.76 2.89 0.5 .,7 .019 .012 1.7 .63 .010 1.79
6-16 5.84 2.15 0.3 .24 .016 .007 .9 .43 .008 1.80
1.6-30 6.01 1.79 0.1 .14 .053 .00o .8 .32 .008 1.78
30-48 6.35 1.78 0.1 .09 .00 .002 .7 .34 .003 1.77
48-54 7.43 11.56 0.2 .2L .063 .012 5.5 5.42 .028 .20


Data on physical properties of 3 Hernando profiles from Alachua County

were reported by Gammon et al. (3). The dominate particle sizes were fine

sand and very fine sand in the surface horizons. Fine sand content varied
from 50.0 to 60.8 percent, very fine sand varied from 15.1 to 20.4 per-
cent, and medium sand from 9.6 to 18.9 percent. The surface layer con-
tained 2.7 to 4.1 percent coarse silt and 0.4 to 1.9 percent fine silt.

The clay vaired from 3.9 to 4.9 percent. The lower layers contained more

clay than the surface horizons.
Data on chemical properties of 3 Hernando profiles from Alachua
County were reported by Gammon et al. (3). The reaction of the surface

soils varied from pH 5,62 to pH 5.94 and the moisture equivalent ranged
from 4.61 to 7.02 percent. The organic matter varied from 1.18 to 2.33
percent in the surface soil. The cation exchange capacity in me./lOOg.
varied from 3.8 to 5.58. Calcium ranged from 1.16 to 2.17 me./lOOg. of

soil. All the horizons were low in nitrogen and potassium; however, the
surface layers had more nitrogen and potassium than the other horizons.


-15-





-16-


Table 3. Physical properties of Hernando fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Very Med- Very
Horizon Coarse Coarse lum Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Depth In Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
Inches % % % % % % % %
0-3 0.1 1.9 18.9 54.5 15.1 4.1 o.L4 .9
3-6 0.0 2.2 18.1 $5.0 15.3 3.7 0.9 5.7
6-12 0.1 2.0 18.1 53.8 14.9 3.6 1.0 6.4
12-18 0.1 2.3 16.4 52.7 14.1 3.6 0.3 10.4
18-27 0.0 1.4 12.0 37.5 9.3 2.2 0.7 36.9
27-33 0.0 1.2 12.1 35.2 6.6 1.4 0.5 42.9
33-45 0.1 1.2 11.1 35.7 5.4 0.9 0.6 45.0


Table 4. Chemical properties of Hernando fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Moist- Cation ---.
ure Solu- Or- Total Total Exchange Exchangeable Bases
Horizon Equiv- tion ganic Nitro- Phos- Cap. Ca K Mg
Depth In alent Loss Matter gen phorus me./ me./ me./ me./
Inches pH % % % % % 100g. 100g. 100g. 100g.
0-3 5.67 7.02 2.2 2.33 .049 .137 5.58 2.17 .068 .45
3-6 5.89 5.57 1.4 1.22 .026 .152 4.12 1.58 .025 .42
6-12 5.84 5.49 0.9 .71 .062 .166 3.48 1.29 .017 .45
12-18 5.80 7.71 0.6 .64 .014 .240 1.13 1.76 .026 .65
18-27 5.03 21.13 0.6 .58 .021 .752 12.68 4.78 .092 li44
27-33 5.32 23.89 0.3 .27 .012 .854 15.12 4.93 .125 1.03
33-45 5.37 25.22 0.2 .18 .009 .853 15.81 6.84 .l18 .75



The physical properties of 3 Jonesville profiles from Alachua County
were reported by Gammon et al. (3). Fine sand and medium sand were the
dominate particle sizes. Fine sand content varied from 43.8 to 55.9 per-
cent, very fine sand ranged from 9.6 to 20.5 percent, and medium sand from
18.6 to 30.0 percent. The surface layer contained 2.1 to 2.4 percent coarse
silt and 0.3 to 0.7 percent fine silt. The clay varied from 1.8 to 4.3 percent.






-17-
Chemical properties of 3; Jonesville profiles from Alachua County
were reported by Gammon et al. (3). The reaction of the surface soils
varied from pH 5.72 to pH 5.93 and the moisture equivalent ranged from
3.95 to 6.16 percent. The organic matter in the surface soil varied from
1.39 to 2,27 percent. The cation exchange capacity in me./100g. varied
from 2.46 to 6.7. Calcium ranged from 0.69 to 2.71 me./100g. All of the
horizons were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; however, the
surface soil had more nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium than the lower
layers of soil. Smith et al. (8) noted that this soil was above average
in phosphorus in the lowest horizon of the profile.

Table 5. Physical properties of Jonesville fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Very Med- Very
Horizon Coarse Coarse ium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Depth In Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
Inches % % .% %f % %.

0-3 0.1 3.5 18.6 55.9 14.6 2.1 0.7 4.3
3-6 0.1 3.4 17.9 57.0 14.7 1.9 0.8 4.2
6-12 0.1 3.2 18.0 57.3 14.7 2.0 0.7 4.0
12-36 0.1 3.1 18.0 57.8 15.0 1.7 0.7 3.6
36-48 0.0 3.0 17.3 59.3 15.6 1.4 0.8 2.6
48-60 0.1 3.4 17.6 58.3 16.3 0.9 0.4 2.8
60+ 0.1 3.2 15.8 49.5 13.0 1.9 0.3 16.2


Table 6. Chemical properties of Jonesville fine sand, Alachua County (3).

Moist- Solu- Organ- Total Total Cation Exchangeable Bases
Horizon ure tion ic Nitro- Phos- Exchange Ca K Mg
Depth In Equiv- Loss Matter gen phorus Cap. me./ me./ me./
Inches pH alent % % % % me./100g. 100g. 100g. 100g.

0-3 5.93 6.16 1.5 2.27 .057 .055 6.7 2.71 .051 .57
3-6 6.15 4.0oL 0.8 1.05 .023 .059 3.5 1.07 .003 .28
6-12 6.19 3.56 0.4 .71 .015 .056 2.7 .57 none .24
12-36 6.15 7.16 0.1 .23 .006 .044 1.7 .25 none .13
36-48 6.02 1.79 0.0 .08 .004 .025 1.0 .13 none .10
48-60 6.09 1.69 0.0 ;03 .003 .020 .9 .14 none .09
60+ 5.76 9.22 0.0 .80 .011 .253 4.7 1.79 .018 .71






-18-

MANAGEMENT OF CHIEFLAND, HERNANDO, AND JONESVILLE SOILS


About 70 percent of Chiefland fine sand in Alachua County is covered

with longleaf pine, live and scrub oaks, hickory, and an undergrowth of

wiregrass. A small acreage is idle and about 30 percent is cultivated.

The soil is well-suited to peanuts, bright tobacco, watermelons, and

sugarcane. Truck crops and corn are also grown. The soil responds

readily to the addition of organic matter and fertilizers.

All cultivated crops should be grown in rotation with soil improving

crops. Liberal use of fertilizers is necessary. Grass sods or cover crops

should be grown on the land at least two-thirds of the time. They should

be grown in strips to control wind erosion. This soil should not be terraced,

but cover crops should be grown in strips across the slopes and rotated with

other crops. When rotated with cultivated crops, well-managed, improved

pastures should occupy the land h out of 6 years. Row crops should be

followed by annual cover crops during the 2 years of cultivation. Where

water is easily available, irrigation of special high-value crops is de-

sirable.

This soil is moderately well-suited for improved pastures. Bahiagrass,

pangolagrass, and other deep rooted grasses are adapted. Deep rooted legumes,

such as hairy indigo, can be grown successfully; but careful management is

necessary to maintain them in pastures. Carefully controlled grazing,

frequent fertilization, and occasional liming are required.

Hernando fine sand is considered among the best soils in Alachua

County. It can be built up and maintained at a fair to high state of

productivity much easier than the deeper Chiefland and Jonesville fine

sands. Fairly good pastures can be developed on the Hernando soils.

Hernando fine sand is one of the best soils in Alachua County for






-19-

peanuts, bright tobacco, and watermelons. It is also fairly well-

suited to corn, sugarcane, cotton, sweetpotatoes, and velvet beans.

Most of this soil is cultivated and good pastures can be developed.

About 60 percent of Jonesville-Hernando fine sands in Alachua

County is cleared and under cultivation. The other h0 percent is in

longleaf pine and some hardwoods. About hO percent of the cultivated

land is used for interplanted corn, peanuts, and velvet beans. Some of

this soil is used for peanuts alone and some for corn alone. A smaller

amount is used for watermelons, tobacco, sea-island cotton, okra, cucum-

bers, chufas, and cowpeas. About one-third of the soil is idle each year.

It is a common practice to interplant corn, peanuts, and velvet

beans for 2 or 3 years and then allow the soil to rest for a year. Grasses

and weeds usually provide some pasture on this resting land. This cover

is plowed under and the soil is planted to another crop of corn, peanuts,

and velvet beans. The tobacco farmers use a rotation of tobacco the first

year, an interplanted crop of peanuts, corn, and velvet beans the second

year, and fallow land the third year. Tobacco may be grown again the

following year.

Hernando fine sand occurs in small areas in Jonesville fine sand and

is farmed the same way. Under similar management practices and fertili-

zation, the yields on Hernando fine sand are 10 to 15 percent higher than

on the Jonesville soil.

The soil complex is low in organic matter and can be greatly improved

by growing green manure crops such as cowpeas, crotalaria, and beggar-

weed.

Chiefland and Jonesville fine sands in Suwannee County are suited

to watermelons, peanuts, and bright leaf tobacco. These crops should

be grown in rotation with soil-improving cover crops, and liberal amounts







-20-
of ferterlizer are needed. Cover crops or grass sods should be grown

about two-thirds of the time. These crops should be grown in strips

to control wind erosion. They should be rotated in strips across the

slopes to control water erosion. Improved pasture should be rotated with

cultivated crops to provide well-managed sods for h out of 6 years.

These soils should not be terraced, but the 2 years of cultivated crops

should be followed by annual cover crops. The low available moisture

holding capacity of these soils makes irrigation profitable for truck

crops and tobacco. Deep wells usually supply the water, but excavated

ponds are sometimes used if the soils have a shallow water table. Ponds

are sometimes constructed in drains having small watersheds.

Improved pastures do moderately well on these soils. The deep-rooted

grasses such as bahiagrass and Coastal Bermudagrass are recommended.

Hairy indigo and other deep-rooted legumes can be grown, but careful

management is needed to maintain them in pastures. Controlled grazing,

occasional liming, and frequent fertilizing are necessary.

Hernando soils in Suwannee County are suited to most common crops,

but intensive soil improvement practices are needed to maintain yields.

All crop residues should be incorporated into the soil. Cover crops should

be grown in a strip rotation and occupy the land at least two-thirds of

the time. Cultivated crops should be rotated with improved pasture to

provide for a well-managed sod for at least 4 out of 6 years. During the

years that the land is cultivated, annual cover crops should follow clean-

tilled crops. Terraces are not required on this soil, but vegetative strips

across cultivated fields are beneficial to protect the soil from wind erosion.

This soil requires occasional liming and frequent fertilization.

Bahiagrass, Coastal Bermudagrass, and Pangolagrass are well-suited






-21-

to this soil if fertilized and limed. These grasses respond to fairly

heavy applications of fertilizer. Deep-rooted legumes such as sweet

clover, lupine, and hairy indigo can be grown successfully, but they are

difficult to establish and maintain in pastures.

Forest Management on Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville Soils

Forest trees, like cultivated crops and pasture grasses, show a

decided preference for certain soils. Throughout the ages, nature has

developed certain species for every soil type that is suited for forest.

Therefore, reforestation should be carried on with tree species known to

be suited to particular soils.

Longleaf pines are well-suited to Hernando, Jonesville, and Chiefland

fine sands. Slash pines are tolerant to somewhat dry locations and will

do fairly well on these soils. Redcedar is suited to a wide variety of

soils and will do well on these soils.

Since the forested areas of Alachua County are partly understocked,

the planting of a full stand of timber is usually the first step in

forest management. Direct planting or natural reproduction are two

methods that may be used to restock the stand Newly reforested areas

must be protected from burning or the entire young forest may be destroyed

by a single fire.

Where seed trees are lacking and where time is important, direct

planting to forest seedlings is adviseable. The advantages of direct

planting are: (A) A forest can be established in a short time, (B) the

desired species can be planted, (C) the trees can be planted in the area

desired, and (D) the spacing and number of trees per acre can be controlled.

Spacings suggested for pine trees are 8 feet by 8 feet, and for redcedar,

6 feet by 6 feet.






-22-

If the soils are suitable, the trees recommended are slash pine

for lumber, naval stores, and firewood; black cherry for lumber and

cabinet wood; white oak and yellow poplar for lumber; redcedar for

fence post, Christmas trees, cabinet wood and pencil wood; and slash pine

and redcedar interplanted for windbreaks.

If time is not important and if the areas to be planted are exten-

sive, the restocking may be by natural reproduction from 6 or 8 large

trees of a desirable species per acre.

Many forests contain a high percentage of cull trees -- crooked,

fire-scarred, very limby trees, and species of little or no commercial

value. The removal of these trees to make room for high-value species

is called improvement cutting and is important in good forest management.

Understocked stands are common in forested areas. As the trees have

too much room, the lower branches do not die and drop to the ground while

they are small as in crowded stands of young timber. These trees must be

pruned to at least a 16-foot log length in order to produce knot-free lum-

ber. The trees must be pruned while of small-diameter and short trees,

under 40 feet high, should be pruned twice so as not to remove more than

one-third of the living crown of the tree.

Some small patches of young trees are crowded excessively and thinning

may be desirable. Generally, it is best to wait until the trees are 30

feet high or more before thinning them.

Since fire is the greatest destroyer of trees, the forest must have

fire protection at all times. The destructive use of the ax and saw

cannot equal fire in destroying the forest, as only the larger trees are

generally used commercially. Fire may destroy both large and small trees.

Millions of small trees hidden in the grass are killed by fire. Fire de-

stroys much of the vegetation that should be returned to the soil as humus






-23-

to help maintain soil fertility, to increase the capacity of the soil

to hold water, and to obtain proper growth of the soil microorganisms.

Fertility Experiments on Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville Soils

Pritchett (5) studied the effect of various fertilizers and minor

elements on the yield of oats grown on Chiefland and Hernando fine sands

and found that the firsttelement limiting growth was nitrogen. These soils

may be expected to give increased crop yields with relatively large appli-

cations of nitrogenous fertilizers. Yield responses to phosphorus and

potassium were also significant on these soils. Application of elements

as sulfates often increased millet yields more than 100 percent; however,

when these elements were added as chlorides little or no yield increases

were recorded.

On Jonesville fine sand, Pritchett (6) found that the growth of

southern redcedar (Juniperus silicicola) was increased with nitrogen and

suppressed by potassium applications. The width of the crown was signifi-

cantly increased by nitrogen appIcations, but the color and density of the

crown was not affected.

On Hernando loamy fine sand, Pritchett et al. (7) found that total

soil nitrogen and nitrate production were significantly related to nitrogen

uptake and forage yields of millet and oats on unfertilized soil. However,

the content of organic matter was not significantly related to the uptake

of nitrogen and the yield of forage. The correlation was highest for nitrate

nitrogen. The regression of nitrate nitrogen and total soil nitrogen on

percent yield, which Increased for millet and oats, became more highly

significant with increased rates of fertilization. Correlation was not

significant at low rates of fertilizer application. Plant uptake indicated

that these mineral soils usually supply 20 to IO pounds of available nitrogen

during the growing season.






-24-

Fiskell et al. (1) found appreciable exchangeable aluminum in the

Jonesville-Hernando fine sand complex. Where an element such as magnesium

is in low supply, aluminum may be taken up in quite large amounts. When

less than 35 ppm. of acetate extractable aluminum were present in the

soil, corn yields of 55 bushels per acre were obtained, but with 88 ppm.

of this element only 8.6 bushels per acre were produced. They concluded

that there was a need to keep aluminum in balance with the other soil

elements.

Winsor (10) used a modification of the standard boiling-water extrac-

tion procedure for boron which consisted of successive extractions of the

same soil sample until the boron removed approached the zero level. The

rate and completeness of extraction of native soluble boron would serve

in this procedure to evaluate the supplying power of the soil. In the

coarse-textured Jonesville and Hernando fine sands, all the boron had been

removed by the fourth extraction.

Friedmann (2) studied the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,

copper, manganese, boron, and zinc applied to a Jonesville soil planted

to oats in the greenhouse and found that the various levels of nitrogen

gave a definite increase in the yield of oats. Yield response to phos-

phorus, potassium, and minor elements were quite irregular. Sulfur de-

ficiencies were observed on this soil.


ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on

Blanton-Chiefland fine sand, Chief land fine sand, and Hernando fine sand

in Suwannee County (I) are shown in Table 7.










Table 7. Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying
of management in Suwannee County,1


lIn columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under
are to be expected under good management.


capacity of pasture under two levels


common management; those in columns B


2Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.


SBright | Small
Soil Pea- Leaf Water- Grass I Grain for
S Corn nuts Tobacco melons Pasture Grazing
AA B A B A B A B A B A B
Blanto -Cow2 Cow2 Lbs. Lbs.
Blanton -Chiefland Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. No. No. days days Beef Beef
fine sands,
0 to 5 percent slopes 15 30 700 1500 1150 1500 250 345 150 275 60 150
5 to 8 percent slopes 13 27 600 1350 1025 1350 225 310 135 250 55 135
Chiefland fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes 15 30 700 1500 1150 1500 250 345. 150 275 60 150
5 to 8 percent slopes 13 27 600 1350 1025 1350 225 310 135 250 55 135
Hernando fine sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes 20 h0 800 1600 1200 1550 250 360 150 325 60 th5
5 to 8 percent slopes 18 36 700 1450 1075 lhOO 225 325 135 300 55 130
_, __




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