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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description and extent of major...
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Management of scranton soils
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091528/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Scranton soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Scranton soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 65-2 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 31 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Carlisle, V.W ( Victor Walter ), 1922-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Thompson, L. G. Jr.
Caldwell, R. E.
Leighty, R. G.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by V.W. Carlisle ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 30-31).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June, 1965."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091528
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310981471

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Official series description
        Page 5
    Description and extent of major mapping units
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Management of scranton soils
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Estimated yields
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Literature cited
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text

6m,34)


DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 65-2 JUNE, 1965


BENCHMARK SOILS:


SCRANTON SOILS OF FLORIDA


V. W. Carlisle, L. G. Thompson, Jr.,
R. E. Caldwell, and R. G. Leighty















Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
Uniteritty of' Florida
Gainesville










CONTENTS
Page

Introduction .................I....
General Characteristics of the Series ....................... 1
Geology and Physiography ..................... ........... 2
Climatz ......................... .. ...... ................. 3
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Scranton
and Associated Soils ........... ... ........ ..... 4

Official Series Description ............................. ......

Description and Extent of Major Mapping Units ................. 6
Alachua County ........................................... 6
Hillsborough County ........... ..................... ... 7
Manatee County .................. ........................... 7
Orange County ......................... ................. 8
Sarasota County ............................................ 9
Suwannee ... ........ .. ......... ........ .................. 9
Washington County .......................................... 9

Physical and Chemical Properties ............................... 11
Table 1. Physical Properties of Scranton Fine
Sand, Manatee County .............................. 14
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Scranton Fine
Sand, Manatee County ......................... ...

Management of Scranton Soils ........ ......... ..... *** 15
Fertility Experiments on Scranton Soils .................... 18
Strawberries ................... ..... ... ..... 18
Peppers ....... ....... ....................... 20
..Squash ........... ............. ...... .... 21
Okra ............................. ........ .... 21
Collards .................................... ... 22
Southern Peas ......... ............. ...... ...... 22
Eggplant .......................................... 22
Oats .............................................. 22
Citrus ........................... 0 $............... 23
Other Research on Scranton Soils ..... .................... 23
Weed Control ............ .......... .............. 23
Aluminum, Colbalt, and Manganese. Content ......... 24
Gamma Radiation ................................... 25
Cover Crops and Sting Nematode ................... 26

Estimated Yields ............................................... 26
Table 3. Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal
Crops under Two Levels of Management in
Hillsborough County ........... ............... 27
Table U. Estimated Average Acre Yields of the Principal
Crops under Prevailing Management in Manatee
County .............. .............. ....... .... .... 27










Contents (Cont.)
Page

Table 5. Estimated Average Acre Yields of the
Principal Crops under two Levels of
Management in Orange County ....................... 28
Table 6. Estimated Average Acre Yields of the
Principal Crops under two Levels of
Management in Sarasota County ..................... 29
Table 7. Average Acre Yields of the Principal
Crops that may be Expected over a
Period of Years in Alachua County ................. 29

Literature CiBed ................................ ....... ......... 30










INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

Soils of the Scranton series have very dark gray to black sandy sur-

face layers which are usually underlain by lighter colored sands. They

have formed from moderately thick deposits of acid sands and loamy sands.

In places, the upper layers are coarser textured than the subsoil. Scranton

soils are somewhat poorly drained with a widely fluctuating water table.

Water moves rapidly downward through the soil when the water table is not

near the surface; conversely, internal drainage is impeded during periods

of shallow water table which are usually associated with the rainy seasons.

Surface runoff is slow in nearly level areas but increases rapidly with

increasing gradients.

Scranton soils are commonly associated with soils of the Ona, Blanton,

Orlando, Leon, and Rutlege series. The Scranton soils are very similar

to Ona soils but they do not have the brown, organic-stained horizon

immediately beneath the surface layer that is typical of the Ona soils.

They have a darker, thicker surface layer than the Blanton soils; occupy

wetter areas and retain more moisture than the Orlando soils; lack the

organic-stained pan of the Leon soils; and are better drained than the

Rutlege soils.

The native vegetation of Scranton soils consists mainly of pine, a few

hardwoods and saw-palmettos, runner oak, wiregrass, and other grasses.

These soils are productive, easily managed, and erosion is not a problem.

They are used mainly for vegetable, pasture, and citrus production,

Periodic wetness, caused by a shallow water table, is a principal








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limiting factor. Shallow ditches are usually sufficient for removal of

excess surface water during wet seasons in pastures and areas of vegetable

crops. Deep ditches, tile, or other properly designed water-control systems

are essential to provide adequate internal drainage during wet seasons for

citrus production. The native fertility is usually low, but this is easily

overcome by liberal applications of lime and fertilizers.

These soils are well-suited for woodland use. Slash pines grow rapidly

when protected from fire and overgrazing. Inasmuch as these soils are well-

suited to many cultivated crops and pastures, many additional areas could

be cleared and used more intensively.

Geology and Physiography

Soils of the Scranton series have developed from moderately thick

deposits of sands and loamy sands that are strongly acid throughout the

profile. These well-worked and well-sorted deposits are thought to have

formed during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch. Where the

deposits were somewhat poorly drained because of the continued presence of

a shallow water table they developed into the Scranton soils and related

series of the Florida flatwoods. Since the normal depth to water table

depends on topography and the configuration of underlying impervious sub-

strata, Scranton soils occur over a wide range of elevations. Most Scranton

soils in Florida are between 30 feet and 150 feet above sea level.

Scranton soils usually occur on flat to very gently sloping inter-

stream divides. In addition, they frequently occur in rather narrow bands

between large areas of flatwoods and the better drained soils. Most of

the Scranton soils mapped in Florida are nearly level (0 to 2 percent slope);










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however, many irregular strips near streams, ponds, and better drained

soils are on slopes of 2 to 5 percent.

Climate

The climate of the areas where Scranton soils occur is characterized

by long, warm, and humid summers and mild, relatively dry winters. The

average annual rainfall of slightly over 50 inches displays a rather marked

seasonal distribution. About 60 percent of the total annual precipitation

falls during a h-month period which,in an average year, extends from June

through September. Usually the period from mid-April to mid-May is very

drought and periods of 3 or h weeks without measurable rainfall are frequent'

this time of year.

Summer rains usually occur in the early evenings as local showers

or thunderstorms. At times, tropical storms develop between June and

November. When tropical storms occur, they may cause extensive damage

to crops and fields through excessive rainfall and flooding.

Winter temperatures vary considerably because of periodic cold air

masses which move into the state from Canada. The daytime winter temper-

ature averages near 720F. However, some of the winter cold snaps bring

freezing temperatures and frost t6 the area. Minimum night temperatures

average somewhere near 500F. with temperatures as low as 200F. being con-

sidered rare. During the summer months the daytime temperatures reach

900F. and slightly above quite regularly but temperatures of 1000F. are

very infrequent. Summer nightly minimum temperatures average around 70F.

Citrus plantings on Scranton soils are confined to areas protected from

cold or to the southern part of the state.

















































Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Scranton and Associated Soils











OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION


The Scranton series consists of somewhat poorly drained Regosols that
have dark colored surface layers and have been formed from thick beds of
acid sands and loamy sands in the seaward portion of the Atlantic and Gulf
Coastal Plains. They are generally associated with the Rutlege, Pocomoke,
7ortsmouth; On,, Orlando, Blanton, Klej, Lynchburg, Plummer, and Leon soils.
They are better drained than the Rutlege, Pocomoke, Portsmouth, and Plummer
soils, and are sandier in the subsurface horizons than:the Pocomoke and
Portsmouth series. The Scranton soils have darker surface layers and are
more poorly drained than the Blanton and Klej series. They are less gray
and are more yellow immediately below th A horizon than the Rutlege soils
and lack the B horizons of humus accumulation of the Ona and Leon series.
They are more poorly drained than Orlando soils; have darker and thicker
Al horizons than the Lynchburg, Plummer, and Leon soils, and lack the B
horizons of clay accumulation of the Lynchburg soils. The Scranton soils
are widely distributed, of a fairly large acreage, and locally important
to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Scranton fine sand forested

All 0-10" Black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular structure;
loose; relatively high in organic matter; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary. 6 to 15 inches thick.

A12 10-17" Dark grayish-brown (10YR h/2) fine sand; single-grained;
loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. 3 to 8 inches
thick.

C1 17-32" Pale brown (10YR 6/3) to pale yellow (2.5Y 8/h) fine sand;
single-grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
8 to 20 inches thick.

C2 32-h8"+ Mottled light gray (10YR 7/1), pale yellow (2.5Y 7/h), and
yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; single-grained; loose; strongly
.acid.

Range in Characteristics: The principal types are fine sand, sand, loamy
ine sand, and loamy sand. The A horizon ranges from 8 to 2h inches in
thickness and from black or very dark grayish-brown to dark gray in color.
The C1 horizon color ranges from light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/h) or yellow
(265Y 6/6) to very pale brown (10YR 7/3), and in places is mottled with
grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) and shades of gray. The sandy layers are underlain
in places by finer-textured sediments (D horizon) at depths generally
greater than h2 inches. When this loamy or clayey layer is at depths be-
tween 30 and h2 inches, a phase may be recognized. Areas bordering phos-
phatic soils may have a higher phosphatic content than normal. A few iron
concretions may occur in the lower portion of the C horizon. Colors given
are for moist conditions.







-6-


Topography: Level to very gently sloping; most areas have less than 2
percent slopes.

Drainage and Permeability: Somewhat poorly drained with slow surface
runoff. Permeability is rapid. The soil has a fluctuating (10 to 60
inches) ground water level.

Vegetation: Longleaf, loblolly, and slash pines with a scattering of
laurel oaE hickory, blackgum, sweetgum, and an undergrowth of gall-
berry, myrtleand runner oak. In Florida there may be a few saw palmettos
also.

Use: Probably 30 to 35 percent of the total acreage is cultivated; the
remainder is in forest or is used as native pasture. The principal crops
are potatoes, cabbage, strawberries, green peppers, string beans, cucumbers,
eggplant and sweet corn.

Distribution: Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina,
and' North Carolina.

Type Location: Hillsborough County, Florida; near Keysville, in the
northeast corner of SE- NE-M Sec. 22, T.3CS R.22E.

Series Established: Scranton Area, Jackson County, Mississippi, 1909.

Rev. RGL-ILM National Cooperative Soil Survey
2-9-62 USA



DESCRIPTION AND EXTENT OF MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage, and pro-

portionate extent of various mapping units within the Scranton series

appear in current soil survey reports.

Alachua County

A profile description of Scranton loamy fine sand-fine sand, O to

2 percent slope, occurring in Alachua County (26) is as follows:

0 to 8 inches, black or dark gray loamy fine sand having a high
organic matter content.
8 to 13 inches, brownish-gray or dark gray loa-my fine sand con-
taining a fair quantity of organic matter.
13 to h8 inches, light brown or yellow fine sand somewhat mottled
with light gray and brown.












The texture is slightly coarser in the northeastern part of the cc'. .

Surface soil depth and subsoil color vary considerably. In places, the

subsoil is almost uniformly yellow or light brown; in others, it is g:ay-

is'h-yellw or .. mottled yellow, brown, and gray. Areas of Scranton soil

occur principally in the west-central and northern parts of the county.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton loamy

fine sand-fine sand in this county is 12,433 acres or 2.2 percent.

Hillsborough County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slope,

occurring in Hillsborough County (22) is as follows:

0 to 12 inches, black nearly loose fine sand; contains a large amount
of organic matter.
12 to 20 inches, dark grayish-brown nearly lose fine sand.
20 to 36 inches, pale brown or very pale brown loose fine sand.
36 to h8 inches +, mottled pale yellow, very pale brown, and brownish-
yellow loose fine sand.

The color of the surface soil ranges from black to very dark gray and

from 9 to 15 inches in thickness. In some areas the very pale brown soil

material extends to depths of more than 42 inches. The dark grayish-brown

horizon is absent in places. A few areas in the northeastern part of the

county have mottled gray and yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam below

a depth of 36 inches.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton fine

sand in this county is 19,586 acres or 2.9 percent.

Manatee County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,

occurring in Manatee County (12) is as follows:

0 to 8 inches, dark gray to dark brownish-gray fine sand with a high
content of organic matter.












8 to 22 inches, brownish-yellow fine sand; less brown and more yellow
at its lower limits.
22 to h2 inches+, pale yellow fine sand somewhat loamy at its lower
limits.

Depth of surface layer and color of subsurface layer is somewhat

variable. Usually, the surface layer is lighter and thinner in areas

adjacent to Lakeland or Blanton soils. In areas adjacent to Orlando and

Rutlege soils, the surface layer is usually thicker and darker. The sub-

surface layer generally ranges from brownish-yellow to pale yellow. In

some places, the finer textured horizons occur close to the surface and,

in these areas, the deeper horizons are usually a mottled yellow, brown,

and gray.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton fine

sand in this county is 1,132 acres or 0.3 percent.

Orange County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,

occurring in Orange County (21) is as follows:

0 to 9 inches, black, nearly loose fine sand that contains a large
amount of organic matter.
9 to 12 inches, very dark gray, loose fine sand.
12 to 18 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
18 to 30 inches, light brownish-gray, loose fine sand.
30 to h2 inches+, light gray, loose fine sand, mottled with pale
yellow, yellow, and yellowish-brown.

The surface layer ranges from black to dark gray in color and from

9 to 15 inches in thickness. In some cultivated areas the surface layer

is dark gray and 12 to 20 inches thick. The deeper horizons are light

gray, light brownish-gray, pale brown, or pale yellow. In a few areas

mottled gray, pale yellow, and yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam

occurs at depths of h2 to h8 inches.











The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton fine

sand in this county is 1,071 acres or 0.2 percent.

Sarasota County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,

occurring in Sarasota County (27) is as follows:

0 to 12 inches, very dark gray or black, nearly loose fine sand.
12 to 18 inches, dark gray to very dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
18 to 22 inches, gray to light brownish-gray, loose fine sand,
mottled with yellow and gray.
22 to 30 inches, light gray, loose fine sand, mottled in some places
with yellow and brown.
30 to 50 inches, light gray or white, loose fine sand, mottled in
some places with yellow and gray.

In places the dark color of the surface layer extends to depths of

14 to 22 inches.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton fine

sand in this county is h66 acres or slightly over 0.1 percent.

Suwjannee County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,

occurring in Suwannee County (19) is as follows:

0 to 8 inches, black fine sand; medium crumb structure.
8 to 18 inches, dark gray fine sand; weak cruib structure.
18 to h8 inches, pale brown to very pale brown, loose fine sand.

The surface soil varies from black to very dark gray in color and 7

to 18 inches in thickness. This is underlain by a pale brown to very

pale brown layer which is usually 24 to 60 inches thick.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton fine

sand in this county is 1,629 acres or 0.4 percent.

Washington County

A profile description of Scranton fine sand occurring in Washington








-10-


County (20) on a wooded site is as follows:

0 to 5 inches, very friable, black fine sand.
5 to 8 inches, very friable, very dark gray fine sand.
8 to 10 inches, loose, grayish-brown fine sand.
10 to 15 inches, loose, grayish-brown fine sand mottled with olive
gray and light yellowish-brown.
15 to 15 inches, loose, light yellowish-brown fine sand with
brownish-yellow and very pale brown mottles.
L5 to 52 inches+, loose, mottled light yellowish-brown and very
pale brown fine sand.

The surface layer is 8 to lh inches thick and has black to very

dark gray color. The subsurface layer is grayish-brown to dark grayish-

brown in color and 2 to 8 inches thick, Underlying layers range from

light yellowish-brown to very pale brown with a variation in the amount

of yellow, brown, and gray mottles. A few areas of this soil on 2 to 5

percent slopes and a few spots with finer textured materials between 30

to 42 inches have been included with this soil.

Scranton fine sand, shallow, resembles the Scranton fine sand in

most characteristics but differsmainly in having finer textured materials

between 30 to h2 inches. A profile description of Scranton fine sand,

shallow, occurring on a wooded area in Washington County (20) is as

follows:

0 to 8 inches, very friable, black fine sand.
8 to 10 inches, loose, very dark gray fine sand.
10 to 12 inches, loose, grayish-brown fine sand.
12 to 23 inches, loose, brownish-yellow fine sand with few
yellowish-brown mottles.
23 to 32 inches, very friable, very pale brown loamy fine sand
mottled with yellowish-red and yellowish-brown.
32 to h2 inches, friable mottled strong brown, light gray, yellowish-
red, and yellowish-brown sandy clay loam.
42 to 53 inches+, firm, gray sandy clay loam with yellowish-brown and
yellowish-red mottles.







-11-


The surface layer is 8 to 1 inches thick and has black to very dark

gray color. The subsurface layer has grayish-brown to dark grayish-brown

color and is 2 to 6 inches thick. Underlying fine sand and loamy fine

sand layers range from brownish-yellow to very pale yellow in color. The

finer textured substratum, which occurs at depths ranging from 30 to h2

inches, is a mottled strong brown, light gray, yellowish-red, and yellowish-

brown with gray color increasing with depth. Texture of the substratum

ranges from fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam with sandy clay loam

predominating.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Scranton soils

in this county are as follows:

Scranton fine sand . . . . 157 acres . . . <0.1%
Scranton fine sand, shallow . 966 acres . . .. .0.3%


PHYSICAL AMD CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Physical and chemical analyses of numerous Scranton soil profiles

from Alachua and Manatee Counties have been recorded by Gammon et al.

(18). Particle size distribution of a Scranton fine sand profile from

Manatee County is shown in Table 1. This particular profile contains

a slightly thicker surface horizon than is considered typic for the

series. Scranton soils commonly contain 90 percent or more sand and

frequently less than 5 percent clay. When fine-textured horizons occur be-

tween 30 and-42-inch depths, a shallow phase is recognized. In a typical
Scranton soil only small differences in sand, silt, and clay content occur

throughout the various horizons within a specific profile.

The sand fraction is usually dominated by fine sands which may







-12-


account for about 30 to 70 percent of total particle size distribution.

Medium sand content usually ranges between 10 and 40 percent and very

fine sand content between 10 and 20 percent. The coarse sand content

varies widely but most frequently ranges between 5 and 15 percent. Scran-

ton soils usually contain less than 1 percent very coarse sand. The

content of clay is rarely higher than 5 percent as is the content of

coarse silt. The fine silt fraction is most frequently less than 2 percent.

Chemical analyses of the same Scranton soil profile are reported in

Table 2. These data are somewhat typical of the series with the exception

of the surface horizon which, although thicker than normal, is somewhat

lower in organic matter content. Undoubtedly, the moisture equivalent and

cation exchange capacity of this horizon were influenced by the lower

organic matter content.

Analyses reported by Gammon et al. (18) for 6 Scranton profiles from

different locations showed a considerable range in characteristics. The

soil reaction or pH of the Al horizon varied from pH 4.98 to pH 5.86.

Moisture equivalent ranged from 5.75 to 11.86 percent in the surface

horizons and from 2.67 to 5.75 percent in the subsoil. The organic

matter content of the Al ranged from 2.51 to 4.49 percent. The organic

matter content decreases rapidly with depth and is usually well less

than 0.57 percent in subsurface layers below a depth of about 20 inches.

The cation exchange capacity of the surface horizons ranged from 3.93

to 11.5 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. There is a general tendency

for the cation exchange capacity to decrease with depth; however, increases

in cation exchange capacity are usually noted where fine-textured sediments







-13-


occur in the subsoil.

Calcium was by far the dominant exchangeable basic cation in the

surface soils of all profiles, with a range of .19 to 1.3h me./lO0g. of

soil. Exchangeable calcium, along with other exchangeable cations, de-

creased rapidly with depth. The surface soils contained lesser amounts

of magnesium, ranging from .05 to .49 me./lOOg., and even smaller amounts

of potassium, ranging from .050 to .104 me./lOOg. There is a marked

increase in exchangeable cations where fine-textured sediments occur

in the subsoil.

Total nitrogen values varied according to the organic matter per-

centages, ranging in the surface soils from .016 to .074 percent. As

with organic matter content, these figures decrease significantly with

depth. Total phosphorus rarely exceeded 0.1 percent in any horizons of

the Scranton soils. This indicates that the Scranton soils contain very

low reserve supplies of phosphorus.








Table 1. Physical properties of Scranton fine sand, Manatee County (18).


Horizon
Depth Very Very
In Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Inches Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
0-16 0.2 4.3 30.3 40.8 18.8 3.7 1.1 0.8
16-22 0.2 5.1 31.5 39.8 16.4 4.6 1.3 1.1
22-30 0.2 5.2 31.5 39.8 16.5 4.0 0.9 1.8
30-42 0.4 5.9 32.4 38.9 15.5 3.6 1.4 1.9









Table 2. Chemical properties of Scranton fine sand, Manatee County (18).

Horizon Moist- Base E xchangeable 'Bases"
Depth ure Organic Exohange Ca K Mg Total Total
In Equiv- Matter Capacity me./ me./ me./ Nitrogen Phosphorus
Inches pH alent % me./100g. 100g. 100g. 100g. % %

0-16 5.55 5.75 2.51 3.93 .19 .068 .05 .050 .016
16-22 5.25 h4.3 1.02 1.96 .07 .069 .06 .023 .031
22-30 5.69 3.34 .52 1.00 .08 .067 .03 .013 .032
30-42 5.65 2.78 .16 .78 .07 .0o0 .05 .007 .023













MANAGEMENT OF SCRANTON SOILS
In Alachua County about 40 to 50 percent of Scranton loamy fine sand-

fine sand is used for cultivated crops (26). In the forested areas,

slash and loblolly pines predominates but there are some hardwoods and

an undergrowth of various coarse grasses that furnish range pasture for

cattle and hogs. This is considered about the best soil in the county

for cabbage, lima beans, snap beans, sweet corn, eggplant, cucumbers,

peppers, okra, squash, Irish potatoes, corn, sugarcane, and English peas.

This soil has favorable moisture conditions and a high organic matter

content. All vegetable crops are well-fertilized.

Approximately 9 percent of Scranton fine sand in Orange County is

used for cultivated crops. About 38 percent of this soil is used for

citrus, 22 percent for forest, 21 percent for range pasture, and 10

percent for improved pasture (21). Under good management, high yields

of vegetables, citrus, and field crops are obtained on this soil. Native

pastures furnish fair grazing for cattle. When fertilized, limed and

well-managed, improved pastures provide about 4 or 5 times as much grazing

as native pastures.

As this soil is well-suited to many cultivated crops and improved

pastures, additional areas could be used more intensively. Pensacola

bahiagrass, bermudagrass, pangolagrass, white clover, and Hubam clover

may be used for seeding improved pastures.

A cover crop such as hairy indigo, sesbania, cowpeas, velvet beans,

or a growth of native weeds is recommended for cultivated fields and


-15-








-16-


citrus groves. This vegetative cover reduces wind erosion and, when

plowed under, increases the soil organic matter content.

Under good management, this soil is well-suited to citrus production.

Drainage is sometimes sufficient, but in many areas, ditches or other

means of water control may be needed to remove excessive water after

heavy rains. Citrus crops need fertilizer, lime, irrigation, and control

of diseases and insects.

During the winter months, areas of Scranton fine sand near Plant

City are used intensively for growing strawberries and vegetables (22).

Some areas have been used for citrus groves. To correct acidity and

to supply calcium, lime should be applied and liberal quantities of

mixed fertilizers are needed. Pine trees grow rapidly on this soil

and are profitable under good forest management.

If cultivated crops are grown or pastures improved, a drainage

system consisting of open ditches with control structures to remove the

excess surface water is needed. If these shallow ditches are designed

properly, they can be used to subirrigate the improved pastures and cul-

tivated crops.

Scranton soils planted to citrus trees require drainage to depths

of 36 to h8 inches. A sprinkler system may be used to supply supplemental

irrigation water to citrus trees or other crops. As it is difficult to

maintain the water table at a uniform level, it is best to drain the soil

adequately and then irrigate as it is needed.

No definite crop rotations are used on Scranton soils. The same

vegetable crop may be grown for a number of years on the same soil. To







-17-


control diseases and to maintain quality of the crops, the soil may be

left idle for 1 or 2 years. If a cropping system is used, the crops

that would be used in a 3-year rotation in the northern United States

may be grown in 1 year. An example would be strawberries, then toma-

toes, and then a cover crop grown in succession in the same year. In

citrus groves, a cover crop or a tilled crop may be grown between the

trees during the summer, or native vegetation may be allowed to grow.

Scranton soils are rather porous and plant nutrients tend to leach

rapidly. Vegetables and truck crops are fertilized with 1,200 to 2,500

pounds per acre of a mixed fertilizer which contains from 25 to h0 percent

of the nitrogen from organic sources. This fertilizer usually contains

minor elements such as boron, copper, zinc, and manganese which are

added for good plant growth. Part of the fertilizer is applied when the

crop is planted and the rest is used as a sidedressing. When the crops

begin to mature, ammonium nitrate or nitrate of soda are applied as a

topdressing. Organic fertilizers such as castor pomace or cottonseed

meal are often applied before setting tomatoes, strawberries, or peppers.

Mixed fertilizer at 15 to 0h pounds per tree is applied to fruit trees,

the amount depending on the tree size.

As C .ra.ton soils are strongly acid, lime must be applied to correct

soil acidity and to supply calcium. To determine how much lime is needed,

the soils should be tested. Generally, lime is applied at a rate of

1000 to 2000 pounds per acre every 2 to 3 years to soils used for crops,

and about 1000 pounds per acre to improved pastures. Citrus trees are

limed as needed.







-18-


Fertility Experiments on Scranton Soils

Strawberries: In fertilizer experiments, Brooks (2) found that

mineralized composted fertilizer containing 40 percent organic nitro-

gen gave no significant increases over inorganic nitrogen in straw-

berry yields. In comparing 3 levels of potassium, a 4-7-5 fertilizer

gave a small but not significant increase in yield over 4-7-0 and 4-7-

10, but no difference in acid or total solids of the fruits. Brooks (1)

also noted that when cyanamid was broadcast at 500 pounds per acre and

plowed under with the cover crop a month before setting Missionary and

Klonmore strawberry plants, there was no increase in plant growth or

yield of fruit. An application of copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese,

and boron in the commercial fertilizer did not increase the yield of

fruit.

Brooks (3) mixed equal parts of monopotassium phosphate and diammoniu1

phosphate and dissolved 3 pounds of this mixture in O0 gallons of water.

This solution was applied to strawberry plants at setting time at the

rate of a half pound per plant. This treatment significantly increased

the yield of fruit over untreated plants.

An application of 300 pounds of commercial fertilizers at bedding

time plus 3 applications of 300 pounds each at monthly intervals after

the plants are set was compared with a single application of 1200 pounds

at bedding time. The multiple applications produced a significant increase

in the yield of strawberries (3).

In 1949, Brooks (4) noted that strawberry plants watered with 8

ounces each of a starter solution with all its nitrogen in the ammonia

form produced no increase in early fruit compared to the controls, but







-19-


the total yields were significantly larger. In the fall of 1950, '

starter solutions were made each with different forms of nitrogen: (A)

nitrate, (B) ammonia, (C) equal parts of nitrate and ammonia, and

(D) nitrate, ammonia, and urea. Monopotassium phosphate was added to

each solution to make a complete fertilizer. The starter solution plots

received no fertilizer before the plants were set. The check plots re-

ceived 300 pounds per acre of h-7-5 fertilizer 2 weeks before setting the

plants. After setting, all the plots were fertilized alike. The total

yield of fruit was highest on the check plots, followed in descending

order by nitrate; nitrate, ammonia, and urea; nitrate and ammonia; and

ammonia.

Brooks (5) compared commercial fertilizer at 300 pounds per acre

with 600 pounds per acre each applied at monthly intervals and found no

significant difference between earliness of fruit or total yields for the

2 rates.

Using Scranton soil, Brooks (5) applied chelated iron at the rate

of 10 pounds per acre on December 5 and January 20, and found no signifi-

cant differences in total yields, quality, or earliness of fruit from

treated and control plants.

Sutton and Brooks (2L) conducted an experiment with Florida Ninety

strawberries using 600, 1200, 1800, 200, 3000, and 3600 pounds per acre

of h-8-8 fertilizer, with and without 3750 pounds per acre of Kal-cite

and found that fertilizer rates above 600 pounds per acre did not signifi-

cantly increase yields. Fertilizers with and without Kal-cite produced

no noticeable effect on color or firmness of the fruit.







-20-


Peppers: Sutton and Brooks (2h) applied 80, 120, and 160 pounds per

acre of nitrogen and 80, 120, 160, 200, and 2hO pounds per acre of po-

tassium as K20 to bell -peppers in a factorial experiment. The results

showed that the highest average yield of peppers was obtained with 120

pounds per acre of nitrogen and 80 pounds per acre of potassium. Rates

of 160 pounds each of nitrogen and potassium produced the highest average

weight of pods. The rates of nitrogen and potassium had no noticeable

effect on wall thickness.

Sutton and Brooks (25) used nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium at

rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 pounds per acre applied in 3 equal

applications to bell peppers grown in the spring. The combination of

100, 100, and 200 pounds per acre of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium,

respectively, gave the highest yield. The higher rates of potassium in

combination with lower rates of nitrogen and phosphorus usually decreased

yields.

In another experiment, Sutton and Brooks (25) studied the effect

of 5 levels of fertilizer with and without black plastic mulch on the

yield of bell peppers. The fertilizer levels used were 500, 1000, 1500,

2000, and 2500 pounds per acre of a h-8-8 fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate,

supplying quantities of nitrogen equal to that applied in the h-8-8

fertilizer, was applied as a sidedressing. Pepper yields increased sig-

nificantly as the fertilizer rates were increased. Plastic mulch com-

pared to no mulch gave a 98 percent increase in yield, which was highly

significant. The fertilizer rates--plastic mulch interaction was not

significant.







-21-


Suaesh: Sutton and Brooks (24) studied the effect of various

nitrogen and potassium (K20) levels on the yield of yellow crookneck

squash. All plots received a basic treatment of 35 pounds per acre of

4-8-8 fertilizer. The rates for sidedressing were 0, 14, 28, 42, and

56 pounds per acre of potassium and 0, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 pounds
per acre of nitrogen. Usually, potassium increased and nitrogen de-
creased the number of smooth squash produced. The potassium. nitrogen,

and check plots had 52, 26, and 44 percent of the total squash as smooth

squash, respectively.

Sutton and Brooks (25) studied the effect of a range in rates

from 0 to 240 pounds per acre of nitrogen, phosphorus (P20 ), and

potassium (K20) on the yield of squash. In the experiment conducted

in the fall, the fertilizer rates had no significant effect on total

yields but had a highly significant effect on the number of smooth

squash. Usually, the higher levels of all 3 elements decreased the

number of smooth squash. The largest decrease resulted from the 130 and

170 pound rates of nitrogen.

Okra: Sutton and Brooks (25) studied the effect of a range in

rates of nitrogen, potassium (K20), and phosphorus (P205) from 0 t:o

225 pounds per acre on the yield of okra. For okra grown in the fall,

the highest yield was obtained with 70, 180, and 90 pounds per acre of

nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively. Usually, yields

were reduced by higher rates of potassium in combination with lower rates

c. phosphorus and nitrogen. The results from the experiment conducted

in the spring indicated that the 2 applications of potassi,', mrads before:







-22-


harvest was started did not increase yields. After 10 harvests, a

third application of potassium increased yields. A treatment with

all 3 elements at a relatively high rate did not increase early yields.

Collards: Sutton and Brooks (25) studied the effect of nitrogen

at 20, 38, 55, 72, and 90 pounds per acre and potassium (K20) and phos-

phorus (P20 ) at 20, 45, 70, 95, and 120 pounds per acre, used in
treatment combinations and applied in 2 equal applications on the yield

of fall planted collards. The fertilizer rates had a highly significant

effect on green weight yields, but no significant increase in the number

of plants. Nitrogen produced most of the increase in green weight yields.

Southern Peas: Combination treatments were made up of nitrogen at 0,

15, 30, 45, and 60 pounds per acre and potassium (K20) and phosphorus

(P20 ) at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 pounds per acre and applied in 2 equal

amounts to California Blackeye No. 5 peas planted in' the spring.

Fertilizer rates had no significant effect on yields of well-filled

pods nor on the yields of pods that were partially filled with peas

(25).

Eggplant: Sutton and Brooks (25) studied the effects of nitrogen,
phosphorus (P205), and potassium (K20) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 150,
and 200 pounds per acre used in treatment combinations and applied in

3 equal amounts to spring grown eggplant. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and

potassium at 100, 200, and 100 pounds per acre, respectively, produced

the highest yield.

Oats: Friedmann (17) made a greenhouse study of the effects of

4 levels each of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and 2 levels each







-23-


of copper, manganese, boron, and zinc on the yield of oats grown on

Scranton fine sand. Oats gave a definite increase in yield for all

levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, but the response to potassium was

quite irregular. Generally, the yield was higher when all the minor

elements were applied than when they were omitted. When copper was

omitted on Scranton loamy fine sand, the yields decreased.

Citrus: Except for the weight of feeder roots, Eno (13) found that

none of the chemical, physical, or biological analyses made on Scranton

soils were closely related to the size of citrus trees. In comparing the

soil series, he reported that the largest trees were growing on Scranton

:fine sand and the smallest on Leon fine sand. The number of micro-

organisms and their activity usually decreased with increased depth

of the soil layers sampled.

!h I? _Rs:-.zaj crfn~onSoils
Weed Control: Brooks (6) tested Crag Herbicide No. 1 (so.umn 2.h-

dichlorophenoxyethyl sulfate, 90 percent) as a pre-setting treatment for

strawberries in the fall. Two pounds per acre in solution was applied to

12-inch bands over the beds. There was less weed growth on the Crag-

treated plots, but the weed control was not sufficient to make up for the

Loss of strawberry plants and the decrease in fruit production. When

tested on pepper plots, Crag-treated plots yielded the same as the un-

treated plots and weeds were not controlled sufficiently to pay for use

of the material.

Brooks (8) tested Vapam (sodium-N-methyl dithicarbamate dehydrate)

by injecting it into the soil at the rate of a pint per 100 feet of











row 2 weeks before setting strawberry-plants. In the area h to 6 inches

on each side of the injection line, weed control was excellent for

about 8 weeks; but there was no significant difference in yield or

quality between the treated and untreated plots.

For weed control in strawberry nurseries, Brooks (10) made 3

spray applications of Vegadex at 3 week intervals during the production

of runners. Vegadex had no injurious effect upon the growth of runners.

The number of runner plants produced by the treated plots was about the

same as that from the untreated plots. Hand labor required for hoeing

was reduced by 75 percent in the treated plots as compared to the un-

treated plots.

For weed control in vegetable fields, Brooks (11) applied Vegadex

as a post-emergence spray at the rate of a gallon per acre. Where the

spray was immediately washed off the plants and into the soil to a

depth of 2 inches, there were no toxic effects on the plants and weed

control was good. Where the spray was allowed to remain on the plants

and soil surface, pole beans and a variety of southern peas showed

toxic effects. In addition, weed control was poor.

Brooks (9) applied black plastic film to strawberry beds and found

that it had sufficient opacity to prevent weed growth under the film.

The cost for film, application to beds, and labor for slitting film

and pulling plants through was less than the cost of hoeing when the

film was not used.

Aluminum, Cobalt, and Manganese Content: Using Scranton fine sand

which had a pH of 5.2 and normal ammonium acetate at pH h.8, Fiskell


-24-











et al. (16) extracted 285 ppm. of aluminum. A greater supply of aluminum

than anticipated was found in heavily limed and fertilized soils, but

a method of deciding what level is toxic to plant growth has not been

devised. Soil factors such as pH, lime requirement, fertilizer needs,

and root physiology should be considered in the study of soil aluminum.

Rogers and Carrigan (23) found that the total content of cobalt in

the surface horizons of Scranton loamy fine sand was O.h3 ppm. There

was no tendency for cobalt to be concentrated in any soil layer and

exchangeable cobalt could not be found in this soil.

Fiskell (15) found that Scranton soil had a medium reserve of

easily reducible manganese. Increasing the manganese fertilization had

little effect on manganese uptake by tomato plants on both limed or un-

limed Scranton soil. This indicated a high availability of manganese

in this soil. The uptake of manganese was h to 5 times higher on un-

limed soil, pH 5,0, than on limed soil, pH 7.5. Liming did not materially

decrease theavailability of iron. Most of the iron and manganese re-

mains in the vines of tomatoes and is returned to the soil.

Gamma Radiation: Eno and Popenoe (lh) studied the effect of

gamma radiation on theavailability of phosphorus and nitrogen in Scranton

fine sand. Samples from the surface 6 inches of soil were irradiated

with a cobalt-60 source at rates varying from 0 to 20h8 kiloroentgens

(Kr.). After irradiation, the amount of ammonium acetate (pH h.6)

extractable phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and magnesium was not changed;

but the amount of nitrogen extracted by potassium chloride from the soil

was increased. The amount of nitrogen extracted was related directly







-26-


to the amount of nitrogen in the soil. The total nitrogen uptake

by oats was increased by radiation. They concluded from the chem-

ical and biological studies that gamma radiation changed the nitrogen

content of the soil and that these changes increased plant growth.

Cover Crops and Sting Nematode: From greenhouse experiments and

field observations for a number of years, Brooks (7) found that none

of the cover crops generally used in central Florida would starve out

the sting nematode, Belonolaimus gracilis. They survived on the roots

of all species of plants tested, but reproduced at different rates on

the roots of the various species. Crabgrass was best for the rapid increase

in population of the sting nematode. Then came sesbania, cowpeas,

corn, crotalaria, and velvet beans in descending order. Hairy indigo

and various species of weeds which grow in native covers in the summer

were not tested.

ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on

Scranton fine sand in Hillsborough County (22), Manatee County (12),

Orange County (21), Sarasota County (27), and Alachua County (26) are

shown in Tables 3, h, 5, and 6, respectively.








Table. 3. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under
two levels of management in Hillsborough County.1


Soil


Tomatoes2 Sweet Corn Green Peppers Strawberries Polebeans Cucumbers Squash Corn
A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
Bu. Doz. Bu. Ptc ,Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu.


Scranton 150 250 450 600 200 300 3600 4500 150 225 175 275 80 125 35 "70
fine
sand Irish Water- Crowder Citrus
Potatoes Lettuce Cabbage Eggplant melons Peas Fruit
A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
Bu. Cr. Tons Bu. No. Bu. Bu.
150 225 o0 150 6 10 250 O00 290 1-25 125 200 330 500


1Yields in columns A obtained under common farming practices; those in columns Bunder more intensive management.

2Yields of unstaked tomatoes; staked tomatoes give approximately 50 percent higher yields.


Table 4. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under prevailing management in Manatee County.


i t Citrus Fruits Flowers Truck Crops Permanent
Oranges Grape- Glad- Toma- Cab- Let- Pep- Cucum- Snap- Pasture
Soil fruit iolus toes bage tuce pers bers beans Cow- 1
Boxes Boxes Blooms Bu. Tons Cr. Bu.Cr. Bu. Bu.Hamp. acre-days
Scranton 500 650 22,500 350 9 225 250 175 150 300-450
fine sand

ow-acre-days is the number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injy to the posture
Cow-acre-days is the number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pastu-e.


I ~ _ I _ _ ~__ I _










Table 5. Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under two levels
of management in Orange County1.


Oranges Grapefruit Snapbeans Cabbage Sweet Corn Cucumbers
Soil A B A B A B A B A B A B
S Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Bu. Bu. Tons Tons Cr. Cr. Bu. Bu.
375 600 450 700 200 250 8 12 125- 150 200 300
Scranton - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - -
fine
sand Lettuce Endive & Escarole Radishes Watermelons Permanent Improved Pastures
A B A B A B A B A B
Cr. Cr. Cr. Cr. Bu. Bu. No. No. Cow-acre-days Coweacre-days2
140 175 500 500 125 1S0 290 425 275 350



Yields in columns A are those expected under common management practices; those in columns B under
good management practices.

2Cow-acre-days is the number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.







Table 6. Estimated average acre yields of the prin-cipa crops under
two levels of management in Sarasota Count'y.


Soil


Snapbeans Cabbage Cantaloups Cauliflower Sweet Corn Cucumbers
A B A B A B A B A B A B
rPit PR Tons Tons Cr. Cr. Cr. Cr. Cr. Cr. Bu. Bu.


105 130 7.5 13 0o 70 375 150 70 90 210 325
Scranton - - - --- -- - - -- - - - - - -- - - - -- -- - -
fine
sand Lettuce Peppers Tomatoes Staked Watermelons Oranges Grapefruit
A B A .B A B A B A B A B
Cr. Cr. Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu. No. No. Cr. Cr. Cr. Cr.
125 160 250 300 160 275 250 400 275 360 300 450


1Yields in columns A are to be expected under present management; those in columns B are to be
expected under more intensive management.


Table 7. Average acre yields of the principal crops that may be
expected over a period of years in Alachua County.1


Corn & Peanuts Cowpeas Sugarcane Lima String
Corn Interplanted For Hay For Sirup Beans Beans
Soil Bu.2 Bu.3 Corn Bu. Nuts Lb. Tons Gal. Cr. Cr.

Scranton 22 35 17 650 1.1 275 110 125
loamy fine sand-
fine sand Egg- Sweet Permanent
Cabbage Cucumbers plant Peppers Potatoes Okra Squash Pasture
Tons Cr. Cr. Cr. Bu. Cr. Cr. Cow-acre-days
9 175 150 200 150 150 150 200-400

Based on prevailing management practices; permanent pasture based on improved management.
Yields to ~e expected without fertilizer.
3.Yields o e expected vw,h 200 poond- of 5-7-5 fertilizer and 100 pounds of nitrate of soda or sulfate of ammonia.


^ __ I __





-30-


LITERATURE CITED


1. Brooks, A. N. Fertilizer Experiments. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report. p. 99. 1946.

2. Brooks, A. N. Fertilizer Trials. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Re-
port. p. 142. 1949.

3. Brooks, A. N. Fertilizer Trials. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Re-
port. p. 119. 1950.

4. Brooks, A. N. Fertilizer Trials. Use of Starter Solutions. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 124. 1951.

5. Brooks, A. N. Quantity of Fertilizer and Chelated Iron. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 161. 1953.

6. Brooks, A. N. Weed Control. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p.
334. 1955.

7. Brooks, A. N. Cover Crop in Relation to Sting Nematode. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 337. 1956.
8. Brooks, A. N. Polyethylene Film as a Mulch for Strawberry. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 395. 1958.

9. Brooks, A. N. Preliminary Non-Projected Studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 394. 1959.

10. Brooks, A. N. Preliminary Non-Projected Studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 342. p. 342. 1960.

11. Brooks, A. N. Preliminary Non-Projected Studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 379. 1961.

12. Caldwell, R. E., 0. C. Olson, J. B. Cromartie, and R. G. Leighty. Soil
Survey of Manatee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Series, 1947, No. 8. 1958.

13. Eno, C. F. Nitrification in Florida Soils. State Project 771. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 157. 1962.

14. Eno, C. F. and H. Popenoe, The Effect of Gamma Radiation on Soil Micro-
organisms, their Metabolic Processes and the Fertility of the Soil.
State Project 1059. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 166. 1962.

15. *Fiskell, J. G. A. Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida
Soils. Purnell Project h47. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 132.
1954.
16. Fiskell, J. G. A., T. L. Yuan, N. Gammon, Jr., R. E. Caldwell, and F.
B. Smith. Mineralogical Properties of Representative Florida Soils.
Hatch Project 347. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report.p. 150. 1958.







-31-


17. Friedman, T. J. Greenhouse Studies of the Effects of Amendments
Applied to some Alachua County Soils. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report. p. 103. 1950.

18. Gammon, N., Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell,
R. G. Leighty, and F B. Smith. Physical, Spectrographic and
and Chemical Analyses of Some Virgin Florida Soils. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 524. 1953.

19. Houston, T. B., M. W. Hazen, Jr., T. C. Mathews, and G. A. Brown.
Soil Survey of Suwannee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Series 1961, No. 21. 1965.

20. Huckle, H. F., H. H. Weeks, E. M. Duffee, A. L. Furman, M. L. Harrell,
M. W. Hazen, Jr., K. J. LaFlamme, B. W. McEwin, and B. P. Thomas. Soil
Survey of Washington County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
In Press.
21. Leighty, R. G., D. T. Brewer, W. R. Smith, 0. E. Cruz, E. H. Evenson,
F. Matanzo, D. S. Taylor, R. M. Craig, W. G. Diamond, E. D. Matthews,
M. S. Morgan, and H. 0. White. Soil Survey of Orange County, Florida.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1957, No. 5. 1960.

22. Leighty, R. G., V. W. Carlisle, 0. E. Cruz, J. H. Walker, J. Beem,
R. E. Caldwell, J. B. Cromartie, J. L. Huber, E. D. Matthews, and
Z. T. Millsap. Soil Survey of Hillsborough County, Florida. U.S.D.A.
and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1950, No. 3. 1958.

23. Rogers, L. H. and R. A. Carrigan. Availability and Leaching of Minor
Elements in Florida Soils. Purnell Project h47. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 103. 1948.

2h. Sutton, P. and A. N. Brooks. Preliminary Non-Projected Studies. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 352. 1962.

25. Sutton, P. and A. N. Brooks. Preliminary Non-Projected Studies. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 368. 1963.

26. Taylor, A. E., R. G. Leighty, M. B. Marco, C. Lounsbury, J. R. Henderson,
and 0. E. Gall. Soil Survey of Alachtiu County, Florida. U.S.D.A.
and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1940, No. 10. 195..

27. Wildermuth, R., J. L. Huber, R. G. Leighty, O. E. Cruz, V. W. Carlisle,
J. H. Walker, and D. P. Powell. Soil Survey of Sarasota County, Fla.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1954, No. 6. 1959.




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